WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained affordable human

  1. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  2. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude-action, value-action or knowledge-action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio-ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio-ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio-ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  4. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope O. Kaaronen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective

  5. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O.

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit

  6. Affordability for sustainable energy development products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clean cookstoves that also generate electricity improve affordability. • Excel spreadsheet model to assist stakeholders to choose optimum technology. • Presents views for each stakeholder villager, village and country. • By adding certain capital costs, affordability and sustainability are improved. • Affordability is highly dependent on carbon credits and social understandings. - Abstract: Clean burning products, for example cooking stoves, can reduce household air pollution (HAP), which prematurely kills 3.5 million people each year. By careful selection of components into a product package with micro-finance used for the capital payment, barriers to large-scale uptake of products that remove HAP are reduced. Such products reduce smoke from cooking and the lighting from electricity produced, eliminates smoke from kerosene lamps. A bottom-up financial model, that is cognisant of end user social needs, has been developed to compare different products for use in rural areas of developing countries. The model is freely available for use by researchers and has the ability to assist in the analysis of changing assumptions. Business views of an individual villager, the village itself and a country view are presented. The model shows that affordability (defined as the effect on household expenses as a result of a product purchase) and recognition of end-user social needs are as important as product cost. The effects of large-scale deployment (greater that 10 million per year) are described together with level of subsidy required by the poorest people. With the assumptions given, the model shows that pico-hydro is the most cost effective, but not generally available, one thermo-acoustic technology option does not require subsidy, but it is only at technology readiness level 2 (NASA definition) therefore costs are predicted and very large investment in manufacturing capability is needed to meet the cost target. Thermo-electric is currently the only

  7. Challenges of Integrating Affordable and Sustainable Housing in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Jamaludin, S. Z. H.; Mahayuddin, S. A.; Hamid, S. H. A.

    2018-04-01

    Developing countries including Malaysia have begun to comprehend the needs for affordable and sustainable housing development. The majority of the population is still aspiring for a comfortable, safe and reasonably priced house. Households in the low-middle income range face difficulties to find housing that can satisfy their needs and budget. Unfortunately, most of the housing development programs are considering affordability rather than sustainable aspects. Furthermore, developers are more interested in profit and neglect sustainability issues. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the challenges in integrating affordable housing and sustainable practices in Malaysia. This paper is produced based on an extensive literature review as a basis to develop strategies of integrated affordable and sustainable housing in Malaysia. The challenges are divided into four sections, namely market challenges, professional challenges, societal challenges and technological challenges. The outcomes of this paper will assist in the decision making involving housing development and in enhancing quality of life for sustainable communities.

  8. Developing an Assessment Framework for Affordable and Sustainable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pullen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable housing has been subject to research, practice and policy making for some considerable time. More recently attention has been drawn to the separate problem of declining affordability in housing. This paper describes research aimed at developing an assessment framework for both affordability and sustainability as part of the effort to incorporate both of these features into new housing projects. The research has a particular focus on developments aimed at urban densification. Background literature on both affordability and sustainability is reviewed as well as emerging schemes aimed at dealing with both aspects of housing developments. Performance indicators are identified and these are incorporated in an interim assessment framework which is tested using a group of industry experts. The research has highlighted areas where further development is required to attain quantitative assessments of affordable and sustainable housing developments

  9. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  10. Awareness on Sustainable Affordable Housing Among Homebuyers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns about the delivery of Sustainable Affordable Housing (SAH in Malaysia. The built environment, operation and demolishment of housing have the profound impact on our nature environment. SAH can be a solution toward sustainability development because it considered from an environmental friendly, socially enhancing, and economically benefits perfectives towards housing development. This paper aims to explore the awareness of homebuyers in Malaysia towards sustainable affordable housing. This research used the method of unstructured interview among homebuyers toward SAH in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the study, the awareness of homebuyers in SAH are relatively inadequate. Respondents are required the brief explanation on concept and elements of SAH for continue the interview. Based on Porter Five Forces Model, homebuyers’ requirements hold the bargaining power of customers to determine the features of housing provided by property provider. The knowledge of homebuyers on SAH is crucial for the sustainable development, because homebuyers are one of the key drivers for implementing the sustainable requirements in housing development.

  11. Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This entry presents the concept of affordances as part of an ecological approach to understanding how agents interact with objects in their environment. It examines some of the central developments of the concept, from J. J. Gibson’s original definition within psychology and Donald Norman’s design...

  12. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  13. Convergent innovation for sustainable economic growth and affordable universal health care: innovating the way we innovate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Jha, Srivardhini; Faber, Aida; Struben, Jeroen; London, Ted; Mohapatra, Archisman; Drager, Nick; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; McDermott, John

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation. © 2014 The New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Affordances and Cognitive Walkthrough for Analyzing Human-Virtual Human Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the psychological notion of affordance, known from human computer interface design, can be adopted for the analysis and design of communication of a user with a Virtual Human (VH), as a novel interface. We take as starting point the original notion of affordance, used to

  15. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  16. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the enabling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The artic...

  17. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The arti......New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes....... The article draws on critical comments and extends Hutchby’s concept of affordance. Even if Hutchby does not study an artefact as a micro-level phe-nomenon from an engineering perspective and only considers the consumption of an arte-fact, we use him to study the development of artefacts in NPD. Hutchby...... to negotiate technical and non-technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer’s problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra...

  18. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  19. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  20. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  1. Price Determinants of Affordable Apartments in Vietnam: Toward the Public–Private Partnerships for Sustainable Housing Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducksu Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Doi Moi policy of economic reform in 1986, Vietnam has experienced economic development and housing market growth with increasing foreign direct investment. While high-end apartment development has dominated since the emergence of the privatized housing market, more recent focus is on the affordable apartment segment with the remarkable surge of middle-income households in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. While most previous studies have analyzed housing price determinants based on locational classification, this study is based on the affordability framework of the housing market in HCMC. It aims to investigate the price determinants of affordable and unaffordable apartment units using the hedonic regression model. The study identified common factors between the two types of apartments, such as vertical shared access and proximity to downtown, as well as unique factors for each, such as more high-rise towers, foreign development, proximity to main roads, and shopping malls only for the affordable segments. The findings have valuable implications, not only for future investors and developers in setting up successful housing development strategies, but also for the public sector in strongly encouraging public–private partnerships for sustainable housing development in Vietnam.

  2. Affordability of electric vehicles for a sustainable transport system: An economic and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Hui-Kuan; Wu, Jy S.; Liu, Xiaoshuai

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the economic and environmental benefits of electric and hybrid electric vehicles with that of conventional vehicles. Without tax credits, only the hybrids without plug-in incur lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicle whereas the consumer affordability for all other vehicles is less encouraging and depends on changes in gasoline prices. With the provision of federal tax incentives, the lifetime total cost for all electric vehicle types that are driven for 120,000 miles over 12 years was found to be generally affordable with no more than 5% higher in lifetime total cost than a conventional vehicle, except the hybrid electric plug-in equipped with a 35-mile electric driving range. Results of sensitivity analysis reveal that a greater lifetime driven mileage would promote further overall cost savings even at a greenhouse gas abatement cost as low as $42 per ton. Our study has demonstrated the importance of an energy policy that includes tax credits to address the inadequacy of cost differentials and consumer affordability. The environmental benefits provided by the electric and hybrid electric vehicles should satisfy consumers' interest in protecting the environment, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, and switching from traditional to alternative fuel vehicles. - Highlights: • Electric/hybrid vehicles exhibit at least 27% lower in lifetime energy cost. • Electric/hybrid cars with tax credits are <5% higher in lifetime ownership cost, except PHEV35. • Hybrid electric vehicles provide more than 28% reduction in GHG tailpipe emission, as compared with a CV. • Upstream energy production elevates the lifetime emission cost at high gas prices. • The lifetime total cost with tax credits are affordably <5% higher than CVs, except PHEV35

  3. S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.

  4. Fabrication of Affordable and Sustainable Solar Cells Using NiO/TiO2 P-N Heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley O. Ukoba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for affordable, clean, efficient, and sustainable solar cells informed this study. Metal oxide TiO2/NiO heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using the spray pyrolysis technique. The optoelectronic properties of the heterojunction were determined. The fabricated solar cells exhibit a short-circuit current of 16.8 mA, open-circuit voltage of 350 mV, fill factor of 0.39, and conversion efficiency of 2.30% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. This study will help advance the course for the development of low-cost, environmentally friendly, and sustainable solar cell materials from metal oxides.

  5. The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McFarlane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture.

  6. Cyclic Variations in Sustained Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, William R.; Arruda, James E.; Kass, Steven J.; Stanny, Claudia J.

    2009-01-01

    Biological rhythms play a prominent role in the modulation of human physiology and behavior. [Smith, K., Valentino, D., & Arruda, J. (2003). "Rhythmic oscillations in the performance of a sustained attention task." "Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology," 25, 561-570] suggested that sustained human performance may systematically…

  7. Research Literacy: Contextual Affordances and the Ongoing Quest for Sustainability and Research Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of three papers. It is specifically focused on Early Career Teachers (ECTs) ownership and integration of the "research process" as part of a legitimate and sustainable process of integrating research into professional practice. All of the ECTs followed a similar structure for the presentation of their…

  8. Mass Housing Using GFRG Panels: A Sustainable, Rapid and Affordable Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Philip; Paul, Shinto; Krishna, S. R. Gouri; Menon, Devdas; Meher Prasad, A.

    2017-06-01

    This work gives an overview of research and development carried out at IIT Madras, using glass fibre reinforced gypsum (GFRG) panels, to provide an innovative solution for rapid and affordable mass housing. The GFRG panels (124 mm thick), made from recycled industrial waste gypsum (from the fertilizer industry), are prefabricated in 3 m × 12 m sizes with cellular cavities inside, which can be filled with reinforced concrete wherever required and can be used as walls as well as floor slabs. The tests carried out (over the past 12 years) establish the performance of GFRG building systems to resist gravity and lateral loads as a load-bearing system (without beams and columns) in multi-storeyed buildings up to 8-10 storeys, with adequate strength, serviceability, durability and ductility. A two-storeyed four-apartment demonstration building has also been successfully constructed in the IIT Madras campus and presently a mass housing scheme (40 apartment units) using this technology is being demonstrated at Nellore. A structural design code has also been approved by the Bureau of Indian Standards, based on the extensive studies carried out on GFRG building systems.

  9. Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START): study protocol to assess knowledge translation interventions in continuing care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Estabrooks, Carole A; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S; Eliasziw, Misha

    2013-10-26

    Bridging the research-practice gap is an important research focus in continuing care facilities, because the population of older adults (aged 65 years and over) requiring continuing care services is the fastest growing demographic among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Unlicensed practitioners, known as health care aides, provide the majority of care for residents living in continuing care facilities. However, little research examines how to sustain health care aide behavior change following initial adoption of current research evidence. We will conduct a phase III, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) using a stratified 2 × 2 additive factorial design, including an embedded process evaluation, in 24 supportive living facilities within the health zone of Edmonton, AB, Canada. We will determine which combination of frequency and intensity of reminders most effectively sustains the completion of the sit-to-stand activity by health care aides with residents. Frequency refers to how often a reminder is implemented; intensity refers to whether a reminder is social or paper-based. We will compare monthly reminders with reminders implemented every 3 months, and we will compare low intensity, paper-based reminders and high intensity reminders provided by a health care aide peer.Using interviews, questionnaires, and observations, Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START) will evaluate the processes that inhibit or promote the mobility innovation's sustainability among health care aides in daily practice. We will examine how the reminders are implemented and perceived by health care aides and licensed practical nurses, as well as how health care aides providing peer reminders are identified, received by their peers, and supported by their supervisors. START will connect up-to-date innovation research with the practice of health care aides providing direct care to a growing population

  10. Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the U.S. are taking the lead on an integrated systems-design approach to building homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices.

  11. Teaching medical humanities in the digital world: affordances of technology-enhanced learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Sandra Joy; Day, Giskin

    2014-12-01

    Medical humanities courses are typically taught in face-to-face teaching environments, but now medical humanities educators, alongside educators from other disciplines, are facing shifts in higher education towards online (and sometimes open) courses. For the medical humanities educator, there is limited guidance regarding how technology-enhanced learning design can support the learning outcomes associated with medical humanities. This article aims to provide useful direction for such educators on how digital technologies can be used through learner-focused pedagogies. Specific examples are provided as to how the affordances of Web 2.0 and other tools can be realised in innovative ways to help achieve skills development within the medical humanities. The guidance, alongside the practical suggestions for implementation, can provide important conceptual background for medical humanities educators who wish to embrace technology-enhanced learning, and reconceptualise or redesign medical humanities for an online or blended teaching environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem "module" or "box" components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic "upgrade infrastructure" needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of prequalified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a MARS

  13. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2005-02-01

    In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem ``module'' or ``box'' components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic ``upgrade infrastructure'' needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of pre-qualified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a

  14. Power Distribution at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Illumination through Affordable and Sustainable Solution of Gram Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nisha; Sarswat, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the socio -economic development, mainly due to the dependency of indispensable amenities on electricity. However, a matter of concern is developing country domestic power needs and inadequate supply. One of the cases is Indian subcontinent, where more than 50,000 villages still not have access to uninterrupted electric power. `Power theft' is a major challenge due to the lack of adequate energy supply and the financial constraints. Long distances, inaccurate and inflated electricity bills are the other issues lead to default on payments. Gram Power, a social enterprise, is providing a smart metering and affordable solution in areas where the extension of existing grid supply is economically not viable. India's first solar powered micro-grid (centralized array of solar panels) in Rajasthan was established by this initiative. The core innovation is a smart distribution technology that consists of smart meters with recharging facility and grid monitoring, to provide on-demand, theft-proof power through centralized servers with a pay-as-you-use schedule. The details of the changes, socio-economic transformation, and operational sustainability of such a community engagement model will be discussed in this study.

  15. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  16. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  17. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  18. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  19. Tabriz Bazaar: sustainability and human comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Master of Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Fard, Fariborz Mahdavi Tabatabaei [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Sustainable developments in energy and the environment have become a main focus of many groups. The built environment has a great influence on environmental sustainability generally. Solutions that respond to the impact of human activities on the environment in urban areas are required. On one hand, averting resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructures over their life cycle is a principal goal. On the other hand, it is also a principal goal to create livable, comfortable, safe and productive built environments. Tabriz bazaar, in Iran, is an example of sustainable architecture. It is designed to be suited to the local climate and urban texture with spaces that are varied and have a strong connection to open space. The bazaar plays a significant role in creation of safe urban space as a cultural, social, commercial, educational and sanitarian area. It connects different activities and different people in a safe place. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sustainability of the Tabriz bazaar and the effect that the character of this commercial area has on the quality of human life.

  20. Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, P.; Stafford, B.; Carpenter, B.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.; Kriescher, P.

    2005-04-01

    A trend towards ''green'' building with a focus on energy efficiency is sweeping the United States homebuilding industry. An integrated systems-design approach leads to homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices. Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the country are taking the lead on this approach to home building for affordable housing. This approach supports Habitat's goals of supplying quality housing and reducing the energy cost burden on families in Habitat homes--goals that are especially important in these days of increasing energy costs.

  1. Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockstrom, J.; Williams, J.; Daily, G.; Noble, A.; Matthews, N.; Gordon, L.; Wetterstrand, H.; DeClerck, F.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be

  2. The affordances of broken affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Martin Gielsgaard; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2015-01-01

    We consider the use of physical and virtual objects having one or more affordances associated to simple interactions with them. Based on Kaptelinin and Nardi’s notion of instrumental affordance, we investigate what it means to break an affordance, and the two ensuing questions we deem most import...

  3. Generalising human demonstration data by identifying affordance symmetries in object interaction trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassens, J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available presents a formal description of a set of these symmetries, which are termed affordance symmetries, and a method to identify them in multiple demonstration recordings. The approach is robust to arbitrary motion before and after the symmetry artifact...

  4. Human resource management in the construction industry – Sustainability competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Renard Yung Jhien Siew

    2014-01-01

    While environmental sustainability has been the subject of much debate in the last decade, it was not until recently that attention started to shift towards human resource management as an enabler for sustainability.  Yet, this is still a relatively under researched area.  Much is still unknown about the role of an individual worker in contributing towards sustainable development.  This paper addresses the gap by proposing a framework to measure sustainability competencies of employees within...

  5. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  6. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  7. Vaccination via Chloroplast Genetics: Affordable Protein Drugs for the Prevention and Treatment of Inherited or Infectious Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry; Chan, Hui-Ting; Pasoreck, Elise K

    2016-11-23

    Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drugs at ambient temperature, maintaining their efficacy. Codon optimization utilizing valuable information from sequenced chloroplast genomes enhanced expression of eukaryotic human or viral genes in chloroplasts and offered unique insights into translation in chloroplasts. Support from major biopharmaceutical companies, development of hydroponic production systems, and evaluation by regulatory agencies, including the CDC, FDA, and USDA, augur well for advancing this novel concept to the clinic and revolutionizing affordable healthcare.

  8. Towards human and social sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink HBM; LOK

    2004-01-01

    Ever since the Brundtland Commission presented its report on sustainable development in 1987, various institutions have either adopted or tried to refine the approach used in the report. Currently, there is a broad collection of concepts that are often highly related to sustainable development.

  9. Frontier In-Situ Resource Utilization for Enabling Sustained Human Presence on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The currently known resources on Mars are massive, including extensive quantities of water and carbon dioxide and therefore carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for life support, fuels and plastics and much else. The regolith is replete with all manner of minerals. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applicable frontier technologies include robotics, machine intelligence, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, 3-D printing/additive manufacturing and autonomy. These technologies combined with the vast natural resources should enable serious, pre- and post-human arrival ISRU to greatly increase reliability and safety and reduce cost for human colonization of Mars. Various system-level transportation concepts employing Mars produced fuel would enable Mars resources to evolve into a primary center of trade for the inner solar system for eventually nearly everything required for space faring and colonization. Mars resources and their exploitation via extensive ISRU are the key to a viable, safe and affordable, human presence beyond Earth. The purpose of this paper is four-fold: 1) to highlight the latest discoveries of water, minerals, and other materials on Mars that reshape our thinking about the value and capabilities of Mars ISRU; 2) to summarize the previous literature on Mars ISRU processes, equipment, and approaches; 3) to point to frontier ISRU technologies and approaches that can lead to safe and affordable human missions to Mars; and 4) to suggest an implementation strategy whereby the ISRU elements are phased into the mission campaign over time to enable a sustainable and increasing human presence on Mars.

  10. How low can dietary greenhouse gas emissions be reduced without impairing nutritional adequacy, affordability and acceptability of the diet? A modelling study to guide sustainable food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, Marlène; Masset, Gabriel; Ferrari, Gaël; Barré, Tangui; Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    To assess the compatibility between reduction of diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and nutritional adequacy, acceptability and affordability dimensions of diet sustainability. Dietary intake, nutritional composition, GHGE and prices were combined for 402 foods selected among those most consumed by participants of the Individual National Study on Food Consumption. Linear programming was used to model diets with stepwise GHGE reductions, minimized departure from observed diet and three scenarios of nutritional constraints: none (FREE), on macronutrients (MACRO) and for all nutrient recommendations (ADEQ). Nutritional quality was assessed using the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) and solid energy density (SED). France. Adults (n 1899). In FREE and MACRO scenarios, imposing up to 30 % GHGE reduction did not affect the MAR, SED and food group pattern of the observed diet, but required substitutions within food groups; higher GHGE reductions decreased diet cost, but also nutritional quality, even with constraints on macronutrients. Imposing all nutritional recommendations (ADEQ) increased the fruits and vegetables quantity, reduced SED and slightly increased diet cost without additional modifications induced by the GHGE constraint up to 30 % reduction; higher GHGE reductions decreased diet cost but required non-trivial dietary shifts from the observed diet. Not all the nutritional recommendations could be met for GHGE reductions ≥70 %. Moderate GHGE reductions (≤30 %) were compatible with nutritional adequacy and affordability without adding major food group shifts to those induced by nutritional recommendations. Higher GHGE reductions either impaired nutritional quality, even when macronutrient recommendations were imposed, or required non-trivial dietary shifts compromising acceptability to reach nutritional adequacy.

  11. The human right to sustainable development in solidarity with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Teresa Parrilla Díaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human development as a universal right subjected to the welfare of Nature. Nature is presented as supporter of life and supplier of the essential resources needed to achieve a complete human development. In light of the global ecological crisis, the author proposes sustainable development as the central framework for a new human development that can be fairer to Nature and to mankind. The challenge of sustainable human development consists in viewing Nature from an ethical perspective of human rights and solidarity.

  12. Peace, Human Security and Sustainable Development in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Peace, Human Security and Sustainable Development in Africa ... into a sustainable livelihood for some of the poorest communities in Africa. ... Project status ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows ... titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from ...

  13. In the digital age, the humanities can afford to go on the offensive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2014-01-01

    Humans, as a species, are around 200,000 years old. Compared to the age of the universe we’re clearly infants but compared to the internet, we’re pretty old and compared to social media, which is still in its infancy, we’re positively ancient. We’re definitely quite experienced when it comes...... to human interactions, expressions and relations and have even come up with a field of study to describe, analyse and account for this experience in the form of the humanities. In the information age, humanities is turning into a whole new beast. It’s time to stop defending the field as though it needs our...

  14. Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals, and is intended ... The Sustainable Development Agenda has 17 global goals with 169 targets. .... Quality human capital has become one of the front burning issues in Nigeria today.

  15. human resource management for sustainable microfinance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    history, the sector has not witnessed the existence of sustainable institutions. This prompted ... KEY WORDS: stakeholders, skills development, business entrepreneurship ability, employee development ... 1.1 Introduction: .... based collateral as security for credit advancement .... technology and the opportunity to be heard.

  16. Human resource management for sustainable microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microfinancing in Nigeria has developed from the traditional informal groups through direct government intervention to domination by private sector owned and managed institutions. Despite its long history, the sector has not witnessed the existence of sustainable institutions. This prompted the Obasanjo regime to adopt a ...

  17. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  18. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Afford New Opportunities in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Bayzigitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis are required to create more effective and safer methods of their therapy. The studies can be carried out only when model systems that fully recapitulate pathological phenotype seen in patients are used. Application of laboratory animals for cardiovascular disease modeling is limited because of physiological differences with humans. Since discovery of induced pluripotency generating induced pluripotent stem cells has become a breakthrough technology in human disease modeling. In this review, we discuss a progress that has been made in modeling inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, studying molecular mechanisms of the diseases, and searching for and testing drug compounds using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

  20. Capability and Technology Performance Goals for the Next Step in Affordable Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    The capability for living off the land, commonly called in-situ resource utilization, is finally gaining traction in space exploration architectures. Production of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere is called an enabling technology for human return from Mars, and a flight demonstration to be flown on the Mars 2020 robotic lander is in development. However, many of the individual components still require technical improvements, and system-level trades will be required to identify the best combination of technology options. Based largely on work performed for two recent roadmap activities, this paper defines the capability and technology requirements that will need to be achieved before this game-changing capability can reach its full potential.

  1. Education for Sustainability: The Need for a New Human Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Anthony

    Disturbing global trends show that human activity continues to threaten our ability to meet current human needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability will become more inaccessible without a dramatic change in our current mindset and behavior. As the primary centers of teaching, research, and…

  2. Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human development, conscious efforts are made to enlarge people's choices to enable them live a healthy and prolonged life, acquire knowledge, and have access to resources needed to earn a decent living. Obviously, sustained improvement in African human development still falls short of those experienced in other ...

  3. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  4. Maximal sustained levels of energy expenditure in humans during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jamie A; Nguyen, David D; Ruby, Brent C; Schoeller, Dale A

    2011-12-01

    Migrating birds have been able to sustain an energy expenditure (EE) that is five times their basal metabolic rate. Although humans can readily reach these levels, it is not yet clear what levels can be sustained for several days. The study's purposes were 1) to determine the upper limits of human EE and whether or not those levels can be sustained without inducing catabolism of body tissues and 2) to determine whether initial body weight is related to the levels that can be sustained. We compiled data on documented EE as measured by doubly labeled water during high levels of physical activity (minimum of five consecutive days). We calculated the physical activity level (PAL) of each individual studied (PAL = total EE / basal metabolic rate) from the published data. Correlations were run to examine the relationship between initial body weight and body weight lost with both total EE and PAL. The uppermost limit of EE was a peak PAL of 6.94 that was sustained for 10 consecutive days of a 95-d race. Only two studies reported PALs above 5.0; however, significant decreases in body mass were found in each study (0.45-1.39 kg·wk(-1) of weight loss). To test whether initial weight affects the ability to sustain high PALs, we found a significant positive correlation between TEE and initial body weight (r = 0.46, P body weight (r = 0.27, not statistically significant). Some elite humans are able to sustain PALs above 5.0 for a minimum of 10 d. Although significant decreases in body weight occur at this level, catabolism of body tissue may be preventable in situations with proper energy intake. Further, initial body weight does not seem to affect the sustainability of PALs.

  5. From The Human-Environment Theme Towards Sustainability – Danish Geography and Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2013-01-01

    Research on geography in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD), has only recently climbed the research agenda. The geopolitics of intended learning outcomes in the ESD debate, carries policy that produce dilemmas and challenges confronted with disciplinary traditions....... In this article it is examined dialectically how the changing climate and the paradigm of sustainability have been dealt with in Danish geographical university education. It is shown how curriculum programs in higher geographical education have taken different approaches to address issues of sustainability...... and climate change and how geographers articulate their role and function as knowledge on human-environment interactions changes. The analysis of the geographical education reveal that geographers’ find their discipline contribute considerably to ESD, and thus the human environment theme seems...

  6. Sustainability Indicators for Coupled Human-Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J. R.; Kalnay, E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, the Human System went from having a small impact on the Earth System (including the Climate System) to becoming dominant, because both population and per capita consumption have grown extremely fast, especially since about 1950. We therefore argue that Human System Models must be included into Earth System Models through bidirectional couplings with feedbacks. In particular, population should be modeled endogenously, rather than exogenously as done currently in most Integrated Assessment Models. The growth of the Human System threatens to overwhelm the Carrying Capacity of the Earth System, and may be leading to catastrophic climate change and collapse. We propose a set of Ecological and Economic "Sustainability Indicators" that can employ large data-sets for developing and assessing effective mitigation and adaptation policies. Using the Human and Nature Dynamical Model (HANDY) and Coupled Human-Climate-Water Model (COWA), we carry out experiments with this set of Sustainability Indicators and show that they are applicable to various coupled systems including Population, Climate, Water, Energy, Agriculture, and Economy. Impact of nonrenewable resources and fossil fuels could also be understood using these indicators. We demonstrate interconnections of Ecological and Economic Indicators. Coupled systems often include feedbacks and can thus display counterintuitive dynamics. This makes it difficult for even experts to see coming catastrophes from just the raw data for different variables. Sustainability Indicators boil down the raw data into a set of simple numbers that cross their sustainability thresholds with a large time-lag before variables enter their catastrophic regimes. Therefore, we argue that Sustainability Indicators constitute a powerful but simple set of tools that could be directly used for making policies for sustainability.

  7. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  8. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  9. Human Sustainable Development in the Context of Europa 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human development is a constant concern at European level. Thus, various programs have been proposed with the main objective of developing skills of citizens and informing them about training courses as part of lifelong learning and of employment in the labour market. The article highlights the evolution of European Union through the investments in human capital. The objective of this paper is represented by the analysis of the impact of sustainable human development through trans-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education in the context of the European Union strategy proposed for the following period up to 2020. Europe 2020 represents a strategic plan for European Union development until 2020, having as main objective raising the standard of living and the quality of life for European citizens. Europe 2020 strategy promotes a new vision for the economy of European Union. For the following period until 2020 there is a major concern for creating favourable conditions for development of a sustainable intelligent economy that promotes inclusion. Some of the main activities with a major impact on creating such conditions are investments in education, research and innovation. The article analyses the current and recent past years’ situation in terms of sustainable development from educational and economic perspectives at European Union level. The analysis was done based on Eurostat data, using specific statistical methods.

  10. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAND INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY (CASE OF MIDDLE EASTCOUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Behboudi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainable development has been accounted as one of the mostimportant policy goals at the global level. Many empirical studies have beencarried out to determine the relationship between economic growth andenvironmental quality. The model so-called Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKCwas in most of empirical studies. The aim of this studyis to estimate a ModifiedEKC (MEKC in which development and sustain was usedinstead of economicgrowth and environment. In the present study, negative value of adjusted netsaving was used as non-sustainability indicator andhuman development indexwas used as development indicator. The statisticalpopulation is the Middle Eastcountries and the period of estimation is 1996-2010. The Panel Data method wasused in order to estimate the models in this groupof countries. Variables such asnatural resource abundant and institutional qualities such as Rule of Law, PoliticalStability, Regulatory Quality and Control of Corruption were used as controlvariable to specify the model. The results show aninverse N-shaped relationbetween human development and non-sustainability ofresources in the MiddleEast countries.

  11. Social education, human rights and sustainability in community development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio CARIDE GÓMEZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article places its contributions in a reflection of a pedagogical and social nature about the links that are established between social education, human rights and sustainability in community development. In this regard, in a historical and prospective key, it places emphasis on the need to promote educational actions that, being consistent with the principles of equity and justice, make it possible to build a more democratic, inclusive and cohesive local-global society.A future expectation that must be confined to educational theories and practices where local communities assume the role they play in their own development processes, with an alternative vision to the ways of educating people and themselves on a daily basis, respectful of human and ecological rights. A line of action that coincides with the commitments made at the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development, adopted by UNESCO, and Resolution A/70/1 adopted by the General Assembly in 2015, Transform our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, guaranteeing lifelong learning for all.In this objective beats a decisive, although not explicit, of a pedagogical-social vocation: to train citizens that, individually and collectively being aware of their role in socio-environmental changes, assume the responsibilities inherent to the values that sustain life in all its diversity. Social education and community development that, by projecting initiatives in different times and social spaces, allows formative opportunities to be expanded beyond the school system and its curricular practices. The Environmental Education and the Local Agenda 21 continue being two references main for the reflection-action educational and community.

  12. Do we need sustainability as a new approach in human factors and ergonomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.

  13. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  14. Assessing the universal health coverage target in the Sustainable Development Goals from a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2016-12-15

    The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in September 2015, include a comprehensive health goal, "to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being at all ages." The health goal (SDG 3) has nine substantive targets and four additional targets which are identified as a means of implementation. One of these commitments, to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), has been acknowledged as central to the achievement of all of the other health targets. As defined in the SDGs, UHC includes financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services, and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all. This article evaluates the extent to which the UHC target in the SDGs conforms with the requirements of the right to health enumerated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international human rights instruments and interpreted by international human rights bodies. It does so as a means to identify strengths and weaknesses in the framing of the UHC target that are likely to affect its implementation. While UHC as defined in the SDGs overlaps with human rights standards, there are important human rights omissions that will likely weaken the implementation and reduce the potential benefits of the UHC target. The most important of these is the failure to confer priority to providing access to health services to poor and disadvantaged communities in the process of expanding health coverage and in determining which health services to provide. Unless the furthest behind are given priority and strategies adopted to secure their participation in the development of national health plans, the SDGs, like the MDGs, are likely to leave the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities behind.

  15. Housing / Human Settlements Atlas series: continued support towards more sustainable human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goss, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available an answer to the key question of what (shelter type or model and supportive services) should be built where (in the most suitable location with the highest potential to support sustainable human settlements). The investment potential profile indicator has...

  16. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  17. 78 FR 44134 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the... Collection: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking, 0925-NEW, National Cancer Institute (NCI...

