WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable transportation initiatives

  1. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  2. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M J [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  3. Sustainable Mobility Initiative | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    travel behavior and consumer choice leading to the adoption of more fuel-efficient vehicles and more behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. By pairing transportation modeling with behavior . Schroeder, Y. Zhang, P. Chipman, and S. Johnson (2015) Consumer Views on Transportation and Advanced Vehicle

  4. Intergovermental Cooperation Initiative on Sustainable Transportation Management in Jabodetabek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Chusnul Chotimah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in Jabodetabek concerning the management of transportation are related to the increased use of private vehicles and the decreased use of public transportation, overcrowding daily traffic in Jabodetabek, the high congestion followed by insecurity in traffic, environmental pollution, uncontrolled growth of and underdeveloped infrastructure, and irregularities in land use. To overcome these problems, sustainable transportation management becomes very important in which the government should be able to cope with environmental, economic and social factors under the decision making related to transportation in Jabodetabek. Therefore, through interactive planning, this study will examine intergovernmental cooperation initiatives on sustainable transportation management in Jabodetabek. This study uses qualitative and descriptive method through literature study and existing statistics as the resources to apply the interactive planning approach. The result shows that there are found a number of problems and gaps in the management of transportation in Jabodetabek that needs to be reduced because it has the same scope of other gaps. From these problems can be made further action programs and policies in accordance with the resources owned, and then, the design of implementation made and controlled whether in accordance with the purpose or not. Thus, sustainable transportation management in the Jabodetabek needs to be done jointly in an institutional or policyframework involving governments Jabodetabekpunjur, BKSP Jabodetabekpunjur, and the private sector.

  5. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  6. Mapping equality in access : the case of Bogota's sustainable transport initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Thijs; Sarmiento, Olga; Zuidgeest (Former Assistant Professor), Mark; Brussel, M.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance social equity, three important sustainable transportation initiatives have been introduced in Bogotá. Spatial information and GIS have been used to analyze levels of inequality in access to these initiatives. The results show that the TransMilenio BRT offers equal access for all

  7. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  8. Urban planning, public transit and related initiatives for more sustainable transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The characteristics of ten Canadian cities and their transportation systems were summarized. The need to conserve resources and to maintain environmental quality has lead to initiatives aimed at achieving more sustainable urban transportation. The most promising initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and achieve other sustainability objectives were described. Ways to overcome the most significant barriers were suggested. Since suburban areas are generally automobile-dependant, the major challenge is how to retrofit these areas with high quality transit services. A corollary objective is to achieve more compact, mixed-use urban structure and pedestrian-friendly streetscapes, thereby reducing average trip distances and making it feasible for the transit, walking and cycling modes to be used more extensively. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaojun; Chang, Shiyan; Li, Jingjie; Qin, Yining [Institute of Energy and Environmental Economics, Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the initiatives launched in energy supply and consumption and the challenges encountered in sustainable road transportation development in China. It analyzes the main energy challenges related to road transportation development arising in the context of economic development, rapid urbanization, and improvement in living standards. It also discusses technological- and policy initiatives needed to deal with these challenges, drawing comparisons with foreign experience: promoting the development and dissemination of alternative fuels and clean vehicles such as: LPG, CNG, EV, HEV, FCV, ethanol, methanol, DME, bio-diesel, and CTL, strengthening regulations relating to vehicle fuel economy and emission, improving traffic efficiency and facilitating public transport development, and strengthening management of the soaring motor vehicle population. If the current pattern continues, by the year 2030, the vehicle population in China will be 400 million and fuel demand will be 350 million tons. The potential energy saving capacity being 60%, the actual oil demand by 2030 from on-road vehicles might technically be kept at the current level by improving fuel economy, propagating use of HEV and diesel vehicles, improving supply of alternative fuels, and developing public transport. Several uncertainties are identified that could greatly influence the effect of the technical proposals: traffic efficiency, central government's resolve, and consumers' choice. (author)

  10. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  11. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  12. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how...

  13. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  14. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  15. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable...... tool that may indeed help to move forward the transport policy agenda. However, there are major conditions and limitations. First of all it is not always so straightforward to delimit, measure and compare transport services in order to establish a clear benchmark. Secondly ‘sustainable transport......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  16. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  17. Resource-efficient intelligent transportation systems as a basis for sustainable development. Overview of initiatives and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vovk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems mostly operate on information exchange principle between vehicles and roadside infrastructure. They are commonly regarded as a base technology for persistent diminution of road accidents and traffic efficiency increase. However, intelligent transportation systems can also be used at all levels of transportation systems as a basis for stable development of cities, enterprises, regions, states, continents. According to the research, the existing intelligent transportation systems not only provide the considerable reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, fuel saving, time of travel cutting, but they don’t marginalize citizens’ mobility as well. Thus, the further development and introduction of modern transportation innovative technologies will allow to guarantee the energy- and resources efficiency and, therefore, the sustainable development of the whole society.

  18. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  19. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  20. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  2. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...

  3. Developing sustainable transportation performance measures for ALDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable transportation is generally used to refer to transportation that contributes to the sustainable development of the community that owns and uses the system. The Transportation Research Board defines sustainability as: Sustainability is ...

  4. University involvement in sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education and on the univer......With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education...... and on the university's activities as an organisation, i.e. its own operation and its accounting for this. Sustainability is defined as a continuous process requiring balance between (the emergence of) problems and our ability and capability to solve them. Some core questions that this paper seeks to answer are: "How...... is Sustainable Development understood at executive level at the university? How (if at all) is sustainable development integrated in the core activities of the university? How is the university attached to ‘real life outside the ivory tower', e.g. through the establishing of Public-Private-Academic Partnerships...

  5. Use of ICT for sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, P.; Alam, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The world is experiencing an unfettered growth in terms of development but shrinking the way these developments are leading to the societal, economic and environmental changes and chaos. Sustainability is the answer and needs to be addressed effectively. ICT (Information and Communications Technology) has revolutionized the way things can change. This paper deals with sustainable transportation. Sustainable transport system is a sub topic of a bigger issue “Sustainable Development”. So what does this imply? ICT, can indeed enable the designing of smarter cities that offer a better quality of life for their residents while being more sustainable and cost effective. It is not just the citizens of a country but also the government that can gain benefit from initiatives and meet the objectives faster. This paper digs into the traditional transport systems and the sustainable transport system which we thrive for. Green vehicles/Electric Vehicles/Driverless cars/Hybrid vehicles are the need of the hour. This paper extensively explores the issues and inventions that can lead to sustainable transportation. It further explores the problems associated with them and their solutions. These solutions cover the major aspects of sustainability like meticulous planning, correct usage of ICT and a well drafted and implemented governance framework.

  6. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  7. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  8. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    , Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts to...... contribution to the discussions within the Eusponsored BEST Thematic Network (Benchmarking European Sustainable Transport) which ran from 2000 to 2003....

  9. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  10. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport...... is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...

  11. Environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verron, H.; Friedrich, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study reported in this paper is part of an OECD project with several case studies in different countries. The purpose of the project was to look for possible ways to reduce the environmental impact of transport to a level which is compatible with sustainability. The participants in the case studies agreed upon quantifying criteria for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which should describe environmentally sustainable transport (EST), and each case study constructed a business-as-usual scenario and three EST scenarios, considering the period from 1990 to 2030. Each EST scenario should meet the criteria in a backcasting effort, EST1 looking for solely technical solutions, EST2 restricting and shifting transport volumes while ignoring technological progress, and EST3 combining components of both strategies. In the German case study criteria were additionally quantified for particulate matter, noise and land-take for transport purposes. The German EST1 scenario is based on hybrid electric hypercars, hydrogen for public transport, freight and aviation, and electricity from renewable sources. In the EST2 scenario total transport activity for passenger and freight transport had to be reduced by 40% and 25% respectively, compared to 1990 in order to meet the criteria. In the EST3 scenario, while highly energy efficient conventional propulsion systems and engines were used, total passenger transport decreased only slightly and freight transport even increased. Implementation measures were then defined on the basis of the EST3 scenario. Emission regulation, fuel tax, and road pricing for heavy duty vehicles were the key features in order to achieve EST in this case study. They were complemented by additional sets of measures, designed to prevent urban sprawl, diminish freight traffic growth, increase liveability of towns, improve the infrastructure and service conditions of alternative modes as well as provide energy supply by regenerative

  12. IKEA: Global sourcing and sustainable leather initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yan; Jia, Fu; Gong, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Aims: the aim of this teaching case is to illustrate the Sustainable Global Sourcing (SGS) practices of IKEA influenced by its Global Sourcing (GS) strategy and structure aspects through a case study of the sustainable leather initiative.Scope: this study is developed though 20 face-to-face interviews with IKEA managers in both Sweden and China, covering all the major SGS-related departments i.e. purchasing,sustainability, IWAY, and competence center (sustainable project team).Contribution: w...