  18. Challenges and opportunities in building a sustainable rural primary care workforce in alignment with the Affordable Care Act: the WWAMI program as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne M; Ballweg, Ruth A; Cosgrove, Ellen M; Engle, Kellie A; Robinson, Lawrence R; Rosenblatt, Roger A; Skillman, Susan M; Wenrich, Marjorie D

    2013-12-01

    The authors examine the potential impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on a large medical education program in the Northwest United States that builds the primary care workforce for its largely rural region. The 42-year-old Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho (WWAMI) program, hosted by the University of Washington School of Medicine, is one of the nation's most successful models for rural health training. The program has expanded training and retention of primary care health professionals for the region through medical school education, graduate medical education, a physician assistant training program, and support for practicing health professionals.The ACA and resulting accountable care organizations (ACOs) present potential challenges for rural settings and health training programs like WWAMI that focus on building the health workforce for rural and underserved populations. As more Americans acquire health coverage, more health professionals will be needed, especially in primary care. Rural locations may face increased competition for these professionals. Medical schools are expanding their positions to meet the need, but limits on graduate medical education expansion may result in a bottleneck, with insufficient residency positions for graduating students. The development of ACOs may further challenge building a rural workforce by limiting training opportunities for health professionals because of competing demands and concerns about cost, efficiency, and safety associated with training. Medical education programs like WWAMI will need to increase efforts to train primary care physicians and increase their advocacy for student programs and additional graduate medical education for rural constituents.

  19. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  20. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs.

  1. Identifying a Human Right to Access Sustainable Energy Services in International Human Rights Law (SDG 7)? (LRN Law and Sustainability Conference)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    This paper assessed whether a right to sustainable energy services access can be found in international human rights law, possibly in support of achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal 7. According to SDG 7.1, States are expected to strive for the implementation of "universal access to modern,

  2. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  3. Imbrication between human and material agencies in decision making in the police work force : Affordances explained in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Matthijs; Rutkowski, Anne-Francoise; Schoop, Mareike; Kilgour, Marc

    Task complexity has been an important part of analyses of the Group Support System literature and relates to both task performance’s process and outcomes. The entanglement between the human agency (e.g., users) and the material agency (e.g., technology) should not be underestimated when considering

  4. 78 FR 26639 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Comment Request: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking (NCI) Summary: In compliance with the... techniques or other forms of information technology. To Submit Comments and for Further Information: To... this publication. Proposed Collection: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking, 0925-NEW...

  5. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IMPACTS ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Anstätt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to critically analyze the findings of the first, recently published, studies about Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR impacts on Sustainable Human Development (SHD. We aim at deriving conclusions for effective CSR strategies and at identifying consequences for management and research. As CSR claims to create value for corporations and for society, we argue that the people-centered Capability Approach (CA is promising to provide neglected and much needed insights how corporate activities affect individuals and communities. Based on a survey of recent literature addressing CSR impacts on SHD, we highlight CSR potentials to improve average well-being in multiple dimensions of SHD. Moreover, we critically assess challenges and limitations of CSR as a strategy to preserve and foster SHD. For instance, studies have shown that, despite CSR-driven well-being increases, social capital, relational capabilities and collective agency may become challenged by corporate strategies. Moreover, corporate environmental impacts have been found to be less often addressed by both, companies and SHD researchers. Resulting inequality and fairness issues have been identified as causes of violence against corporations even in the presence of total well-being improvements. We conclude that companies should strategically take into account a comprehensive range of factors driving and hampering SHD to account for their whole portfolio of corporate opportunities and risks. This requires evaluating CSR impacts instead of only focusing on CSR inputs and outputs. Thereby, corporations can mitigate their risks, improve their stakeholder trust and strengthen their competitiveness.

  6. NREL/Habitat for Humanity Zero Energy Home: A Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2008-06-01

    The design of this 1,280-square-foot, three-bedroom Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed with an early version (July 22, 2004) of the BEOpt building optimization software; DOE2 and TRNSYS were used to perform additional analysis. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design toward simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques. A data acquisition system was installed in the completed home to monitor its performance.

  7. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  8. The contributions of human factors and ergonomics to a sustainable minerals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Fuller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article describes examples of the application of human factors research and development work to a sustainable minerals industry. It begins by outlining human-related aspects of the minerals industry and the key human factors work previously undertaken in this domain. The focus then switches to sustainability in the minerals industry. Sustainability principles are introduced and illustrations provided of how human factors research and development work fits within such a framework. Three case studies of human factors in the minerals industry research are presented and the sustainability implications in each case study are highlighted. Finally, future trends related to human factors work in a sustainable minerals industry are addressed, in particular the opportunities and possible adverse consequences that increasing deployment of mining automation might bring. Minerals industries are a major global activity with significant sustainability implications. Aspects of sustainability in mining are examined using three case studies. These illustrate the contribution of human factors/ergonomics in reducing risks; developing emergency response management systems; and the value of participatory ergonomics in improving the design of mining equipment.

  9. Sustainable Human Resource Management in Religiously Diverse Regions: The Podlasie Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mazur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability seems fundamental for companies operating worldwide. Human resources are acknowledged to be among the most valuable assets for them. Even though literature shows that Sustainable Human Resource Management is an upcoming topic there is still limited research on the concept due to its initial state. Prior literature reveals a lack in the consideration of systematic links between sustainability and HRM. The purpose of the study is to present the sociological approach to Sustainable Human Resource Management. The paper contributes to the literature linking sustainability to the issues researched in HRM literature. In the introduction it discusses how the notion of sustainability has emerged and developed. Then the sociological approach to Sustainable Human Resource Management is briefly depicted. Next, Diversity Management is presented as the manifestation of the social approach to Sustainable Human Resource Management. To illustrate this approach, the empirical research is presented. It has been conducted among 32 companies operating in Podlasie region (northeastern part of Poland. The research tried to uncover the companies’ knowledge and consciousness of cultural (religious diversity. It also aimed at finding out whether this diversity was seen as an advantage and taken opportunity of or rather neglected in the companies. The results show the reception of diversity among larger and smaller enterprises in the Podlasie region. In general, smaller companies tend to know the religion of the worker more often, and therefore are able to take advantage of it. The larger companies tend to treat faith as a personal matter.

  10. Tourism And Environment: Toward Promoting Sustainable Development Of Tourism: A Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Supasti Dharmawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities in era globalization bring positive and negative impacts especially for the host countries destination. To minimize the negative impacts it is very important to always promote the sustainable development of tourism including from a human rights perspective. This paper will discuss concerning who have responsibility to promote a human rights related with sustainable development of tourism. To explore the topic in this article, Author will study both international human rights instruments and environmental convention as well as the soft law regarding the tourism sector such as the UN WTO Global Code Of Ethics. The Law No. 10 Year 2009 concerning Indonesia Tourism Law is also part of legal material studied in this paper. There are national, international legal instruments of the human rights as well as UNWTO Global Codes of Ethics which can be utilized to promote sustainable tourism through human rights perspective. It is considered that all stakeholders have responsibility to promote sustainable development of tourism.

  11. Melanin distribution in human epidermis affords localized protection against DNA photodamage and concurs with skin cancer incidence difference in extreme phototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajuyigbe, Damilola; Lwin, Su M; Diffey, Brian L; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J; Sarkany, Robert P E; Young, Antony R

    2018-02-02

    Epidermal DNA damage, especially to the basal layer, is an established cause of keratinocyte cancers (KCs). Large differences in KC incidence (20- to 60-fold) between white and black populations are largely attributable to epidermal melanin photoprotection in the latter. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is the most mutagenic DNA photolesion; however, most studies suggest that melanin photoprotection against CPD is modest and cannot explain the considerable skin color-based differences in KC incidence. Along with melanin quantity, solar-simulated radiation-induced CPD assessed immediately postexposure in the overall epidermis and within 3 epidermal zones was compared in black West Africans and fair Europeans. Melanin in black skin protected against CPD by 8.0-fold in the overall epidermis and by 59.0-, 16.5-, and 5.0-fold in the basal, middle, and upper epidermis, respectively. Protection was related to the distribution of melanin, which was most concentrated in the basal layer of black skin. These results may explain, at least in part, the considerable skin color differences in KC incidence. These data suggest that a DNA protection factor of at least 60 is necessary in sunscreens to reduce white skin KC incidence to a level that is comparable with that of black skin.-Fajuyigbe, D., Lwin, S. M., Diffey, B. L., Baker, R., Tobin, D. J., Sarkany, R. P. E., Young, A. R. Melanin distribution in human epidermis affords localized protection against DNA photodamage and concurs with skin cancer incidence difference in extreme phototypes.

  12. Modelling vertical human walking forces using self-sustained oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prakash; Kumar, Anil; Racic, Vitomir; Erlicher, Silvano

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of a self-sustained oscillator which can generate reliably the vertical contact force between the feet of a healthy pedestrian and the supporting flat rigid surface. The model is motivated by the self-sustained nature of the walking process, i.e. a pedestrian generates the required inner energy to sustain its repetitive body motion. The derived model is a fusion of the well-known Rayleigh, Van der Pol and Duffing oscillators. Some additional nonlinear terms are added to produce both the odd and even harmonics observed in the experimentally measured force data. The model parameters were derived from force records due to twelve pedestrians walking on an instrumented treadmill at ten speeds using a linear least square technique. The stability analysis was performed using the energy balance method and perturbation method. The results obtained from the model show a good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. The Role of Social and Intergenerational Equity in Making Changes in Human Well-Being Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...

  14. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  15. Human Aspect as a Critical Factor for Organization Sustainability in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ulus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations adopt diverse strategies to govern the technical and managerial aspects of sustainability implementation processes. The need for better leading and managing people-related issues emerges as companies aim for more effective change towards sustainability. The human aspect of the sustainability implementation process is mostly not paid enough attention, but it can significantly affect the success of a change management program by creating hurdles or easing the process. This study considers three human-related factors: resistance to change, internal communication, and employee engagement in sustainability activities of organizations. The aim of the study is to explore how these human factors are managed by tourism companies for organizational sustainability. For this purpose four companies from different sectors of tourism are chosen as case studies and the results are examined using qualitative data analysis techniques. The results indicate that the companies which are in a more advanced stage of sustainability implementation manage human factors using a greater number of channels and employ varied strategies. The results can provide insights into how organizations tackle the challenges of managing human aspect and display the practices that contribute to successful change management programs for achieving organizational sustainability through people.

  16. HUMAN CAPITAL IN ECO-ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ion PETRESCU

    2013-01-01

    The current modern civilization and, in this context, the Romanian one, faces a great challenge in finding the most effective and practical methods of implying the human capital in the process of ensuring the eco-economic progress and the sustainable development one in which people to live in communion with nature. In our communication we aim to analyze issues related to human capital involvement in eco-economy and sustainable development of Romania, based on the assessment of the impact of t...

  17. 123 Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nollywood, the Nigerian video film industry, has ... The full definition of human development as captured still in the Human ... Additional choices include political freedom, ..... dialects and speech mannerisms of their settings portrayed through.

  18. Institutionalising Human Governance Determinant: Steering Organizations towards Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Hanapiyah, Zulkefli; Daud, Salina; Abdullah, Wan Mohammad Taufik Wan

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses past researches on human governance elements. Eight elements of human governance are proposed in this paper: leadership, integrity, religiosity, spirituality, culture, recruitment, training and internal control policy. Empirical study shall be conducted in the future study to confirm the eight elements of human governance proposed in this paper. It is expected that these elements may enhance the human governance practice in the organizations.

  19. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  20. Facilitating investment in affordable housing : Towards an Australian model. Draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, J.M.; Berry, M.; Milligan, V.; Yates, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by

  1. Reasserting the primacy of human needs to reclaim the 'lost half' of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark; Longhurst, James W S

    2018-04-15

    The concept of sustainable development evolved from growing awareness of the interdependence of social and economic progress with the limits of the supporting natural environment, becoming progressively integrated into global agreements and transposition into local regulatory and implementation frameworks. We argue that transposition of the concept into regulation and supporting tools reduced the focus to minimal environmental and social standards, perceived as imposing constraints rather than opportunities for innovation to meet human needs. The aspirational 'half' of the concept of sustainable development specifically addressing human needs was thus lost in transposing high ideals into regulatory instruments. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) restore focus on interlinked human needs, stimulating innovation of products and processes to satisfy them. Through three case studies - PVC water pipes, river quality management in England, and UK local air quality management - we explore the current operationalisation of the concept in diverse settings, using the SDG framework to highlight the broader societal purposes central to sustainable development. Partnerships involving civil society support evolution of regulatory instruments and their implementation, optimising social and ecological benefits thereby serving more human needs. Restoring the visionary 'lost half' of sustainable development - meeting human needs in sustainable ways - creates incentives for innovation and partnership; an innovation framework rather than a perceived constraint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vital affordances, occupying niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokumaci, Arseli

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a new conceptual approach to disability and performance through a contribution that comes entirely from outside the disciplines; a re-theorisation of Gibson’s [1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates] theory of affordances....... Drawing on three visual ethnographies with differently disabled individuals, and building upon my previous consideration of performance as ‘affordance creation’ in itself [Dokumaci, A. 2013. “On Falling Ill.” Performance Research 18 (4): 107–115], the article conceptualises affordances as a form of micro......-activism–one that can allow us to unpack the entanglements of disability, performance, and matter. Putting Gibson’s theory in conversation with Canguilhem’s philosophy of life, it proposes the concept ‘vital affordances’ as a new way to think through this micro-activism, and the way disabled individuals might transform...

  3. Is quality affordable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The question “Is quality affordable?” is loaded with dynamite!Can a person who lives on less than US $1 per day afford a high-quality cataract operation? If the answer is ‘No’, then do we offer that person poor or low-quality services? Do people living in poverty have a ‘right’ to high-quality eye or health care? If the answer is ‘Yes’, then at what price and who should pay? Should we ignore quality and focus on affordability? Or should we provide high-quality services in the hope that someone else will pay?These are difficult questions, which policy makers, managers, and clinicians must face and try to answer.

  4. N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Affords Protection against Lead-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although lead exposure has declined in recent years as a result of change to lead-free gasoline, several epidemiological have pointed out that it represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in young children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. A previous study in our laboratory indicated that lead exposure induces cytotoxicity in human liver carcinoma cells. In the present study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress in lead-induced toxicity, and the protective effect of the anti-oxidant n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC. We hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a role in lead-induced cytotoxicity, and that NAC affords protection against this adverse effect. To test this hypothesis, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the trypan blue exclusion test for cell viability. We also performed the thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that NAC significantly increased the viability of HepG2 cells in a dosedependent manner upon 48 hours of exposure. Similar trend was obtained with the trypan blue exclusion test. Data generated from the thiobarbituric acid test showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05 increase of MDA levels in lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells compared to control cells. Interestingly, the addition of NAC to lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells significantly decreased cellular content of reactive oxygen species (ROS, as evidenced by the decrease in lipid peroxidation byproducts. Overall, findings from this study suggest that NAC inhibits lead nitrate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Hence, NAC may be used as a salvage therapy for lead-induced toxicity in exposed persons.

  5. Human rights and the new sustainable mechanism of the Paris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Looking back at the experience of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, which bears great resemblance to the SDM, as well as to the human rights concerns raised during its implementation, the integration of human rights considerations into the SDM and its governing rules seems to be ...

  6. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...

  7. Sustainability analysis of human settelements in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available are interconnected and interdependent, iden tify sustainability as a sy stemic concept that requi res a systems approach to problem solving a nd planning. Systems thinking g oes be yond events t o looki ng for patterns of be haviour, and to seek ing... of suffici ent information. Two mai n sources of statistical data we re used: • The 199 6 Ce nsus and the Octob er Household Surveys bet we en 199 6 and 2000, obtai ned from Statistics SA; and • The PIMMS-IDEA informat ion system of the Department...

  8. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  9. Sustained CD8+ T-cell responses induced after acute parvovirus B19 infection in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...

  10. Decision making in a human population living sustainably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John S; Burgman, Mark A; Marewski, Julian N; Fidler, Fiona; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-10-01

    The Tiwi people of northern Australia have managed natural resources continuously for 6000-8000 years. Tiwi management objectives and outcomes may reflect how they gather information about the environment. We qualitatively analyzed Tiwi documents and management techniques to examine the relation between the social and physical environment of decision makers and their decision-making strategies. We hypothesized that principles of bounded rationality, namely, the use of efficient rules to navigate complex decision problems, explain how Tiwi managers use simple decision strategies (i.e., heuristics) to make robust decisions. Tiwi natural resource managers reduced complexity in decision making through a process that gathers incomplete and uncertain information to quickly guide decisions toward effective outcomes. They used management feedback to validate decisions through an information loop that resulted in long-term sustainability of environmental use. We examined the Tiwi decision-making processes relative to management of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fisheries and contrasted their management with the state government's management of barramundi. Decisions that enhanced the status of individual people and their attainment of aspiration levels resulted in reliable resource availability for Tiwi consumers. Different decision processes adopted by the state for management of barramundi may not secure similarly sustainable outcomes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  12. Sustainable development goals and the human resources crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Achieving universal health coverage by 2030 requires that lessons from the Millennium Development Goals must be heeded. The most important lesson is that the workforce underpins every function of the health system, and is the rate-limiting step. The three dimensions that continue to limit the success of the development agenda are availability, distribution and performance of health workers - and the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved without addressing all three. Hence, the traditional response of scaling up supply is inadequate: a paradigm shift is required in the design of systems that can properly identify, train, allocate and retain health workers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. When Should We Care About Sustainability? Applying Human Security as the Decisive Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Lautensach

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It seems intuitively clear that not all human endeavours warrant equal concern over the extent of their sustainability. This raises the question about what criteria might best serve for their prioritisation. We refute, on empirical and theoretical grounds, the counterclaim that sustainability should be of no concern regardless of the circumstances. Human security can serve as a source of criteria that are both widely shared and can be assessed in a reasonably objective manner. Using established classifications, we explore how four forms of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, and cultural relate to the four pillars of human security (environmental, economic, sociopolitical, and health-related. Our findings, based on probable correlations, suggest that the criteria of human security allow for a reliable discrimination between relatively trivial incidences of unsustainable behavior and those that warrant widely shared serious concern. They also confirm that certain sources of human insecurity, such as poverty or violent conflict, tend to perpetuate unsustainable behavior, a useful consideration for the design of development initiatives. Considering that human security enjoys wide and increasing political support among the international community, it is to be hoped that by publicizing the close correlation between human security and sustainability greater attention will be paid to the latter and to its careful definition.

  14. SUSTAINABLE FACTORS IN THE HUMAN ASSETS OF DANA HOTEL AS A HERITAGE HOTEL IN SOLO, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuniwati Wahyudi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study what sustainable factors of Dana Hotel in the human assets; and also find out what the status of Dana Hotel, using VRIN analysis (Value, Rarity, Imperfect Imitability, and Non-Subs­ti­tu­ta­bility from Natural Language Data of observation and in-depth interviews in a descriptive qua­litative study. In results, in order to achieve sustainability, Dana Hotel has valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and non-subs­titutable factors in the human assets. As the human assets are valuable, rare, im­perfectly imitable, and non-subs­titutable, the status of Dana Hotel is sustainable in the context of hu­man resources. It is concluded that following the success of Dana Hotel, organizations that have those fac­tors or even more, tend to have big opportunities to survive.

  15. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  16. Affordances are Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pickering

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Peirce and Whitehead share a common project: to restrict the over-extension of reductionism, to show how matter must be sensate and to create an ontology of process and subjectivity. This article claims that biosemiotics can assist this project. Moreover, it shows that the concept of affordance is a means to produce a theory of causation that embraces physical, natural and cultural levels of order.

  17. Social and environmental sustainability in large-scale coastal zones: Taking an issue-based approach to the implementation of the Prince William Sound sustainable human use framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale J. Blahna; Aaron Poe; Courtney Brown; Clare M. Ryan; H. Randy Gimblett

    2017-01-01

    Following the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989, a sustainable human use framework (human use framework) for Prince William Sound (PWS), AK was developed by the Chugach National Forest after concerns emerged about the social and environmental impacts of expanding human use due to cleanup activities and increased recreation visitation. A practical, issue-based...

  18. Ibuprofen Blunts Ventilatory Acclimatization to Sustained Hypoxia in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Erdem Basaran

    Full Text Available Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia is a time-dependent increase in ventilation and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR that involves neural plasticity in both carotid body chemoreceptors and brainstem respiratory centers. The mechanisms of such plasticity are not completely understood but recent animal studies show it can be blocked by administering ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, during chronic hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that ibuprofen would also block the increase in HVR with chronic hypoxia in humans in 15 healthy men and women using a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. The isocapnic HVR was measured with standard methods in subjects treated with ibuprofen (400 mg every 8 hrs or placebo for 48 hours at sea level and 48 hours at high altitude (3,800 m. Subjects returned to sea level for at least 30 days prior to repeating the protocol with the opposite treatment. Ibuprofen significantly decreased the HVR after acclimatization to high altitude compared to placebo but it did not affect ventilation or arterial O2 saturation breathing ambient air at high altitude. Hence, compensatory responses prevent hypoventilation with decreased isocapnic ventilatory O2-sensitivity from ibuprofen at this altitude. The effect of ibuprofen to decrease the HVR in humans provides the first experimental evidence that a signaling mechanism described for ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in animal models also occurs in people. This establishes a foundation for the future experiments to test the potential role of different mechanisms for neural plasticity and ventilatory acclimatization in humans with chronic hypoxemia from lung disease.

  19. Strategies for the sustained human exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Damon Frederick

    rendezvous during flybys in semi-cycler and cycler missions is presented with a control law for final approach. A forty-year plan to establish a permanent base on Mars is detailed and methods to expand the base are discussed. Once a large base is established, one-, two-, or three-vehicle systems may sustain the colonization of Mars.

  20. The Role of Business Sustainability in Human Resource Management: A Study on Indian Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha Lakshmi R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Business sustainability from the point of view of human resource management (HRM is a management and leadership philosophy about how people are most enable to contribute to success at their work by minimizing the negative impactof their work on the environmental and social factors and at the same timeimproving the financial factors in the organizations. This study is an empiricalstudy conducted on 233 Indian manufacturing firms operating in the Karnatakaregion to investigate the role for HRM in business sustainability. The role for HRMin business sustainability is studied with the construct HRM strategic integrationin business sustainability strategy. Further, this study focuses on the way HRMincorporates sustainability in its practices in the organization and its impact onthe organizational performance. The data are analyzed using SEM, and the resultsrevealed the significance of the relationship of the HRM strategic integration ofsustainability strategy with the organizational performance. The organizationalperformance studied with respect to the three factors of business sustainability viz.,profit, people, and planet. Further, these relationships are tested with contingencyfactors, age of the firm, and the number of employees for its significance in thisrelation. The empirical evidence of the study shows a significant positive relationof organizational performance when HRM has strategic integration in businesssustainability strategy. Model I4C is derived to show the role for HRM in business sustainability

  1. Biomimicry: a Necessary Eco-Ethical Dimension for a Future Human Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Collado-Ruano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of “global citizenship” from a transdisciplinary methodology and a biomimetic approach. A sustainable human image appears with this epistemological symbiosis, that constitutes the DNA of a genuine tool of civilizational transformation. On the one hand, the transdisciplinary methodology is opened to the multi-referential conception of the three pillars proposed by Basarab Nicolescu (2008: levels of reality, logic of the included middle, and complexity. On the other hand, the concept of biomimicry approached by Janine M. Benyus (2012 identifies nine operating principles of life in order to mimic nature in the reformulation of new sustainable human production systems with the biosphere. The aim of this study is to identify international agreements on environmental and sustainable development, to elaborate some contribution in the post-2015 eco-political-educational strategic framework led by the United Nations with the Sustainable Development Goals. With the purpose of strengthening ties between education and sustainability through symbiotic bridges between nature and culture, the work identifies the vital axises that constitute the interdependence of ecosystems to make a biomimetic application in the social, political, and educational structures of human systems. Then, this paper is an innovational research that seeks to integrate the eco-ethics as a practice in the “Global Citizenship Education” proposed for UNESCO for next decade 2015-2025.

  2. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  3. Building the Leviathan--Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-02-18

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans.

  4. Building the Leviathan – Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z.; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans. PMID:26888519

  5. Leptin regulates dopamine responses to sustained stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Paul R; Love, Tiffany M; Stohler, Christian S; Hodgkinson, Colin; Shen, Pei-Hong; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2012-10-31

    Neural systems that identify and respond to salient stimuli are critical for survival in a complex and changing environment. In addition, interindividual differences, including genetic variation and hormonal and metabolic status likely influence the behavioral strategies and neuronal responses to environmental challenges. Here, we examined the relationship between leptin allelic variation and plasma leptin levels with DAD2/3R availability in vivo as measured with [(11)C]raclopride PET at baseline and during a standardized pain stress challenge. Allelic variation in the leptin gene was associated with varying levels of dopamine release in response to the pain stressor, but not with baseline D2/3 receptor availability. Circulating leptin was also positively associated with stress-induced dopamine release. These results show that leptin serves as a regulator of neuronal function in humans and provides an etiological mechanism for differences in dopamine neurotransmission in response to salient stimuli as related to metabolic function. The capacity for leptin to influence stress-induced dopaminergic function is of importance for pathological states where dopamine is thought to play an integral role, such as mood, substance-use disorders, eating disorders, and obesity.

  6. Appropriate architecture for sustainable development: The creation of ecological footprint and human development index capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available and human systems. The danger with a focus on carbon emissions is that limited resources and timeframes may be exhausted trying to achieve reductions and valuable opportunities to build long term sustainable solutions will be being lost. This paper argues...

  7. Guides to Sustainable Connections? Exploring Human-Nature Relationships among Wilderness Travel Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, Bryan S. R.; Haberer, Alexa; Legault, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores and critically interprets the role wilderness travel may play in fostering environmental sustainability. The paper draws upon two qualitative studies that sought to understand human-nature relationships as experienced by different groups of wilderness travel leaders in Canada. According to leaders involved in the studies,…

  8. Assessing impacts of payments for watershed services on sustainability in coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Asbjornsen; Alex S. Mayer; Kelly W. Jones; Theresa Selfa; Leonardo Saenz; Randall K. Kolka; Kathleen E. Halvorsen

    2015-01-01

    Payments for watershed services (PWS) as a policy tool for enhancing water quality and supply have gained momentum in recent years, but their ability to lead to sustainable watershed outcomes is uncertain. Consequently, the demand for effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of PWS impacts on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and their implications for...

  9. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  10. Injecting learning experience into geoethics for human and natural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookall, David

    2016-04-01

    Our early life experience has a strong influence on our actions in later life. Humans today are just starting to re-learn, collectively, how to treat Earth with the respect that it deserves and that is needed for our offspring to inherit a decent home. However, we still have a long way to go to instill in people at large the ethics, knowledge and skills necessary to ensure a healthy journey for humanity on spaceship. The experience of early upbringing, of schooling and of everyday life is probably the only path strong enough to develop in people a strong desire for ethical behaviour towards their environment. The problem is that the measures taken today to ensure the development of ethical behaviours in the population at large are woefully inadequate. At best, western school programmes contain a few lessons devoted to the environment, and even then they usually just pay lip service to the basics of the environment; they rarely aim to instill skills and knowledge in order to understand and care deeply for the environment. My presentation will suggest some practical ways to help communities build ethical frameworks and strategies to guide and generate tools, methods and activities that guide young people (pupils, students, scholars, researchers) to toward more ethical behaviours regarding their environment and their communities. Examples might include: - Developing geoethical dimensions of internships, in all areas; - Designing, testing and running simulation/games+debriefing providing a rich affective-cognitive context for grappling with geoethical problems- eg, FISH BANKS, KEEP COOL. - Pressuring governments to make geoethics, environmental care and climate change understanding central components of (almost) all educational programmes (in, eg, history, language, business, law, medicine, etc). - Subsidizing environmental-care summer schools for families and teachers at all levels. - Etc. One of my actions is founding a academic journal in the area, maybe with the

  11. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONNECTIONS IN THE POST-TRUTH ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA CONSTANTINESCU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the distancing of current policy from economic rigors and ethical demands aimed at redistribution of wealth, modern societies are parasitized by post-truth of actual facts. It distorts the shape and content of general interest data, for example political distortion of scientific evidence proving anthropogenic climate change. Under these circumstances, the question "to what extent economist’s truth stating what you cannot measure you cannot manage is sustained?" becomes absolutely legitimate. Regarding sustainable development management, monitoring the degree of achievement of Sustainable Development Goals is no longer sufficient to track progress in this area. Therefore, experts propose to introduce as much as possible qualitative data which, combined with quantitative data, will enhance their relevance and make them harder to be diverted for political purposes. This paper follows this direction, trying to prove that protection of data’s real meaning can be achieved by systemic analysis of all data originating from monitoring certain processes, which can be aggregated, with applicability in sustainable development. Thus, analyzing together data on sustainable development and those that indicates the state of human development emphasizes on one hand, the intrinsic link between these concepts and, on the other, maintain the sense of sustainability even in the post-truth era.

  12. The Social Origins of Sustained Attention in One-Year-Old Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B

    2016-05-09

    The ability to sustain attention is a major achievement in human development and is generally believed to be the developmental product of increasing self-regulatory and endogenous (i.e., internal, top-down, voluntary) control over one's attention and cognitive systems [1-5]. Because sustained attention in late infancy is predictive of future development, and because early deficits in sustained attention are markers for later diagnoses of attentional disorders [6], sustained attention is often viewed as a constitutional and individual property of the infant [6-9]. However, humans are social animals; developmental pathways for seemingly non-social competencies evolved within the social group and therefore may be dependent on social experience [10-13]. Here, we show that social context matters for the duration of sustained attention episodes in one-year-old infants during toy play. Using head-mounted eye tracking to record moment-by-moment gaze data from both parents and infants, we found that when the social partner (parent) visually attended to the object to which infant attention was directed, infants, after the parent's look, extended their duration of visual attention to the object. Looks to the same object by two social partners is a well-studied phenomenon known as joint attention, which has been shown to be critical to early learning and to the development of social skills [14, 15]. The present findings implicate joint attention in the development of the child's own sustained attention and thus challenge the current understanding of the origins of individual differences in sustained attention, providing a new and potentially malleable developmental pathway to the self-regulation of attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  14. Early variability in the conceptualisation of "sustainable development and human factors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The sub-discipline of "sustainable development and human factors" is relatively new, first being used in 2006 with a Technical Committee of the IEA being established only in 2009 and a similar special interest group on "green ergonomics" at the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors being established in 2010. In general though, the definitions and practice of "sustainable development" is highly contentious and ambiguous across a range of disciplines. This paper examines the diversity of definitions and approaches to sustainable development and human factors in the early papers in this sub-discipline. An examination of 45 chapters and papers (from 2008 to 2011) reveals a surprising consistency in the definitions used for sustainable development but also a large proportion of the papers where no definitions are given at all. The majority of papers were, however, biased towards an economic capital and social capital emphasis, which is to be expected of work traditionally in the ergonomics paradigm. Further, most papers were theoretical in nature demonstrating a great opportunity for empirical work. The variability in definitions is discussed in relation to the future challenges facing the growth of this emergent sub-discipline and opportunities for further theoretical and empirical work.

  15. Making care affordable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S

    1999-01-01

    The YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education (CARE) in Chennai, India runs an integrated care program ensuring appropriate and affordable care to everyone who needs it. The program includes both voluntary counseling/testing and hospital/home-based care. YRG CARE developed several strategies for the care program, which include 1) different fees for an HIV test, 2) free counseling service, 3) different charges for other care services, 4) a subsidized pharmacy (involving purchasing drugs directly from manufacturers and wholesalers, ordering free samples from manufacturers, and acquiring drugs through the drug component of its clinical research projects, from overseas hospitals, and from YRG CARE hospital and community-based patients who have not used them), and 5) subsidized meals.

  16. Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms for Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, P C; Dubey, Rama Kant; Tripathi, Vishal; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Harikesh B

    2016-11-01

    Agrochemicals used to meet the needs of a rapidly growing human population can deteriorate the quality of ecosystems and are not affordable to farmers in low-resource environments. Here, we propose the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) as a tool for sustainable food production without compromising ecosystems services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EDUCATION IN THE FIELD safety of human life AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartavykh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication purpose - pedagogical design of education of bachelors in the field safety of human life in the context of ideas of a sustainable development as one of the modern and perspective directions of the higher education. Philosophical and methodological, scientific and technical and pedagogical aspects of provisions of the concept of a sustainable development are opened. It is shown that the greatest potential for realization of ideas of a sustainable development the invariant subject matter the " Safety of human life " studied by future bachelors irrespective of the direction and a profile of preparation possesses. The fundamental principles of education in the field safety of human life of future bachelors are formulated. Key functions of education of bachelors in the field of health and safety are defined: valuable and orientation, teoretiko-world outlook, it is constructive - activity, it is reflexive - estimated. The methodical tasks approaching the project to specific sociocultural and pedagogical conditions are opened: definition of target reference points, modular structuring content of education, development of procedural and technological features of creation of educational activity; diagnostics of results. The idea of a didactic cycle at development of the content of education in the field safety of human life is proved and opened. The educations of future bachelors got in the course of approbation results in the field safety of human life in the context of ideology of sustainable (safe development allow to speak about efficiency of the chosen scientific and methodological and organizational and technological bases and to project new models of practical experience in conditions of providing optimum ways of productive pedagogical interaction.

  18. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

  19. The Price of (Perceived Affordance: Commentary for Huron and Berec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gjerdingen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the symbolic objects in music and musical scores can permit affordances much as physical objects can. This construction of "affordance" places greater emphasis on cultural forms and human memory than the original idea proposed by James J. Gibson, and it aligns itself more closely with the refinements to "affordance" suggested by Donald Norman. For symbolic objects to permit strongly perceived affordances, it may be necessary for perceivers to have developed schematized perception in the course of over-learning culturally significant forms.

  20. Sustainable Wearables: Wearable Technology for Enhancing the Quality of Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to elicit insights about sustainable wearables by investigating recent advancements in wearable technology and their applications. Wearable technology has advanced considerably from a technical perspective, but it has stagnated due to barriers without penetrating wider society despite early positive expectations. This situation is the motivation behind the focus on studies by many research groups in recent years into wearable applications that can provide the best value from a human-oriented perspective. The expectation is that a new means to resolve the issue can be found from a viewpoint of sustainability; this is the main point of this paper. This paper first focuses on the trend of wearable technology like bodily status monitoring, multi-wearable device control, and smart networking between wearable sensors. Second, the development intention of such technology is investigated. Finally, this paper discusses about the applications of current wearable technology from the sustainable perspective, rather than detailed description of the component technologies employed in wearables. In this paper, the definition of sustainable wearables is discussed in the context of improving the quality of individual life, social impact, and social public interest; those wearable applications include the areas of wellness, healthcare, assistance for the visually impaired, disaster relief, and public safety. In the future, wearables will not be simple data trackers or fun accessories but will gain extended objectives and meanings that play a valuable role for individuals and societies. Successful and sustainable wearables will lead to positive changes for both individuals and societies overall.

  1. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-12-14

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity-HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J. Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity–HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. PMID:27928039

  3. Intergenerational Efforts to Develop a Healthy Environment for Everyone: Sustainability as a Human Rights Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Savage, Caroline E; Newsham, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As climate change proceeds at an unprecedented rate, concern for the natural environment has increased. The world's population aging also continues to rise at an unprecedented rate, giving greater attention to the implications of an older population. The two trends are linked through the fact that changes to the environment affect older adults, and older adults affect the environment. Sustainability is, therefore, an intergenerational phenomenon, and protecting resources today leaves a positive legacy and enhances quality of life for future generations. Older adults have much to share with younger generations about behaviors that promote sustainable living, yet few sustainability efforts are intergenerational in nature. As large numbers of people currently subsist without secure access to basic needs, ensuring equitable resource consumption for all generations is urgent and aligns with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Through exploring linkages between aging and sustainability, we identify intergenerational strategies to protect the environment and promote human rights and quality of life for older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Development of concepts for human labour accounting in Emergy Assessment and other Environmental Sustainability Assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    of labour intensive processes and a systematic underestimation of environmental impacts has implications for decision-making. A brief review of the evaluation of human labour in ESAs reveals that only Emergy Assessment (EmA) accounts for labour as standard. Focussing on EmA, we find, however......Human labour is central to the functioning of any human-influenced process. Nevertheless, Environmental Sustainability Assessments (ESAs) do not systematically include human labour as an input. Systematic omission of labour inputs in ESAs may constitute an unfortunate, significant bias in favour......, that there is no agreement on the calculation method for labour. We formalise the calculation of human labour unit emergy values (UEVs) as being the ratio between the emergy resource basis of the labour system and a proxy for labour, with or without allocation to account for different qualities of labour. The formalised...

  5. A decision model for the sustainable protection of human rights in Italian Prison System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maturo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work starts from an analysis of the critical problems of the prison system in Italy. It aims to develop a decision-making model to address the issue of sustainable protection of human rights in prisons. It shows how, using the Saaty AHP procedure, it is possible to have an analytical reasoning guideline for the understanding of the validity of the various alternative choices, in order to facilitate the situation of the prisoners and their reintegration into society.

  6. Good choices make healthy homes: Reflections on sustainable human settlements in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leuta, T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available than human issues, resulting in ?sustainable housing? being informed by technological rather than health rationales. Current evidence shows that the home environment is still a major contributor to ill health through exposure to factors... such as ?home injuries, chemical substances, mould and damp, noise, pests and infestations, poor access to water and sanitation, proximity to pollution sources, or flooding, and inadequate protection from extreme weather?. Added to this is the fact...

  7. Sustainable extraction of molecules for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, GianPaolo; Ferri, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Since several years, the ENEA Innovation Laboratory for Agro-Industrial, proposed activities of research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), focusing on sustainability characteristics of the process. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, has a low energy consumption and requires a lower number of process steps compared to conventional extractions. The process also responds to the requirements imposed by the legislation for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical extracts. [it

  8. Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affordance theory provides a useful lens to explore the action opportunities that arise between users and technology, especially in education. However developments in the theory have resulted both in confusion and misapplication, due partly to issues related to affordance theory's ontology. This paper outlines two ...

  9. A Human Rights Lens on Full Employment and Decent Work in the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane F. Frey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On September 25, 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs as the blueprint for a global partnership for peace, development, and human rights for the period 2016 to 2030. The 2030 agenda follows on the heels of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, adopted in 2001, which set the international development agenda for the period 2001 to 2015. This article uses a human rights lens to demonstrate that the MDGs and the SDGs have not addressed full employment and decent work in a manner that is consistent with the Decent Work Agenda of the International Labour Organization and international human rights legal obligations of the UN member countries. It concludes that the new 2030 development agenda sadly aligns with market-based economic growth strategies rather than the realization of the human rights to full employment and decent work for all.

  10. Affordances Theory in Multilingualism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Singleton, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of affordances originating in Gibson's work (Gibson, 1977) is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010). Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated…

  11. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  12. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  13. HUMAN RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PAWN IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, Marin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a strategy by which people seek ways to economic development, benefiting also from the local environment or to benefit quality of life. Aim of this paper is to highlight that each county has different sustainable development opportunities, according to demographic and economic potential. These opportunities exist for each urban area in part due to each Region.Starting from the idea accepted worldwide through sustainable development that seeks interaction and compatibility of four systems: human (social economic, environmental (for environmental or ecological and technology, we considered an analysis of human resources in the South-West Oltenia Region. Rresearch methods used consist of systemic analysis, comparative and comprehensive approach to the topic investigated, depending on the target. This research is based on different databases, and uses various methods in an attempt to provide an explanation of the issues that are, theoretically speaking, persuasive. Research results are to highlight the employment rate in the South region West Oltenia, the programs used by authorities to reduce unemployment and to identify any tracks to revive the labor market in this region.

  14. Affordances in activity theory and cognitive systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.; Andersen, H.H.K.; Bødker, S.

    2001-01-01

    on design for low level interaction modalities. To incorporate the concept of affordances in the design of human computer interaction it is necessary to systematically unravel affordances that supporthuman action possibilities. Furthermore, it is a necessity that Gibson's theory of affordances...... is supplemented by careful analyses of other human modalities and activities than visual perception. Within HMI two well established perspectives on HMI,Activity Theory (AT) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), have discussed such analyses and design of action possibilities focusing on providing computer...... to cover deeper semantic and pragmatic aspects of the ecology of work, as compared with the previous applications of Gibson's theory in HMI....

  15. Is human society in denial regarding the tough questions about sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The news media report daily on unsustainable practices and events that impede progress toward sustainable use of the planet - production of greenhouse gases, biotic impoverishment, depletion of fossil waters (aquifers, human population growth, production of persistent toxic substances, loss of agricultural topsoil and land, rapid loss of old growth forests, and so on. Exponential economic growth both depletes natural capital more rapidly than it is regenerated and also gives an illusion of sustainable prosperity. Failure to act more expeditiously is almost certainly due to a number of factors; however, denial that a problem exists is, arguably, one of the most likely reasons. Just as an alcoholic or drug addict must first acknowledge that a problem exists before successful treatment is possible, so must those addicted to exponential growth on a finite planet.

  16. Learning from the Past by Building Sustainable Sanadomes for the Future : how to build affordable sanadomes based on the principles of human ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czabanowski, J.J.A.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, de S.; Vliet, van A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Learning is possible by theoretical discussion and practical doing, making. Progress on evolution and evolution on buildings and the interaction between them will finally lead to Utopia. It’s a Green Revolution reached by a new balanced 'step by step' level or Evolution in the Building Section, no

  17. From Environmental Connectedness to Sustainable Futures: Topophilia and Human Affiliation with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Beery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human affiliation with nonhuman nature is an important dimension of environmental concern and support for pro-environmental attitudes. A significant theory of human connectedness with nature, the Biophilia Hypothesis, suggests that there exists a genetically based inclination for human affiliation with the biological world. Both support and challenge to the Biophilia Hypothesis are abundant in the literature of environmental psychology. One response that both challenges and builds upon the Biophilia Hypothesis is the Topophilia Hypothesis. The Topophilia Hypothesis has extended the ideas of biophilia to incorporate a broader conception of nonhuman nature and a co-evolutionary theory of genetic response and cultural learning. While the Topophilia Hypothesis is a new idea, it is built upon long-standing scholarship from humanistic geography and theories in human evolution. The Topophilia Hypothesis expands previous theory and provides a multidisciplinary consideration of how biological selection and cultural learning may have interacted during human evolution to promote adaptive mechanisms for human affiliation with nonhuman nature via specific place attachment. Support for this possible co-evolutionary foundation for place-based human affiliation with nonhuman nature is explored from multiple vantage points. We raise the question of whether this affiliation may have implications for multifunctional landscape management. Ultimately, we propose that nurturing potential topophilic tendencies may be a useful method to promote sustainable efforts at the local level with implications for the global.

  18. Affordances theory in multilingualism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of affordances originating in Gibson’s work (Gibson, 1977 is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010. Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated aspects of multilingualism. This is despite the fact that the theory of affordances can actually provide a valuable, supplementary, up-to-date framework within which a clearer, sharper description and explication of the intriguing range of attributes of multilingual communities, educational institutions and individuals, as well as teaching practices, become feasible. It is important that not only researchers and practitioners (teachers, educators, parents, community and political actors but also language users and learners themselves should be aware of how to identify or, if necessary, design new affordances for language acquisition and learning. The aim of this article is to adapt the concept of affordances to multilingualism studies and additional language teaching, and in so doing advance theoretical understanding in this context. To this end the article contains a brief summary of the findings so far available. The article also goes further into defining the ways of how affordances work in relation to multilingualism and second language teaching and puts forward an integrated model of affordances.

  19. Towards a sustainable world through human factors and ergonomics: it is all about values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Morales, Karen; Thatcher, Andrew; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse two approaches that attempt to address how a human factors and ergonomics (HFE) perspective can contribute to the sustainability of the human race. We outline the principles, purposes and fields of application of ergoecology and green ergonomics, and thereafter deal with their context of emergence, and the overlaps in purpose, and principles. Shared values are deduced and related to socio-technical principles for systems' design. Social responsibility and environmental/ecospheric responsibility are the leading threads of ergoecology and green ergonomics, giving rise to the values of: respect for human rights, respect for the Earth, respect for ethical decision-making, appreciation of complexity, respect for transparency and openness, and respect for diversity. We discuss the consequences of considering these values in HFE theory and practice.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlpine, Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  1. The impact of corruption on the sustainable development of human capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalyamova, Svetlana; Absalyamov, Timur; Khusnullova, Asiya; Mukhametgalieva, Chulpan

    2016-08-01

    The article explains the use of the human capital sustainable development index (HCSDI) to assess the quality of the reproduction of human capital. The paper provides the algorithm for calculating HCSDI and its components. Authors estimated cross-country differences of HCSDI and developed econometric model of the impact of corruption on HCSDI. The use of this model has allowed to reveal the mechanism and assess the impact of corruption on HCSDI and its components. The results of econometric analysis revealed a negative multiplier effect: an increase in the corruption of the socio-economic system of the state by 1% caused HCSDI reduce by more than 1%. The results and conclusions may be proxy-assessments of the socio-economic consequences of violations of the stability of reproduction of human capital in the conditions of the growth of corruption in the country

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlpine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  3. Defining, Measuring, and Incentivizing Sustainable Land Use to Meet Human Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Brady, M. V.; Olin, S.; Ekroos, J.; Hall, M.; Seaquist, J. W.; Lehsten, V.; Smith, H.

    2016-12-01

    Land is a natural capital that supports the flow of an enormous amount of ecosystem services critical to human welfare. Sustainable land use, which we define as land use that meets both current and future human needs for ecosystem services, is essential to meet global goals for climate mitigation and sustainable development, while maintaining natural capital. However, it is not clear what governance is needed to achieve sustainable land use under multiple goals (as defined by the values of relevant decision-makers and land managers), particularly under climate change. Here we develop a conceptual model for examining the interactions and tradeoffs among multiple goals, as well as their spatial interactions (teleconnections), in research developed using Design Thinking principles. We have selected five metrics for provisioning (food production, and fiber production for wood and energy), regulating and maintenance (climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation), and cultural (heritage) ecosystem services. Using the case of Sweden, we estimate indicators for these metrics using a combination of existing data synthesis and process-based simulation modeling. We also develop and analyze new indicators (e.g., combining data on land use, bird conservation status, and habitat specificity to make a predictive model of bird diversity changes on agricultural or forested land). Our results highlight both expected tradeoffs (e.g., between food production and biodiversity conservation) as well as unexpected opportunities for synergies under different land management scenarios and strategies. Our model also provides a practical way to make decision-maker values explicit by comparing both quantity and preferences for bundles of ecosystem services under various scenarios. We hope our model will help in considering competing interests and shaping economic incentives and governance structures to meet national targets in support of global goals for sustainable management of land

  4. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Travis W.; Farley, Joshua; Huber, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  5. Sustaining Human Presence on Mars Using ISRU and a Reusable Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Jones, Christopher A.; Klovstad, Jordan J.; Komar, D.R.; Earle, Kevin; Moses, Robert; Shyface, Hilary R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact of ISRU (In-Site Resource Utilization), reusability, and automation on sustaining a human presence on Mars, requiring a transition from Earth dependence to Earth independence. The study analyzes the surface and transportation architectures and compared campaigns that revealed the importance of ISRU and reusability. A reusable Mars lander, Hercules, eliminates the need to deliver a new descent and ascent stage with each cargo and crew delivery to Mars, reducing the mass delivered from Earth. As part of an evolvable transportation architecture, this investment is key to enabling continuous human presence on Mars. The extensive use of ISRU reduces the logistics supply chain from Earth in order to support population growth at Mars. Reliable and autonomous systems, in conjunction with robotics, are required to enable ISRU architectures as systems must operate and maintain themselves while the crew is not present. A comparison of Mars campaigns is presented to show the impact of adding these investments and their ability to contribute to sustaining a human presence on Mars.

  6. Concerning human well-being and ecosystems sustainability on water resources management for Qishan River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    There are no large hydraulic structures in Qishan River cause the less human interference than other major river in Taiwan. However, the aquatic habitats still suffer disturbance from the discharge changes greatly between wet and drought season, and Jiaxian Weir and Yuemei Weir draw surplus water from Qishan River to Nanhua Reservoir and Agongdian Reservoir respectively. The weir operation rule doesn't clear define how much environmental flow should be preserved for maintaining downstream ecological environment. Hence, the study proposes a process for evaluating environmental flow under considering impact on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. Empirical formula, hydrological, hydraulic and habitat methodologies were used to propose the environmental flow alternatives. Next, water allocation model and Habitat model were used to analysis the impact of environment flow alternatives on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. The results show the suggested environmental flow in Qishan River is estimated by MAF10%. The environmental flow is between 8.03 10.83 cms during wet season and is between 1.07 1.44cms during wet season. The simulation results also provide the evidence from diverse aspect to help different authorities realized what they get and lose. The information can advance to reach a consensus during negotiations with different authorities and help decision maker make decisions.

  7. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  8. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  9. Collaborative Affordances of Medical Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Houben, Steven

    2017-01-01

    by Sellen and Harper (2003) on the affordances of physical paper. Sellen and Harper describe how the physical properties of paper affords easy reading, navigation, mark-up, and writing, but focuses, we argue, mainly on individual use of paper and digital technology. As an extension to this, Collaborative...... Affordances; being portable across patient wards and the entire hospital, by providing collocated access, by providing a shared overview of medical data, and by giving clinicians ways to maintain mutual awareness. We then discuss how the concept of Collaborative Affordances can be used in the design of new...... technology by providing a design study of a ‘Hybrid Patient Record’ (HyPR), which is designed to seamlessly blend and integrate paper-based with electronic patient records....

  10. Bullying and social media affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Brailas, Alexios

    2016-01-01

    What constitutes a good and sustainabledigital living?Social media literacyCan we talk about social media intelligence?Can we talk about digital intelligence?How bullying is complicated by special social media affordances?

  11. Planning and User Interface Affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amant, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments...

  12. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  13. To be an affordable healthy house, case study Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Shanty

    2018-03-01

    House has a paramount meaning in human life. Provision of adequate housing will be able to improve the quality of life. Provision of an affordable house is a major step to fulfilling the needs of houses in the big city. Medan has built a lot of affordable houses, and mostly it takes place in the suburbs. Although the affordable house is for low-income people, it must be worthy of its physical condition, affordable in the budget and healthy for its users. House often saw only as physical alone, the provision of a house only to achieve solely in quantity regardless its quality. This study aims to examine the condition of affordable houses in the suburbs of Medan. The research method used qualitative descriptive, using indicator according to affordable healthy house standard according to the regulation in Indonesia and other related theories. This study took place in Medan by taking three areas in the suburbs of Medan. The results show that most affordable houses in the suburbs of Medan are unhealthy. There are several design recommendations for the houses to meet the affordable healthy house category; the most important is the addition of ventilation and window holes.

  14. Corporate sustainability: the environmental design and human resource management interface in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Walewski, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Paper: The purpose of this study is to provide healthcare organizations with a new perspective for developing strategies to enrich their human resource capabilities and improve their performance outcomes. The focus of this study is on leveraging the synergy between organizational management strategies and environmental design interventions. This paper proposes a framework for linking the built environment with the human resource management system of healthcare organizations. The framework focuses on the impact of the built environment regarding job attitudes and behaviors of healthcare workers. Research from the disciplines of strategic human resource management, resource-based view of firms, evidence-based design, and green building are utilized to develop the framework. The positive influence of human resource practices on job attitudes and behaviors of employees is one mechanism to improve organizational performance outcomes. Organizational psychologists suggest that human resource practices are effective because they convey that the organization values employee contributions and cares about their well-being. Attention to employee socio-emotional needs can be reciprocated with higher levels of motivation and commitment toward the organization. In line with these findings, healthcare environmental studies imply that physical settings and features can have a positive influence on job attitudes and the behavior of caregivers by providing for their physical and socio-emotional needs. Adding the physical environment as a complementary resource to the array of human resource practices creates synergy in improving caregivers' job attitudes and behaviors and enhances the human capital of healthcare firms. Staff, evidence-based design, interdisciplinary, modeling, perceived organizational supportPreferred Citation: Sadatsafavi, H., & Walewski, J. (2013). Corporate sustainability: The environmental design and human resource management interface in

  15. Sustainable access to safe drinking water: fundamental human right in the international and national scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Maran de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to potable water is absolutely essential to the maintenance of life, as well as to provide regular exercise of other human rights. The lack of access to water in sufficient quantity or access to non-potable water may cause serious and irreparable damage to people. This paper investigates the evolution of international and national recognition of this fundamental human right, whether implicit or explicit. This was accomplished by the study of international human rights treaties, bibliographic information on water resources and their corresponding legal systems, national and international. The results suggest that sustainable access to drinking water is a fundamental human right in the context of international relations and the State. Further, even without explicitly stating this right in the Constitution of 1988, Brazil has incorporated the main international provisions on the subject, but this right must be acknowledged according to the principles of non-typical fundamental rights and the dignity of the human person. This right should be universally guaranteed by the Government in sufficient quantity and quality, regardless of the economic resources of individuals.

  16. The Urban Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Threat to Human Security and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediel Hove

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban centres have existed and have been evolving for many centuries across the world. However, the accelerated growth of urbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon. The enormous size of urban populations and more significantly, the rapidity with which urban areas have been and are growing in many developing countries have severe social, economic and physical repercussions. This paper argues that the accelerated growth of urbanisation has amplified the demand for key services. However, the provision of shelter and basic services such as water and sanitation, education, public health, employment and transport has not kept pace with this increasing demand. Furthermore, accelerated and poorly managed urbanisation has resulted in various types of atmospheric, land and water pollution thereby jeopardising human security. This paper offers the conclusion that the increased environmental, social and economic problems associated with rapid urbanisation pose a threat to sustainable development, human security and, crucially, peace.

  17. Human-Nature for Climate Action: Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Santiago Fink

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global climate change agenda proceeds at an incremental pace while the Earth is approaching critical tipping points in its development trajectory. Climate action at this pinnacle juncture needs to be greatly accelerated and rooted in the fundamentals of the problem—human beings’ disconnection from nature. This paper underscores the valuable role nature and nature-based solutions can play in addressing climate change at the city scale and its implications for broader sustainability. Urban ecosystems (nature in cities are seen as an integral part of a proposed local climate action rubric wherein policy measures and integrated planning guide lowcarbon/impact development to create more resilient and sustainable urban environments. The use of green infrastructure is highlighted as a cost-effective means to contribute to mitigation and adaptation needs as well as to promote human wellbeing. The paper takes an exploratory view of the influence of ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, and its economics in relation to the individual and society to understand how biophilia can be nurtured to promote environmental stewardship and climate action.

  18. Embodied niche construction in the hominin lineage: semiotic structure and sustained attention in human embodied cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Human evolution unfolded through a rather distinctive, dynamically constructed ecological niche. The human niche is not only generally terrestrial in habitat, while being flexibly and extensively heterotrophic in food-web connections. It is also defined by semiotically structured and structuring embodied cognitive interfaces, connecting the individual organism with the wider environment. The embodied dimensions of niche-population co-evolution have long involved semiotic system construction, which I hypothesize to be an evolutionarily primitive aspect of learning and higher-level cognitive integration and attention in the great apes and humans alike. A clearly pre-linguistic form of semiotic cognitive structuration is suggested to involve recursively learned and constructed object icons. Higher-level cognitive iconic representation of visually, auditorily, or haptically perceived extrasomatic objects would be learned and evoked through indexical connections to proprioceptive and affective somatic states. Thus, private cognitive signs would be defined, not only by their learned and perceived extrasomatic referents, but also by their associations to iconically represented somatic states. This evolutionary modification of animal associative learning is suggested to be adaptive in ecological niches occupied by long-lived, large-bodied ape species, facilitating memory construction and recall in highly varied foraging and social contexts, while sustaining selective attention during goal-directed behavioral sequences. The embodied niche construction (ENC) hypothesis of human evolution posits that in the early hominin lineage, natural selection further modified the ancestral ape semiotic adaptations, favoring the recursive structuration of concise iconic narratives of embodied interaction with the environment. PMID:25136323

  19. International migration and sustainable human development in eastern and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    International migration in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) is rarely addressed in population and development policies or regional organizations, and regional organizations must in the articulation of sustainable shared development identify the role of international migration. Poor quality data on international migration hampers analysis. Sustainable, shared, and human development within the region are subregional issues. Permanent migration is characterized among ESA countries as increasing demographic ethnic pluralism that may result in redrawing of territorial boundaries and further population movement. Portuguese and Arab settlement and integration in eastern areas resulted in coexistence, while European immigration to South Africa resulted in racial segregation. Modern colonial settlement and the aftermath of political conflict resulted in independent countries after the 1960s and outmigration of nonAfrican groups. Much of the labor migration in ESA is unskilled workers moving to South African mining regions. Labor migration to Zimbabwe and Zambia declined after the 1960s. The formation of the Common Market for ESA and the potential merger with the Preferential Trade Area and South African Development Community is a key approach to integration of migration into regional cooperation and shared development. Refugee movements create the most problems. Prior to 1992 ESA countries accounted for 83.4% of refugees, particularly in Mozambique, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Some countries blame poor economic performance on the deluge of refugees. Illegal migration is currently detected because of the required work permits, but the adoption of the Common Market would obscure this phenomenon. Human development is affected most by migrations related to drought, labor migration to strong economic areas, and return migration. The Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development needs to become more active and establish better policies on nomadic and refugee movements and

  20. Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda: A Commentary on "Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In her commentary of McPhail's 2013 article "Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It: Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda," Jane Andrew begins by highlighting a number of McPhail's primary arguments. She points out that McPhail sets out to achieve two things…

  1. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia: barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba; Mekasha Habtegiorgis, Bitsatab; Teshome Gebregeorgise, Dawit; Essah, Nana Am; Khan, Sara A; Brown, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The health supply chain is often the weakest link in achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals and universal health coverage, requiring trained professionals who are often unavailable. In Ethiopia there have been recent developments in the area of health supply chain management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. The interview guide comprised 51 questions. A qualitative analysis of transcripts was made. A total of 25 interviews were conducted. Three themes were identified: General changes: recognition, commitment and resources, Education and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. Ethiopia is on the way to developing a nationwide viable system for health supply chain management. However, there are still challenges. Short-term challenges include the importance of highlighting strategies and programs for human resources in health supply chain management. In the long term, commitments to financial support must be obtained. A strategy is needed for the further development and sustainability of human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia.

  2. Sustained expression of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B (UL55) in the seeds of homozygous rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackaberry, Eilleen S; Prior, Fiona A; Rowlandson, Karen; Tocchi, Monika; Mehic, Jelica; Porter, Suzanne; Walsh, Mike; Schleiss, Mark R; Ganz, Peter R; Sardana, Ravinder K; Altosaar, Illimar; Dudani, Anil K

    2008-09-01

    Production of recombinant subunit vaccines in transgenic plants may be a means of reducing vaccine costs while increasing availability and safety. A plant-derived product found safe and effective for oral administration would provide additional advantages when used as a vaccine. Outstanding issues with the technology include transgene stability through successive generations and consistent bioproduction. We previously reported expression of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus in seeds of transgenic tobacco. Here the goal was to determine if gB could be similarly expressed in rice, and if so, to examine expression over several plant generations. Results show that immunoreactive gB was successfully expressed in transgenic rice seeds, with sustained expression over three generations. The gB contained several neutralizing epitopes and was stable over 27 months.

  3. International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes: Building and Sustaining Capacity. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the conference are to: • Review developments in the global status of HRD since the 2010 international conference; • Emphasize the role of human resources and capacity building programmes at the national and organizational level for achieving safe, secure and sustainable nuclear power programmes; • Discuss the importance of building competence in nuclear safety and security; • Provide a forum for information exchange on national, as well as international, policies and practices; • Share key elements and best practices related to the experience of Member States that are introducing, operating or expanding nuclear power programmes; • Highlight the practices and issues regarding HRD at the organizational and national level; • Highlight education and training programmes and practices; • Emphasize the role of nuclear knowledge management for knowledge transfer and HRD; and • Elaborate on the role and scope of various knowledge networks

  4. Meeting Report: Threats to Human Health and Environmental Sustainability in the Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G.; Carpenter, David O.; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-01-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world’s population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sealevel rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste—each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management. PMID:18087598

  5. Injury and illness sustained by human competitors in the 2010 iditarod sled dog race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallea, James W; Higgins, George L; Germann, Carl A; Strout, Tania D

    2014-07-01

    Alaska's 1049-mile Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is the world's longest sled dog race and the flagship event in the sport of sled dog racing. Race conditions are typically harsh. Physicians are not officially enlisted to care for human competitors. Instead, medical needs are met through an informal system of volunteers, local health care providers, and a fleet of bush planes. The goals of this study were to identify the types of human injury and illness experienced and the methods by which these conditions are treated. Competitors in the 2010 Iditarod were surveyed at the halfway point and at the finish of the race. Survey elements included specific types and frequencies of injuries and illnesses, and the sources and types of treatments. Seventy-one teams entered the race, 62 participated in the halfway point survey, and 55 completed the finish line survey. Ninety-nine injuries were reported by 42 (68%) of the survey respondents. Frostbite was the most common injury, occurring in 20 (31%) of the respondents. Musculoskeletal pain was also commonly reported. Two mushers sustained closed head injuries, with 1 requiring evacuation. Twenty-three mushers (37%) reported an acute nontraumatic condition, most frequently an upper respiratory infection (9 respondents). In most instances, medical conditions were self-managed. Race veterinarians and support staff, as well as local village clinicians, administered the majority of care, typically wound care or oral antibiotic administration. Most injuries and illnesses sustained by mushers in the Iditarod are minor and self-treatable. Life-threatening conditions are rare, and the need for an organized medical care system seems low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Meeting report: threats to human health and environmental sustainability in the pacific basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Carpenter, David O; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-12-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world's population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sea level rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste-each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management.

  7. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  8. Affordable Care Act and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality care for older women, and ends the gender discrimination that requires women to pay more for the same insurance coverage ... the Affordable Care Act and 13 million more women will gain coverage by 2016. Maternity Coverage Preventive ... Expanded Insurance Coverage Endnotes Download "rb. ...

  9. Collective Hunger in the Vision of Amartya Sen as One of the Impeditive Factors of Sustainable Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Torres Roberti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at collective hunger in the vision of Amartya Sen as one of the impeding factors of Sustainable Human Development. In the economist's view, collective hunger goes beyond chronic hunger, involves a sudden outbreak of deprivation for a portion of the population. To eliminate hunger in the modern world, it is crucial to understand the cause of collective hunger in a broad way, and not just because of some mechanical imbalance between food and population. By illustrating the deprivation of liberty, child labor is included as one of the impediments to sustainable human development.

  10. THE ROLE OF CHAMBER ORGANIZATIONS IN THE HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT – FUNDAMENTAL CONDITION OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia GALANTON

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “sustainable development” is still a matter of discussion and is read in different ways by the specialists in the field, but all of them agree on the determinant role of the human, personal factor in sustainable development. In this work a special emphasis is made on the role of chamber organizations at different stages and in different forms of the formation and development of the human capital. Organization of the process of its formation concerns all the participants of econ...

  11. Integrating Sustainability Science with the Sciences of Human Well-being to Inform Design and Planning in an Urbanizing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M.; Graumlich, L. J.; Frumkin, H.; Friedman, D.