  13. Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-30

    More than a dozen energy experts convened in Houston, Texas, on February 13, 2009, for the first in a series of four regionally-based energy summits being held by the Council on Competitiveness. The Southern Energy Summit was hosted by Marathon Oil Corporation, and participants explored the public policy, business and technological challenges to increasing the diversity and sustainability of U.S. energy supplies. There was strong consensus that no single form of energy can satisfy the projected doubling, if not tripling, of demand by the year 2050 while also meeting pressing environmental challenges, including climate change. Innovative technology such as carbon capture and storage, new mitigation techniques and alternative forms of energy must all be brought to bear. However, unlike breakthroughs in information technology, advancing broad-based energy innovation requires an enormous scale that must be factored into any equation that represents an energy solution. Further, the time frame for developing alternative forms of energy is much longer than many believe and is not understood by the general public, whose support for sustainability is critical. Some panelists estimated that it will take more than 50 years to achieve the vision of an energy system that is locally tailored and has tremendous diversity in generation. A long-term commitment to energy sustainability may also require some game-changing strategies that calm volatile energy markets and avoid political cycles. Taking a page from U.S. economic history, one panelist suggested the creation of an independent Federal Energy Reserve Board not unlike the Federal Reserve. The board would be independent and influence national decisions on energy supply, technology, infrastructure and the nation's carbon footprint to better calm the volatile energy market. Public-private efforts are critical. Energy sustainability will require partnerships with the federal government, such as the U.S. Department of Energy

  14. The GPI transportation accounts : sustainable transportation in Halifax Regional Municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savelson, A.; Colman, R.; Martin, W. [GPI Atlantic, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    The Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) approved its first municipal planning strategy (MPS), in June 2006 that set the general framework for planning decisions over the next 20 years. The major objectives of this initiative are to manage a moderate level of population growth, minimize the environmental impact of that growth, and use it as a catalyst to make HRM more sustainable in all of its activities. Due to the dispersed nature of HRM and the diverse mix of its urban, suburban, and rural areas, the links between communities become a key focal point for sustainability measures. Transportation issues are central to many of HRM's current planning decisions and are a key component of the MPS. This report summarized the portion of the MPS that related to the development of functional transportation plans for HRM. The report also presented findings for eight key indicator categories that could be utilized to assess the sustainability of HRM's transportation system. These indicator categories include transport activity; energy consumption; greenhouse gas emissions; transportation emissions of air pollutants; land use and transportation; access to basic services; access to public transportation; neighbourhood quality of life; and household spending on transportation. The report also provided a quantitative assessment of the economic costs of passenger road transportation in HRM. The costing section provided estimates for 15 cost categories, many of which go unexamined in standard transportation accounting mechanisms. Last, a set of data and policy recommendations outlining ways to improve transportation monitoring in HRM as well as to advance the sustainability of HRM's transportation system as a whole were presented. Recommendations included: establishing settlement patterns and pedestrian or cycling-oriented infrastructure where more people could walk or cycle to work and amenities; increasing ridership by making transit accessible to a wider

  15. Hanford Site sustainable development initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the economic vitality of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is completed, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project

  16. Sustainable Transportation - Indicators, Frameworks, and Performance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Hall, Ralph P.; Marsden, Greg

    This textbook provides an introduction to the concept of sustainability in the context of transportation planning, management, and decision-making. The book is divided into two parts. In the first part, indicators and frameworks for measuring sustainable development in the transportation sector...... are developed. In the second, the authors analyze actual planning and decision-making in transportation agencies in a variety of governance settings. This analysis of real-world case studies demonstrates the benefits and limitations of current approaches to sustainable development in transportation. The book...... concludes with a discussion on how to make sustainability count in transportation decision-making and practice....

  17. Managing Transportation Infrastructure for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyemi, Edward O.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.

    Major requirements for operationalization of the concept of sustainable development in urban transportation infrastructure operations management are presented. In addition, it is shown that the current approach to management is incompatible with the requirements for sustainable urban development.

  18. Planning and evaluation of sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives......Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives...

  19. Framework for Sustainability Assessment by Transportation Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramani, Tara Lakshmi; Zietsman, Josias; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    and outcomes. The framework development process was an extension of findings from literature review, case studies, and interviews conducted as part of ongoing research under the NCHRP project Sustainability Performance Measures for State Departments of Transportation and Other Transportation Agencies...

  20. Sustainable transportation for tourism : indicators and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The overall project goal of guiding planning and management of transportation to serve the needs of : sustainable tourism focused on three tourism-related transportation contexts. The first context was : selected types of roads important to tourism i...

  1. Sustainable transportation for tourism : green certification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The overall project goal of guiding planning and management of transportation to serve the needs of : sustainable tourism focused on three tourism-related transportation contexts. The first context was : selected types of roads important to tourism i...

  2. Understanding the Sustainability of Private Development Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsbergen, Sara; Schulpen, Lau; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is a large group of small-scale, voluntary development organisations, referred to as Private Development Initiatives (PDIs). By classifying PDI interventions based on their potential sustainability, we aim to enhance our understanding of PDIs as alternative development

  3. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  4. University engagement and regional sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    With an outset in ‘sustainability' defined as a continuous process requiring balance between (the emergence of) problems and our ability and capability to solve them using four distinct capitals available, i.e. natural, production, human and intellectual, and social capital, a model of universities...... University, Denmark, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research and education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education and on the university's activities as an organisation, i...... societal benefit would be the ability to better cope with emerging problems endangering the sustainable development of our societies. It is concluded that Aalborg University with its long tradition for project-based and problem-oriented learning in fact has every opportunity to be able to lead by example...

  5. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  6. Sustainable production: transporting animals or meat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, W.H.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Lambooij, E.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2009-01-01

    For the EU the impact of a ban on international transport of pigs and horses is assessed, based on three sustainability criteria. The paper concludes that the risks of welfare problems will be reduced, the CO2 emission and transport costs will be lowered but that there will be substantial shifts in

  7. Sustainable concretes for transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    performance in concrete for structural and transportation applications. Based on the challenges associated with coal ash (including SDA) and the economic costs linked to cement production, this research seeks to develop an environmentally friendly an...

  8. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  9. NASA Ames Sustainability Initiatives: Aeronautics, Space Exploration, and Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymes, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the mission-specific challenges of aeronautics and space exploration, NASA Ames produces a wealth of research and technology advancements with significant relevance to larger issues of planetary sustainability. NASA research on NexGen airspace solutions and its development of autonomous and intelligent technologies will revolutionize both the nation's air transporation systems and have applicability to the low altitude flight economy and to both air and ground transporation, more generally. NASA's understanding of the Earth as a complex of integrated systems contributes to humanity's perception of the sustainability of our home planet. Research at NASA Ames on closed environment life support systems produces directly applicable lessons on energy, water, and resource management in ground-based infrastructure. Moreover, every NASA campus is a 'city'; including an urbanscape and a workplace including scientists, human relations specialists, plumbers, engineers, facility managers, construction trades, transportation managers, software developers, leaders, financial planners, technologists, electricians, students, accountants, and even lawyers. NASA is applying the lessons of our mission-related activities to our urbanscapes and infrastructure, and also anticipates a leadership role in developing future environments for living and working in space.

  10. Transportation planning for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Over many decades transportation and traffic have grown at a steady pace, and this trend is likely to continue because of a combination of various demand and supply factors [Grübler, 1993], especially in urban areas in both the industrialised and industrialising world. At the same time the negative

  11. Environmentally sustainable transport in the CEI countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, R.; Wiederkehr, P.