    2012-12-01

    A sustainable human future requires both healthy ecosystems and communities in which people thrive, with opportunities for health, well-being, happiness, economic prosperity, and equity. To make progress towards this goal, two largely disparate communities of scholars and practitioners must come together: sustainability science needs to be integrated with the sciences of human health and well-being. The opportunity for such integration is particularly ripe for urbanizing regions which not only dominate energy and resource use but also increasingly represent the human habitat. We present a conceptual framework that integrates sustainability science with the sciences of human health and well-being to explicitly articulate testable hypotheses on the relationships between humans and their habitat. We are interested in human behaviors and metrics of health and well-being in relationship to the characteristics of the built environment at various scales from buildings to metro regions. Focusing on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a testbed, we are building on our current empirical studies on urban sprawl and ecosystem function including biodiversity, air quality, hydrological, biogeochemical, and human health to develop formal hypotheses on how alternative urban design and development patterns may influence health outcomes and well-being. The PNW is an ideal setting for this work because of the connected metropolitan areas within a region characterized by a spectacular diversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and deeply held cultural and political aspirations towards sustainability. The framework also highlights opportunities for translation of knowledge to practice in the design and planning of built environments. For example, understanding these associations is critical to assessing tradeoffs in design and planning strategies and exploring potential synergies that optimize both sustainability and human well-being. In complex systems such as cities, managers

  12. Embodied Niche Construction in the Hominin Lineage: Semiotic Structure and Sustained Attention in Human Embodied Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Jonas Stutz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human evolution unfolded through a rather distinctive, dynamically constructed ecological niche. The human niche is not only generally terrestrial in habitat, while being flexibly and extensively heterotrophic in food-web connections. It is also defined by semiotically structured and structuring embodied cognitive interfaces, connecting the individual organism with the wider environment. The embodied dimensions of niche-population co-evolution have long involved semiotic system construction, which I hypothesize to be an evolutionarily primitive aspect of learning and higher-level cognitive integration and attention in the great apes and humans alike. A clearly pre-linguistic form of semiotic cognitive structuration is suggested to involve recursively learned and constructed object icons. Higher-level cognitive iconic representation of visually, auditorily, or haptically perceived extrasomatic objects would be learned and evoked through indexical connections to proprioceptive and affective somatic states. Thus, private cognitive signs would be defined, not only by their learned and perceived extrasomatic referents, but also by their associations to iconically represented somatic states. This evolutionary modification of animal associative learning is suggested to be adaptive in ecological niches occupied by long-lived, large-bodied ape species, facilitating memory construction and recall in highly varied foraging and social contexts, while sustaining selective attention during goal-directed behavioral sequences. The embodied niche construction (ENC hypothesis of human evolution posits that in the early hominin lineage, natural selection further modified the ancestral ape semiotic adaptations, favoring the recursive structuration of concise iconic narratives of embodied interaction with the environment.

  13. Biobankonomics: developing a sustainable business model approach for the formation of a human tissue biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Jimmie; Rogers, Joyce; Carolin, Todd; Compton, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of high-quality biospecimens and associated data for research purposes is being performed in variety of academic, government, and industrial settings. Often these are multimillion dollar operations, yet despite these sizable investments, the economics of biobanking initiatives is not well understood. Fundamental business principles must be applied to the development and operation of such resources to ensure their long-term sustainability and maximize their impact. The true costs of developing and maintaining operations, which may have a variety of funding sources, must be better understood. Among the issues that must be considered when building a biobank economic model are: understanding the market need for the particular type of biobank under consideration and understanding and efficiently managing the biobank's "value chain," which includes costs for case collection, tissue processing, storage management, sample distribution, and infrastructure and administration. By using these value chain factors, a Total Life Cycle Cost of Ownership (TLCO) model may be developed to estimate all costs arising from owning, operating, and maintaining a large centralized biobank. The TLCO approach allows for a better delineation of a biobank's variable and fixed costs, data that will be needed to implement any cost recovery program. This article represents an overview of the efforts made recently by the National Cancer Institute's Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research as part of its effort to develop an appropriate cost model and cost recovery program for the cancer HUman Biobank (caHUB) initiative. All of these economic factors are discussed in terms of maximizing caHUB's potential for long-term sustainability but have broad applicability to the wide range of biobanking initiatives that currently exist.

  14. Human gingival fibroblasts are critical in sustaining inflammation in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Toshiaki; Kurata, Kazuyuki; Hirai, Kaname; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Uematsu, Takashi; Imamura, Yasuhiro; Furusawa, Kiyohumi; Kurihara, Saburo; Wang, Pao-Li

    2009-02-01

    A major factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, which is one of the biofilm infectious diseases, is thought to be lipopolysaccharide (LPS), owing to its ability to cause inflammation and promote tissue destruction. Moreover, the elimination of pathogens and their component LPSs is essential for the successful treatment of periodontal disease. Lipopolysaccharide tolerance is a mechanism that prevents excessive and prolonged responses of monocytes and macrophages to LPS. Since persistence of inflammation is necessary for inflammatory cytokine production, cells other than monocytes and macrophages are thought to maintain the production of cytokines in the presence of LPS. In this study, we investigated whether human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), the most abundant structural cell in periodontal tissue, might be able to maintain inflammatory cytokine production in the presence of LPS bynot displaying LPS tolerance. Human gingival fibroblasts were pretreated with LPS (from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli) and then treated with LPS, and the amounts of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in the cell culture supernatants were measured. The expression of negative regulators of LPS signalling (suppressor of cytokine signalling-1, interleukin-1 receptor-associated-kinase M and SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1) was also examined in LPS-treated HGFs. Human gingival fibroblasts did not display LPS tolerance but maintained production of IL-6 and IL-8 when pretreated with LPS, followed by secondary LPS treatment. Lipopolysaccharide-treated HGFs did not express negative regulators. These results demonstrate that HGFs do not show LPS tolerance and suggest that this characteristic of HGFs sustains the inflammatory response in the presence of virulence factors.

  15. Can human resources induce sustainability in business?: Modeling, testing and correlating HR index and company's business results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the authors analyze the impact of the composite human resource index on sustainable growth in a specific business sector in a transition country. Sustainability of country's economy is growingly relying on the knowledge economy which has been implemented in strategies of sustainable development throughout Europe. The knowledge economy is mostly based on human resources and the way they are organized and managed in the companies actively operating in competitive markets. In order to confirm importance of the human resources (HR index, results were tested by means of modeling, measuring and correlating the HR index with business results at micro level. The tests were conducted on the data from the survey in Serbian meat processing industry. The results were then compared with the results from the survey conducted in a financial industry. Moreover, a model was made that could be applicable in all countries that do not have available official statistic data on the level of investments in human resources. The focus was on determining the correlation direction, and hence creating a research model applicable in all business sectors. It has been found that a significant one-way correlation exists between business performance and increased HR index. In that way it has been confirmed that in Serbian economy that has recorded global decrease during transition, certain business sectors, and especially companies with high levels of investments in improving its HR index record above average and sustainable growth.

  16. Educating on a Human Scale: Visions for a Sustainable World. Proceedings of the Human Scale Education Conference (Oxford, England, September 26, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Fiona, Ed.

    Human Scale Education's 1998 conference addressed the creation of schools and learning experiences to foster in young people the attitudes and skills to shape a fairer and more sustainable world. "Values and Vision in Business and Education" (Anita Roddick) argues that educational curricula must contain the language and action of social…

  17. Efficient nanoparticle mediated sustained RNA interference in human primary endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Shankardas, Jwalitha; Ranjan, Amalendu P; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K, E-mail: Jamboor.vishwanatha@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology and Institute for Cancer Research, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-11-04

    Endothelium forms an important target for drug and/or gene therapy since endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis and vascular functions and are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. RNA mediated gene silencing presents a new therapeutic approach to overcome many such diseases, but the major challenge of such an approach is to ensure minimal toxicity and effective transfection efficiency of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to primary endothelial cells. In the present study, we formulated shAnnexin A2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles which produced intracellular small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Annexin A2 and brought about the downregulation of Annexin A2. The per cent encapsulation of the plasmid within the nanoparticle was found to be 57.65%. We compared our nanoparticle based transfections with Lipofectamine mediated transfection, and our studies show that nanoparticle based transfection efficiency is very high ({approx}97%) and is more sustained compared to conventional Lipofectamine mediated transfections in primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells and human cancer cell lines. Our findings also show that the shAnnexin A2 loaded PLGA nanoparticles had minimal toxicity with almost 95% of cells being viable 24 h post-transfection while Lipofectamine based transfections resulted in only 30% viable cells. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticle based transfection may be used for efficient siRNA transfection to human primary endothelial and cancer cells. This may serve as a potential adjuvant treatment option for diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age related macular degeneration besides various cancers.

  18. Nurse Knowledge Exchange Plus: Human-Centered Implementation for Spread and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mike; Heisler, Scott; Fahey, Linda; McGinnis, Juli; Whiffen, Teri L

    2015-07-01

    Kaiser Permanente implemented a new model of nursing communication at shift change-in the bedside nursing report known as the Nurse Knowledge Exchange (NKE) in 2004-but noted variations in its spread and sustainability across medical centers five years later. The six core elements of NKEplus were as follows: team rounding in the last hour before shift changes, pre-shift patient assignments that limit the number of departing nurses at shift change, unit support for uninterrupted bedside reporting, standardization for report and safety check formats, and collaboration with patients to update in-room care boards. In January 2011 Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC; Pasadena) began implementing NKEplus in 125 nursing units across 14 hospitals, with the use of human-centered design principles: creating shared understanding of the need for change, minimum specifications, and customization by frontline staff. Champion teams on each nursing unit designed and pilot tested unit-specific versions of NKEplus for four to eight weeks. Implementation occurred in waves and proceeded from medical/surgical units to specialty units. Traditional performance improvement strategies of accountability, measurement, and management were also applied. By the end of 2012, 100% of the 64 medical/surgical units and 47 (77.0%) of the 61 specialty units in KPSC medical centers implemented NKEplus-as had all but 1 of the specialty units by May 2013. The mean KPSC score on the NKEplus nursing behavior bundle improved from 65.9% in 2010 to 71.3% in the first quarter of 2014. The mean KPSC Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) score for nurse communication improved from 73.1% in 2010 to 76.4% in the first quarter of 2014 (p < . 001). Human-centered implementation appeared to help spread a new model of nursing handoffs and change the culture of professional nursing practice related to shift change.

  19. Efficient nanoparticle mediated sustained RNA interference in human primary endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Shankardas, Jwalitha; Ranjan, Amalendu P.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2011-11-01

    Endothelium forms an important target for drug and/or gene therapy since endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis and vascular functions and are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. RNA mediated gene silencing presents a new therapeutic approach to overcome many such diseases, but the major challenge of such an approach is to ensure minimal toxicity and effective transfection efficiency of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to primary endothelial cells. In the present study, we formulated shAnnexin A2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles which produced intracellular small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Annexin A2 and brought about the downregulation of Annexin A2. The per cent encapsulation of the plasmid within the nanoparticle was found to be 57.65%. We compared our nanoparticle based transfections with Lipofectamine mediated transfection, and our studies show that nanoparticle based transfection efficiency is very high (~97%) and is more sustained compared to conventional Lipofectamine mediated transfections in primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells and human cancer cell lines. Our findings also show that the shAnnexin A2 loaded PLGA nanoparticles had minimal toxicity with almost 95% of cells being viable 24 h post-transfection while Lipofectamine based transfections resulted in only 30% viable cells. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticle based transfection may be used for efficient siRNA transfection to human primary endothelial and cancer cells. This may serve as a potential adjuvant treatment option for diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age related macular degeneration besides various cancers.

  20. Efficient nanoparticle mediated sustained RNA interference in human primary endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Shankardas, Jwalitha; Ranjan, Amalendu P; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2011-01-01

    Endothelium forms an important target for drug and/or gene therapy since endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis and vascular functions and are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. RNA mediated gene silencing presents a new therapeutic approach to overcome many such diseases, but the major challenge of such an approach is to ensure minimal toxicity and effective transfection efficiency of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to primary endothelial cells. In the present study, we formulated shAnnexin A2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles which produced intracellular small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Annexin A2 and brought about the downregulation of Annexin A2. The per cent encapsulation of the plasmid within the nanoparticle was found to be 57.65%. We compared our nanoparticle based transfections with Lipofectamine mediated transfection, and our studies show that nanoparticle based transfection efficiency is very high (∼97%) and is more sustained compared to conventional Lipofectamine mediated transfections in primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells and human cancer cell lines. Our findings also show that the shAnnexin A2 loaded PLGA nanoparticles had minimal toxicity with almost 95% of cells being viable 24 h post-transfection while Lipofectamine based transfections resulted in only 30% viable cells. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticle based transfection may be used for efficient siRNA transfection to human primary endothelial and cancer cells. This may serve as a potential adjuvant treatment option for diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age related macular degeneration besides various cancers.

  1. Autophagy sustains the survival of human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under extreme nutrient deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Hye Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Minyeong; Bae, Ok-Nam; Baek, Seung-Hoon

    2015-07-31

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are an extremely aggressive and devastating type of cancer with high mortality. Given the dense stroma and poor vascularization, accessibility to nutrients is limited in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of autophagy in promoting the survival of human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells exposed to nutrient-deprived media (NDM) lacking glucose, amino acids, and serum. NDM inhibited Akt activity and phosphorylation of p70 S6K, and induced AMPK activation and mitochondrial depolarization. NDM also time-dependently increased LC3-II accumulation, number of GFP-LC3 puncta, and colocalization between GFP-LC3 and lysosomes. These results suggested that autophagy was progressively activated through Akt- and AMPK-mTOR pathway in nutrient-deficient PANC-1 cells. Autophagy inhibitors (chloroquine and wortmannin) or silencing of Atg5 augmented PANC-1 cell death in NDM. In cells exposed to NDM, chloroquine and wortmannin induced apoptosis and Z-VAD-fmk inhibited cytotoxicity of these inhibitors. These data demonstrate that autophagy is anti-apoptotic and sustains the survival of PANC-1 cells following extreme nutrient deprivation. Autophagy modulation may be a viable therapeutic option for cancer cells located in the core of solid tumors with a nutrient-deficient microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of the doubly labeled water technique in humans during heavy sustained exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Saris, W.H.; van Es, M.; ten Hoor, F.

    1986-01-01

    We measured energy expenditure with the doubly labeled water technique during heavy sustained exercise in the Tour de France, a bicycle race lasting more than 3 wk. Four subjects were observed for consecutive intervals of 7, 8, and 7 days. Each interval started with an oral isotope dose to reach an excess isotope level of 200 ppm 18O and 130 ppm 2H. The biological half-lives of the isotopes were between 2.25 and 3.80 days. Energy expenditure was compared with simultaneous measurements of energy intake, and body mass and body composition did not change significantly. The doubly labeled water technique gave higher values for energy expenditure than the food record technique. The discrepancy showed a systematic increment from the first to the third interval, being 12.9 +/- 7.9, 21.4 +/- 9.8, and 35.3 +/- 4.4% of the energy expenditure calculated from dietary intake, respectively. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed. The subjects reached an average daily metabolic rate of 3.4-3.9 or 4.3-5.3 times basal metabolic rate based on the food record technique and the doubly labeled water technique, respectively. Thus, when measured with the same technique, the energetic ceiling for performance in humans is comparable with that of animals like birds

  3. Study on the Forming Process and Exploration of Concept of Human-Water Harmonization of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Si, Liqi

    2018-05-01

    According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the process of human development and utilization of water resources can be divided into three stages: engineering water conservancy, resource water conservancy and harmonious coexistence between man and water. These three stages reflect the transformation of the idea of human development and utilization of water resources and eventually reach the state of harmony between human being and water. At the same time, this article draws on the experiences of water management under the thinking of sustainable development in the United States, Western Europe, Northern Europe and Africa. Finally, this paper points out that we need to realize the harmonious coexistence between man and water and sustainable development of water resources in the process of development and utilization of water resources, which is the inevitable requirement of the economic and social development.

  4. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  5. Fisiognomica emozionale. Affordances, estasi, atmosfere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonino Griffero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through an atmospherological approach, primarily inspired by the so-called Aisthetik or New Aesthetics (Gernot Böhme and the New Phenomenology (Hermann Schmitz, the paper defines the atmospheric perception as a first pathemic impression and investigates the relationship between this kind of perception and the expressive qualities of the surrounding spaces. The aim is to understand atmospheres as (amodal, transmodal, sinaesthetic affordances that permeate the lived space, namely as ‘ecological’ and affective invites or meanings which are ontologically rooted in things and quasi-things.

  6. Making Sense of Biodiversity: The Affordances of Systems Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; McPhearson, Timon

    2018-01-01

    We see two related, but not well-linked fields that together could help us better understand biodiversity and how it, over time, provides benefits to people. The affordances approach in environmental psychology offers a way to understand our perceptual appraisal of landscapes and biodiversity and, to some extent, intentional choice or behavior, i.e., a way of relating the individual to the system s/he/it lives in. In the field of ecology, organism-specific functional traits are similarly understood as the physiological and behavioral characteristics of an organism that informs the way it interacts with its surroundings. Here, we review the often overlooked role of traits in the provisioning of ecosystem services as a potential bridge between affordance theory and applied systems ecology. We propose that many traits can be understood as the basis for the affordances offered by biodiversity, and that they offer a more fruitful way to discuss human-biodiversity relations than do the taxonomic information most often used. Moreover, as emerging transdisciplinary studies indicate, connecting affordances to functional traits allows us to ask questions about the temporal and two-way nature of affordances and perhaps most importantly, can serve as a starting point for more fully bridging the fields of ecology and environmental psychology with respect to how we understand human-biodiversity relationships.

  7. Overcoming the Subject-Object Dichotomy in Urban Modeling: Axial Maps as Geometric Representations of Affordances in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Marcus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is witnessing unprecedented urbanization, bringing extreme challenges to contemporary practices in urban planning and design. This calls for improved urban models that can generate new knowledge and enhance practical skill. Importantly, any urban model embodies a conception of the relation between humans and the physical environment. In urban modeling this is typically conceived of as a relation between human subjects and an environmental object, thereby reproducing a humans-environment dichotomy. Alternative modeling traditions, such as space syntax that originates in architecture rather than geography, have tried to overcome this dichotomy. Central in this effort is the development of new representations of urban space, such as in the case of space syntax, the axial map. This form of representation aims to integrate both human behavior and the physical environment into one and the same description. Interestingly, models based on these representations have proved to better capture pedestrian movement than regular models. Pedestrian movement, as well as other kinds of human flows in urban space, is essential for urban modeling, since increasingly flows of this kind are understood as the driver in urban processes. Critical for a full understanding of space syntax modeling is the ontology of its' representations, such as the axial map. Space syntax theory here often refers to James Gibson's “Theory of affordances,” where the concept of affordances, in a manner similar to axial maps, aims to bridge the subject-object dichotomy by neither constituting physical properties of the environment or human behavior, but rather what emerges in the meeting between the two. In extension of this, the axial map can be interpreted as a representation of how the physical form of the environment affords human accessibility and visibility in urban space. This paper presents a close examination of the form of representations developed in space syntax

  8. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  9. Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS: FROM TECHNICAL AFFORDANCES TO EDUCATIONAL AFFORDANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicos Valanides

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of these tools in education and in authentic and effective learning/teaching environments has become an issue of great concern among educators, researchers and other related audiences. All emphasize the need to design and develop technology-enhanced curricula and teaching/learning environments (formal, non-formal and informal that are developmentally appropriate for young and/or older learners. The vision is to integrate the tools and their associated technical affordance in teaching/learning environments in such a way, so that all learners, irrespective of their cognitive differences and abilities, could increase their learning gains, and develop the abilities and skills that are needed for citizens of the 21st century.

  11. Utilization of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as feeder layers to sustain propagation of human embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kehua; Cai, Zhe; Li, Yang; Shu, Jun; Pan, Lin; Wan, Fang; Li, Hong; Huang, Xiaojie; He, Chun; Liu, Yanqiu; Cui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yang; Gao, Yan; Wu, Liqun; Cao, Shanxia; Li, Lingsong

    2011-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are usually maintained in the undifferentiated state by culturing on feeder cells layers of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). However, MEFs are not suitable to support human ES cells used for clinical purpose because of risk of zoonosis from animal cells. Therefore, human tissue-based feeder layers need to be developed for human ES cells for clinical purpose. Hereof we report that human amniotic mesenchymal cells (hAMCs) could act as feeder cells for human ES cells, because they are easily obtained and relatively exempt from ethical problem. Like MEFs, hAMCs could act as feeder cells for human ES cells to grow well on. The self-renewal rate of human ES cells cultured on hAMCs feeders was higher than that on MEFs and human amniotic epithelial cells determined by measurement of colonial diameters and growth curve as well as cell cycle analysis. Both immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting showed that human ES cells cultured on hAMCs expressed stem cell markers such as Oct-3/4, Sox2, and NANOG. Verified by embryoid body formation in vitro and teratoma formation in vivo, we found out that after 20 passages of culture, human ES cells grown on hAMCs feeders could still retain the potency of differentiating into three germ layers. Taken together, our data suggested hAMCs may be safe feeder cells to sustain the propagation of human ES cells in undifferentiated state for future therapeutic use.

  12. A sustainable and affordable support system for rural healthcare delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barjis, J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available . The proposed system is decision support driven in that it supports medical staff (nurses, doctors) to decide on the course of intervention or further treatment based on the vital signs of the patients that are tele-monitored on a regular basis. This patient...

  13. Do already grasped objects activate motor affordances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iani, Cristina; Ferraro, Luca; Maiorana, Natale Vincenzo; Gallese, Vittorio; Rubichi, Sandro

    2018-04-07

    This study investigated whether in a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task affordance effects in response to picture of graspable objects emerge when these objects appear as already grasped. It also assessed whether the observed effects could be explained as due to spatial compatibility between the most salient part in the object/display and the hand of response rather than to action potentiation. To this aim, we conducted three behavioural experiments in which participants were required to discriminate the vertical orientation (upright vs. inverted) of an object presented in the centre of the screen, while ignoring the right-left orientation of its handle. The object could be presented alone, as already grasped, as partially masked (Experiment 1) or with a human hand close to its graspable side (Experiment 2). In addition, to assess the role of perceptual salience, the object could be presented with a human hand or a non-biological (a geometrical shape) distractor located opposite to the object's graspable side. Results showed faster responses when the object's handle was located on the same side of the responding hand with a larger effect when upright objects were shown as already grasped (Experiment 1) or when a hand was displayed close to its handle (Experiment 2), and a smaller reversed effect when the hand or the geometrical shape was located opposite to the handled side (Experiment 3). We interpreted these findings as indicating that handle orientation effects emerging in SRC tasks may result from the interplay between motor affordance and spatial compatibility mechanisms.

  14. Working with human nature to achieve sustainability : exploring structural constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.N.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable production is often limited by structural factors such as industrial development, neoliberal democracy, growing population and globalization of consumer culture. Drawing on the work of some theorists linking unsustainability to universal psychological propensities, this article discusses

  15. The Dynamics of Interleukin-10-Afforded Protection during Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cardoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis. We sought to investigate the temporal profile of IL-10-mediated protection during chemical colitis and which were the underlying mechanisms. Using a novel mouse model of inducible IL-10 overexpression (pMT-10, described here, we show that mice preconditioned with IL-10 for 8 days before dextran sulfate sodium (DSS administration developed a milder colitic phenotype. In IL-10-induced colitic mice, Ly6C cells isolated from the lamina propria showed a decreased inflammatory profile. Because our mouse model leads to transcription of the IL-10 transgene in the bone marrow and elevated seric IL-10 concentration, we investigated whether IL-10 could imprint immune cells in a long-lasting way, thus conferring sustained protection to colitis. We show that this was not the case, as IL-10-afforded protection was only observed if IL-10 induction immediately preceded DSS-mediated colitis. Thus, despite the protection afforded by IL-10 in colitis, novel strategies are required, specifically to achieve long-lasting protection.

  16. The Dynamics of Interleukin-10-Afforded Protection during Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana; Gil Castro, Antonio; Martins, Ana Catarina; Carriche, Guilhermina M.; Murigneux, Valentine; Castro, Isabel; Cumano, Ana; Vieira, Paulo; Saraiva, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis. We sought to investigate the temporal profile of IL-10-mediated protection during chemical colitis and which were the underlying mechanisms. Using a novel mouse model of inducible IL-10 overexpression (pMT-10), described here, we show that mice preconditioned with IL-10 for 8 days before dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration developed a milder colitic phenotype. In IL-10-induced colitic mice, Ly6C cells isolated from the lamina propria showed a decreased inflammatory profile. Because our mouse model leads to transcription of the IL-10 transgene in the bone marrow and elevated seric IL-10 concentration, we investigated whether IL-10 could imprint immune cells in a long-lasting way, thus conferring sustained protection to colitis. We show that this was not the case, as IL-10-afforded protection was only observed if IL-10 induction immediately preceded DSS-mediated colitis. Thus, despite the protection afforded by IL-10 in colitis, novel strategies are required, specifically to achieve long-lasting protection. PMID:29545807

  17. Mapping the Human Planet: Integrating Settlement, Infrastructure, and Population Data to Support Sustainable Development, Climate, and Disaster Data Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.; Downs, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    A central issue in international efforts to address climate change, large-scale disaster risk, and overall sustainable development is the exposure of human settlements and population to changing climate patterns and a range of geological, climatological, technological, and other hazards. The present and future location of human activities is also important in mitigation and adaptation to climate change, and to ensuring that we "leave no one behind" in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the international community in September 2015. The extent and quality of built infrastructure are key factors in the mortality, morbidity, and economic impacts of disasters, and are simultaneously essential to sustainable development. Earth observations have great potential to improve the coverage, consistency, timeliness, and richness of data on settlements, infrastructure, and population, in ways that complement existing and emerging forms of socioeconomic data collection such as censuses, surveys, and cell phone and Internet traffic. Night-time lights from the Suomi-NPP satellite may be able to provide near real-time data on occupance and economic activity. New "big data" capabilities make it possible to rapidly process high-resolution (50-cm) imagery to detect structures and changes in structures, especially in rural areas where other data are limited. A key challenge is to ensure that these types of data can be translated into forms useful in a range of applications and for diverse user communities, including national statistical offices, local government planners, development and humanitarian organizations, community groups, and the private sector. We report here on efforts, in coordination with the GEO Human Planet Initiative, to develop new data on settlements, infrastructure, and population, together with open data services and tools, to support disaster risk assessment, climate vulnerability analysis, and sustainable development decision making.

  18. A sustained increase in plasma NEFA upregulates the Toll-like receptor network in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Sophie E; Lum, Helen; Alvarez, Andrea; Cipriani, Yolanda; Garduño-Garcia, Jesús; Anaya, Luis; Dube, John; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-sensitive tissues (muscle, liver) of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are in a state of low-grade inflammation, characterised by increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and TLR-driven signalling. However, the cause of this mild inflammatory state is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a prolonged mild increase in plasma NEFA will increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (nuclear factor κB [NFκB] and mitogen-activated kinase [MAPK]) and impair insulin action in muscle of lean healthy individuals. Twelve lean, normal-glucose-tolerant participants were randomised to receive a 48 h infusion (30 ml/h) of saline or Intralipid followed by a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and during the clamp. Lipid infusion impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01). The elevation in circulating NEFA increased expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR5, and several MAPK (MAPK8, MAP4K4, MAP2K3) and inhibitor of κB kinase-NFκB (CHUK [IKKA], c-REL [REL] and p65 [RELA, NFKB3, p65]) signalling genes (p < 0.05). The lipid infusion also increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce the content of inhibitor of kappa Bα (p = 0.09). The muscle content of most diacylglycerol, ceramide and acylcarnitine species was unaffected. In summary, insulin resistance induced by prolonged low-dose lipid infusion occurs together with increased TLR-driven inflammatory signalling and impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. A sustained, mild elevation in plasma NEFA is sufficient to increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (NFκB and MAPK) in lean individuals. The activation of this pathway by NEFA may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01740817.

  19. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program Funding for Title VI Native American Programs Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act Medicare...

  20. Dynamic properties of energy affordability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, Peter; Schuessler, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Measures of affordability and of fuel poverty are applied in practice to assess the affordability of energy services, for example, or of water or housing. The extensive body of literature on affordability measures has little overlap with the existing literature on poverty measurement. A comprehensive assessment of the response of affordability measures as a result of changes in the distribution of income or expenditure (the dynamic properties) is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a conceptual discussion on the ‘dynamics’ of both energy affordability measures and fuel poverty measures. Several types of measures are examined in a microsimulation framework. Our results indicate that some measures exhibit odd dynamic behavior. This includes measures used in practice, such as the low income/high cost measure and the double median of expenditure share indicator. Odd dynamic behavior causes the risk of drawing false policy recommendations from the measures. Thus, an appropriate response of affordability measures to changes in relevant variables is a prerequisite for defining meaningful measures that inform about affordability or deprivation in certain domains of consumption. - Highlights: • We investigate changes in fuel poverty measures as result from changes in income and expenditure. • More generally, we investigate dynamic behavior of affordability measures using microsimulation. • We propose axioms regarding dynamic behavior of affordability measures. • Some measures which are used in practice show unintuitive dynamic behavior. • Inappropriate dynamic behavior causes a risk of false policy implications.

  1. Towards an integrative post-2015 sustainable development goal framework: Focusing on global justice – peace, security and basic human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Lueddeke

    2015-12-01

    To strengthen the likelihood of realizing the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, particularly with regard to “planet and population” health and well-being , UN and other decision-makers are urged to consider the adoption of an integrated SDG framework that is based on (i a vision of global justice - underpinned by peace, security and basic human rights; (ii the development of interdependent and interconnected strategies for each of the eleven thematic indicators identified in the UN document The World We Want; and (iii the application of guiding principles to measure the impact of SDG strategies in terms of holism, equity, sustainability, ownership, and global obligation. While current discussions on the SDGs are making progress in a number of areas, the need for integration of these around a common global vision and purpose seems especially crucial to avoid MDG shortcomings.

  2. Sustainability assessment of one industrial region: A combined method of emergy analysis and IPAT (Human Impact Population Affluence Technology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiaoman; Geng, Yong; Dong, Huijuan; Ulgiati, Sergio; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Zuoxi; Ma, Zhixiao; Tian, Xu; Sun, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Resource over-exploitation and resource depletion have received increasing attentions, especially for industrial regions. In this paper an innovative method that combines emergy analysis and an IPAT (Human Impact Population Affluence Technology) equation is developed in order to create an integrated framework for uncovering the driving forces on resource consumption in one industrial region. Liaoning province, one of the old heavy industrial bases in China, is selected as the case study region. The main results show that total emergy of Liaoning province increased from 9.25E + 23 sej in 2002 to 1.92E + 24 sej in 2012, with 165% growth on non-renewable emergy and 250% growth on imported emergy. Regional emergy/RMB ratio was higher than other developed regions and the average value of China, indicating that this province consumed more local free non-renewable resources to support its own development. The lower ESI (emergy sustainability index) indicates that Liaoning province's sustainability is still weak and far away from sustainable development. IPAT analysis further identifies that rapid economic growth was the main driving force to increase its total emergy use, while technology innovation offset the increase of total emergy use. Policy insights suggest that industrial regions should improve their energy efficiency and optimize their economic and energy structure by applying economic instruments and capacity building efforts. - Highlights: • Emergy analysis and IPAT are combined to evaluate the sustainability of Liaoning. • Total emergy of Liaoning increased from 2002 to 2011 and then decreased in 2012. • Economic scale is the key driving force to induce higher emergy consumption. • Valuable policy insights are proposed in order to promote sustainable development.

  3. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...

  4. Human values and the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern: A panel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2002-01-01

    In this study, data from a random sample of Danish consumers are used to test the hypothesis that the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern is influenced by individual value priorities. By the use of a cross-lagged panel design and structural equation modelling it is possible to draw...

  5. Data and models for exploring sustainability of human well-being in global environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; Vries, de B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rouge, C.; Smits, P.

    2012-01-01

    This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation,

  6. 55 Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He combined affordances and perceptual information in a simple matrix, as shown in figure ... Secondly it shows up cases of False Affordances that appear to be useful ..... Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations.

  7. Affordable, stable and assured supply of energy for poverty alleviation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.

    2011-01-01

    For people living in poverty, the most pressing priority is the satisfaction of basic human needs, which includes access to food, shelter, water supply and sanitation and other services that will improve their standard of living, such as health care, education, and better transport. Problems of poverty in all its dimensions can be addressed with the improved provision of energy services and it is significant that most of those without having access to modern energy services live in developing countries; like Pakistan and belong to the segment of the human population that lives in poverty. While assured and adequate energy supplies do not guarantee economic growth and employment generation, their absence typically limits growth. Although low energy consumption is not a cause of poverty, the lack of available energy services correlates closely with many poverty indicators. The link between poverty and energy should not, however, be construed simply in terms of ability of the poor to afford better energy services. Energy services constitute a sizeable share of total household expenditure in Pakistan. People living in poverty often pay a higher price per unit of energy services than do the rich. They also spend more time in obtaining these energy services and rely on resource-scarce and polluting ways of converting energy for services like cooking, drinking water, heating and lighting, all of which have associated health impacts. The production and use of energy have environmental consequences at local, regional and global levels. These impacts extend throughout the fuel cycle of an Energy Chain. Energy plays a substantial role in the everyday lives of humans. Poverty describes a condition of people who are denied the opportunities for sustainable existence. for social uplift of the people of Pakistan at large through affordable, stable, and assured supply of energy keeping in view the environmental constraints. (author)

  8. Optical Mining of Asteroids, Moons, and Planets to Enable Sustainable Human Exploration and Space Industrialization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PROBLEM, DEEP SPACE HUMAN EXPLORATION IS UNAFFORDABLE: In 2014 the NASA Advisory Council issued a finding that “The mismatch between NASA’s aspirations for human...

  9. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by homeowners in the eligible property. Financing that would impair the continued affordability of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affordability standards. 572.120 Section 572.120 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  10. The concept of a structural affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Alsmith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide an analysis of the concept of an “affordance” that enables one to conceive of “structural affordance” as a kind of affordance relation that might hold between an agent and its body. I then review research in the science of humanoid bodily movement to indicate the empirical reality of structural affordance.

  11. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...

  12. Affordances of agricultural systems analysis tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzler, Lenora; Klerkx, Laurens; Chan-Dentoni, Jacqueline; Posthumus, Helena; Krupnik, Timothy J.; Ridaura, Santiago López; Andersson, Jens A.; Baudron, Frédéric; Groot, Jeroen C.J.

    2018-01-01

    The increasingly complex challenges facing agricultural systems require problem-solving processes and systems analysis (SA) tools that engage multiple actors across disciplines. In this article, we employ the theory of affordances to unravel what tools may furnish users, and how those affordances

  13. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  14. What Does Electronic Conferencing Afford Distance Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of technology for distance learning in higher education and examines the similarities and differences between face-to-face seminars and online discussions. Considers the concept of affordance in relation to information and communication technologies and distance education; and examines affordances of electronic conferencing and…

  15. Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: how do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M

    2014-09-01

    Humans increasingly occupy cities. Globally, about 50% of the total human population lives in urban environments, and in spite of some trends for deurbanization, the transition from rural to urban life is expected to accelerate in the future, especially in developing nations and regions. The Republic of Korea, for example, has witnessed a dramatic rise in its urban population, which now accounts for nearly 90% of all residents; the increase from about 29% in 1955 has been attributed to multiple factors, but has clearly been driven by extraordinary growth in the gross domestic product accompanying industrialization. While industrialization and urbanization have unarguably led to major improvements in quality of life indices in Korea and elsewhere, numerous serious problems have also been acknowledged, including concerns about resource availability, water quality, amplification of global warming and new threats to health. Questions about sustainability have therefore led Koreans and others to consider deurbanization as a management policy. Whether this offers any realistic prospects for a sustainable future remains to be seen. In the interim, it has become increasingly clear that built environments are no less complex than natural environments, and that they depend on a variety of internal and external connections involving microbes and the processes for which microbes are responsible. I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems. I also identify important knowledge gaps and unanswered questions about urban microbiomes that must be addressed to develop a robust, predictive and general understanding of urban biology and ecology that can be used to inform policy-making for sustainable systems.

  16. Roadmap to a Sustainable Structured Trusted Employee Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    Organizations (facility, regulatory agency, or country) have a compelling interest in ensuring that individuals who occupy sensitive positions affording access to chemical biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) materials facilities and programs are functioning at their highest level of reliability. Human reliability and human performance relate not only to security but also focus on safety. Reliability has a logical and direct relationship to trustworthiness for the organization is placing trust in their employees to conduct themselves in a secure, safe, and dependable manner. This document focuses on providing an organization with a roadmap to implementing a successful and sustainable Structured Trusted Employee Program (STEP).

  17. Vietnam war literature: reflections of the sustained tension between politics, history, morality and the effect of war on human nature.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam War literature is a reflection of a sustained tension between politics and history on the one hand and morality and the effect of the war on human nature on the other hand. Although the authors under discussion urge the reader to forget the political, moral and historical milieu of the Vietnam War, it is impossible to separate the war from those three factors and by extension, the literature that stems from it. I have chosen Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War (1977) and Robert Mason’s Chi...

  18. The humanity at the frontiers with new technologies for sustained energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Gheorghe; Agapi, Constantin; Mircea, Ioan; Gyongyosi, Tiberiu; Panaitescu, Valeriu; Florescu, Ioan-Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The international scientific community is engaged in dealing with the actual nuclear research issues and in finding new ways for continuous and raising energy production. The big energy consumption and occurrence of new large consumers, especially in Asian countries, impose finding new solutions for clean, large scale and sustained energy production. The new technologies and scientific discoveries, also the international cooperation, offer opportunities to eliminate the actual barriers in order to cumulate and use advanced energy production processes, to find new energy sources and to build improved power plants. The paper presents the actual state of the art in the field of new technologies for nuclear power sources, the steps to be undertaken in order to penetrate the actual barriers for large scale energy production. In the paper are also presented: the actual energy production issues; the key arguments that could be used to sustain R and D for finding new energy sources; the actual limitations in industrial processes knowledge and use. (authors)

  19. Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It: Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Preamble to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UNDHR) calls on every organ of society to teach and educate for the promotion of the rights it contains. However, few if any business schools have any systematic or critical human rights content in their accounting and business curricula. This oversight is increasingly problematic as…

  20. The urban public space betterment and land use sustainability Under the human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Ji, Yanning

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the differences between Chinese and western public life and environmental behavior habits. Identify specific needs for Chinese urban public Spaces. At the same time, the paper analyzes the problems related to urban construction in China, including micro-land use, transportation and urban pattern. The solution of Chinese urban public space layout is proposed and the prospects of sustainable urban public space. Urban betterment are prospected in the future.

  1. SuDS and human behaviour: Co-developing solutions to encourage sustainable behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are today widely considered to be a more progressive and environmentally sensitive approach to Flood Risk Management (FRM. However, this paper argues that the sustainability of SuDS should not be so simply presumed. Devices will depend upon correct behaviour from those local to them in order to function properly over time, and for Green Infrastructure SuDS to flourish and deliver their promised multiple benefits. This paper looks to the potential value in using Social Practice Theory as a lens for understanding current behaviours around SuDS devices, and for assessing possible strategies for encouraging positive behaviour amongst affected communities. It concludes in arguing that involving local people as much as possible in the co-design of systems and then working to maintain involvement and awareness will be the most cost-effective means by which SuDS might be made to live up to the sustainability they are celebrated for.

  2. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  3. Defining and Measuring the Affordability of New Medicines: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Overton, Paul M; Shalet, Natalie; Postma, Maarten

    2017-08-01

    In many healthcare systems, affordability concerns can lead to restrictions on the use of expensive efficacious therapies. However, there does not appear to be any consensus as to the terminology used to describe affordability, or the thresholds used to determine whether new drugs are affordable. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how affordability is defined and measured in healthcare. MEDLINE, EMBASE and EconLit databases (2005-July 2016) were searched using terms covering affordability and budget impact, combined with definitions, thresholds and restrictions, to identify articles describing a definition of affordability with respect to new medicines. Additional definitions were identified through citation searching, and through manual searches of European health technology assessment body websites. In total, 27 definitions were included in the review. Of these, five definitions described affordability in terms of the value of a product; seven considered affordability within the context of healthcare system budgets; and 15 addressed whether products are affordable in a given country based on economic factors. However, there was little in the literature to indicate that the price of medicines is considered alongside both their value to individual patients and their budget impact at a population level. Current methods of assessing affordability in healthcare may be limited by their focus on budget impact. A more effective approach may involve a broader perspective than is currently described in the literature, to consider the long-term benefits of a therapy and cost savings elsewhere in the healthcare system, as well as cooperation between healthcare payers and the pharmaceutical industry to develop financing models that support sustainability as well as innovation.

  4. Improvement in autologous human fat transplant survival with SVF plus VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqun; Pan, Shengsheng; Ni, Binting; Lin, Yuanshao

    2014-08-01

    Early neovascularization is important for autologous fat transplant survival. SVF cells are ideal seed cells. Both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and SVF cells can promote neovascularization. However, the half-life (about 50 min) of VEGF is too short to sustain an adequate local concentration. We have investigated whether VEGF-polylactic acid (PLA) nano-sustained release microspheres plus SVF cells can improve neovascularization and survival of transplanted fat tissues. SVF cells were harvested and constructed VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres in vitro. Human fat tissues was mixed with SVF cells plus VEGF-PLA, SVF cells alone or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium as the control. These three mixtures were injected into random sites in 18 nude mice. Two months later, the transplants were weighed and examined histologically; and capillaries were counted to quantify neovascularization. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and anti-VEGF stains were applied to reveal cell infiltration. The mean wet weight of fat in the SVF plus VEGF-PLA, SVF alone, and control transplants were 0.18 ± 0.013 g, 0.16 ± 0.015 g, and 0.071 ± 0.12 g, respectively; the differences between groups were statistically significant. More vessels were present in the SVF plus VEGF-PLA transplants than in the other two types. Transplants mixed with SVF cells also had an acceptable density of capillaries. Histological analysis revealed that both the SVF plus VEGF-PLA and SVF alone transplants, but not the control transplants, were composed of adipose tissue, and had less fat necrosis and less fibrosis than control specimens. SVF plus VEGF-PLA transplants had significantly greater capillary density and VEGF expression than the other two transplant groups. Thus transplanted fat tissue survival and quality can be enhanced by the addition of VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres plus SVF cells. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  5. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  6. Embodiment as First Affordance: Tinkering, Tuning, Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Spatz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins from a discussion of philosophical realism and the turn towards close analysis of skilled material practices that characterizes many recent critical interventions. I examine the roots of this turn and suggest that skilled practice is a privileged site for the enactment and testing of realist ontologies. However, I question the extent to which realist thinkers have emphasized practices in which materials outside the human body are central over those in which embodiment itself is the primary medium of practice. Thinkers of realist ontology, I argue, have neglected embodiment as the primary site of an engagement with the fine-grained detail of the world. In contrast, I propose that realist ontologies developed through reference to technological engagements not only apply equally well to embodied practices but actually find their original and primary manifestation there. The body itself is the ‘first affordance’ and the site at which questions of realism and objectivity are first encountered and resolved in practice. I illustrate this point by considering how three modes of material engagement — tinkering, tuning, and tracking — manifest in embodied practices ranging from dance and sport to those of everyday life. I conclude by emphasizing the continuing political importance of embodiment as first affordance and its crucial place as a ‘fragile junction’ between ecology and technology.

  7. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  8. Best Practices in Human Resource Management: The Source of Excellent Performance and Sustained Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Šikýř

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on summarizing the results of the global research on human resource management and the author’s dissertation research on best practices in human resource management, the paper attempts to explain the essence of the positive relationship between best practices in human resource management and organizational performance and competitiveness. It supports the assumption that the essence is the optimal system of human resource management, based on proven best practices in job design, employee selection, performance management, employee compensation or employee training, that enables managers to achieve expected organizational performance and competitiveness by achieving desired employee abilities, motivation and performance. The author's dissertation research verified the theoretical assumptions about application of best practices in human resources management and through a questionnaire survey examined the views of executives and HR managers from Czech TOP 100 companies or the best employers in the Czech Republic.

  9. Motor unit recruitment in human biceps brachii during sustained voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary A; Maerz, Adam H; Litsey, Jane C; Enoka, Roger M

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of the difference between the recruitment threshold of a motor unit and the target force of the sustained contraction on the discharge of the motor unit at recruitment. The discharge characteristics of 53 motor units in biceps brachii were recorded after being recruited during a sustained contraction. Some motor units (n = 22) discharged action potentials tonically after being recruited, whereas others (n = 31) discharged intermittent trains of action potentials. The two groups of motor units were distinguished by the difference between the recruitment threshold of the motor unit and the target force for the sustained contraction: tonic, 5.9 +/- 2.5%; intermittent, 10.7 +/- 2.9%. Discharge rate for the tonic units decreased progressively (13.9 +/- 2.7 to 11.7 +/- 2.6 pulses s(-1); P = 0.04) during the 99 +/- 111 s contraction. Train rate, train duration and average discharge rate for the intermittent motor units did not change across 211 +/- 153 s of intermittent discharge. The initial discharge rate at recruitment during the sustained contraction was lower for the intermittent motor units (11.0 +/- 3.3 pulses s(-1)) than the tonic motor units (13.7 +/- 3.3 pulses s(-1); P = 0.005), and the coefficient of variation for interspike interval was higher for the intermittent motor units (34.6 +/- 12.3%) than the tonic motor units (21.2 +/- 9.4%) at recruitment (P = 0.001) and remained elevated for discharge duration (34.6 +/- 9.2% versus 19.1 +/- 11.7%, P motor units were recorded at two different target forces below recruitment threshold (5.7 +/- 1.9% and 10.5 +/- 2.4%). Each motor unit exhibited the two discharge patterns (tonic and intermittent) as observed for the 53 motor units. The results suggest that newly recruited motor units with recruitment thresholds closer to the target force experienced less synaptic noise at the time of recruitment that resulted in them discharging action potentials at more regular

  10. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed...... by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...

  11. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  12. What does sustainability mean in the HIV and AIDS response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberth, Gemma; Whiteside, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Immense progress has been made in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Achieving and exceeding the AIDS targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was accomplished, in large part, due to an unprecedented financial investment from the international community. Following an $800 million dip in donor disbursements in 2010, the discourse has since shifted to the need for greater sustainability of funding. But what does sustainability mean? Current efforts focus heavily on fiscal imperatives such as increasing domestic funding. This is important - needs are increasing at a faster rate than donor funding, especially with increased treatment coverage. The problem is that measures of financial sustainability tell very little about the actual sustainability of specific programmes, disease trajectories or enabling environments. Recognising that current definitions of sustainability lack clarity and depth, we offer a new six-tenet conceptualisation of what sustainability means in the HIV and AIDS response: (1) financial, (2) epidemiological, (3) political, (4) structural, (5) programmatic, and (6) human rights. Based on these, we examine examples of donor transitions for their approach to sustainability, including PEPFAR in South Africa, the Global Fund in Eastern Europe, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in India (Avahan). We conclude that sustainability must be understood within a broader framework beyond funding stability. We also recommend that certain interventions, such as programming for key populations, may have to continue to receive external support even if affected countries can afford to pay.

  13. Sustained selective attention to competing amplitude-modulations in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Lars; Scharke, Wolfgang; Valente, Giancarlo; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Auditory selective attention plays an essential role for identifying sounds of interest in a scene, but the neural underpinnings are still incompletely understood. Recent findings demonstrate that neural activity that is time-locked to a particular amplitude-modulation (AM) is enhanced in the auditory cortex when the modulated stream of sounds is selectively attended to under sensory competition with other streams. However, the target sounds used in the previous studies differed not only in their AM, but also in other sound features, such as carrier frequency or location. Thus, it remains uncertain whether the observed enhancements reflect AM-selective attention. The present study aims at dissociating the effect of AM frequency on response enhancement in auditory cortex by using an ongoing auditory stimulus that contains two competing targets differing exclusively in their AM frequency. Electroencephalography results showed a sustained response enhancement for auditory attention compared to visual attention, but not for AM-selective attention (attended AM frequency vs. ignored AM frequency). In contrast, the response to the ignored AM frequency was enhanced, although a brief trend toward response enhancement occurred during the initial 15 s. Together with the previous findings, these observations indicate that selective enhancement of attended AMs in auditory cortex is adaptive under sustained AM-selective attention. This finding has implications for our understanding of cortical mechanisms for feature-based attentional gain control.

  14. Sustained Selective Attention to Competing Amplitude-Modulations in Human Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Lars; Scharke, Wolfgang; Valente, Giancarlo; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Auditory selective attention plays an essential role for identifying sounds of interest in a scene, but the neural underpinnings are still incompletely understood. Recent findings demonstrate that neural activity that is time-locked to a particular amplitude-modulation (AM) is enhanced in the auditory cortex when the modulated stream of sounds is selectively attended to under sensory competition with other streams. However, the target sounds used in the previous studies differed not only in their AM, but also in other sound features, such as carrier frequency or location. Thus, it remains uncertain whether the observed enhancements reflect AM-selective attention. The present study aims at dissociating the effect of AM frequency on response enhancement in auditory cortex by using an ongoing auditory stimulus that contains two competing targets differing exclusively in their AM frequency. Electroencephalography results showed a sustained response enhancement for auditory attention compared to visual attention, but not for AM-selective attention (attended AM frequency vs. ignored AM frequency). In contrast, the response to the ignored AM frequency was enhanced, although a brief trend toward response enhancement occurred during the initial 15 s. Together with the previous findings, these observations indicate that selective enhancement of attended AMs in auditory cortex is adaptive under sustained AM-selective attention. This finding has implications for our understanding of cortical mechanisms for feature-based attentional gain control. PMID:25259525

  15. Human Rights Discourse in the Sustainable Development Agenda Avoids Obligations and Entitlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmel; Blaiklock, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Our commentary on Forman et al paper explores their thesis that right to health language can frame global health policy responses. We examined human rights discourse in the outcome documents from three 2015 United Nations (UN) summits and found rights-related terms are used in all three. However, a deeper examination of the discourse finds the documents do not convey the obligations and entitlements of human rights and international human rights law. The documents contain little that can be used to empower the participation of those already left behind and to hold States and the private sector to account for their human rights duties. This is especially worrying in a neoliberal era. PMID:27285518

  16. Monitoring sanitation and hygiene in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: A review through the lens of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Ricard; Flores-Baquero, Óscar; Jiménez-Fdez de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2017-02-15

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation has been jointly carried out by WHO and UNICEF through their Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). With the end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) era in 2015, the JMP has proposed a post-2015 framework for integrated monitoring of water and sanitation targets included in the Sustainable Development Goal no. 6. This article discusses how each element of the proposed sanitation target and corresponding indicators can be understood from a human rights perspective. Building on the MDGs, and although some of the weaknesses and gaps persist, the discussion suggests that the post-2015 proposal is a step forward towards a monitoring framework where human rights elements related to sanitation are effectively promoted. In addition, to support the interpretation and implementation of the normative content of human rights obligations related to sanitation, the study proposes a reduced set of easy-to-assess indicators to measure the normative criteria of this right, which are then grouped in a multidimensional framework to describe increasing levels of sanitation service. To do this, the study combines literature review and specific local experience from three case studies. It is shown that the proposed monitoring tools, namely the indicators and the multidimensional indicator framework, provide guidance on monitoring the human right to sanitation. In doing so, they might ultimately help sector stakeholders in the realization of this right. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate change and sustainable welfare: an argument for the centrality of human needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Gough

    2014-01-01

    Since climate change threatens human wellbeing across the globe and into the future, we require a concept of wellbeing that encompasses an equivalent ambit. This paper argues that only a concept of human need can do the work required. It compares need theory with three alternative approaches. Preference satisfaction theory is criticised on the grounds of subjectivity, epistemic irrationality, endogenous and adaptive preferences, the limitlessness of wants, the absence of moral evaluation, and...

  18. Climate Change and Sustainable Welfare: An Argument for the Centrality of Human Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Gough

    2014-01-01

    Since climate change threatens human wellbeing across the globe and into the future, we require a concept of wellbeing that encompasses an equivalent ambit. This paper argues that only a concept of human need can do the work required. It compares need theory with three alternative approaches. Preference satisfaction theory is criticised on the grounds of subjectivity, epistemic irrationality, endogenous and adaptive preferences, the limitlessness of wants, the absence of moral evaluation, and...

  19. African Universities Need Affordable and Reliable Broadband ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... But it's a different story in most parts of Africa, where limited library ... on effective and affordable information and communication technology (ICT) ... who are using open-source software that complies with international open ...

  20. Humanized HLA-DR4.RagKO.IL2RγcKO.NOD (DRAG) mice sustain the complex vertebrate life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Majji, Sai; Villasante, Eileen F; Brumeanu, Teodor D; Richie, Thomas L; Casares, Sofia

    2014-09-30

    Malaria is a deadly infectious disease affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Among the five species of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum accounts for the highest morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. Since humans are the only natural hosts for P. falciparum, the lack of convenient animal models has hindered the understanding of disease pathogenesis and prompted the need of testing anti-malarial drugs and vaccines directly in human trials. Humanized mice hosting human cells represent new pre-clinical models for infectious diseases that affect only humans. In this study, the ability of human-immune-system humanized HLA-DR4.RagKO.IL2RγcKO.NOD (DRAG) mice to sustain infection with P. falciparum was explored. Four week-old DRAG mice were infused with HLA-matched human haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and examined for reconstitution of human liver cells and erythrocytes. Upon challenge with infectious P. falciparum sporozoites (NF54 strain) humanized DRAG mice were examined for liver stage infection, blood stage infection, and transmission to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Humanized DRAG mice reconstituted human hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver endothelial cells, and erythrocytes. Upon intravenous challenge with P. falciparum sporozoites, DRAG mice sustained liver to blood stage infection (average 3-5 parasites/microlitre blood) and allowed transmission to An. stephensi mosquitoes. Infected DRAG mice elicited antibody and cellular responses to the blood stage parasites and self-cured the infection by day 45 post-challenge. DRAG mice represent the first human-immune-system humanized mouse model that sustains the complex vertebrate life cycle of P. falciparum without the need of exogenous injection of human hepatocytes/erythrocytes or P. falciparum parasite adaptation. The ability of DRAG mice to elicit specific human immune responses to P. falciparum parasites may help deciphering immune correlates

  1. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  2. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    OpenAIRE

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel exper...

  3. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Tor

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented realit...

  4. Polyurethane acrylates as effective substrates for sustained in vitro culture of human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Yosephine; Chua, Jason Min-Wen; Chua, Benjamin Yan-Jiang; Phang, In Yee; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Tan, Wui Siew

    2017-07-15

    Muscular disease has debilitating effects with severe damage leading to death. Our knowledge of muscle biology, disease and treatment is largely derived from non-human cell models, even though non-human cells are known to differ from human cells in their biochemical responses. Attempts to develop highly sought after in vitro human cell models have been plagued by early cell delamination and difficulties in achieving human myotube culture in vitro. In this work, we developed polyurethane acrylate (PUA) materials to support long-term in vitro culture of human skeletal muscle tissue. Using a constant base with modulated crosslink density we were able to vary the material modulus while keeping surface chemistry and roughness constant. While previous studies have focused on materials that mimic soft muscle tissue with stiffness ca. 12kPa, we investigated materials with tendon-like surface moduli in the higher 150MPa to 2.4GPa range, which has remained unexplored. We found that PUA of an optimal modulus within this range can support human myoblast proliferation, terminal differentiation and sustenance beyond 35days, without use of any extracellular protein coating. Results show that PUA materials can serve as effective substrates for successful development of human skeletal muscle cell models and are suitable for long-term in vitro studies. We developed polyurethane acrylates (PUA) to modulate the human skeletal muscle cell growth and maturation in vitro by controlling surface chemistry, morphology and tuning material's stiffness. PUA was able to maintain muscle cell viability for over a month without any detectable signs of material degradation. The best performing PUA prevented premature cell detachment from the substrate which often hampered long-term muscle cell studies. It also supported muscle cell maturation up to the late stages of differentiation. The significance of these findings lies in the possibility to advance studies on muscle cell biology, disease and

  5. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: towards integrating animal welfare, human health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmans, Frank; Bogaerts, Serge; Braeckman, Johan; Cunningham, Andrew A; Hellebuyck, Tom; Griffiths, Richard A; Sparreboom, Max; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Martel, An

    2017-10-28

    The keeping of exotic pets is currently under debate and governments of several countries are increasingly exploring the regulation, or even the banning, of exotic pet keeping. Major concerns are issues of public health and safety, animal welfare and biodiversity conservation. The keeping of reptiles and amphibians in captivity encompasses all the potential issues identified with keeping exotic pets, and many of those relating to traditional domestic pets. Within the context of risks posed by pets in general, the authors argue for the responsible and sustainable keeping of reptile and amphibian pets by private persons, based on scientific evidence and on the authors' own expertise (veterinary medicine, captive husbandry, conservation biology). © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Human-Scale Sustainability Assessment of Urban Intersections Based upon Multi-Source Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the sustainability of an enormous number of urban intersections, a novel assessment model is proposed, along with an indicator system and corresponding methods to determine the indicators. Considering mainly the demands and feelings of the urban residents, the three aspects of safety, functionality, and image perception are taken into account in the indicator system. Based on technologies such as street view picture crawling, image segmentation, and edge detection, GIS spatial data analysis, a rapid automated assessment method, and a corresponding multi-source database are built up to determine the indicators. The improved information entropy method is applied to obtain the entropy weights of each indicator. A case study shows the efficiency and applicability of the proposed assessment model, indicator system and algorithm.

  7. Growing community : rooftop gardens for affordable housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP OF HUMAN CAPITAL AND TAXATION SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Filimonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Maintaining a stable level of the national economy is a priority objective of socio-economic policy in Russia. It is known that the economic development of the state affected by several factors, among them the paramount levels of investment, including investment in human capital, which have a huge impact on the country's economic development, especially in the current situation in the economy, because human capital is one of the most important factors of economic growth. The problem of human capital - one of the most important in a changing world today. Translational motion of society crucially depends on his level and state (level of material well-being, attitude to work, education and qualifications are recognized in the scale of society's ideals and values, they define social norms, work motivation and social behavior, and the like .The article examines the relationship of the state investment in human capital and progressive economic development opportunities, as well as depending on the public investment in human capital from the existing tax system and tax policy pursued.

  9. Which dietary patterns are more likely to be associated with aspects of eco-sustainable food behaviours in Italy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalvedi, Maria Luisa; Turrini, Aida; Saba, Anna

    2017-12-04

    Sustainable food consumption (SFC) policies need further investigation into eating habits to improve interventions to encourage shifting to new consumption patterns respectful of human rights, environment and health. Reversing the usual approach focussed on sustainable consumer, the present study investigates how different eating patterns relate to eco-sustainable food. A cluster analysis was carried out on consumption frequencies of food groups recorded in an Italian national survey on 3004 respondents, providing four eating habit segments, further investigated as for sustainable food attitude and behaviour. Openness to eco-sustainable food is found mostly in the more balanced diet segment, accounting for about one third of the adult Italian population. Inaccessibility, non-affordability, unhealthy diet and a lack of information still negatively condition eating habits to the detriment of more sustainable consumption. These findings could support SFC stakeholders in targeting policies and strategies based on diversified approaches to enhance awareness of SFC issues.

  10. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba

    2016-01-01

    management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. METHODS: A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014...... and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack...... of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopia...

  11. Human Behavior and Environmental Sustainability: promoting a pro-environmental behavior by harnessing the social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusafieh, Shaden; Razem, Maiss

    2017-11-01

    Recently, technological advancements in the sustainable design field have allowed us to reduce the ecological impact of the built environment, to reduce consumption of non-renewable resources, to create healthy environments and in some cases may even rehabilitate the ecosystem. Nevertheless, several studies have been carried out showing that sustainable technology does not automatically lead to environmentally friendly behaviors in its users. Various environmental problems threaten environmental sustainability and many of these problems are rooted in human behavior. Unfortunately, there is a lack in studies which take into consideration the human behavior influences within a sustainable built environment. We believe that the built environment should be used to support human goals and requirements, but at the same time we should consider it as a context in which human values and behaviors are cultivated. This research aimed to help in promoting environmental sustainability by using architectural design in changing relevant human behavior toward an environmentally friendly behavior. In order to achieve this, the research adopted Environment-centered Approach to gain more acute perspective into the relationship between the physical environment and human behavior, focusing on social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment. It appears that environmental psychology's merits have high potential in changing behavior within the built environment. The research provides a systematic approach for selecting, assessing, evaluating the behaviors to be changed and the factors that determine them. Furthermore, this approach helps in choosing the best interventions that could be applied in built environment to encourage such a sustainable behavior. This study tried to construct an agenda for further researches to find particular architectural design elements and strategies that we can harness to develop a pro-environment human behavior.

  12. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Psustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  13. "Brain drain, brain gain. . . Brain sustain?" : Challenges in building Portuguese human research capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasanefendic, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic but essentially descriptive account of the policy measure of stimulating human research capacity development under the policy program "Commitment to Science" in Portugal in the period 2006-2009. It explores the conditions that contributed to the development of the

  14. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  15. Characterization of bovine embryos cultured under conditions appropriate for sustaining human naïve pluripotency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Bas; van Tol, Helena T A; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Wubbolts, Richard W; Haagsman, Henk P; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian preimplantation development, pluripotent cells are set aside from cells that contribute to extra-embryonic tissues. Although the pluripotent cell population of mouse and human embryos can be cultured as embryonic stem cells, little is known about the pathways involved in formation of a

  16. Human resource development progress to sustain nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Nyobe, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cameroon as a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made full use of the Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme in his effort to promote peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology at national level. This paper presents the progress made in the development of reliable human resources. Results obtained have been achieved through national and regional technical co-operation projects. Over the past twenty years, the development of human resources in nuclear science and technology has focused on the training of national scientists and engineers in various fields such as crop and animal production, human and animal nutrition, human health applications, medical physics, non-destructive testing in industry, groundwater management, maintenance of medical and scientific equipment, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Efforts made also involve the development of graduate teaching in nuclear sciences at the national universities. However, the lack of adequate training facilities remains a major concern. The development of new training/learning methods is being considered at national level through network linking of national training centres with existing international training institutions, and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) which offer great flexibility with regard to the number of trainees and the actual needs. (author)

  17. Human resource development progress to sustain nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Nyobe, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cameroon as a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made full use of the Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme in his effort to promote peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology at national level. This paper presents the progress made in the development of reliable human resources. Results obtained have been achieved through national and regional technical co-operation projects. Over the past twenty years, the development of human resources in nuclear science and technology has focussed on the training of national scientists and engineers in various fields such as crop and animal production, human and animal nutrition, human health applications, medical physics, non destructive testing in industry, groundwater management, maintenance of medical and scientific equipment, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Efforts made also involve the development of graduate teaching in nuclear sciences at the national universities. However, the lack of adequate training facilities remains a major concern. The development of new training/learning methods is being considered at national level through network linking of national training centres with existing international training institutions, and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) which offer great flexibility with regard to the number of trainees and the actual needs. (author)

  18. Education and language: A human right for sustainable development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia; Geo-JaJa, Macleans A.; Lou, Shizhou

    2012-10-01

    Pre-colonial Africa was neither an educationally nor a technologically unsophisticated continent. While education was an integral part of the culture, issues of language identification and standardisation which are subject to contentious debate today were insignificant. Children learned community knowledge and history by asking questions instead of being taught in a hegemonic alien language. This article argues that education and development should take place in a broader context of human rights, and explores the links between three areas often dealt with separately, namely: language, education and development. The authors of this paper demonstrate that changing the face of the multi-dimensionalities of poverty within societies is possible only when education is constructed in a rights perspective over the favoured colonial languages, which are not an integral part of the culture and resources of a community. The authors make a distinction between the right to education and rights in education, the latter of which are found to be more significant for the challenges Africa faces. It is argued here that the elements of Amartya Sen's "threshold" conditions for inclusion in human rights and self-development in education are essential, and that a more promising architecture of education would include what the authors term meta-narrative frameworks, i.e. interrelated policies. The authors contend that the neoliberal commodification of the knowledge sector has only exacerbated human rights and capabilities deprivation - which encompasses both human and income poverty.