    2004-01-01

    Moving people and freight in an environmentally sustainable manner that reduces environmental pollution and health hazards is a key challenge for transport and environment policies in Europe. Present mobility patterns of passenger and freight transport in Central and Eastern Europe do not correspond to the objectives of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a transport futures study for the CEI region as a whole using backcasting methodology with long-term sustainability criteria to be met by 2030. Achieving environmentally sustainable transport (EST) doesn't mean less transport and mobility than we have today, but it means primarily maintaining a balanced modal split that results in less environmental and health impacts than it would be under projected future trends. Rail, trams, busses and new forms of flexible inter-modal public transport mobility would have to take a large share and rail transport for passenger and freight as well as inland shipping would have to be nearly doubled by 2030 while road freight could still increase if it is based on alternative fuels reducing its impacts. Technological advancements for passenger cars and lorries, fuels and infrastructure will play an important part to achieve EST, but also ''smart'' mobility management (e.g. transport avoidance, increasing load factors and modal shift), innovative mobility services and freight logistics would be critical. The implementation of these policies and strategies will require coherent and comprehensive packages of instruments and measures, including: economic instruments, regulatory instruments, changes in infrastructure investment, mobility management, information and education programmes as well as better integration of land use, transport and environment policies. Realising EST will provide new opportunities for businesses to develop and invest in innovative solutions for passenger and freight transport. Overall, achieving EST would constitute a net benefit for

  12. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Göran; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed

  13. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Göran, E-mail: goran.finnveden@abe.kth.se; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  14. Initiatives in transport cask licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, John

    1998-01-01

    The variations in research reactor fuel form, configuration, irradiation characteristics, and transport cask have required a substantial number of transport cask licensing actions associated with foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation. When compounded by limited time for shipment preparations, due to contract timing or delayed receipt of technical data, the number and timing of certifications has adversely impacted the ability of regulatory agencies to support intended shipping schedules. This issue was brought into focus at a april, 1998 meeting among DOE, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOE's spent fuel transportation contractors. (author)

  15. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers presented at TRB and elsewhere seek to make sustainability manageable by suggesting indicators and performance measures as key tools to help conceptualize and operationalize sustainability for various levels of transportation-related planning and decision-making. These studies...... often prescribe frameworks that will allow sustainability indicators and measures to be selected and included in, for example, agency strategies and practices. Moreover, some suggest criteria for selection of individual indicators and performance measures. The studies do however not always agree on what...... of the paper is first to provide a theoretical elaboration of the underlying notion of ‘frameworks’, and then to conduct a review of the selected recent key scientific studies on sustainable transportation indicator frameworks in terms of what they propose for building the meta-framework and for identifying...

  16. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    and operationalize sustainability for transportation-related planning and decision making. Often these studies presented frameworks that would allow sustainability indicators and measures to be included in, for example, agency strategies and practices. Moreover, some papers suggested criteria for the selection...... of individual indicators and performance measures. The studies, however, did not always agree on the definition of a framework or how to use one to make sustainability-based decisions, and they tended to differ on underscored aspects and concerns. The current study addressed the issue of frameworks more...... generically and explored what was termed a "metaframework" with a set of associated criteria to guide the framing of indicators for sustainable transportation. On the basis of an explicit framework theory, the three functions of conceptualization, operationalization, and utilization were found to provide...

  17. Sustainable Low Carbon Transport Scenarios for India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash; Mittal, Shivika

    2014-01-01

    and local air quality that can be accrued by mainstreaming climate change polices into national sustainable development goals and sectoral plans are also estimated. There is no silver bullet that would enable the transition towards low carbon transport. An optimal mix of policies that includes fuel economy...... standards, modal shifts and cleaner energy supply is required to align climate and sustainable development goals in the long-term....... are delineated that would facilitate the sustainable low carbon transformation of India’s transport sector. The long term energy and emission trajectory of India’s transport sector is assessed under alternate scenarios using the integrated assessment modelling framework. Co-benefits like energy security...

  18. Recent trends in air transport sustainibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Alonso, G.

    2016-07-01

    The target of this paper is to analyse the main elements of Air Transport sustainability, studying their evolution during the last years and establishing the future prevalent trends, which might be modified by the application of the adequate policies. Air Transport sustainability is considered as integrated by five basic characteristics: physical accessibility, economic affordability, safety, security and environmental impact. Each one of them has its own influence on the development of this transportation mode and all of them are required in order to achieve a sustainable development. After defining the structural elements of the five characteristics and the corresponding quantitative indicators, the paper studies the recent evolution of such indicators and extrapolates the most likely future trends, having taken into account the most relevant limitations presently existent or potentially appearing in the near future. The most important policies being presently studied (future aircraft designs, infrastructure developments, potential safety and security new rules and tentative environmental action programs) are evaluated, considering the potential repercussions on sustainability progress. Some combinations of them are suggested as the most efficient alternatives for preserving the sustainable development of XXI century air transport. (Author)

  19. Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.

    2005-01-01

    Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  20. Walk the Talk. Integrated Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagebiel, John [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate, through a series of real-world applications of existing technology, the benefits to the University of Nevada, Reno and the community, of various sustainability efforts. The project was very successful and has stimulated the Campus to take on more projects after seeing the successes of those initial ones funded through this project. The three areas of this work could broadly be described as energy efficiency, renewable energy and recycling. Under the first project, the campus did several projects replacing or changing heating and cooling systems, using state funding. The DOE funding initially funded the replacement of lights in one campus parking garage with LED lights. Subsequently, the campus facilities group recognized how effective this was and leveraged funds to do the other two garages. Similarly with the renewable energy project, once the first system was installed and working well, the campus committed funds to more than double that system. Lastly, the recycling efforts expanded the use and awareness on campus and led the campus to begin using a single-stream recycling program once it became available in this area, hopefully leading to more participation by the campus community. Thus, overall the project areas each did what they were intended to do, which was to demonstrate the usefulness of these sustainability programs and thus encourage the campus to do more. All this great work helps the campus’ goals overall, but without additional effort would not reach beyond the campus. This was the objective of the education and outreach effort. The combination of events, websites, and videos enabled us to reach many key decision makers and at the same time provide a long-term presence on the web that we can use to further educate people. The overall goals were met or exceeded and will continue to pay dividends into the future.

  1. Transportation Sustainability on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the present level of sustainable transportation, mainly walking and bicycling, on a large campus in the US Midwest and then analyzes some of the opportunities and impediments in increasing the modal share. Design/methodology/approach: Three types of analysis are used. First, current level of walking and bicycling…

  2. New governance principles for sustainable urban transport

    OpenAIRE

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper positions the communications and transport in the centre of a rejuvenation policy for a sustainable urban habitat, taking for granted the success of urban govemance will depend on the professionality of local/regional policy-making govemed by sound principles from business practice in corporate organizations.

  3. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO 2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies show the potential of drawing the transport demand to the more energy efficient vehicles; however, more initiatives are needed if the sustainable transport is the long term objective, such as the solutions to stabilise the private vehicle demands, to continuously improve the vehicle efficiency and to boost the alternative fuels produced from the renewable energy sources. - Highlights: • A Chinese transport model was created and three transport strategies were evaluated • Transport is the biggest driver of the oil demand in China not the industry • The energy demand of transport in 2020 will be twice as much as today • Strategies contribute 13% energy saving and 12% CO 2 emission reduction • More initiatives are needed if a sustainable transport is the long-term objective

  4. Myanmar Transport Sector Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is preparing sector assessments to help align future ADB support with the needs and strategies of developing member countries and other development partners. The assessment is a working document that helps inform the development of country partnership strategies. This transport sector assessment highlights development issues, needs, and strategic assistance priorities of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and ADB, with a focus on rail, road...

  5. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  6. Defining sustainable transport in rural tourism: experiences from the New Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Janet E.; Smith, A.; Robbins, Derek K.

    2017-01-01

    Transport policy agendas have long sought to bring about more sustainable transport at tourism destinations. While there are examples of successes, it remains unclear what inroads have been made towards creating a sustainable transport future. Policy directions have evolved over a number of years and in many tourism destination contexts it is far from clear what a desirable transport future looks like. When translated to implementation, the aims of initiatives can be unclear and baseline meas...

  7. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  8. Pathways to a more sustainable transport infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dravitzki, V., Email: Vince.Dravitzki@Opus.co.nz; Lester, T.; Cenek, P. [Opus International Consultants, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    The two phenomena of Peak Oil and Human-induced Climate Change both together and individually create an imperative for early action, with the need to address Climate Change limiting the range of options that can be used to address peak oil. Peak oil is often portrayed as a market phenomenon, as a period when demand will exceed supply. The imperative to respond to the issues resulting from Peak Oil and Climate Change requires that New Zealand must move from its current high energy use, high resource use, high cost, petroleum dependent, transport infrastructure, to a sustainable one. Because a country's energy profile will increasingly define its economic success, New Zealand needs also to move to a lower energy society to remain competitive with other countries. What will be New Zealand's successful transport energy of the future and how it may be best used are key considerations of our future sustainable transport system. Low energy, low material use and consequently low cost, will be the main criteria. This paper first identifies our current transport energy usage, and some of the risks of being slow to respond to change. The paper then questions the central tenants of the current New Zealand Land Transport Strategy (2008) that we move to bio-fuels and electric cars because this is not a low energy, low cost pathway. We advocate that instead of just coping with change, New Zealand uses the necessity to change as an opportunity to recast our transport infrastructure to greatly improve the economic success and liveability of our settlements to New Zealand's benefit. The second part of the paper outlines a transport infrastructure based around electricity, with a heavy emphasis on public transport use, but also with freight much more dependent on electrified rail. This second part discusses: the advantages that NZ has that will facilitate this transition, such as favourable urban forms; the energy needs and energy availability; the benefits and

  9. Sustainability Tools Inventory Initial Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consu...

  10. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  11. Evaluation of issues around road materials for sustainable transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to a number of other factors (social, economic, etc) sustainable transport requires the sustainable supply and use of construction materials. This includes the use of marginal materials, waste materials, novel / innovative materials...