  19. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained effects of ecstasy use on the brain in novel ecstasy users using repeated measurements with a combination of different neuroimaging parameters of neurotoxicity. At baseline, 188 ecstasy-naive volunteers with high probability of first ecstasy use were examined. After a mean period of 17 months follow-up, neuroimaging was repeated in 59 incident ecstasy users and 56 matched persistent ecstasy-naives and their outcomes were compared. Neuroimaging included [(123)I]beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (CIT) SPECT to measure serotonin transporter densities as indicators of serotonergic function; (1)H-MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure brain metabolites as indicators of neuronal damage; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusional motion of water molecules in the brain as indicators of axonal integrity; and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) to measure regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) which indicates brain perfusion. With this approach, both structural ((1)H-MRS and DTI) and functional ([(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT and PWI) aspects of neurotoxicity were combined. Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the globus pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in globus pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus. No changes in serotonin transporter densities and brain metabolites were observed. These findings suggest sustained effects of ecstasy on brain microvasculature, white

  20. PDZ domain-binding motif of Tax sustains T-cell proliferation in HTLV-1-infected humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Eléonore; Blin, Juliana; Ricci, Emiliano P; Artesi, Maria; Hahaut, Vincent; Van den Broeke, Anne; Corbin, Antoine; Gazzolo, Louis; Ratner, Lee; Jalinot, Pierre; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2018-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive malignant proliferation of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. The viral Tax oncoprotein is critically involved in both HTLV-1-replication and T-cell proliferation, a prerequisite to the development of ATLL. In this study, we investigated the in vivo contribution of the Tax PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) to the lymphoproliferative process. To that aim, we examined T-cell proliferation in humanized mice (hu-mice) carrying a human hemato-lymphoid system infected with either a wild type (WT) or a Tax PBM-deleted (ΔPBM) provirus. We observed that the frequency of CD4+ activated T-cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen was significantly higher in WT than in ΔPBM hu-mice. Likewise, human T-cells collected from WT hu-mice and cultivated in vitro in presence of interleukin-2 were proliferating at a higher level than those from ΔPBM animals. We next examined the association of Tax with the Scribble PDZ protein, a prominent regulator of T-cell polarity, in human T-cells analyzed either after ex vivo isolation or after in vitro culture. We confirmed the interaction of Tax with Scribble only in T-cells from the WT hu-mice. This association correlated with the presence of both proteins in aggregates at the leading edge of the cells and with the formation of long actin filopods. Finally, data from a comparative genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggested that the PBM-PDZ association is implicated in the expression of genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal organization. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Tax PBM is an auxiliary motif that contributes to the sustained growth of HTLV-1 infected T-cells in vivo and in vitro and is essential to T-cell immortalization.

  1. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  2. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Liu

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response (sNBR using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  3. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yadong; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Zongtan; Hu, Dewen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response (sNBR) using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR) counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  4. THE INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL, AN INTRISIC FACTOR OF THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA TEODORA BALACEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The educational system will need to direct its actions and programs towards the identification of the current and future values of the labour market, starting from the existing and potential labour resources, anticipating first and foremost the adjusting of the economy to fast-developing fields and domains, put forward by the State via the Fast-developing Field Strategies or even via the Fast-developing National Strategy. It will accordingly generate a binder between the demands of the labour market as a response to the developing necessities of the economy, and the training/specialization of the labour force as offered by the national syllabus. By these means the educational system would create a labour force compatible with the labour market, which is both a premiss for the increasing level of employment and for the sustainable economic growth. Our task is therefore to provide a concept of education related to technological progress, based on the model of Nelson and Phelps, and a suggestion for investments and education policies.

  5. Biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of palmitoleate production, an important contributor to human health and sustainable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmei; Li, Runzhi; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-10-01

    Palmitoleate (cis-Δ9-16:1) shows numerous health benefits such as increased cell membrane fluidity, reduced inflammation, protection of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of oncogenesis. Plant oils containing this unusual fatty acid can also be sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important and high-demand 1-octene. Vegetable oils rich in palmitoleate are the ideal candidates for biodiesel production. Several wild plants are known that can synthesize high levels of palmitoleate in seeds. However, low yields and poor agronomic characteristics of these plants limit their commercialization. Metabolic engineering has been developed to create oilseed crops that accumulate high levels of palmitoleate or other unusual fatty acids, and significant advances have been made recently in this field, particularly using the model plant Arabidopsis as the host. The engineered targets for enhancing palmitoleate synthesis include overexpression of Δ9 desaturase from mammals, yeast, fungi, and plants, down-regulating KASII, coexpression of an ACP-Δ9 desaturase in plastids and CoA-Δ9 desaturase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and optimizing the metabolic flux into triacylglycerols (TAGs). This review will mainly describe the recent progress towards producing palmitoleate in transgenic plants by metabolic engineering along with our current understanding of palmitoleate biosynthesis and its regulation, as well as highlighting the bottlenecks that require additional investigation by combining lipidomics, transgenics and other "-omics" tools. A brief review of reported health benefits and non-food uses of palmitoleate will also be covered. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Human capacity and institutional development towards a sustainable energy future in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugetta, Yacob [Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The overwhelming majority of Ethiopians lack access to modern energy fuels such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas, still locked into a biomass-based energy system. As such, women and children in rural areas spend long hours of productive time and labour on woodfuel collection and the urban poor spend a sizeable proportion of their income to meet their daily energy needs. Electricity, which is at the disposal of every household in Western Europe is largely restricted to the urban centres in Ethiopia, hence indicating a strong correlation between lack of access to modern energy and poverty. The paper will analyse the reasons why Ethiopia is lagging behind the rest of the developing world in setting up a sustainable energy pathway. As such, the performance and 'mind-set' of various 'agencies', i.e. higher education system, government, energy authorities, donor agencies, etc. will be reviewed. The paper refers to a range of cases in to illustrate the challenge of building the mechanisms that allow energy technologies to be successfully disseminated, supported and integrated into rural livelihoods. The paper will provide a series of observations and recommendations to ameliorate the current state-of-affairs and ways through which the various actors (community-based organisations, government at various levels and to a lesser degree, donors) can contribute towards that end. (author)

  7. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: tilman@santarius.de [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  8. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of th......, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES.......The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004...

  9. Sustaining Economic Exploitation of Complex Ecosystems in Computational Models of Coupled Human-Natural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Neo D.; Tonin, Perrine; Bauer, Barbara; Rael, Rosalyn C.; Singh, Rahul; Yoon, Sangyuk; Yoon, Ilmi; Dunne, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding ecological complexity has stymied scientists for decades. Recent elucidation of the famously coined "devious strategies for stability in enduring natural systems" has opened up a new field of computational analyses of complex ecological networks where the nonlinear dynamics of many interacting species can be more realistically mod-eled and understood. Here, we describe the first extension of this field to include coupled human-natural systems. This extension elucidates new strat...

  10. Linkages Between Human Capital and the Environment: Implications for Sustainable Econmic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis reveals that US states with a more highly educated population have better environmental conditions, after controlling for income and industrial composition. The strategy of raising human capital stocks to maintain or improve environmental quality is proposed as a complement, if not an alternative, to direct government intervention which consists of command and control, market incentives and moral suasion. Under this approach, general education becomes the control variabl...

  11. What is an affordance? 40 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François; Rossetti, Yves; Badets, Arnaud

    2017-06-01

    About 40 years ago, James J. Gibson coined the term "affordance" to describe the action possibilities offered to an animal by the environment with reference to the animal's action capabilities. Since then, this notion has acquired a multitude of meanings, generating confusion in the literature. Here, we offer a clear operationalization of the concept of affordances and related concepts in the field of tool use. Our operationalization is organized around the distinction between the physical (what is objectively observable) and neurocognitive (what is subjectively experienced) levels. This leads us to propose that motor control (dorso-dorsal system), mechanical knowledge (ventro-dorsal system) and function knowledge (ventral system) could be neurocognitive systems respectively involved in the perception of affordances, the understanding of mechanical actions and the storage of contextual relationships (three action-system model; 3AS). We end by turning to two key issues that can be addressed within 3AS. These issues concern the link between affordances and tool incorporation, and the constraints posed by affordances for tool use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Building a framework to explore water-human interaction for sustainable agro ecosystems in US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ding, D.; Rapolu, U.

    2012-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. On this context, this team has investigated connections among agriculture, policy, climate, land use/land cover, and water quality in Iowa over the past couple of years. To help explore these connections the team is developing a variety of cyber infrastructure tools that facilitate the collection, analysis and visualization of data, and the simulation of system dynamics. In an ongoing effort, the prototype system is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa in the US Midwest, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. The primary aim of this research is to understand the connections that exist among the agricultural and biofuel economy, land use/land cover change, and water quality. To help explore these connections an agent-based model (ABM) of land use change has been developed that simulates the decisions made by farmers given alternative assumptions about market forces, farmer characteristics, and water quality regulations. The SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of these decisions on the movement of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus across the landscape. The paper also demonstrate how through the use of this system researchers can, for example, search for scenarios that lead to desirable socio-economic outcomes as well as preserve water quantity and quality.

  13. Human resource development – A key factor for the sustainable development of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlat Lame

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the current situation of labor resources in Albania and its trends from the viewpoint of their contributions to the overall country progress. A real partnership between business and public institutions, the efforts to formalize the economy, to promote discipline and better application of international standards are considered key issues for the future country developments. The effective management of human resources and coordination could not be reached without profound structural and economic reforms, without free entrepreneurship initiative encouragement, and without mutual confidence between the employers and the employees.

  14. Affordances for robots: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Horton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the influence of Gibson's affordance theory on the design of robotic agents. Affordance theory (and the ecological approach to agent design in general has in many cases contributed to the development of successful robotic systems; we provide a brief survey of AI research in this area. However, there remain significant issues that complicate discussions on this topic, particularly in the exchange of ideas between researchers in artificial intelligence and ecological psychology. We identify some of these issues, specifically the lack of a generally accepted definition of "affordance" and fundamental differences in the current approaches taken in AI and ecological psychology. While we consider reconciliation between these fields to be possible and mutually beneficial, it will require some flexibility on the issue of direct perception.

  15. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  16. An Activity Theory Approach to Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Trettvik, Johan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the concept of affordance as it was originally introduced by J. J. Gibson, and elaborate on this concept, acknowledging, that the general theoretical landscape in psychology is in fundamental ways different from the situation in which Gibson found himself when he crafted...... the notion. Specifically we will suggest the inclusion of the ecological theory of perception in the paradigm of cultural historical psychology and activity theory developed in the former Soviet Union by most notably Lev Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, A. N. Leontjev and others. It will be suggested, that much...... of the confusion in HCI concerning the concept of affordance is a consequence of the attempt of using it inside a theoretical paradigm that is unable to capture and encompass one of the most essential aspect of Gibsons concept of affordance, that is its foundation in activity...

  17. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-06

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  18. Green materials for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwasasmita, B. S.

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable development is an integrity of multidiscipline concept combining ecological, social and economic aspects to construct a liveable human living system. The sustainable development can be support through the development of green materials. Green materials offers a unique characteristic and properties including abundant in nature, less toxic, economically affordable and versatility in term of physical and chemical properties. Green materials can be applied for a numerous field in science and technology applications including for energy, building, construction and infrastructures, materials science and engineering applications and pollution management and technology. For instance, green materials can be developed as a source for energy production. Green materials including biomass-based source can be developed as a source for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Biomass-based materials also can be transformed into advanced functionalized materials for advanced bio-applications such as the transformation of chitin into chitosan which further used for biomedicine, biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Recently, cellulose-based material and lignocellulose-based materials as a source for the developing functional materials attracted the potential prospect for biomaterials, reinforcing materials and nanotechnology. Furthermore, the development of pigment materials has gaining interest by using the green materials as a source due to their unique properties. Eventually, Indonesia as a large country with a large biodiversity can enhance the development of green material to strengthen our nation competitiveness and develop the materials technology for the future.

  19. [Forum: legitimacy, expansion, and sustainability of Social and Human Sciences in Public Health. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    The Forum debates current trends and challenges for teaching and research in this subfield and the prevailing criteria for evaluation of its academic output. The authors wager on the hypothesis that we are currently experiencing a clash between the consolidation of Social and Human Sciences in Public Health (with a well-defined identity, undeniable vigor in their research and proposals, and an important number of practitioners) and a bottleneck in training processes and iniquity and inadequacy in the institutional mechanisms for recognition of merit. The Forum presents four articles. The first, by Minayo, discusses the basic forms of knowledge for this training and those needed to analyze contemporary challenges in a globalized world, besides debating the interfaces and mediations between the biological and the social in a teaching proposal. The second, by Trad, provides a current portrait of the subfield's output. The third, by Deslandes & Iriart, presents theoretical and methodological trends in recently published studies, identifying their gaps and characteristics. Bosi, author of the fourth article, fuels the debate on the criteria for evaluation of academic output in the field and analyzes their consequences. The Postscript, by Nunes, reclaims and updates the debate on the construction of identities in the social and Human Sciences in Public Health.

  20. Understanding the Structural, Human Resource, Political, and Symbolic Dimensions of Implementing and Sustaining Interprofessional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Tracy J; Peterson, Teri; Neill, Karen; Neill, Mark; Seikel, John A; Lawson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of deans and faculty members of the Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions (ASAHP) concerning the degree to which their institutions implement and integrate the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames or dimensions of interprofessional education (IPE). The study identified correlations among these frames/dimensions, including their relationship with overall IPE program progress and success. This study utilized a nonexperimental comparative descriptive and correlational survey design. The instrument was developed by the researchers and administered online using a readily accessible data collection process. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Content validity and reliability were established prior to full implementation of the survey. Results revealed high levels of interest but lower levels of progress and success in implementing the various frames/dimensions of IPE. Strong correlations existed between the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic dimensions of IPE, and these dimensions individually and collectively predicted overall IPE program progress and success. The differences between interest and performance raised important questions and led to conclusions about leadership effectiveness, organizational clarity, and the process of implementing the organizational change needed for effective IPE at ASAHP institutions.

  1. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  2. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  3. Developments in human growth hormone preparations: sustained-release, prolonged half-life, novel injection devices, and alternative delivery routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yunpeng Cai,1,2 Mingxin Xu,2 Minglu Yuan,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Since the availability of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH enabled the application of human growth hormone both in clinical and research use in the 1980s, millions of patients were prescribed a daily injection of rhGH, but noncompliance rates were high. To address the problem of noncompliance, numerous studies have been carried out, involving: sustained-release preparations, prolonged half-life derivatives, new injectors that cause less pain, and other noninvasive delivery methods such as intranasal, pulmonary and transdermal deliveries. Some accomplishments have been made and launched already, such as the Nutropin Depot® microsphere and injectors (Zomajet®, Serojet®, and NordiFlex®. Here, we provide a review of the different technologies and illustrate the key points of these studies to achieve an improved rhGH product. Keywords: intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, microsphere, microneedle, hydrogel

  4. Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2004-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a long-term program to develop human-robot systems for sustained, affordable space exploration. To support this mission, we are working to improve human-robot interaction and performance on planetary surfaces. Rather than building robots that function as glorified tools, our focus is to enable humans and robots to work as partners and peers. In this paper. we describe our approach, which includes contextual dialogue, cognitive modeling, and metrics-based field testing.

  5. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  6. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  7. Health human resource planning in Barbados and the eastern Caribbean states: a matter of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B J; Kissoon, N; Syed, N; Fraser, H S

    2008-12-01

    Health and Human Resources (HHR) are very important issues to be considered in healthcare services. While various factors may be of greater significance in one area depending on resources, priorities and stage of economic development, a robust HHR plan is important in all cases. There are many factors such as demographic shifts, changing delivery models, consumer expectations, global shortages and financial restraints that must be considered in proper HHR planning. This manuscript summarizes some of the factors that should be considered and some of the short comings of current HHR planning approaches. Based on our review and experience, we developed a framework for HHR planning and apply the framework to Barbados to try to identify the existing challenges and issues and potential areas for staff and training investments.

  8. The Market and Institutional Value Attachments to Sustainable Return of Human Capital to Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar BOZIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the main characteristics of potentials and challenges of the brain grain process in a post conflict and transitional situation, by reflecting the various views and perspectives of the relevant stakeholders in the field o migration from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. The focus is on highly skilled tertiary graduates’ returnees from BiH and the assessment of their skills and knowledge recognition within the labour market and public administration. The study concludes that even though it has been widely estimated that advanced countries can significantly benefit regarding country's productivity from temporary movements of tertiary migrants, societies that challenge serious human capital flow can negatively value the potential benefits of the highly skilled returnees, while their advanced skills and knowledge most likely remains unrecognized.

  9. Sustained postinfarction myocardial oedema in humans visualised by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, J C; Nielsen, G; Grønning, Bjørn Aaris

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate postinfarction myocardial oedema in humans with particular reference to the longitudinal course, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. Subjects were studied one week, one month, three months, six months, and one year after...... presenting with a myocardial infarct. SETTING: Cardiology and magnetic resonance departments in a Danish university hospital. PATIENTS: 10 patients (three women, seven men), mean (SEM) age 58.2 (3.20) years, with a first transmural myocardial infarct. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Location and duration...... of postinfarction myocardial oedema. RESULTS: All patients had signs of postinfarction myocardial oedema. The magnetic resonance images were evaluated by two blinded procedures, employing two MRI and two ECG observers: (1) MRI determined oedema location was compared with the ECG determined site of infarction...

  10. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised? © 2013

  11. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  12. Organizational Media Affordances : Operationalization and Associations with Media Use

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Ronald E.; Evans, Sandra K.; Pearce, Katy E.; Sivunen, Anu; Vitak, Jessica; Treem, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of affordances has been increasingly applied to the study of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in organizational contexts. However, almost no research operationalizes affordances, limiting comparisons and programmatic research. This article briefly reviews conceptualizations and possibilities of affordances in general and for media, then introduces the concept of organizational media affordances as organizational resources. Analysis of survey data from a large Nord...

  13. Affordances and Landscapes: Overcoming the Nature–Culture Dichotomy through Niche Construction Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Escribano, Manuel; De Pinedo-García, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we reject the nature–culture dichotomy by means of the idea of affordance or possibility for action, which has important implications for landscape theory. Our hypothesis is that, just as the idea of affordance can serve to overcome the subjective–objective dichotomy, the ideas of landscape and ecological niche, properly defined, would allow us to also transcend the nature–culture dichotomy. First, we introduce an overview of landscape theory, emphasizing processual landscape theory as the most suitable approach for satisfying both cultural and naturalist approaches. After that, we introduce the idea of affordance and we analyze a tension between sociocultural and transcultural affordances (affordances that depend on cultural conventions and affordances that depend on lawful information and bodily aspects of agents). This tension has various implications for landscape theory and ecological niches. Our proposal is that sociocultural and transcultural aspects of affordances could be systematically accommodated if we apply niche construction theory (the theory that explains the process by which organisms modify their selective environments) as a methodological framework for explaining the emergence of ecological niches. This approach will lead us to an integrative account of landscapes as the products of the interaction between human and environmental elements, making it a clear example of a concept that transcends the nature–culture dichotomy. PMID:29375426

  14. Affordances and Landscapes: Overcoming the Nature-Culture Dichotomy through Niche Construction Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Escribano, Manuel; De Pinedo-García, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we reject the nature-culture dichotomy by means of the idea of affordance or possibility for action, which has important implications for landscape theory. Our hypothesis is that, just as the idea of affordance can serve to overcome the subjective-objective dichotomy, the ideas of landscape and ecological niche, properly defined, would allow us to also transcend the nature-culture dichotomy. First, we introduce an overview of landscape theory, emphasizing processual landscape theory as the most suitable approach for satisfying both cultural and naturalist approaches. After that, we introduce the idea of affordance and we analyze a tension between sociocultural and transcultural affordances (affordances that depend on cultural conventions and affordances that depend on lawful information and bodily aspects of agents). This tension has various implications for landscape theory and ecological niches. Our proposal is that sociocultural and transcultural aspects of affordances could be systematically accommodated if we apply niche construction theory (the theory that explains the process by which organisms modify their selective environments) as a methodological framework for explaining the emergence of ecological niches. This approach will lead us to an integrative account of landscapes as the products of the interaction between human and environmental elements, making it a clear example of a concept that transcends the nature-culture dichotomy.

  15. The dynamic influence of human resources on evidence-based intervention sustainability and population outcomes: an agent-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Virginia R; Hoffer, Lee D; Combs, Todd B; Margaret Dolcini, M

    2018-06-05

    Sustaining evidence-based interventions (EBIs) is an ongoing challenge for dissemination and implementation science in public health and social services. Characterizing the relationship among human resource capacity within an agency and subsequent population outcomes is an important step to improving our understanding of how EBIs are sustained. Although human resource capacity and population outcomes are theoretically related, examining them over time within real-world experiments is difficult. Simulation approaches, especially agent-based models, offer advantages that complement existing methods. We used an agent-based model to examine the relationships among human resources, EBI delivery, and population outcomes by simulating provision of an EBI through a hypothetical agency and its staff. We used data from existing studies examining a widely implemented HIV prevention intervention to inform simulation design, calibration, and validity. Once we developed a baseline model, we used the model as a simulated laboratory by systematically varying three human resource variables: the number of staff positions, the staff turnover rate, and timing in training. We tracked the subsequent influence on EBI delivery and the level of population risk over time to describe the overall and dynamic relationships among these variables. Higher overall levels of human resource capacity at an agency (more positions) led to more extensive EBI delivery over time and lowered population risk earlier in time. In simulations representing the typical human resource investments, substantial influences on population risk were visible after approximately 2 years and peaked around 4 years. Human resources, especially staff positions, have an important impact on EBI sustainability and ultimately population health. A minimum level of human resources based on the context (e.g., size of the initial population and characteristics of the EBI) is likely needed for an EBI to have a meaningful impact on

  16. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  17. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  18. Can Facebook Aid Sustainability? An Investigation of Empathy Expression within the Humans of New York Blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wheeler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study offers a novel exploration of the links between social media, virtual intergroup contact, and empathy by examining how empathy is expressed through interactions on a popular social media blog. Global leaders are encouraging individuals to engage in behaviors and support policies that provide basic social foundations. It is difficult to motivate people to undertake such actions. However, research shows that empathy intensifies motivation to help others. It can cause individuals to see the world from the perspective of stigmatized group members and increase positive feelings. Social media offers a new pathway for virtual intergroup contact, providing opportunities to increase conversation about disadvantaged others and empathy. We examined expressions of empathy within a popular blog, Humans of New York (HONY, and engaged in purposeful case selection by focusing on (1 events where specific prosocial action was taken corresponding to interactions on the HONY blog and (2 presentation of people in countries other than the United States. Nine overarching themes; (1 perspective taking, (2 fantasy, (3 empathic concern, (4 personal distress, (5 relatability, (6 prosocial action, (7 community appreciation, (8 anti-empathy, and (9 rejection of anti-empathy, exemplify how the HONY community expresses and shares empathic thoughts and feelings.

  19. Human Resources Capacity Building as a Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability in the Experimental Fuel Element Installation of BATAN-Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratih Langenati; Bambang, Herutomo; Arief Sasongko Adhi

    2014-01-01

    Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability: • In order to maintain human resources capacity related to nuclear fuel production technology, a nuclear knowledge preservation program is implemented in the EFEI. • The program includes coaching/training, mentoring and documenting important knowledge. • The program activities are monitored and evaluated quarterly for its improvement in the following year

  20. Serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development. Scientific forum during the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Programme and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this year's Scientific Forum is to increase Member States' awareness that technical co-operation in non-power applications can produce cost-effective solutions to high-priority problems of sustainable development. The major themes covered include nuclear applications in food production and preservation, human and animal health, pest control and eradication

  1. Serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development. Scientific forum during the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Programme and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this year's Scientific Forum is to increase Member States' awareness that technical co-operation in non-power applications can produce cost-effective solutions to high-priority problems of sustainable development. The major themes covered include nuclear applications in food production and preservation, human and animal health, pest control and eradication.

  2. Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Community Sustainability Study Focuses on Tying the Science of Ecosystem Services and Human Health Directly to Community Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community-based Sustainability Research Program in EPA’s Office of Research and Development is studying how the availability of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) is impacted by community decision making and how this relationship alters human wellbeing. We also seek ‘common g...

  3. PDZ domain-binding motif of Tax sustains T-cell proliferation in HTLV-1-infected humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesi, Maria; Jalinot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive malignant proliferation of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. The viral Tax oncoprotein is critically involved in both HTLV-1-replication and T-cell proliferation, a prerequisite to the development of ATLL. In this study, we investigated the in vivo contribution of the Tax PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) to the lymphoproliferative process. To that aim, we examined T-cell proliferation in humanized mice (hu-mice) carrying a human hemato-lymphoid system infected with either a wild type (WT) or a Tax PBM-deleted (ΔPBM) provirus. We observed that the frequency of CD4+ activated T-cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen was significantly higher in WT than in ΔPBM hu-mice. Likewise, human T-cells collected from WT hu-mice and cultivated in vitro in presence of interleukin-2 were proliferating at a higher level than those from ΔPBM animals. We next examined the association of Tax with the Scribble PDZ protein, a prominent regulator of T-cell polarity, in human T-cells analyzed either after ex vivo isolation or after in vitro culture. We confirmed the interaction of Tax with Scribble only in T-cells from the WT hu-mice. This association correlated with the presence of both proteins in aggregates at the leading edge of the cells and with the formation of long actin filopods. Finally, data from a comparative genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggested that the PBM-PDZ association is implicated in the expression of genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal organization. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Tax PBM is an auxiliary motif that contributes to the sustained growth of HTLV-1 infected T-cells in vivo and in vitro and is essential to T-cell immortalization. PMID:29566098

  4. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  5. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-01

    for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount

  6. Housing Affordability And Children's Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sandra; Holupka, C Scott

    2016-11-01

    Housing cost burden-the fraction of income spent on housing-is the most prevalent housing problem affecting the healthy development of millions of low- and moderate-income children. By affecting disposable income, a high burden affects parents' expenditures on both necessities for and enrichment of their children, as well as investments in their children. Reducing those expenditures and investments, in turn, can affect children's development, including their cognitive skills and physical, social, and emotional health. This article summarizes the first empirical evidence of the effects of housing affordability on children's cognitive achievement and on one factor that appears to contribute to these effects: the larger expenditures on child enrichment by families in affordable housing. We found that housing cost burden has the same relationship to both children's cognitive achievement and enrichment spending on children, exhibiting an inverted U shape in both cases. The maximum benefit occurs when housing cost burden is near 30 percent of income-the long-standing rule-of-thumb definition of affordable housing. The effect of the burden is stronger on children's math ability than on their reading comprehension and is more pronounced with burdens above the 30 percent standard. For enrichment spending, the curve is "shallower" (meaning the effect of optimal affordability is less pronounced) but still significant. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  8. Affordability Constraints in Major Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    memo, does not provide a detailed recipe for those who must produce quantitative affordability constraints. Enclosure 8 of the January 7, 2015 version...3.0’s full title includes “Achieving Dominant Capabilities 2015 Lot 2028 Lot 2038 Lot $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $ 500 $600 $700 $800 $900 0 10000 20000

  9. The Affordances of Social Media Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucher, T.; Helmond, A.; Burgess, J.; Marwick, A.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter reflects on the concept of affordance as a key term for understanding and analysing social media interfaces and the relations between technology and its users. In outlining its specific intellectual trajectory from psychology, to technology and design studies, sociology, and

  10. Towards Affordable Disclosure of Spoken Word Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Larson, M; Fernie, K; Oomen, J; Cigarran, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken word archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, the least we want to be

  11. Towards Affordable Disclosure of Spoken Heritage Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Fernie, K; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Oomen, J; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken heritage archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, we at least want to

  12. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  13. Linking human capital and enterprise sustainability in Indonesian medium-sized food manufacturing enterprises: the role of informal knowledge sharing practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, O.

    2017-12-01

    Medium-sized food manufacturing enterprises in Indonesia are significant in a number of contexts, in terms of their part to the national production (GDP) and their establishment to the employment. In term of their role to national production, manufacturing sector contributes the highest GDP by 85%. In this sector, food manufacturing subsector contributes the highest GDP. Nevertheless, they faced the same common problems: quality of human capital and sustainability issues. Previous government supplementary programs have been established to expand the human capital capability amongst medium enterprises. Adequate amount of fund has been apportioned to develop human capital, though, the medium enterprises sustainability is still in question. This study proposes and examines the human capital role from informal knowledge sharing perspective. By conducting qualitative approach through interviews to four informants in Indonesian medium-sized food manufacturing enterprises, a set of hypotheses is derived from this study for future quantitative study. This study indicates that human capital traits (diverse education background, employee skills, and employee experience) could leverage the practice of informal knowledge sharing. Constructs such as mutual trust and reciprocal intention could play as mediating variables, and cultural interpretation perspective could act as moderating factor to informal knowledge sharing effectiveness. In final, informal knowledge sharing is indicated to play as moderating variable for human capital policy and practice to support enterprise sustainability.

  14. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  15. An Investigation Into Design Criteria for Affordable Housing Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdul Lateef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable housing provision constitutes a very large scheme in any countries due to income distribution and national development. The supply of housing depends on many activities and processes. The purpose of the houses is to meet the requirement of the householders therefore design criteria must address the users’ requirements. The establishment of the design criteria constitutes an important activity at the initial phase of the housing development. The design criteria are prepared by the design team in collaboration with many stakeholders especially the householders. Housinsg design criteria are the requirements that must be considered prior to construction of the housing. Lack of adequate information on the design criteria would lead to poor householders’ satisfactions, increase in maintenance cost, abandonments and completed but not occupy housing. In Malaysia, many of these consequences are prevalent. However, while information on the house owners’ requirements is inconclusive, this current research set out to investigate the design criteria of affordable housing. The increase in the affordable housing gap in Malaysia can be reduced if the designers have a comprehensive understanding of users’ requirements and the design criteria. Through a cross sectional survey questionnaire, comprising 25 criteria, 7 criteria were found to be extremely critical. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy indicated that the strength of the relationships among variables was strong (KMO =0.716. Bartlett’s test of sphericity, which tests the overall significance of all the correlations within the correlation matrix, was significant χ2 (325 = 1825.075, p<0.001, indicating the data were drawn from the same population and that the criteria were related.Sustainability considerations are now being considered by the providers of affordable housing. Deductively, the results lead to the conclusion that a major factor responsible for the poor

  16. Closing the Communal Gap: The Importance of Communal Affordances in Science Career Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Thoman, Dustin B; Smith, Jessi L; Diekman, Amanda B

    2015-12-01

    To remain competitive in the global economy, the United States (and other countries) is trying to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by graduating an additional 1 million people in STEM fields by 2018. Although communion (working with, helping, and caring for others) is a basic human need, STEM careers are often (mis)perceived as being uncommunal. Across three naturalistic studies we found greater support for the communal affordance hypothesis, that perceiving STEM careers as affording greater communion is associated with greater STEM career interest, than two alternative hypotheses derived from goal congruity theory. Importantly, these findings held regardless of major (Study 1), college enrollment (Study 2), and gender (Studies 1-3). For undergraduate research assistants, mid-semester beliefs that STEM affords communion predicted end of the semester STEM motivation (Study 3). Our data highlight the importance of educational and workplace motivational interventions targeting communal affordances beliefs about STEM.

  17. Leveraging the Affordances of the Emerging 3d Internet for Entrepreneurial ”Next Practices”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Flåten, Bjørn-Tore

    ” for entrepreneurial practices? Our second research question focuses on understanding how entrepreneurs utilize their social networks. Our approach to entrepreneurship is social-- concerned with the dynamics of social interactions and networked information ecology. Methods We are currently conducting 10 case studies...... for entrepreneurship. Unfortunately, the literature offers sparse knowledge at the industry level. There is a lack of overview regarding 3D Internet entrepreneurship practices and the real challenges faced by entrepreneurs. In this study, we explore the potential as well as the hindrances to new venture creation...... related to the 3D Internet. Our theoretical basis is affordances, or the material and social properties of any technology in relation to affording actions by humans. Our first research question focuses on the perception of affordances by entrepreneurs: what does the 3D Internet offer or afford as a “space...

  18. Tools and approaches to operationalize the commitment to equity, gender and human rights: towards leaving no one behind in the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Gerardo; Koller, Theadora Swift; Thomas, Rebekah; Manandhar, Mary; Lustigova, Eva; Diop, Adama; Magar, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present specific resources developed by the World Health Organization on equity, gender and human rights in order to support Member States in operationalizing their commitment to leave no one behind in the health Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and other health-related goals and targets. The resources cover: (i) health inequality monitoring; (ii) barrier analysis using mixed methods; (iii) human rights monitoring; (iv) leaving no one behind in national and subnational health sector planning; and (v) equity, gender and human rights in national health programme reviews. Examples of the application of the tools in a range of country contexts are provided for each resource.