  12. Achieving Sustainability in Learning and Teaching Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Angela; Cahir, Jayde

    2014-01-01

    Universities have a long history of change in learning and teaching to suit various government initiatives and institutional priorities. Academic developers now are frequently required to address strategic learning and teaching priorities. This paper asks how, in such a context, academic developers can ensure that work they do in relation to one…

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Leah [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Rogers, Sam [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Sipes, James L. [Sand County Studios

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the ORNL Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020 is to provide a framework that guides future environmental resources and sustainable landscape practices on the ORNL campus. This document builds on the 2003 ORNL Conceptual Landscape Plan and is presented in the context of embracing new opportunities.

  14. New, innovative and sustainable transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: ulla.lassi@oulu.fi; Keiski, R. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)); Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories (Finland)); Mikkola, J.-P. (Aabo Akademi Univ., Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Turku (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Secondary products from the industry - e.g. by-products of food and paper/pulp industry - can be used to manufacture new liquid biofuels or fuel components. A particularly interesting alternative is provided by butanol, which can be produced from biomass, since it seems to be most suitable for replacing petrol as fuel in gasoline engines. Besides, it is very energy efficient and also suitable to be produced on an industrial scale. Production of biobutanol and other higher alcohols is studied in the research project 'New, innovative sustainable transportation fuels for mobile applications; from biocomponents to flexible liquid fuels (SusFuFlex)'. The project is carried out as a joint project between the University of Oulu and Aabo Akademi University. It is financied by the Academy of Finland in 2008-2011, within the research programme for Sustainable Energy. Research focuses on the production of higher bioalcohols and other compounds suitable as oxygenates (e.g. butanol, pentanol, mixed alcohols; e.g. glycerine ethers, glycerol carbonate). The objectives of the research are (1) to evaluate the old and novel procedures for microbiological production of butanol, higher alcohols and oxygenates as fossil fuel substitutes, (2) to develop and optimize catalytic materials and chemical reaction routes for the production of higher alcohols and other bio-derived compounds applicable as gasoline fuel and its additives, (3) to conduct a sustainability analysis of the processes to be developed, to analyze the atom economy of the new processes and to make a preliminary economical analysis, and (4) to integrate the processes and know-how developed by the research groups

  15. European initiatives for modeling emissions from transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Hickman, A. John; Samaras, Zissis

    1998-01-01

    In Europe there have been many cooperative studies into transport emission inventories since the late 80s. These cover the scope of CORINAIR program involving experts from seven European Community laboratories addressing only road transport emissions at national level. These also include the latest...... covered are the composition of the vehicle fleets, emission factors, driving statistics and the modeling approach. Many of the European initiatives aim also at promoting further cooperation between national laboratories and at defining future research needs. An assessment of these future needs...... is presented from a European point of view....

  16. Web Content Analysis On Sustainable Campus Operation (SCO Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razman Ruzaimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the current practices implemented in global universities for achieving sustainability throughout campus operations. This study adopted a web content analysis method where 30 international green universities’ websites have been thoroughly examined to identify common initiatives implemented to achieve sustainability through campus operations. The findings are ranked based on the implementation of these initiatives by participating universities. From the websites reviewed, as much as 31 initiatives have been identified as common initiatives frequently implemented by green universities to achieve sustainability in campus operations. It was found that the common initiatives frequently implemented by most of the universities include ‘Provide bin with clearly marked signs to increase the number of recycling items’, and ‘Generate electricity on campus by establishing power generation plants’ with 87% and 83% respectively. This paper fills the gap by presenting the investigation of sustainability initiatives from some of the major green universities internationally. It is suggested that higher education institutions, particularly Malaysian universities, initiate or manage their implementation of sustainable campus operation (SCO initiatives based on the findings of this research.

  17. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  18. User's manual for sustainable transportation performance measures calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Sustainable transportation can be viewed as the provision of safe, effective, and efficient : access and mobility into the future while considering economic, social, and environmental : needs. For the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to ass...

  19. Indicators and beyond: Assessing the sustainability of transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    on the topic of sustainable transport indicator frameworks. Case study work draws upon extensive desktop-based analysis of impact assessment reports and other publically available material about real cases of large transport infrastructure appraisals. The HS2 high-speed rail (HSR) project appraisal in the UK......Credibly demonstrating actual progress towards a genuinely sustainable transport situation remains a challenge. A key problem is that the incorporation of sustainability in transport policy and planning at present is not systematic. A motivating assumption behind this thesis is that a transition...... toward a sustainable transport system will require strong support from decision-support processes and assessment tools that do not only adopt the language of sustainability, but fully integrate an explicit notion of sustainability in all of their conceptual, operational and procedural approaches...

  20. Sustainable Transportation Systems Research Group: Ongoing and Past Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gkritza, Konstantina "Nadia"; Hurtado, Davis Chacon; Gkartzonikas, Christos; Ke, Yue; Losada, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the ongoing and past activities of the Sustainable Transportation Systems Research (STSR) group at Purdue University (https://engineering.purdue.edu/STSRG). The STSR group aims to achieve green, safe, efficient, and equitable transportation systems by studying and modeling transportation externalities, using state of the art statistical, econometric, and economic analysis tools.

  1. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  2. Shippers and freight operators perceptions of sustainable initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, José Geraldo Vidal; Mendes, Juliana Veiga; Suyama, Suzi Sanae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the extent to which Brazilian companies in retail channels have committed to adopting environmental sustainability measures, goals and strategies for waste disposal in the evaluation and planning of sustainable transportation. This paper also aims to examine the different viewpoints of sustainability issues and the preventive actions taken by companies in terms of controlling carbon dioxide emissions and proper disposal of tires, lubricant oils, accessories and spare parts. Finally, taking the perspective of these companies, this paper examines their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The research involved a survey completed by 185 representatives of different types of companies, including shippers (represented by manufacturers), LSPs (logistics service providers) and carriers. The non-linear canonical correlation was calculated to verify the opinions of these representatives from different companies regarding issues that impact on the environment, the preventive actions they adopt to reduce their environmental impact and their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The results show that shippers and LSPs have the same perceptions regarding these sustainability issues and preventive actions. In addition, the companies perceive high costs and the lack of training for their partners as the major challenges experienced in addressing these issues and undertaking preventive actions. Therefore they need to plan their transportation activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 55403 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Transformation Initiative: Sustainable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant (SCRGP... Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Transformative Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program (SCRGP...&R), under the Assistant Secretary, administered the FY10 Sustainable Communities Research Grant...

  4. Capacity Development for Sustainable Urban Transportation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Senbil, Metin; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Zhang, Junyi

    2008-01-01

    To make urban transport sustainable, effective and efficient, first and foremost, there is a need for capacity development-capacity is defined as the ability to deal with problems in efficient and effective ways-in developing countries. Apart from many important capacity related problems such as lack of adequate infrastructure, older vehicle population, etc., policy makers in developing countries have to consider changing individual behavior to realize sustainable urban transportation policie...

  5. The YES2 Experience : Towards Sustainable Space Transportation using Tethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heide, E.J.; Kruijff, M.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today there is no common vision on sustainable space transportation. Rockets expel gasses and solid rockets often small particles. These have negative effect on the environment, but it is not understood to what extent. With ever growing demand for access to space, sustainable technology developments

  6. Key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaveewatanaseth, K.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cities become more vulnerable to climate change impacts causing by urbanization, economic growth, increasing of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. People who live in the cities have already been affected from the impacts in terms of socioeconomic and environmental aspects. Sustainable transport plays the key role in CO2 mitigation and contributes positive impacts on sustainable development for the cities. Several studies in megacities both in developed and developing countries support that mass transit system is an important transportation mode in CO2 mitigation and sustainable transport development. This paper aims to study key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport. The Bangkok Mass Rapid Transit System (MRT) located in Bangkok was the study area. Data collection was using semi-structured in-depth interview protocol with thirty respondents consisting of six groups i.e. governmental agencies, the MRT operators, consulting companies, international organizations, non-profit organizations, and experts. The research findings highlighted the major factors and supplemental elements composing of institution and technical capacity, institutional framework, policy setting and process, and plan of implementation that would support more effective strategic process for low carbon development strategy (LCDS) for sustainable transport. The study would highly recommend on readiness of institution and technical capacities, stakeholder mapping, high-level decision- makers participation, and a clear direction of the governmental policies that are strongly needed in achieving the sustainable transport.

  7. Transport Canada's sustainable development action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Transport Canada's sustainable development strategy, tabled in the House of Commons in December 1997, sets out the direction for the Department to integrate environmental concerns with safety and efficiency in developing policies and programs and in carrying out its day-to-day activities. While recognizing that moving towards sustainable development is a long-term undertaking, the department is determined to turn 'words' into 'work'. The action plan outlined in this document is organized according to the challenges laid out in the original Sustainable Development Strategy document. Accordingly, the department shall endeavour to minimize risk of environmental damage from transportation accidents; promote greening of operations in the transportation sector; reduce emissions of hazardous substances from transportation sources; promote education and awareness on sustainable transportation; refine sustainable performance indicators; and develop and promote the application of cleaner transportation systems and transportation technologies. The bulk of the report is devoted to brief summaries of progress achieved in each of these areas to date.

  8. Investigating Environmentally Sustainable Transport Based on DALY weights and SIR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nezamianpour Jahromi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is one of the main causes of well-being and growth in contemporary societies. Transportation is the backbone of accessibility systems that lead to the growth of economic and social networks and spatial dispersion of activities. Unfortunately, the adverse effects of transportation have a great impact on the natural and human environment. Since transportation is associated with fossil fuel combustion, it results in emissions of pollutants that cause damage to human health. To save the global eco-system, sustainable development has become an international priority. To deal with the sustainability of transportation systems is an important issue as testified by a growing number of initiatives framed to define and measure sustainability in transportation planning and infrastructure planning as well. The capability of environmental assessment as a sustainability instrument is well known. This study proposes a new approach to rank countries based on environmental sustainability development applying disability adjusted life year (DALY weights for transportation sector emissions. DALY weights consider actual impacts of pollutants on human health. By employing SIR method, a superiority and inferiority ranking method is presented for multiple criteria decision making, the sustainability ranking of a number of European countries is presented. Three various ranking methods extracted from SIR ranking method are discussed and the results and the correlation among them are demonstrated.

  9. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  10. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this

  11. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  12. Using Performance Indicators to Promote Sustainable Transport in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke; Cornet, Yannick

    literature on performance measurement. The information of Japanese cases is obtained by review of key policy documents, reports and academic papers and through a series of semi-structured interviews with experts and officials in Japan. The paper combines insights from two ongoing research projects supported......The challenges associated with using performance measurement to steer transport policy towards sustainability include general aspects of measuring sustainability of transport systems with indicators as well as specific national and institutional conditions for adopting and responding...... to the information produced by such sustainability indicator systems. Japan is interesting in these regards, since the country has adopted strategies for achieving a more sustainable transport situation, as well as frameworks of policy performance measurement and management. The paper will describe a general...

  13. Transportation Research – Safety and Sustainability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of traditional urban and transport planning 'growth of mobility', 'travel time saving by ... This is why road and driver education programmes have been ... The last paper in the volume by Mukherjee et al illustrates the use of modern modelling.

  14. Bicycles, transportation sustainability, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this report focuses on the exploration of a variety of objective and subjective quality of life indicators and approaches for bicycle transportation using a mixed methods approach. The authors have created a conceptual frame...

  15. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Pojani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable urban development, not only because they are home to at least a quarter of the world’s population but because they also offer great potential for sustainable transformations. In principle, their size allows for flexibility in terms of urban expansion, adoption of “green” travel modes, and environmental protection. At the same time, smaller and medium-sized cities often have fewer resources to implement new transport measures and can be more vulnerable to fluctuations in the world economy. This article critically reviews the potential role and impact of nine commonly considered options for sustainable urban transport in cities in developing countries: (1 road infrastructure; (2 rail-based public transport; (3 road-based public transport; (4 support for non-motorized travel modes; (5 technological solutions; (6 awareness-raising campaigns; (7 pricing mechanisms; (8 vehicle access restrictions; and (9 control of land-uses. Drawing on international research and examples of policies to reduce the environmental impacts of transport in urban areas, this article identifies some key lessons for sustainable urban transport in smaller and medium-sized cities in developing countries. These lessons are certainly not always identical to those for megacities in the global south.

  16. The Sustainable Mobility Learning Laboratory: Interactive Web-Based Education on Transportation and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Lisa A.; Marr, Linsey C.; Linford, John C.; Darby, Mary Ashburn

    2008-01-01

    The transportation field has for many years been dominated by engineers and other technical specialists. This article describes the Sustainable Mobility Learning Lab (SMLL), a Web-based tool designed to support classroom and university outreach activities to help initiate a more inclusive, nontechnical discussion about the role of transportation…

  17. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  18. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  19. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  20. Sustainability in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: The Interrelationships among Sustainability Initiatives and Geographic and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Dan; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip; Wright, Tarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a census of high-level sustainability initiatives at all accredited post-secondary institutions in Canada by documenting the institutions that have undertaken sustainability assessments, have signed one or more sustainability declarations, have sustainability offices or officers or have sustainability…

  1. Sustainable Transportation Program 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Kathi H [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    Highlights of selected research and development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory funded by the Vehicle Technologies Program, Biomass Program, and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program of the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; and the Department of Transportation.

  2. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2016-01-01

    In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatt...

  3. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Delgass, W Nicholas

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H(2)CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H(2) and CO(2) recycled from the H(2)-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H(2)CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce approximately 30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H(2)CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H(2) storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H(2)CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H(2) in the H(2)CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H(2)CAR is that there is no additional CO(2) release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO(2).

  4. Sustainable transport practices in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)

  5. Indicators of environmental sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of about thirty researchers meeting regularly to discuss these questions along the period 2005-2010. The researchers were from natural as well as social sciences, and all engaged in the field of transport and environment. The report provides analysis of the functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators...

  6. Sustainability assessment for the transportation environment of Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Dipanjan; Paul, Subrata Kr; Saha, Swati; Goswami, Arkopal K

    2018-05-01

    Darjeeling is an important tourist hill town of West Bengal, India. It suffers from an acute problem of transportation, particularly during its peak tourist seasons due to limited road space, inadequate public transport facilities and indiscriminate use of automobiles. This hill town was originally designed for a population of 10,000, but over the years, it has come face-to-face with rapid urbanization, a rising population of both tourists and residents and intensifying motor vehicle usage. These factors together are posing a threat to its transport environment. This study identifies the Sustainable Transport Indicators (STIs) available in the existing literature to identify the critical stretches using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on experts' consensus. It was found that the experts placed emphasis on the mobility of the town, talking about vehicular impact on air pollution and encroachment of roads as the main issues affecting the sustainability of the transport environment. Thereafter, policy-level interventions have been suggested in accordance with the identified sustainability issues. We trust that other tourist hill towns with issues similar to Darjeeling could easily emulate the study methodology to assess their transport environment sustainability, or replicate on the lines of the recommended policy interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-stakeholder initiatives in sustainable supply chains: Putting sustainability performance in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Searcy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the role of multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs in sustainable supply chains. I argue that MSIs are needed to help establish and institutionalize the natural and social thresholds in which a sustainable supply chain must operate. While a multitude of MSIs relevant to supply chains already exist, they do not yet adequately address sustainability thresholds. Building on theory and literature, I elaborate on four interrelated roles for MSIs in this area: (1 providing learning platforms, (2 developing standards, (3 developing enforcement mechanisms, and (4 issuing labels and certifications. All four roles emphasize the need for supply chains to operate within the thresholds set by nature and society. Staying within thresholds is what distinguishes between sustainable and unsustainable supply chains. The four roles form part of a broader conceptual framework outlining a way forward for MSIs in sustainable supply chains. Different MSIs could address one or more of these roles. I argue that all MSIs must be developed with special attention to their input and output legitimacy. Stakeholders from both within and beyond the supply chain must be involved in developing and implementing a MSI for it to be viewed as legitimate. I note that the conceptual framework presented here is a starting point. It would benefit from further testing and refinement. For example, future work could add further specificity to the four roles I discuss. Future research could also focus on integrating economic thresholds for sustainable supply chains into the framework.

  8. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, Tuomas; Antikainen, Riina

    2011-01-01

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: → Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. → Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. → Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  9. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  10. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability...... is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of ‘sustainability’, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance...... evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance...

  11. Gender and Mobility - Sustainable Development in the Transport Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Oberc, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Several statistical studies show that women in developed countries, taken to be facing equal opportunities, are more environmentally benevolent in transport choice than men, as well as shape more environmentally benign (i.e. smaller) mobilities. Some researchers contend that a greater inclusion of women is needed in matters furthering sustainable development within the transport sector, because they believe women to be intrinsically more environmentally conscious. However, few qualitative stu...