  19. Cortical processing of object affordances for self and others’ action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMaranesi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of objects does not rely only on visual brain areas, but also involves cortical motor regions. In particular, different parietal and premotor areas host neurons discharging during both object observation and grasping. Most of these cells often show similar visual and motor selectivity for a specific object (or set of objects, suggesting that they might play a crucial role in representing the potential motor act afforded by the object. The existence of such a mechanism for the visuomotor transformation of object physical properties in the most appropriate motor plan for interacting with them has been convincingly demonstrated in humans as well. Interestingly, human studies have shown that visually presented objects can automatically trigger the representation of an action provided that they are located within the observer’s reaching space (peripersonal space. The affordance effect also occurs when the presented object is outside the observer’s peripersonal space, but inside the peripersonal space of an observed agent. These findings recently received direct support by single neuron studies in monkey, indicating that space-constrained processing of objects in the ventral premotor cortex might be relevant to represent objects as potential targets for one’s own or others' action.

  20. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  1. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  2. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaprutko

    Full Text Available Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient. Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies.Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17 and Croatia (EUR 132.77 in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg. Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53 than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26.Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  3. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  4. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic; Mantel, Bruno; Boulanger, Jérémie; Hérault, Romain; Dicks, Matt

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale), as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i) a horizontal-edge route (H) was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii) a vertical-edge route (V) afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii), a double-edge route (D) was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU) (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer) were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector) of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion), hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion), hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion) and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion). Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D route

  5. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i a horizontal-edge route (H was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii a vertical-edge route (V afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii, a double-edge route (D was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion, hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion, hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion. Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D

  6. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  7. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  8. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  9. Experiments on affordance in the journal "ecological psychology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trettvik, Johan

    2009-01-01

    There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances.......There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances....

  10. Aldo van Eyck’s Playgrounds: Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Withagen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck’s play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child. Whereas a slide or a swing almost dictates what a child is supposed to do, van Eyck’s play equipment invites the child to actively explore the numerous affordances (action possibilities it provided. However, it is argued that the standardization (e.g., equal distances between blocks or bars that tends to characterize van Eyck’ play equipment has negative effects on the playability. This standardization, which was arguably the result of the aesthetic motives of the designer, might be appealing to children when simply looking at the equipment, but it is not of overriding importance to them when playing in it. Indeed, a recent study indicates that the affordances provided by messy structures appear to have a greater appeal to playing children.

  11. Analyzing the Concept of Planetary Boundaries from a Strategic Sustainability Perspective: How Does Humanity Avoid Tipping the Planet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Henrik Robèrt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an approach for global sustainability, the planetary-boundary approach (PBA, has been proposed, which combines the concept of tipping points with global-scale sustainability indicators. The PBA could represent a significant step forward in monitoring and managing known and suspected global sustainability criteria. However, as the authors of the PBA describe, the approach faces numerous and fundamental challenges that must be addressed, including successful identification of key global sustainability metrics and their tipping points, as well as the coordination of systemic individual and institutional actions that are required to address the sustainability challenges highlighted. We apply a previously published framework for systematic and strategic development toward a robust basic definition of sustainability, i.e., the framework for strategic sustainable development (FSSD, to improve and inform the PBA. The FSSD includes basic principles for sustainability, and logical guidelines for how to approach their fulfillment. It is aimed at preventing unsustainable behavior at both the micro, e.g., individual firm, and macro, i.e., global, levels, even when specific global sustainability symptoms and metrics are not yet well understood or even known. Whereas the PBA seeks to estimate how far the biosphere can be driven away from a "normal" or "natural" state before tipping points are reached, because of ongoing violations of basic sustainability principles, the FSSD allows for individual planners to move systematically toward sustainability before all impacts from not doing so, or their respective tipping points, are known. Critical weaknesses in the PBA can, thus, be overcome by a combined approach, significantly increasing both the applicability and efficacy of the PBA, as well as informing strategies developed in line with the FSSD, e.g., by providing a "global warning system" to help prioritize strategic actions highlighted by the FSSD

  12. Sustainability, capitalism and evolution: Nature conservation is not a matter of maintaining human development and welfare in a healthy environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rull, Valentí

    2011-01-01

    Capitalism and sustainable development are mutually exclusive. To protect the environment we need to develop alternative economic systems, even if some predict the next man-made mass extinction is already inevitable.

  13. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability.Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland.Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland.Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker.Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage.Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  14. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage. Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  15. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Close interpersonal proximity modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Elizabeth J; Szpak, Ancret; Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that the human brain codes manipulable objects as possibilities for action, or affordances, particularly objects close to the body. Near-body space is not only a zone for body-environment interaction but also is socially relevant, as we are driven to preserve our near-body, personal space from others. The current, novel study investigated how close proximity of a stranger modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. Participants performed a behavioural object recognition task both alone and with a human confederate. All object images were in participants' reachable space but appeared relatively closer to the participant or the confederate. Results revealed when participants were alone, objects in both locations produced an affordance congruency effect but when the confederate was present, only objects nearer the participant elicited the effect. Findings suggest space is divided between strangers to preserve independent near-body space boundaries, and in turn this process influences motor coding for stimuli within that social space. To demonstrate that this visuomotor modulation represents a social phenomenon, rather than a general, attentional effect, two subsequent experiments employed nonhuman joint conditions. Neither a small, Japanese, waving cat statue (Experiment 2) nor a metronome (Experiment 3) modulated the affordance effect as in Experiment 1. These findings suggest a truly social explanation of the key interaction from Experiment 1. This study represents an important step toward understanding object affordance processing in real-world, social contexts and has implications broadly across fields of social action and cognition, and body space representation.

  17. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  18. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  19. What are the affordances of information and communication technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grainne Conole

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the notion that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT have affordances that epitomize the features of our late modern age (Giddens, 1991 and explores whether these affordances (Salomon, 1993, p. 51 can be used to facilitate particular approaches to educational practice. It argues that a clear articulation of these affordances would enable us to understand how these technologies can be most effectively used to support learning and teaching. We believe that any one affordance can be considered to have both positive and negative connotations and the paper draws on social and educational theory to provide an initial taxonomy of these affordances.

  20. eSIP-Saúde: Mozambique's novel approach for a sustainable human resources for health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Mazivila, Moises Ernesto; Dgedge, Martinho; Necochea, Edgar; Manharlal, Devan; Zuber, Alexandra; de Faria Leão, Beatriz; Bossemeyer, Debora; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2016-11-05

    Over the past decade, governments and international partners have responded to calls for health workforce data with ambitious investments in human resources information systems (HRIS). However, documentation of country experiences in the use of HRIS to improve strategic planning and management has been lacking. The purpose of this case presentation is to document for the first time Mozambique's novel approach to HRIS, sharing key success factors and contributing to the scant global knowledge base on HRIS. Core components of the system are a Government of Mozambique (GOM) registry covering all workers in the GOM payroll and a "health extension" which adds health-sector-specific data to the GOM registry. Separate databases for pre-service and in-service training are integrated through a business intelligence tool. The first aim of the HRIS was to identify the following: who and where are Mozambique's health workers? As of July 2015, 95 % of countrywide health workforce deployment information was populated in the HRIS, allowing the identification of health professionals' physical working location and their pay point. HRIS data are also used to quantify chronic issues affecting the Ministry of Health (MOH) health workforce. Examples include the following: HRIS information was used to examine the deployment of nurses trained in antiretroviral therapy (ART) vis-à-vis the health facilities where ART is being provided. Such results help the MOH align specialized skill sets with service provision. Twenty-five percent of the MOH health workforce had passed the 2-year probation period but had not been updated in the MOH information systems. For future monitoring of employee status, the MOH established a system of alerts in semi-monthly reports. As of August 2014, 1046 health workers were receiving their full salary but no longer working at the facilities. The MOH is now analyzing this situation to improve the retirement process and coordination with Social Security. The

  1. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ian eMcGregor; Joseph eHayes; Mike ePrentice; Mike ePrentice

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxi...

  2. 78 FR 32991 - Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 433 [CMS-2327-CN] RIN 0938-AR38 Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS...

  3. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 147, 155 and 156 [CMS-9945-IFC] RIN 0938-AS17 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities AGENCY... meeting the size standards of the Small Business Administration (SBA); (2) a not-for-profit organization...

  4. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed...

  5. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  6. Sustainable building organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable Development and Sustainable Building is mainly a question of (human) environmentally-conscious Organisation and Management Criteria are needed in order to capture the best practices in the field. Therefore we developed modells and methods, which help to choose the most adequate

  7. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  8. Wrapping Our Brains around Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Curran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As many of us begin to embrace the concept of sustainability, we realize that it is not simply something that we ‘do.’ Rather, sustainability is a destination that we aspire to reach with the selection of the sustainable pathways that we choose as we proceed along the journey. We are embarking on a new journey with the creation of Sustainability, an on-line, open access journal. As stated on the journal’s website, Sustainability is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies that are related to sustainability and sustainable development. To genuinely wrap our brains around the impact that our actions have on the sustainability of our planet, we must first understand something of the big picture and have a firm grasp of the terminology. To help further clarify the elusive term ‘sustainability,’ without attempting to provide an exact definition, this paper outlines various, inter-related concepts and basic practices and approaches that are being used in the name of sustainability, including: traditional end-of-pipe control strategies, life cycle, environmental sustainability, urban sustainability, industrial ecology, business sustainability, sustainable supply chain systems, sustainability indicators and metrics, green chemistry and green engineering, design for the environment, sustainable buildings, eco-tourism, and renewable and sustainable energy and fuels.

  9. AN UNCERTAIN FEDERALISM: THE STATES AND THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, L Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial assessment of the Affordable Care Act's recent implementation experience in the states. Drawing on state-level and regional analyses that have been coordinated by the ACA Implementation Network--a cooperative effort involving researchers in 35 states--this article highlights the uncertain policy environment associated with the politics and complexities of the ACA. Understanding the ACA implementation experience requires an appreciation for political context, but must also take into account underlying demographic, market, and state administrative capacity issues in the states. There are indications that the ACA implementation experience is moving from a highly charged partisan nature to a more accommodating posture long associated with intergovernmental relations between the federal and state government in health and human services administration. In short, the key questions going forward will turn on how, not whether, the ACA is implemented.

  10. Beneficial Effects of a Dietary Weight Loss Intervention on Human Gut Microbiome Diversity and Metabolism Are Not Sustained during Weight Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Fangmann, Daniela; Müller, Nike; Schulte, Dominik M; Rühlemann, Malte C; Türk, Kathrin; Settgast, Ute; Lieb, Wolfgang; Baines, John F; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Laudes, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD)-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0.047). The VLCD resulted in significant alterations in gut microbiome diversity from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.0053). Acinetobacter represented an indicator species for the observed effect (indicator value = 0.998, p = 0.006). Metabolic analyses revealed alterations of the bacterial riboflavin pathway from baseline to 3 months (pnom = 0.0078). These changes in diversity and bacterial metabolism induced by VLCD diminished during the weight maintenance phase, despite sustained reductions in body weight and sustained improvements of insulin sensitivity. The present data show that a VLCD is able to beneficially alter both gut microbiome diversity and metabolism in obese humans, but that these changes are not sustained during weight maintenance. This finding might suggest that the microbiome should be targeted during obesity programs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Beneficial Effects of a Dietary Weight Loss Intervention on Human Gut Microbiome Diversity and Metabolism Are Not Sustained during Weight Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke-Anouska Heinsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods: Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Results: At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0.047. The VLCD resulted in significant alterations in gut microbiome diversity from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.0053. Acinetobacter represented an indicator species for the observed effect (indicator value = 0.998, p = 0.006. Metabolic analyses revealed alterations of the bacterial riboflavin pathway from baseline to 3 months (pnom = 0.0078. These changes in diversity and bacterial metabolism induced by VLCD diminished during the weight maintenance phase, despite sustained reductions in body weight and sustained improvements of insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: The present data show that a VLCD is able to beneficially alter both gut microbiome diversity and metabolism in obese humans, but that these changes are not sustained during weight maintenance. This finding might suggest that the microbiome should be targeted during obesity programs.

  12. The challenge of making nuclear technologies acceptable, accessible and affordable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is more than five decades since the first successful demonstration of nuclear power for commercial electricity production. The same decades have also seen the successful demonstration of several other applications of nuclear technologies that can contribute directly to human development, as for example, in the Food and Agriculture, Human and animal Health, Environment and Water sectors. In spite of several successful demonstrations and applications in these fields, it is somewhat strange that their full potential is yet to be realized. More importantly, their availability to populations across the world is highly skewed. Three barriers have been identified for the wide spread use of nuclear technologies for development- Acceptability, Accessibility and Affordability. It is an unfortunate twist of fate that the first public demonstration of nuclear technology was its destructive power. The following demonization of anything nuclear was further compounded by the discussions on the unresolved questions on tackling long lived radioactive wastes, our inability to arrive at a global consensus on nuclear disarmament and issues of nuclear proliferation. These have certainly had a negative impact on the public acceptance of nuclear technologies across the board. While the recent concerns on the global climate change following the emission of carbon-di-oxide from excessive hydrocarbon burning for meeting our increasing energy needs have revived the interest in nuclear energy, a lot needs to be done to de-demonize nuclear technologies in public mind leading to increased acceptance of nuclear technologies for development. Lack of resources, infrastructure and trained man power also have a negative impact on the accessibility and affordability of the nuclear technologies for development. It is argued that only education holds the key for this. The role of international partnerships is also highlighted in realizing the full potential of nuclear technologies for

  13. Sustainable Elastomers from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-07-18

    further explored to enhance the overall sustainability. Isoprene polymers were grafted from a cellulosic backbone to afford Cell-g-polyisoprene copolymers. Via cross-linking of these graft copolymers, human-skin-mimic elastomers and high resilient elastomers with a well-defined network structure were achieved. The mechanical properties of these resilient elastomers could be finely controlled by tuning the cellulose content. As isoprene can be produced by engineering of microorganisms, these elastomers could be a renewable alternative to petroleum products. In summary, triblock copolymer and graft copolymer TPEs with biomass components, skin-mimic elastomers, high resilient biobased elastomers, and engineering of macromolecular architectures for elastomers are discussed. These approaches and design provide us knowledge on the potential to make sustainable elastomers for various applications to compete with petroleum-based counterparts.

  14. Accounting for Human Health and Ecosystems Quality in Developing Sustainable Energy Products: The Implications of Wood Biomass-based Electricity Strategies to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldu, Yemane W.

    The prospect for transitions and transformations in the energy sector to mitigate climate change raises concerns that actions should not shift the impacts from one impact category to another, or from one sustainability domain to another. Although the development of renewables mostly results in low environmental impacts, energy strategies are complex and may result in the shifting of impacts. Strategies to climate change mitigation could have potentially large effects on human health and ecosystems. Exposure to air pollution claimed the lives of about seven million people worldwide in 2010, largely from the combustion of solid fuels. The degradation of ecosystem services is a significant barrier to achieving millennium development goals. This thesis quantifies the biomass resources potential for Alberta; presents a user-friendly and sector-specific framework for sustainability assessment; unlocks the information and policy barriers to biomass integration in energy strategy; introduces new perspectives to improve understanding of the life cycle human health and ecotoxicological effects of energy strategies; provides insight regarding the guiding measures that are required to ensure sustainable bioenergy production; validates the utility of the Environmental Life Cycle Cost framework for economic sustainability assessment; and provides policy-relevant societal cost estimates to demonstrate the importance of accounting for human health and ecosystem externalities in energy planning. Alberta is endowed with a wealth of forest and agricultural biomass resources, estimated at 458 PJ of energy. Biomass has the potential to avoid 11-15% of GHG emissions and substitute 14-17% of final energy demand by 2030. The drivers for integrating bioenergy sources into Alberta's energy strategy are economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation policy objectives. Bioenergy pathways significantly improved both human health and ecosystem quality from coal

  15. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    and gastroduodenal motility after a meal. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each subject ingested 40 mg isosorbide dinitrate orally as a sustained-release formulation or oral placebo, in random order. Gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility were...... consecutive 15-min periods. A 40 mg single dose of sustained-released isosorbide dinitrate does not seem to alter gastric emptying or gastroduodenal motility after a meal.......Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying...

  16. A Prototype using Territories and an Affordance Tree for Social Simulation Gameplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishauser, Tilman; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Nelson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Smart objects are a representation strategy for games and virtual worlds, in which information about object interac- tions is distributed into the ob jects themselves: an ob ject knows how it can be used, what kinds of effects it has, etc. In this work, we describe a prototype that aims to explore...... so- cial simulation using smart objects. We extend the concept of smart objects to include a model of human behavior with regard to territoriality. To manage complexity in worlds with many such objects we employ a tree structure, which we call an Affordance Tree. The Affordance Tree allows...

  17. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    , supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...

  18. Sustainable development. Uncertain futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Ch.; Sciama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The last 30 years show that the human being did not dominate the Nature. After an introduction on the historical relations between the human and the environment, the authors present the different research ways (irrigation with recovery, renewable energies, new agriculture,...). They show that science is not always the enemy of the sustainable development. The third part presents the constraints that the society puts on the way of the sustainable development, which explain the limitations of the progress. (A.L.B.)

  19. Technology scale and supply chains in a secure, affordable and low carbon energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy systems need to decarbonise, provide security and remain affordable. • There is uncertainty over which technologies will best enable this to happen. • A strategy to deal with uncertainty is to assess a technologies ability to show resilience, flexibility and adaptability. • Scale is important and smaller scale technologies are like to display the above characteristics. • Smaller scale technologies are therefore more likely to enable a sustainable, secure, and affordable energy transition. - Abstract: This research explores the relationship between technology scale, energy security and decarbonisation within the UK energy system. There is considerable uncertainty about how best to deliver on these goals for energy policy, but a focus on supply chains and their resilience can provide useful insights into the problems uncertainty causes. Technology scale is central to this, and through an analysis of the supply chains of nuclear power and solar photovoltaics, it is suggested that smaller scale technologies are more likely to support and enable a secure, low carbon energy transition. This is because their supply chains are less complex, show more flexibility and adaptability, and can quickly respond to changes within an energy system, and as such they are more resilient than large scale technologies. These characteristics are likely to become increasingly important in a rapidly changing energy system, and prioritising those technologies that demonstrate resilience, flexibility and adaptability will better enable a transition that is rapid, sustainable, secure and affordable

  20. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  1. Visual Descriptor Learning for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang

    2016-01-01

    by the task of grasping unknown objects given visual sensor information. The contributions from this thesis stem from three works that all relate to the task of grasping unknown objects but with particular focus on the visual representation part of the problem. First an investigation of a visual feature space...... consisting of surface features was performed. Dimensions in the visual space were varied and the effects were evaluated with the task of grasping unknown object. The evaluation was performed using a novel probabilistic grasp prediction approach based on neighbourhood analysis. The resulting success......-rates for predicting grasps were between 75% and 90% depending on the object class. The investigations also provided insights into the importance of selecting a proper visual feature space when utilising it for predicting affordances. As a consequence of the gained insights, a semi-local surface feature, the Sliced...

  2. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  3. Incentives and market development to establish sustainable biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson Gary, C.

    2009-01-01

    Business-as-usual is not acceptable when it comes to the future for biomass-to-energy/product conversion industry. Incentives and market development need to be applied to guide the owners and operators towards the sustainable practices. Sustainability for biomass is defined to be future energy fuels and bio products that are secure, renewable, and accessible locally, affordable, and pollution free. Intensives are required to convert biomass-to-energy/product conversion systems that are not sustainable into sustainable formats. (Author)

  4. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  5. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  6. 'Als het getij verloopt, verzet men de bakens'. Sustainable employability policy as being part of Strategic Human Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Ageing and dejuvenization of the working population urge us to pay directed attention to sustainable employability policy as being part of Strategic HRM. In this shortened version of my inaugural lecture, a positive psychological approach is used to deal with the possibilities both employees and

  7. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying and...

  8. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  9. [Sustained release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 combined with stromal vascular fraction cells in promoting posterolateral spinal fusion in rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Jinyu; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Minghui; Wang, Xiuhui

    2017-07-01

    To observe the effect of stromal vascular fraction cells (SVFs) from rat fat tissue combined with sustained release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in promoting the lumbar fusion in rat model. SVFs were harvested from subcutaneous fat of bilateral inguinal region of 4-month-old rat through the collagenase I digestion. The sustained release carrier was prepared via covalent bond of the rhBMP-2 and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by the biominetic apatite coating process. The sustained release effect was measured by BCA method. Thirty-two rats were selected to establish the posterolateral lumbar fusion model and were divided into 4 groups, 8 rats each group. The decalcified bone matrix (DBX) scaffold+PBS, DBX scaffold+rhBMP-2/β-TCP sustained release carrier, DBX scaffold+SVFs, and DBX scaffold+rhBMP-2/β-TCP sustained release carrier+SVFs were implanted in groups A, B, C, and D respectively. X-ray films, manual spine palpation, and high-resolution micro-CT were used to evaluate spinal fusion at 8 weeks after operation; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume fraction were analyzed; the new bone formation was evaluated by HE staining and Masson's trichrome staining, osteocalcin (OCN) was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The cumulative release amount of rhBMP-2 was about 40% at 2 weeks, indicating sustained release effect of rhBMP-2; while the control group was almost released within 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, the combination of manual spine palpation, X-ray, and micro-CT evaluation showed that group D had the strongest bone formation (100%, 8/8), followed by group B (75%, 6/8), group C (37.5%, 3/8), and group A (12.5%, 1/8). Micro-CT analysis showed BMD and bone volume fraction were significantly higher in group D than groups A, B, and C ( P cells with bone matrix deposition, and an active osteogenic process similar to the mineralization of long bones in group D. The bone formation of group B was weaker than that of group D, and

  10. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  11. Provision of Human Capital by Business Schools of Pakistan: A Need for the Sustainability of the Pakistani Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…

  12. Human resources for health strategies adopted by providers in resource-limited settings to sustain long-term delivery of ART: a mixed-methods study from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakumumpa, Henry; Taiwo, Modupe Oladunni; Muganzi, Alex; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-10-19

    Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009. A two-phase mixed-methods approach was adopted. In the first phase, a survey of a nationally representative sample of health facilities (n = 195) across Uganda was conducted. The second phase involved in-depth interviews (n = 36) with ART clinic managers and staff of 6 of the 195 health facilities purposively selected from the first study phase. Quantitative data was analysed based on descriptive statistics, and qualitative data was analysed by coding and thematic analysis. The identified strategies were categorized into five themes: (1) providing monetary and non-monetary incentives to health workers on busy ART clinic days; (2) workload reduction through spacing ART clinic appointments; (3) adopting training workshops in ART management as a motivation strategy for health workers; (4) adopting non-physician-centred staffing models; and (5) devising ART program leadership styles that enhanced health worker commitment. Facility-level strategies for responding to HRH constraints are feasible and can contribute to efforts to increase country ownership of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. Consideration of the human resources for health strategies identified in the study by ART program planners and managers could enhance the long-term sustainment of ART programs by providers in resource-limited settings.

  13. Continuing to Build a Community Consensus on the Future of Human Space Flight: Report of the Fourth Community Workshop on Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars (AM IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Baker, John; Beaty, David; Carberry, Chris; Craig, Mark; Davis, Richard M.; Drake, Bret G.; Cassady, Joseph; Hays, Lindsay; Hoffman, Stephen J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    To continue to build broadly based consensus on the future of human space exploration, the Fourth Community Workshop on Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars (AM IV), organized by Explore Mars, Inc. and the American Astronautical Society, was held at the Double Tree Inn in Monrovia, CA., December 68, 2016. Approximately 60 invited professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors, academia, and NASA, along with international colleagues, participated in the workshop. These individuals were chosen to be representative of the breadth of interests in astronaut and robotic Mars exploration.

  14. Bootstrapping Relational Affordances of Object Pairs using Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    leverage past knowledge to accelerate current learning (which we call bootstrapping). We learn Random Forest based affordance predictors from visual inputs and demonstrate two approaches to knowledge transfer for bootstrapping. In the first approach (direct bootstrapping), the state-space for a new...... affordance predictor is augmented with the output of previously learnt affordances. In the second approach (category based bootstrapping), we form categories that capture underlying commonalities of a pair of existing affordances and augment the state-space with this category classifier’s output. In addition......, we introduce a novel heuristic, which suggests how a large set of potential affordance categories can be pruned to leave only those categories which are most promising for bootstrapping future affordances. Our results show that both bootstrapping approaches outperform learning without bootstrapping...

  15. Improving human health. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Good health is an essential requisite for sustainable human development. Despite encouraging progress made to date, however, in many parts of the world, poor nutrition and disease-causing pathogens continue to be significant barriers to achieving good health, particularly for children. The problems are diverse; the consequences can be devastating, not just to individuals, but to the societies affected as well. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is building capabilities of developing Member States to address these important health problems using nuclear techniques. In many instances, these techniques offer unique and cost effective means to prevent, diagnose, and treat a wide variety of diseases and conditions that affect health

  16. Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekdar, Ashok V.

    2009-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has been an integral part of every human society. The approaches for SWM should be compatible with the nature of a given society, and, in this regard, Asian countries are no exception. In keeping with global trends, the systems are being oriented to concentrate on sustainability issues; mainly through the incorporation of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) technologies. However, degree and nature of improvements toward sustainability are varying and depend on the economic status of a country. High-income countries like Japan and South Korea can afford to spend more to incorporate 3R technologies. Most of the latest efforts focus on 'Zero Waste' and/or 'Zero Landfilling' which is certainly expensive for weaker economies such as those of India or Indonesia. There is a need to pragmatically assess the expectations of SWM systems in Asian countries. Hence, in this paper, we analyze the situation in different Asian countries, and explore future trends. We conceptually evaluate issues surrounding the sustainability of SWM. We propose a multi-pronged integrated approach for improvement that achieves sustainable SWM in the context of national policy and legal frameworks, institutional arrangement, appropriate technology, operational and financial management, and public awareness and participation. In keeping with this approach, a generic action plan has been proposed that could be tailored to suit a situation in a particular country. Our proposed concept and action plan framework would be useful across a variety of country-specific scenarios

  17. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  18. From Good Work to Sustainable Development - Human Resources Consumption and Regeneration in the Post-Bureaucratic Working Life

    OpenAIRE

    Kira, Mari

    2003-01-01

    The thesis concentrates on the psychological consequences ofthe contemporary work. Two focal question of the thesis are,first, why do employees’psychological resources becomeconsumed in the contemporary working life? Second, how tocreate regenerative work enabling employees’developmentin the present situation? The latter question aims todistinguish the conditions for sustainable individual andcollective development at work. The empirical research consistsof two studies; the Empirical Study I ...

  19. Self-feedbacks determine the sustainability of human interventions in eco-social complex systems: Impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Marco; Levins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Several administrative polices have been implemented in order to reduce the negative impacts of fishing on natural ecosystems. Four eco-social models with different levels of complexity were constructed, which represent the seaweed harvest in central-northern Chile under two different regimes, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MAEBRs) and Open Access Areas (OAAs). The dynamics of both regimes were analyzed using the following theoretical frameworks: (1) Loop Analysis, which allows the local stability or sustainability of the models and scenarios to be assessed; and (2) Hessian´s optimization procedure of a global fishery function (GFF) that represents each dynamics of each harvest. The results suggest that the current fishing dynamics in MAEBRs are not sustainable unless the market demand presents some type of control (i.e. taxes). Further, the results indicated that if the demand changes to a self-negative feedback (self-control) in MAEBRs, the stability is increased and, simultaneously, a relative maximum for the GFF is reached. Contrarily, the sustainability of the model/system representing the harvest (principally by cutting plants) in OAAs is not reached. The implementation of an "ecological" tax for intensive artisanal fisheries with low operational cost is proposed. The network analysis developed here is proposed as a general strategy for studying the effects of human interventions in marine coastal ecosystems under transient (short-term) dynamics.

  20. Self-feedbacks determine the sustainability of human interventions in eco-social complex systems: Impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ortiz

    Full Text Available Several administrative polices have been implemented in order to reduce the negative impacts of fishing on natural ecosystems. Four eco-social models with different levels of complexity were constructed, which represent the seaweed harvest in central-northern Chile under two different regimes, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MAEBRs and Open Access Areas (OAAs. The dynamics of both regimes were analyzed using the following theoretical frameworks: (1 Loop Analysis, which allows the local stability or sustainability of the models and scenarios to be assessed; and (2 Hessian´s optimization procedure of a global fishery function (GFF that represents each dynamics of each harvest. The results suggest that the current fishing dynamics in MAEBRs are not sustainable unless the market demand presents some type of control (i.e. taxes. Further, the results indicated that if the demand changes to a self-negative feedback (self-control in MAEBRs, the stability is increased and, simultaneously, a relative maximum for the GFF is reached. Contrarily, the sustainability of the model/system representing the harvest (principally by cutting plants in OAAs is not reached. The implementation of an "ecological" tax for intensive artisanal fisheries with low operational cost is proposed. The network analysis developed here is proposed as a general strategy for studying the effects of human interventions in marine coastal ecosystems under transient (short-term dynamics.

  1. Reliability and Maintainability Engineering - A Major Driver for Safety and Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2011-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of an effort to design and build a safe and affordable heavy lift vehicle to go to the moon and beyond. To achieve that, NASA is seeking more innovative and efficient approaches to reduce cost while maintaining an acceptable level of safety and mission success. One area that has the potential to contribute significantly to achieving NASA safety and affordability goals is Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) engineering. Inadequate reliability or failure of critical safety items may directly jeopardize the safety of the user(s) and result in a loss of life. Inadequate reliability of equipment may directly jeopardize mission success. Systems designed to be more reliable (fewer failures) and maintainable (fewer resources needed) can lower the total life cycle cost. The Department of Defense (DOD) and industry experience has shown that optimized and adequate levels of R&M are critical for achieving a high level of safety and mission success, and low sustainment cost. Also, lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program clearly demonstrated the importance of R&M engineering in designing and operating safe and affordable launch systems. The Challenger and Columbia accidents are examples of the severe impact of design unreliability and process induced failures on system safety and mission success. These accidents demonstrated the criticality of reliability engineering in understanding component failure mechanisms and integrated system failures across the system elements interfaces. Experience from the shuttle program also shows that insufficient Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) engineering analyses upfront in the design phase can significantly increase the sustainment cost and, thereby, the total life cycle cost. Emphasis on RMS during the design phase is critical for identifying the design features and characteristics needed for time efficient processing

  2. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  4. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL. In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  5. American surgery and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Steven C; Hoyt, David B; Hunter, John G; Joyce, Geoffrey; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2014-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to change the way we finance and deliver health care by coordinating the delivery of primary, specialty, and hospital services in accountable care organizations. The ways in which accountable care organizations will develop and evolve is unclear; however, the effects on surgeons and their patients will be substantial. High-value care in the ACA emphasizes quality, safety, resource use and appropriateness, and the patient's experience of care. Payment will be linked to these principles. Department chairs overseeing a clinical enterprise in academic medical centers now must add financial and quality measures to the traditional missions of education, research, and clinical service. At a time when surgical training is in dramatic evolution, with work hour limitations for residents and an emphasis on quality, productivity, and increasing oversight of trainees for faculty, residency programs will need to meet the increasing demands of an aging population and newly insured patients under the ACA. The American College of Surgeons, with its century-long commitment to quality improvement, research-based standards, and performance measurement and verification, has begun its Inspiring Quality Campaign, is developing new educational tools, and is preparing proposals for payment reform based on surgeons' participation in quality programs.

  6. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a " bodily turn " in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we

  7. Life cycle cost of different Walling material used for affordable housing in tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameera Udawattha

    2017-12-01

    The results show that mud concrete block is the most suitable walling material. The brick has the highest account for the embedded energy. The hollow cement block is the worse building materials in tropics and its carbon footprint is comparatively higher. Even though the brick has higher embedded energy and construction cost, in a long run brick is less expensive than hollow cement block and Cabook walling material. Concluding, mud concrete block is comparatively most sustainable walling material for building affordable housing in tropics.