  12. Transportation energy in global cities: Sustainable transportation comes in from the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Peter; Kenworthy, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    The energy, environmental and social benefits of sustainable transportation, i.e, public transit, biking and walking, have long been recognized but are now mainstream in global and local transportation policy debates. However, the economic value of sustainable transportation has always been seen as secondary, unless many external costs were included. The results of a new global study show that cities with significant sustainable transportation systems have reduced costs on road construction and maintenance; better operating cost recovery and fuel-efficiency; fewer road accidents and less air pollution. In overall terms, the percentage of city funds going to transportation is reduced. The data show that cities with the most roads have the highest transportation costs and the most rail-oriented cities have the lowest. Further, the most sprawling cities have the highest direct and indirect costs for transportation. Thus, strategies to contain sprawl, to reurbanize, to build new rail systems info car-dependent suburbs with focussed sub-centers, and to facilitate biking and walking, not only will improve energy efficiency but will reduce costs to the economy of a city. Strategies that build freeways and add to sprawl will do the opposite. Trends indicate that moves toward sustainable urban patterns are beginning. The need to operationalize sustainable transportation strategies in planning and engineering practice and in the politics of infrastructure funding remains a major challenge. Some cities are showing how this can be done. (author)

  13. Decoupling Transport from Economic Growth. Towards Transport Sustainability in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tight, M.R.; Site, P. Delle; Meyer-Ruehle, O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aimed to identify and assess measures which could be used to reduce travel demand while maintaining economic growth and enhancing environmental quality. The research methodology involved a detailed review of past research; contact with over 600 experts from around Europe and elsewhere for ideas on potential measures; detailed questionnaires from over 100 of these experts; and a series of three panel sessions held in different parts of Europe, each of which involved around 16 experts debating the merits of different measures and identifying case study evidence of their effectiveness. The end result was a short list of 13 measures, indicative of broad types, which are considered to be effective, and an indication of their effectiveness if applied across the European Union. Seven illustrative measures are discussed which stand out from the results as having proven potential (though not necessarily at a European scale) to influence transport intensity and/or unit environmental load whilst not having large detrimental effects on GDP. These are the areas where it is felt that European transport policy could most usefully be focussed in terms of decoupling of transport demand and economic growth

  14. The New Jersey Nursing Initiative: building sustainable collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell-Sachs, Susan; Mertz, Lynn M; Egreczky, Dana; Ladden, Maryjoan

    2011-01-01

    The New Jersey Nursing Initiative was publically launched in 2009 as a 5-year, $22 million program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation based at the New Jersey Chamber of Commerce Foundation. It was reauthorized in 2011 through 2016 for an additional $8.5 million. The initiative includes a faculty preparation program and strategic tracks of work focusing on building education capacity, increasing current faculty capacity, making nurse faculty a preferred career, leading policy initiatives, creating sustainable funding in support of nursing education, and ultimately, building local, regional, and statewide collaborative networks. The tagline, "So a Nurse will be there for You," emphasizes both the reality of an aging nursing workforce needing replacement and the expected health care transformation that will result in the need for new knowledge and skills in the future nursing workforce. The purpose of this article was to describe the New Jersey Nursing Initiative, emphasizing the partnerships that have resulted from the project to date. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Business travel and sustainability. Part III. In: Handbook of Sustainable Travel: People, Society, and Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Business travel has been relatively neglected in strategies to promote sustainable travel. A two-stage approach is taken beginning by showing how sustainability of business travel is relevant not only environmentally, but also from an economic and social perspective. On the one hand, this form of travel helps to generate jobs in numerous business sectors, not only in transportation. On the other hand, the social dimension cannot be ignored either, since business travel is often a source of fa...

  16. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25% by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental well-being. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be utilized to enhance yields of staple crops, incre...

  17. Radiofrequency initiation and radiofrequency sustainment of laser initiated seeded high pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Eric S.; Scharer, John E.; Akhtar, Kamran; Kelly, Kurt; Ding, Guowen

    2001-01-01

    We examine radiofrequency initiation of high pressure(1-70 Torr) inductive plasma discharges in argon, nitrogen, air and organic seed gas mixtures. Millimeter wave interferometry, optical emission and antenna wave impedance measurements for double half-turn helix and helical inductive antennas are used to interpret the rf/plasma coupling, measure the densities in the range of 10 12 cm -3 and analyze the ionization and excited states of the gas mixtures. We have also carried out 193 nm excimer laser initiation of an organic gas seed plasma which is sustained at higher pressures(150 Torr) by radiofrequency coupling at 2.8 kW power levels

  18. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  19. The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, B.; Rothengatter, W.

    2004-01-01

    The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

  20. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  1. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  2. Initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in african american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Street, Darlene J

    2010-01-01

    To explore issues related to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Qualitative design using focus groups, guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. Fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. Three focus groups were conducted with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were fully explored in the group and included as a guiding question for the next group. Categories identified from the data were reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding that was useful or not useful, and cultural issues related to breastfeeding that were perceived to be unique among African Americans. Three overall themes were identified that cut across categories: perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a support system for continued breastfeeding. Women need to be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding and offered continuing support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Peer support groups for breastfeeding African American women should be established. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Sustainable transport project evaluation and decision support: indicators and planning criteria for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Pryn, Marie Ridley

    2015-01-01

    is adopted. The SUSTAIN-DSS model rests upon multi-criteria decision analysis and planning workshops in order to combine the use of qualitative and quantitative assessments. This article stresses the necessity of revising current planning paradigms such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) but also to make clear......This article will expose the necessity for a sustainable planning and decision support framework for transport infrastructure assessment. This will be operationalized through a set of planning criteria and scenario alternatives, which is assessed in the SUSTAIN decision support system (SUSTAIN......-DSS) model. A part of the decision support framework will be tested in a case study in Denmark, concerning the problem of congestion on the current bridge crossing Roskilde Fjord in the city of Frederikssund. This article suggests including in a combination both reference class forecasting and quantitative...

  4. Sustainable logistics and transportation optimization models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Focused on the logistics and transportation operations within a supply chain, this book brings together the latest models, algorithms, and optimization possibilities. Logistics and transportation problems are examined within a sustainability perspective to offer a comprehensive assessment of environmental, social, ethical, and economic performance measures. Featured models, techniques, and algorithms may be used to construct policies on alternative transportation modes and technologies, green logistics, and incentives by the incorporation of environmental, economic, and social measures. Researchers, professionals, and graduate students in urban regional planning, logistics, transport systems, optimization, supply chain management, business administration, information science, mathematics, and industrial and systems engineering will find the real life and interdisciplinary issues presented in this book informative and useful.

  5. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  6. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  7. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%. PMID:23476142

  8. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-01-01

    Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...

  9. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V.; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-01-01

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land. PMID:23636397

  10. Selecting The Best Initial Method For A Transportation Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with determining the best initial method for a transportation problem. Seven initial methods are considered and compared. One is a new method that has not been reported in the literature. Comparison is done on the basis of the number of iterations required to reach the final solution if the concerned ...

  11. Systems scale assessment of the sustainability implications of emerging green initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Namdeo, Anil; Fuentes, Jose; Dore, Anthony; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Bell, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a systems framework for assessment of environmental impacts from ‘green initiatives’, through a case study of meso-scale, anthropogenic–biogenic interactions. The following cross-sectoral green initiatives, combining the emerging trends in the North East region of the United Kingdom, have been considered – increasing the vegetation cover; decarbonising road transport; decentralising energy production through biomass plants. Two future scenarios are assessed – Baseline 2 020 (projected emissions from realisation of policy instruments); Aggressive 2 020 (additional emissions from realisation of green initiatives). Resulting trends from the Aggressive 2 020 scenario suggest an increase in emissions of pollutant precursors, including biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide over the base case by up to 20% and 5% respectively. This has implications for enhanced daytime ozone and secondary aerosols formation by up to 15% and over 5% respectively. Associated land cover changes show marginal decrease of ambient temperature but modest reductions in ammonia and ambient particulates. -- Highlights: • A systems scale assessment framework for emerging green initiatives is proposed. • Interactions between urban greenspace, greener vehicles and bioenergy system examined. • Altering future emissions profile enhances synthesis of photochemical precursors. • Incorporating whole-system evaluation deemed vital for well-rounded sustainability. -- Systems scale implication for air pollution was assessed across three sectors of emerging green initiatives-energy, transport and ecosystem

  12. Review of methods and indicators in sustainable urban transport studies overview from 2000 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Adiatna Nadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attention of countries either the developed or developing countries on sustainable urban transport is becoming more popular. The purpose of paper is to review the methods and the indicators used for measuring performance of sustainable urban transport. This study is based on the literature review and the case study observation and also uses the quantitative assessment. It reviews the theoretical aspects of sustainability factors at various research works and performance indicator in urban transportation. The indicators were classified into two major categories: (i assessment methods in sustainable urban transport (SUT, and (ii basic of sustainability indicators for urban transport. This study found several types of analytical techniques for measuring sustainability indicators in urban transport. It also identify five indicators as basic element to measure sustainable urban transport performance i.e. traffic congestion, traffic air pollution, traffic noise pollution, traffic accidents and land consumption for transport infrastructure.

  13. Sun Grant Initiative : great strides toward a sustainable and more energy-independent future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sun Grant Initiative publication, developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, offers a glimpse of how the Sun Grant Initiative Centers are advancing alternative fuels research. Transportation plays a significant role in biofuels research,...

  14. The future of public transport in light of solutions for sustainable transport development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz LEJDA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights possible directions in the development of sustainable public transport solutions. When appropriately identified and implemented, such solutions can contribute to improved quality of urban life by reducing the adverse effects of transport on human health and the natural environment. The paper also raises questions about implementing pedestrian traffic zones, expanding the level of cycling, and introducing a workable parking policy, congestion charges, electromobility and intelligent systems for road traffic management in conurbations.

  15. You Mean I Have to Teach Sustainability Too? Initial Teacher Education Students' Perspectives on the Sustainability Cross-Curriculum Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; Hill, Allen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an investigation into initial teacher education students' (ITES) understandings of sustainability and the Australian National Curriculum Sustainability Cross Curricular Priority (CCP). We also explore their willingness and capacities to embed the CCP into their own teaching practices. The ITES (N = 392) completed a…

  16. Perceived sustainability initiatives: retail managers’ intrinsic and extrinsic motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Reinders, M. J.; Van Haaster-de Winter, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Although awareness of environmental sustainability has increased over the past few decades, the current market share of sustainable products remains low. Because of their market position, large-scale and high-volume consumer interactions, food retailers are appropriate venues to entice

  17. Perceived sustainability initiatives: retail managers’ intrinsic and extrinsic motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Reinders, M.J.; Haaster-de Winter, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose
    – Although awareness of environmental sustainability has increased over the past few decades, the current market share of sustainable products remains low. Because of their market position, large-scale and high-volume consumer interactions, food retailers are appropriate venues to entice

  18. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned. This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, the integration of parking strategies in a comprehensive vision for the future of a city may significantly improve the allocation of resources and the reduction of the overall environmental externalities. The role of parking in the strategic planning of cities is discussed through the analysis of several recent projects in the city of Bari (Italy. The paper discusses the way these projects are linked (or eventually not linked to broader strategies for urban mobility, and how they might be coordinated into policy packages that promote more sustainable transportation. The use of an integrated land use transportation modeling approach to simulate the long-term evolution of the urban area may significantly contribute to estimate the long-term effects of the proposed policies. This approach may successfully support the process of policy evaluation and the selection of the optimal strategies to implement.

  19. Transport and environmental sustainability: An adapted SPE approach for modelling interactions between transport, infrastructure, economy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, Erik; Van den Bergh, Jeroen [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Free University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-05-01

    The present paper aims at shedding some light on the concept of `sustainable transport`. Within the context of a sustainable development, the consequences of interdependencies between transport, infrastructure, economy and environment for the formulation of optimal regulatory policies are investigated. The Spatial Price Equilibrium approach is adapted for the analysis of sustainable spatio-economic development, and for the evaluation of first-best and second-best regulatory policies on the issues at hand. The analysis demonstrates the need for integration of elements concerning economic structure, infrastructure, transportation, environment and space in one single analytical framework when considering questions on sustainability in relation to transport. 2 figs., 1 appendix, 10 refs.

  20. Assessing policies towards sustainable transport in Europe: an integrated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    A transport simulation and forecast model is presented, which is designed for the assessment of policy options aiming to achieve sustainability in transportation. Starting from a simulation of the economic behaviour of consumers and producers within a microeconomic optimisation framework and the resulting calculation of the modal split, the allocation of the vehicle stock into vintages and technological groups is modelled. In a third step, a technology-oriented algorithm, which incorporates the relevant state-of-the-art knowledge in Europe, calculates emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases as well as appropriate indicators for traffic congestion, noise and road accidents. The paper outlines the methodology and the basic data sources used in connection with work done so far in Europe, presents the outlook according to a 'reference case' run for the 15 current European Union Member States up to 2030, displays aggregate results from a number of alternative scenarios and outlines elements of future work

  1. AREVA Logistics Business Unit Transportation Risk Management Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, C.

    2009-01-01

    A safe, secure and reliable transportation organization is a key component for the success of the nuclear industry. With the forecasted increase of radioactive material transport flows in future and the changing environment, AREVA Logistic Business Unit (L-BU) must ensure that safety and security risks are minimized but also ensure of the chain supply for its various facilities (mines, conversion, enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing, etc). AREVA L-BU Unit is implementing a transportation risk management initiative for the radioactive shipments of the AREVA group across all the Business Unit involved in shipments of radioactive and nuclear materials. The paper will present the four main components of the risk management. (authors)

  2. BEST Project: bioethanol for sustainable transportation; Projeto BEST: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J.R.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G.; Apolinario, S.M.; Melo, E.H.; Elmadjian, P.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa

    2008-07-01

    The BEST Project BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  3. BEST Project: bioethanol for sustainable transportation; Projeto BEST: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J R; Velazquez, S M.S.G.; Apolinario, S M; Melo, E H; Elmadjian, P H [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa

    2008-07-01

    The BEST Project BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  4. Comparison of Sustainable Soy : Initiatives in Brazil and Argentina. Do multiple standards enhance sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Hospes, O.; Mheen-Sluijer, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    How sustainability schemes promote sustainability and compete amongst themselves is not static but in continuous movement. This is illustrated with the development history of sustainability schemes in soy. Their dynamics are defined by the importance of certified product for market access and by

  5. Indicators for sustainable transport policy in Denmark - why, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Cornet, Yannick

    in the Danish transport policy, using policy goals, sustainability indicators and performance measures. The paper represents a first step in the SUSTAIN project aiming to develop a framework for national sustainable transport planning. The paper will draw on analysis of experience with the development and use......Denmark and other countries have the ambition to move towards a sustainable transport system. However it is challenging to achieve and credibly demonstrate progress towards sustainability in transport. The paper will specify foundations for monitoring and reporting progress towards sustainability...... of sustainability indicators to report transport policy performance, in Europe, North America and other parts of the world. The experience will be connected to critical literature in the areas of sustainability theory, knowledge utilization, and implementation in order to identify challenges to overcome...

  6. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  7. Sustainable Urban Homecare Delivery with Different Means of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Szander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing number of requests for homecare services, care institutions struggle to perform in urban traffic, which eventually makes travel times longer and less predictable and, therefore, leads to a declining service quality. Homecare delivery scheduling and planning tools must lead to efficient reliable routes that allow the nursing crew to make the least efforts and use the fewest institutional resources, and that consider urban sustainability goals. For the case study, a European city was selected with 58,000 people of whom 73 patients received long-term care at homes provided by 11 homecare nurses. While maximising patient satisfaction, a homecare planning algorithm considered many means of transport and minimised travel times. The study reduced the total nurses’ working hours/day by a bus and walking combination, and by comparing if nurses ride e-bikes, which respectively reduced ~35–44% of the total time that nurses spent travelling. This result is applicable to an urban environment where the public transport network is sufficient and biking is allowed on a reasonable number of roads. Better homecare management can support the efficient use of resources of health care institutions, high-quality home care and aspirations towards livable communities and sustainable development.

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from passenger transport in China since 1949: Implications for developing sustainable transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, Becky P.Y.; Li, Linna

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the historical evolution and spatial disparity of CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China. The general trends of CO 2 emissions from four passenger transport modes are estimated by both the distance-based and fuel-based methods. The results suggest that CO 2 emissions from road transport represented the leading source of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China. Moreover, they have continued to grow rapidly. Air transport was the second largest contributor since 1998. Emissions from rail and water transport have remained relatively stable with lower emission intensity. At the provincial level, great regional disparity was noticeable, especially in road transport. Moreover, the decomposition analysis shows that income growth was the principal factor leading to the growth of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China for both the 1949–1979 and 1980–2009 periods. The second most important factor was increased transport intensity and modal shifts for the former and the latter period, respectively. The main factor contributed to emission reduction was the lower emission intensity supported by policies, although the effect was weak. In the future, more policies to encourage modal shifts toward sustainable transport modes and travel reduction should be encouraged. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China were estimated. ► Road transport was the largest contributor to CO 2 emission. Air transport followed. ► Factors influencing CO 2 emissions growth are analyzed by decomposition analysis. ► Income growth, higher travel intensity and modal shift were driving CO 2 emissions up. ► Policies to promote modal shifts and travel demand reduction should be encouraged.

  9. Externalities of the transport sector and the role of hydrogen in a sustainable transport vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Claus; Wietschel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Transport systems perform vital societal functions, but in their present state cannot be considered 'sustainable'. One of the most controversially discussed long-term solutions to climate change and air emission externalities is the introduction of hydrogen as an energy fuel and fuel cell vehicles. In this paper, we integrate the two debates on the sustainability of today's transport systems and on the opportunities, threats and possible transition paths towards a 'hydrogen economy' in road transport. We focus our analysis on developed countries as well as the specific needs of the fast growing markets for car travel in the emerging economies. We conclude that the use of hydrogen can significantly reduce CO 2 emissions of the transport sector, even if taking into account tailpipe and upstream emissions as well as alternative technology developments. Moreover, local air pollutants can be reduced up to 80%. Possible negative impacts, including accident risks, nuclear waste or increased biomass demand, need to be benchmarked against these benefits. Thus, we highlight the need for integrated energy and transport policies and argue for more reflexive and inclusive societal debate about the impacts and beneficiaries of hydrogen transport technologies

  10. Application of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) in the sustainability reporting of financial services

    OpenAIRE

    MONTE, TOMAS

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability reporting refers to the process in which an organization gives an account of issues related to corporate sustainability over a particular reporting period. The report is meant for both internal and external use. Sustainability reporting gives information about the organization’s interactions with its social and ecological environment. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has pioneered the development of the world’s most widely used sustainability reporting framework. GRI Repor...