  8. Embodied perception: A proposal to reconcile affordance and spatial perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception,

  9. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  10. Availability and affordability of antiglaucoma drugs in Benin city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Affordability and availability are key factors that determine access to effective treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the availability and affordability of antiglaucoma medicines in Benin City. A cross sectional survey of the major drug distribution sectors was conducted.

  11. Dissociating Simon and affordance compatibility effects: silhouettes and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Zissis

    2014-12-01

    When a graspable object's handle is oriented to the same side as the response hand, responses are quicker and more accurate than when it is oriented to the opposite side. This effect has been attributed to the affordance of the object's handle (Tucker & Ellis, 1998). Recent findings suggest this effect results instead from an abstract spatial response code (i.e., Simon effect; Cho & Proctor, 2010). However, the stimuli used in these previous studies differ in the amount of object and environmental depth information they contain, which may be critical to conveying an affordance. This information could explain these disparate findings as well as dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects. Four experiments demonstrate that the Simon effect results from the absence of this information, as in a silhouette, and the affordance effect results from its presence, as in a photograph. A fifth experiment confirmed that modifying information associated with the affordance, rather than the modification itself, produced the effects observed in the previous experiments. These findings support the following: (a) the internal details of an object and environmental depth can dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects, (b) this information is necessary to convey the object's graspable affordance, and (c) the outer shape of the object is not sufficient to elicit an affordance effect. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory of embodied cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  13. 1. Dimensions of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: the concept of sustainable development; envisioning sustainable development (economic dimensions, human dimensions, environmental dimensions, technological dimensions); policy implications (economic policies, people-oriented policies, environmental policies, creating sustainable systems); and global issues (effect of war on development and the environment and the debt burden). This chapter also introduces the case studies by discussing the levels of economic development and comparing key trends (economic growth, human development, population growth, and energy use)

  14. Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Tomei, Julia; To, Long Seng; Bisaga, Iwona; Parikh, Priti; Black, Mairi; Borrion, Aiduan; Spataru, Catalina; Castán Broto, Vanesa; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Milligan, Ben; Mulugetta, Yacob

    2018-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—including 17 interconnected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets—is a global plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. SDG7 calls for action to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Here we characterize synergies and trade-offs between efforts to achieve SDG7 and delivery of the 2030 Agenda as a whole. We identify 113 targets requiring actions to change energy systems, and published evidence of relationships between 143 targets (143 synergies, 65 trade-offs) and efforts to achieve SDG7. Synergies and trade-offs exist in three key domains, where decisions about SDG7 affect humanity's ability to: realize aspirations of greater welfare and well-being; build physical and social infrastructures for sustainable development; and achieve sustainable management of the natural environment. There is an urgent need to better organize, connect and extend this evidence, to help all actors work together to achieve sustainable development.

  15. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  16. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Rodionova, Yulia; Falcetti, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability

  18. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: y.rodionova@ssees.ucl.ac.uk; Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability.

  19. Utility payments in Ukraine. Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom); Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability. (author)

  20. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  1. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  2. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  3. Affordable and personalized lighting using inverse modeling and virtual sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Chandrayee; Chen, Benjamin; Richards, Jacob; Dhinakaran, Aparna; Agogino, Alice; Martin, Rodney

    2014-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have great potential to enable personalized intelligent lighting systems while reducing building energy use by 50%-70%. As a result WSN systems are being increasingly integrated in state-ofart intelligent lighting systems. In the future these systems will enable participation of lighting loads as ancillary services. However, such systems can be expensive to install and lack the plug-and-play quality necessary for user-friendly commissioning. In this paper we present an integrated system of wireless sensor platforms and modeling software to enable affordable and user-friendly intelligent lighting. It requires ⇠ 60% fewer sensor deployments compared to current commercial systems. Reduction in sensor deployments has been achieved by optimally replacing the actual photo-sensors with real-time discrete predictive inverse models. Spatially sparse and clustered sub-hourly photo-sensor data captured by the WSN platforms are used to develop and validate a piece-wise linear regression of indoor light distribution. This deterministic data-driven model accounts for sky conditions and solar position. The optimal placement of photo-sensors is performed iteratively to achieve the best predictability of the light field desired for indoor lighting control. Using two weeks of daylight and artificial light training data acquired at the Sustainability Base at NASA Ames, the model was able to predict the light level at seven monitored workstations with 80%-95% accuracy. We estimate that 10% adoption of this intelligent wireless sensor system in commercial buildings could save 0.2-0.25 quads BTU of energy nationwide.

  4. Sustainability or collapse: What can we learn from integrating the history of humans and the rest of nature?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costanza, R.; Graumlich, L.; Steffen, W.; Crumley, C.; Dearing, J.; Hibbard, K.; Leemans, R.; Redman, C.; Schimel, D.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the history of how humans have interacted with the rest of nature can help clarify the options for managing our increasingly interconnected global system. Simple, deterministic relationships between environmental stress and social change are inadequate. Extreme drought, for instance,

  5. GC Side Event: Nuclear Operators Forum: Challenges in Human Resources Management for Sustainable Nuclear Power Generation. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This year’s Forum focussed on human resources challenges and necessary actions to support the future of nuclear energy, including building and maintaining the workforce, economic challenges and new ways of learning

  6. The relationship between plants used to sustain finches (Fringillidae) and uses for human medicine in southeast Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Belda, Antonio; Peiro, Victoriano; Seva Román, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract fin...

  7. How could you use the ergonomics 'knowhow' transfer management to enhance human working for sustainable improvements in industrially developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the different strategic understanding from getting ergonomics intervention programmes' conversations to 'Tip', including minimizing strategies; tipping point strategies; and maximizing strategies from building ergonomics intervention techniques. Those have indicated to different recognitions: 1) when amplification of the 'problem' is necessary; 2) when amplification of the 'tipping point' is necessary, and 3) when amplification of the 'success' is necessary. The practical applications and implications of the ergonomics intervention techniques are drawn from the findings of framing positive questions: 1) what is successful ergonomics intervention technique right now (Appreciative)? 2) What do we need to change for a better future (Imagine)? 3) How do we do this (Design)? 4) Who takes action and with what consequences (Act)? This requires re-framing of the ergonomics intervention techniques in an appreciative way, because of, the future action needs to be inspired by those things that participants feel are worth valuing, worth celebrating and sustaining.

  8. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P.

    2002-11-01

    This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  9. Fuel poverty as injustice: Integrating distribution, recognition and procedure in the struggle for affordable warmth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gordon; Day, Rosie

    2012-01-01

    Bringing attention to fuel poverty as a distinct manifestation of social inequality has asserted the place of affordable warmth in the profile of contemporary rights and entitlements. As such, fuel poverty can be understood as an expression of injustice, involving the compromised ability to access energy services and thereby to secure a healthful living environment. In this paper, we consider how fuel poverty may be aligned to various alternative concepts of social and environmental justice. Whilst recognising that fuel poverty is fundamentally a complex problem of distributive injustice, we argue that other understandings of injustice are also implicated and play important roles in producing and sustaining inequalities in access to affordable warmth. Addressing fuel poverty has to involve seeking justice in terms of the cultural and political recognition of vulnerable and marginalised social groups and pursuing procedural justice through opening up involvement and influence in decision-making processes. We make this argument both in theoretical terms, and through considering the experience of fuel poverty advocacy and policy development in the UK. Opportunities for future action may be illuminated through such interconnected justice framings as wider awareness of energy, climate and poverty issues emerge. - Highlights: ► We examine fuel poverty through different concepts of social and environmental justice. ► UK experience is used to inform and exemplify our analysis. ► Distributional justice is central but insufficient on its own. ► Procedural justice and justice as recognition are key necessary goals in the struggle for affordable warmth.

  10. Pricing and affordability of renewable energy in China - A case study of Shandong Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xue-liang; Zuo, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The global warming and climate change have put enormous pressure on both governments and industries to re-think their attitudes and behaviours towards sustainability issues. The past decades have witnessed a number of renewable energy developments across the world. Even though these developments are not issue-free, it is generally recognized that the benefits outweigh disadvantages. However, there is an increasing level of concern on the high initial cost associated with the renewable energies, which was claimed as one of critical barriers to the promotion of its further developments. A case study approach is adopted in this study to investigate the pricing and affordability issues associated with the renewable energy in China. The policy framework and related statistics are critically reviewed in order to discuss these issues from different stakeholders' perspective in Shandong province, China. It is concluded that the affordability remains a critical issue despite numerous efforts have been made by the Chinese Government and Shandong Provincial Government on renewable power pricing. This study offers a useful reference to pricing and affordability of renewable energy. (author)

  11. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-we...

  12. Sustainability: role of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigson, Bjorn Roland

    2015-01-01

    The task to renew the world's energy infrastructure, where fossil fuels account for 80% of supply, is enormous. The two carbon neutral energy sources - renewable and nuclear - should be the base of the world's future energy mix. Nuclear, however, suffers from a bad public opinion and lack of government support in many parts of the world. We can conclude that the world needs an 'on demand' energy source that is affordable, clean, safe and scalable. Thorium energy could be that energy source. It is the most energy dense solution we know, fitting well to the modular and size-constrained requirements of an urbanizing world. No part of society can create a sustainable world on their own and markets are too slow to drive transformational changes. We need new partnerships between governments, business, civil society and academia where each part is delivering on their specific responsibilities and roles

  13. Human-Centred Design: sustainable ideas and scenarios for the development of projects and products based on knowledge and human abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sbordone, Maria Antonietta

    2008-01-01

    Human-Centred Design is defined as the discipline relating to products and services that, in different ways, takes into account the psycho-physical wellness of human beings, and is formulated according to an approach based on User-Centred Design (UCD). The User-Centred Design approach considers the relationships and the interactions users have with products while using them, and is developed within disciplines not properly belonging to the field of design. At the beginning of last century, wi...

  14. Educating Professionals for Sustainable Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Janhonen-Abruquah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent discourse on sustainability science calls for interdisciplinary research. The home economics science approach ranges from individual actions to the involvement of communities and societies at large, and thus it can provide important perspectives on cultural sustainability. The aim of the research is to study the linkage between cultural sustainability and service sector education to support the creation of sustainable professions. In the present small-scale empirical study, the food service degree curriculum of a Finnish vocational college and teachers’ group interview data were analyzed to find how cultural sustainability is presented in the curriculum and how it is understood by teachers and integrated into teaching practices. Previous cultural sustainability research identifies four perspectives of cultural sustainability: (1 vitality of cultural traditions; (2 economic starting point; (3 diversity together with maintenance of local culture; and (4 possible influence on the balance between human actions and environment. Findings indicate that sustainability, including cultural sustainability, is integrated in the curriculum and considered important by teachers. Translating these into practice remains a challenge. The balance between human and nature was mostly understood as recycling, use of public transport, sustainable consumption, and taking trips to the nature nearby. Cultural sustainability as a concept is not well known, although themes such as multicultural issues, equality, charity, and environmental responsibility were included in teachers’ practical lessons daily. Feasts and celebrations in learning were opportunities to view cultural sustainability widely. This paper provides a way forward for the teachers to develop further their pedagogical practices.

  15. Cultural affordances: Scaffolding local worlds through shared intentionality and regimes of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell James D. Ramstead

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline a framework for the study of the mechanisms involved in the engagement of human agents with cultural affordances. Our aim is to better understand how culture and context interact with human biology to shape human behavior, cognition, and experience. We attempt to integrate several related approaches in the study of the embodied, cognitive, and affective substrates of sociality and culture and the sociocultural scaffolding of experience. The integrative framework we propose bridges cognitive and social sciences to provide (i an expanded concept of ‘affordance’ that extends to sociocultural forms of life, and (ii a multilevel account of the socioculturally scaffolded forms of affordance learning and the transmission of affordances in patterned sociocultural practices and regimes of shared attention. This framework provides an account of how cultural content and normative practices are built on a foundation of contentless basic mental processes that acquire content through immersive participation of the agent in social practices that regulate joint attention and shared intentionality.

  16. Critical Care Implications of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Anjali P; Dorman, Todd

    2016-03-01

    To provide an overview of key elements of the Affordable Care Act. To evaluate ways in which the Affordable Care Act will likely impact the practice of critical care medicine. To describe strategies that may help health systems and providers effectively adapt to changes brought about by the Affordable Care Act. Data sources for this concise review include search results from the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as sources relevant to public policy such as the text of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and reports of the Congressional Budget Office. As all of the Affordable Care Act's provisions will not be fully implemented until 2019, we also drew upon cost, population, and utilization projections, as well as the experience of existing state-based healthcare reforms. The Affordable Care Act represents the furthest reaching regulatory changes in the U.S. healthcare system since the 1965 Medicare and Medicaid provisions of the Social Security Act. The Affordable Care Act aims to expand health insurance coverage to millions of Americans and place an emphasis on quality and cost-effectiveness of care. From models which link pay and performance to those which center on episodic care, the Affordable Care Act outlines sweeping changes to health systems, reimbursement structures, and the delivery of critical care. Staffing models that include daily rounding by an intensivist, palliative care integration, and expansion of the role of telemedicine in areas where intensivists are inaccessible are potential strategies that may improve quality and profitability of ICU care in the post-Affordable Care Act era.

  17. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M.; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-01-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet. PMID:26627985

  18. PGC-1α-Dependent Mitochondrial Adaptation Is Necessary to Sustain IL-2-Induced Activities in Human NK Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Dante; Jara, Claudia; Ibañez, Jorge; Ahumada, Viviana; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Martin, Adrian; Córdova, Alexandra; Montoya, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in antitumor defense reactions. NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity. Among various cytokines modulating NK cell function, interleukin-2 (IL-2) can induce a more potent cytotoxic activity defined as lymphokine activated killer activity (LAK). Our aim was to determine if IL-2 induces changes at the mitochondrial level in NK cells to support the bioenergetic demand for performing this enhanced cytotoxic activity more efficiently. Purified human NK cells were cultured with high IL-2 concentrations to develop LAK activity, which was assessed by the ability of NK cells to lyse NK-resistant Daudi cells. Here we show that, after 72 h of culture of purified human NK cells with enough IL-2 to induce LAK activity, both the mitochondrial mass and the mitochondrial membrane potential increased in a PGC-1α-dependent manner. In addition, oligomycin, an inhibitor of ATP synthase, inhibited IL-2-induced LAK activity at 48 and 72 h of culture. Moreover, the secretion of IFN-γ from NK cells with LAK activity was also partially dependent on PGC-1α expression. These results indicate that PGC-1α plays a crucial role in regulating mitochondrial function involved in the maintenance of LAK activity in human NK cells stimulated with IL-2.

  19. Corporate governance and strategic human resource management : Four archetypes and proposals for a new approach to corporate sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Graeme; Farndale, E.; Paauwe, J.; Stiles, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new typology connecting strategic human resource management (SHRM) to different models of firm-level corporate governance. By asking questions concerning ownership and control issues in the corporate governance literature and drawing on institutional logics, we build a

  20. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction.

  1. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  2. AFFORDING PROTECTION TO LATENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitution are devoted to elaborating all categories of human rights. 2. Chapter .... aptly tells us the failure of the FDRE constitution to accord a balanced protection ... duty on the government to ensure the enjoyment of the rights provided for in ..... Under this section, the author will delve into looking at the workability of the.

  3. The Affordances of Fiction for Teaching Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrick, Randy K.; Simons, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    As science fiction has a way of capturing the human imagination that few other genres can rival, this study sought to investigate the effects of using science fiction on the performance and interest of high school chemistry students. An action research approach was used to guide the first author's practice as she studied two college preparatory…

  4. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  5. Improving graduation rates for African Americans in drug court: Importance of human relationships and barriers to gaining and sustaining employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John Robert; Nordberg, Anne; Dibley, Alyssa R

    2017-11-16

    Drug courts have been an important part of the criminal justice system since 1989. They continue to expand throughout the United States because nearly three decades of research has shown that they are more effective than other interventions, such as traditional probation. There is a pattern, though, in some drug courts where African Americans are less likely to graduate than their Caucasian counterparts. This qualitative study explores this phenomenon by asking African American participants (n = 31) their views on the most helpful aspects of drug court and how drug court could be more helpful in supporting them in graduating the program. Participants felt that the respect and compassion they received from the drug court judge and their case managers, as well as the camaraderie they developed with other participants, was an aspect of drug court that supported them in graduating the program. Next, participants felt that graduation rates would improve if drug court better supported them in gaining employment or sustaining the employment they already had. Implications for drug court practice are discussed.

  6. Influence of glutamate-evoked pain and sustained elevated muscle activity on blood oxygenation in the human masseter muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Arima, Taro; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Svensson, Peter; Castrillon, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain on intramuscular oxygenation during rest and sustained elevated muscle activity (SEMA). Seventeen healthy individuals participated in two sessions in which they were injected with glutamate and saline in random order. Each session was divided into three, 10-min periods. During the first (period 1) and the last (period 3) 10-min periods, participants performed five intercalated 1-min bouts of masseter SEMA with 1-min periods of 'rest'. At onset of the second 10-min period, glutamate (0.5 ml, 1 M; Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan) or isotonic saline (0.5 ml; 0.9%) was injected into the masseter muscle and the participants kept the muscle relaxed in a resting position for 10 min (period 2). The hemodynamic characteristics of the masseter muscle were recorded simultaneously during the experiment by a laser blood-oxygenation monitor. The results demonstrated that glutamate injections caused significant levels of self-reported pain in the masseter muscle; however, this nociceptive input did not have robust effects on intramuscular oxygenation during rest or SEMA tasks. Interestingly, these findings suggest an uncoupling between acute nociceptive activity and hemodynamic parameters in both resting and low-level active jaw muscles. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological significance of blood-flow changes for persistent jaw-muscle pain conditions. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. Human-in-the-Loop simulation in support of long-term sustainability of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II and C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that the traditional analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are needed to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II and C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation's NPPs. (author)

  8. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  9. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, Bruce P.; Persensky, J.J.; Smidts, Carol; Aldemir, Tunc; Naser, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    electricity generation. As an initial step in accomplishing this effort, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies was held March 20-21, 2009, in Columbus, Ohio, to enable industry stakeholders and researchers in identification of the nuclear industry's needs in the areas of future I and C technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. Approaches for collaboration to bridge or fill the technology gaps were presented and R and D activities and priorities recommended. This report documents the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for the plan under development to achieve the goals of the I and C research pathway.

  10. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    . As an initial step in accomplishing this effort, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies was held March 20–21, 2009, in Columbus, Ohio, to enable industry stakeholders and researchers in identification of the nuclear industry’s needs in the areas of future I&C technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. Approaches for collaboration to bridge or fill the technology gaps were presented and R&D activities and priorities recommended. This report documents the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for the plan under development to achieve the goals of the I&C research pathway.

  11. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  12. Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-01-01

    We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37°C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues.

  13. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  14. Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed to understand water-human interaction for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF ASSESSING HUMAN RESOURCES FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT-A STUDY CASE, SOUTH WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reta CONDEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the center of all the activities of an organization is the human being. All the other resources such as land, buildings, equipments, vehicles or money are only of a secondary importance. Without people, business cannot be achieved. The importance of the human being in the success management of a business is to make from the”Human Resource Management” the essential competence for all the managers. This responsibility is not only to give people jobs, to guide them how to work and to record their performances, although the managers have to do this thing. Beside all these, there is an investment: to give people the power they need to act efficiently and effective. It also means to exploit the individual knowledge, the talents, the imagination and creativity for the common good. The world changes with an unprecedented speed determine each organization to employ competent, well informed, loyal, flexible and talented personnel. The managers should think well at what they offer to employees and at what they expect from them if they want to reach high performance and increase the firm competitiveness.

  16. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. PMID:22611428

  17. Lifespan Extension and Sustained Expression of Stem Cell Phenotype of Human Breast Epithelial Stem Cells in a Medium with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the isolation and culture of a human breast epithelial cell type with stem cell characteristics (Type I HBEC from reduction mammoplasty using the MSU-1 medium. Subsequently, we have developed several different normal human adult stem cell types from different tissues using the K-NAC medium. In this study, we determined whether this low calcium K-NAC medium with antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate is a better medium to grow human breast epithelial cells. The results clearly show that the K-NAC medium is a superior medium for prolonged growth (cumulative population doubling levels ranged from 30 to 40 of normal breast epithelial cells that expressed stem cell phenotypes. The characteristics of these mammary stem cells include deficiency in gap junctional intercellular communication, expression of Oct-4, and the ability to differentiate into basal epithelial cells and to form organoid showing mammary ductal and terminal end bud-like structures. Thus, this new method of growing Type I HBECs will be very useful in future studies of mammary development, breast carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, and cancer therapy.

  18. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Belda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses; thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158, and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (=158. Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge.

  19. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudeta W. Sileshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human-termite interactions and farmers' indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human-termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers' indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.

  20. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge.

  1. Accessibility, affordability and use of health services in an urban area in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inequalities in healthcare between population groups of South Africa existed during the apartheid era and continue to exist both between and within many population groups. Accessibility and affordability of healthcare is a human right. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured population in the Western Cape, South Africa. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study with a quantitative approach was applied. A purposive convenient sample of 353 participants (0.6% was drawn from a population of 63 004 economically-active people who lived in the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were represented. The hypothesis set was that there is a positive relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services. A pilot study was conducted which also supported the reliability and validity of the study. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Stellenbosch and informed consent from respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: The hypothesis was accepted. The statistical association between affordability (p = < 0.01, accessibility (p = < 0.01 and the use of health services was found to be significant using the Chi-square (χ² test. Conclusion: The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. Continuous Quality Management should be a priority in healthcare services, which should be user-friendly.

  2. Accessibility, affordability and use of health services in an urban area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellenberg, Ethelwynn L

    2015-03-10

    Inequalities in healthcare between population groups of South Africa existed during the apartheid era and continue to exist both between and within many population groups. Accessibility and affordability of healthcare is a human right. The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured) population in the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study with a quantitative approach was applied. A purposive convenient sample of 353 participants (0.6%) was drawn from a population of 63 004 economically-active people who lived in the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were represented. The hypothesis set was that there is a positive relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services. A pilot study was conducted which also supported the reliability and validity of the study. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Stellenbosch and informed consent from respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The hypothesis was accepted. The statistical association between affordability (p = < 0.01), accessibility (p = < 0.01) and the use of health services was found to be significant using the Chi-square (χ²) test. The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. Continuous Quality Management should be a priority in healthcare services, which should be user-friendly.

  3. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    important in terms of the success of the initiatives. It's also essential to bring to the fore the various themes, such as regional delicacies, safe production methods, human and environmental health, regionalism, regional artisanship, and biodiversity to cultivate a successful marketing strategy in promotional activities of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives.

  4. Housing Affordability in Ghana: A focus on Kumasi and Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Department of Real ... affordable housing delivery system in Ghana. It found that ... markets; and hence has a significant impact on .... housing projects during this era were the ...... Table 4: Construction Materials in Kumasi and Tamale, 2010.

  5. Getting a grip on affordances, attention and visual fields

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Lotje van der; Theeuwes, Jan; Ellis, Rob

    2013-01-01

    van der Linden, L., Theeuwes, J., & Ellis, R. (2012). Getting a grip on affordances, attention, and visual fields. Poster presented at the 2012 William James Graduate School Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  6. the role of financial institutions towards affordable housing to urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    weak positive effect (=.345) of housing finance on affordable housing and contributed to ..... Officers and 81 selected beneficiaries (middle income earners) of the several ..... transaction has to be independently valued by the Chief. Government ...

  7. The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in India ... services for the poor likely contribute to gender inequality by restricting women's educational ... a state that performs poorly in terms of women's empowerment in India.

  8. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron (ALexandra); M. Ewen (Margaret); R. Laing (Richard); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. __Methods:__ The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a

  9. Imagined affordance: reconstructing a keyword for communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, G; Nagy, P

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology s...

  10. Increasing the Supply of Affordable Housing in Urban India - Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Upasna

    2014-01-01

    The need for housing in today's world is irrefutable. The growing population, accompanied with the fast pace of urbanization, are producing great housing demand, in urban areas in particular. This study focused on one segment of housing - affordable housing, in Mumbai, India, the demand for which has been on a steady rise over the past decade. Though traditionally the State was the provider of affordable housing, private sector has been increasingly involved in the segment, beginning the econ...

  11. Embodied Perception: A Proposal to Reconcile Affordance and Spatial Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?al-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception, most of the empirical work evaluating Proffitt's approach focuses on the perception of spatial properties of the environment. We propose that theoretical and empirical efforts should be directed towar...

  12. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  13. Stable and variable affordances are both automatic and flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mere observation of pictures or words referring to manipulable objects is sufficient to evoke their affordances since objects and their nouns elicit components of appropriate motor programs associated with object interaction. While nobody doubts that objects actually evoke motor information, the degree of automaticity of this activation has been recently disputed. Recent evidence has indeed revealed that affordances activation is flexibly modulated by the task and by the physical and social context. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these results challenge previous evidence showing that motor information is activated independently from the task. The context and the task can indeed act as an early or late filter. We will review recent data consistent with the notion that objects automatically elicit multiple affordances and that top-down processes select among them probably inhibiting motor information that is not consistent with behaviour goals. We will therefore argue that automaticity and flexibility of affordances are not in conflict. We will also discuss how language can incorporate affordances showing similarities, but also differences, between the motor information elicited by vision and language. Finally we will show how the distinction between stable and variable affordances can accommodate all these effects.

  14. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  15. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  16. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  17. Teaching sustainable design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.; Haggard, K.; Knuckles, A.; Le Noble, J. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sustainable design is inclusive, holistic and integrative. It require humility and guts, caring and a certain degree of stubbornness. It helps to do it cooperatively in a group. Human interest in sustainability has gained a great deal of impetus over the last several years as the problems of the late 20th and the early 21st century have become clearer. Design for sustainability broadens and integrates many previously separate design concerns to create a unified approach that is both compelling and ripe with new possibilities. Ecosystem regeneration, ecological land use planning, biometric design, regional environmental and economic viability, natural landscape maintenance, resource optimization, integrated infrastructure system, neotraditional and pedestrian oriented urban design, passive solar architecture, appropriate technology, renewable building materials, healthy buildings, and the aesthetics of place; are a few of these design concerns that, when welded together, can create sustainability.

  18. Energy and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    None of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000 directly addressed energy, although for nearly all of them - from eradicating poverty and hunger to improving education and health - progress has depended on greater access to modern energy. Thirteen years later, energy is being given more attention. The target date for the MDGs is 2015, and in 2012 the UN began deliberations to develop sustainable development goals to guide support for sustainable development beyond 2015. The Future We Want, the outcome document of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (also known as Rio+20) gives energy a central role: ''We recognize the critical role that energy plays in the development process, as access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs''

  19. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  20. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eMcGregor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered. Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that aggressive religious radicalization is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  1. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  2. Explicating the Sustainable Design of Technical Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissonova, Karina

    2016-01-01

    afforded by the properties of artefacts. The study is a conceptual analysis and as such belongs to the field of epistemology of design. It offers three contributions to the design discipline: (1) a proposition of the definition of the sustainable design kind; (2) a proposition of the concept of technical......Sustainable design of technical artefacts is referred to as if it were a kind of design with some specific characteristics. However, in design research and practice alike, there appears to be a lack of shared conceptions of what such a design might entail. Furthermore, we have no clear grounds...... for evaluating what makes the sustainable design solutions permissible. The lack of shared conceptions is largely due to ambiguities associated with the notion of sustainability. In response to these challenges, the aim of my study is to offer a definition of sustainable design of technical artefacts. I argue...

  3. Sustainability and sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of the quest for sustainable use of the planet requires that human society both reexamine and expand present views of what is sacred and what is not. The most important aspect will be going beyond a homocentric focus to a biocentric emphasis. A unifying theme would be the desire to leave a habitable planet for human descendants and those of other species. It is unlikely that society can be confident of achieving sustainability until persuasive evidence supporting this belief has existed for several generations. In order for sustainable use of the planet to persist indefinitely, the conditions essential to this state must be morally preserved on sacred grounds. Viewing natural systems as sacred requires not only preventing damage to them but, wherever possible, repairing damage to them caused by humankind.

  4. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  5. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  6. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  7. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or-more precisely-better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate ('the trend') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995

  8. Are essential medicines in Malaysia accessible, affordable and available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Kamaruzaman; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M

    2005-12-01

    To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines. The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory). The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies. Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines. The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary. The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain

  9. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of neurodiagnostic tests in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Hannah C; Berkowitz, Aaron L; Patenaude, Bryan N; McKenzie, Erica D; Wolper, Emma; Wahlster, Sarah; Fink, Günther; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-11-03

    To determine the availability, accessibility, and affordability of EEG, EMG, CSF analysis, head CT, and brain MRI for neurologic disorders across countries. An online, 60-question survey was distributed to neurology practitioners in 2014 to assess the presence, wait time, and cost of each test in private and public health sectors. Data were stratified by World Bank country income group. Affordability was calculated with reference to the World Health Organization's definition of catastrophic health expenditure as health-related out-of-pocket expenditure of >40% of disposable household income, and assessment of providers' perceptions of affordability to the patient. Availability of EEG and EMG is correlated with higher World Bank income group (correlation coefficient 0.38, test for trend p = 0.046; 0.376, p = 0.043); CSF, CT, and MRI did not show statistically significant associations with income groups. Patients in public systems wait longer for neurodiagnostic tests, especially MRI, EEG, and urgent CT (p private sector (US $55.25 vs $214.62, p income group is associated with a 29% decrease in the estimated share of the population who can afford a given test (95% confidence interval -33.4, 25.2; p income countries surveyed, only the top 10% or 20% of the population was able to afford tests below catastrophic levels. In surveyed lower-middle-income countries, >40% of the population, on average, could not afford neurodiagnostic tests. Neurodiagnostic tests are least affordable in the lowest income settings. Closing this "diagnostic gap" for countries with the lowest incomes is essential. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  11. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-06-13

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.

    2017-05-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  13. Transforming Shell and Society Elements in Human Settlements for Sustainable Tourism Development: Setu Babakan, South Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncara, R. M. P.; Tiarasari, R.; Pratiwi, W. D.

    2018-05-01

    The government has established the settlements around Setu Babakan as Betawi Cultural Village (PBB). The goal of PBB Setu Babakan is to preserve Betawi culture which is fading, and realized by making the location as a tourism destination in South Jakarta. This paper discusses the transformation on the two ekistics elements in human settlements around Setu Babakan; shell and society in the development of tourism. Shell as a physical element is reflected in the citizen’s houses which are adapted into traditional Betawi houses. While the society refers to Setu Babakan’s citizen who participated as economic actors by selling traditional Betawi food and beverages, as well as a performers at the Betawi traditional art performances. In its application, the adaptation of citizen’s houses into traditional Betawi house cannot be done completely. The adaptation that can be done to the residents’ houses is by beautification in the appearance of the building. The application of typical Betawi ornaments makes the settlement feels like Betawi traditional village. This is one of the attractions for tourists. They can enjoy the atmosphere of Betawi village, enjoy Betawi food and beverages, watch Betawi art performance, and enjoy the lake tour at PBB Setu Babakan.

  14. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461435

  15. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2016-09-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  16. Investigation of Sustainable Housing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roshanfekr Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to sustainable development in cities. The quality of human life is directly related to environmental quality. Because many people live in cities as a place of social, economic and cultural relationships, certain issues such as environmental crises, energy, air and noise pollution and traffic jams are some of the factors that can alter the quality of human life. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of human life, attention to sustainable development (or sustainability in cities is proposed. Sustainable building has a comprehensive significance that begins with the conception of negative and positive impacts on the environment. Several descriptions of sustainable or green buildings have been created; however, they all pursue one goal, which is to create sustainable urban developments and protection of the environment. The quality of indoor environments, materials, and energy consumption, water usage, the impact of building construction processes and building maintenance are some of the factors that affect the environment and sustainability. Sustainable building is an attempt to relieve the minus impacts on the environment that occur during a building’s lifetime. This research investigates the important factors that have relevance to green buildings and introduces several criteria of sustainable housing.

  17. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  18. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  19. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  20. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.