  11. Areas of Inquiry : Guiding FSSD practitioners at the beginning of a change initiative towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenboom, Michaela; Mireault, Amy; Stolz, Thaela

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to support sustainability practitioners at the beginning of a change initiative towards sustainability to increase the success of the change. Moving towards sustainability is a complex journey and requires radical and structural transformational change in companies. Mutual understanding of the company and the practitioner is required to design a suitable change process. Existing tools related to sustainability, change management, corporate analysis and assessment were analy...

  12. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  13. New initiative to further global sustainable development goals in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-03-17

    Mar 17, 2016 ... Representatives from some 60 think tanks met in November 2015 in Geneva to discuss how to further global objectives in health. ... Read the first submission, Accelerating achievement of the sustainable development goals, co-authored by the Graduate Institute, IDRC, the Harvard School of Public Health, ...

  14. Initial Integrated Strategic Sustainability Plan for Fort Leonard Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    and quantify the benefits of various sustainable workforce staffing tools (e.g., flex time, job sharing, telecommuting , etc.). CPAC 0.1 3Q - 4Q...desk tops NEC G6 1Q — Track telecommuting hours CPAC 1Q — Calculate benefits - miles

  15. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    products including jet fuels, distillate fuels, residual fuels, automotive gasoline , specified bulk lubricating oils, aircraft engine oils, fuel...contained within this report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mission command Software Tactical applications (TacApps) Command post ...computing environment (CPCE) Command post client Battle command sustainment support System (BCS3) Logistics

  16. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  17. Road Transport Management System (RTMS): a self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the heavy vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities...

  18. Sustainable transportation : developing a framework for policy innovation December 14, 1993 summary of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the future. How can sustainable development be linked meaningfully to transportation planning and policies? On December 14, 1993, the Department of Transp...

  19. Beyond sustainable transport. Electric car features and services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, P.; Pirhonen, V.; Giesecke, R. [Aalto Univ. School of Science, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim of the Finnish SIMBe project (www.SIMBe.fi) is to significantly accelerate the introduction of sustainable electric mobility in Finland. SIMBe stands for Smart Infrastructures for Electric Mobility in Built Environments. The fundamental assumption of the project is that electric (e-) mobility is inherently more sustainable than mobility based on fossil fuels. However, as has been widely recognized in the e-mobility field, the currently used batteries are expensive, often more expensive than the rest of the particular electric vehicle (EV) that they propel. There are two opposite schools of thought how to address this problem, which can be summarized as follows: a) Leave the battery in peace, as it is precious. Use it only to propel the EV of which it is an integral part. Use it instead of fuel, and do not use it for any other applications. The EV's sole purpose is that of a transportation device. b) Make as much use of the battery as possible, as it is precious. Involve vehicle to grid (V2G) or vehicle to house charging. Additionally, invent new features, meanings and services for the battery driven EV, which go distinctively beyond transport. The SIMBe project decided to opt for school (b), based on the smart energy production and distribution scenario, in which electric and hybrid vehicles' batteries will deliver energy on demand to the grid. SIMBe aims to prepare key Finnish industrial players and consumers for the transition to this new energy-transportation paradigm. But how can we replace the conservative understanding of the 'transport only' school by a holistic view of what features, meanings and services are actually possible by using a large scale fleet of 'batteries on wheels'? The Nordic Climate Festival (at) Aalto provided the unique opportunity to tap into the knowledge and creativity of students within the Nordic countries. Being properly prepared and facilitated, a workshop may provide some insights and

  20. Transportation of Organs by Air: Safety, Quality, and Sustainability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantecchini, L; Paganelli, F; Morabito, V; Ricci, A; Peritore, D; Trapani, S; Montemurro, A; Rizzo, A; Del Sordo, E; Gaeta, A; Rizzato, L; Nanni Costa, A

    2016-03-01

    The outcomes of organ transplantation activities are greatly affected by the ability to haul organs and medical teams quickly and safely. Organ allocation and usage criteria have greatly improved over time, whereas the same result has not been achieved so far from the transport point of view. Safety and the highest level of service and efficiency must be reached to grant transplant recipients the healthiest outcome. The Italian National Transplant Centre (CNT), in partnership with the regions and the University of Bologna, has promoted a thorough analysis of all stages of organ transportation logistics chains to produce homogeneous and shared guidelines throughout the national territory, capable of ensuring safety, reliability, and sustainability at the highest levels. The mapping of all 44 transplant centers and the pertaining airport network has been implemented. An analysis of technical requirements among organ shipping agents at both national and international level has been promoted. A national campaign of real-time monitoring of organ transport activities at all stages of the supply chain has been implemented. Parameters investigated have been hospital and region of both origin and destination, number and type of organs involved, transport type (with or without medical team), stations of arrival and departure, and shipping agents, as well as actual times of activities involved. National guidelines have been issued to select organ storage units and shipping agents on the basis of evaluation of efficiency, reliability, and equipment with reference to organ type and ischemia time. Guidelines provide EU-level standards on technical equipment of aircrafts, professional requirements of shipping agencies and cabin crew, and requirements on service provision, including pricing criteria. The introduction in the Italian legislation of guidelines issuing minimum requirements on topics such as the medical team, packaging, labeling, safety and integrity, identification

  1. Beyond sustainable transport. Electric car features and services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, P; Pirhonen, V; Giesecke, R [Aalto Univ. School of Science, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim of the Finnish SIMBe project (www.SIMBe.fi) is to significantly accelerate the introduction of sustainable electric mobility in Finland. SIMBe stands for Smart Infrastructures for Electric Mobility in Built Environments. The fundamental assumption of the project is that electric (e-) mobility is inherently more sustainable than mobility based on fossil fuels. However, as has been widely recognized in the e-mobility field, the currently used batteries are expensive, often more expensive than the rest of the particular electric vehicle (EV) that they propel. There are two opposite schools of thought how to address this problem, which can be summarized as follows: a) Leave the battery in peace, as it is precious. Use it only to propel the EV of which it is an integral part. Use it instead of fuel, and do not use it for any other applications. The EV's sole purpose is that of a transportation device. b) Make as much use of the battery as possible, as it is precious. Involve vehicle to grid (V2G) or vehicle to house charging. Additionally, invent new features, meanings and services for the battery driven EV, which go distinctively beyond transport. The SIMBe project decided to opt for school (b), based on the smart energy production and distribution scenario, in which electric and hybrid vehicles' batteries will deliver energy on demand to the grid. SIMBe aims to prepare key Finnish industrial players and consumers for the transition to this new energy-transportation paradigm. But how can we replace the conservative understanding of the 'transport only' school by a holistic view of what features, meanings and services are actually possible by using a large scale fleet of 'batteries on wheels'? The Nordic Climate Festival (at) Aalto provided the unique opportunity to tap into the knowledge and creativity of students within the Nordic countries. Being properly prepared and facilitated, a workshop may provide some insights and ideas. In scope of the

  2. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  3. The need for performance governance to reach sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    The objective to set transport on a course towards sustainability is a complex and long term aspiration that is likely to meet, and have already met, several market and governance failures. While many market failures can be countered through careful design of appropriate policy instruments......, the governance failures need a ‘second order’ approach; an approach that involves the re-design of processes and institutional frameworks for anticipation, decision making, implementation, and learning; in short a framework for performance governance. According to the policy scientists Bouckaert and Halligan......, ‘Performance governance’ is what they call the most advanced form of public performance management. In simple models a government collects only sporadic information on performance to satisfy internal reporting. In the performance governance model, performance management is systematic, continuous...

  4. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  5. Social dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the relationship between transport, mobility and society. This is achieved by means of linking the social dimensions and impact of sustainable transport and mobility with approaches, principles and values of social development...

  6. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Transportation Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Marshall's effort to sustain space transportation solutions through product lines that include: 1) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 2) Life Support Systems; and 3) and Earth and Space Science Spacecraft Systems, and Operations.

  7. A GIS-based performance measurement system for assessing transportation sustainability and community livability : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Sustainability and livability in transportation, as the concepts referring to the capability of transportation systems to maintain the well being of our society, have been widely : accepted as the critical principles to improve quality of life and he...

  8. The Environment, Tourist Transport and the Sustainable Development of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioncică

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the complex relationships between the natural environment , tourist transport and sustainable tourism development. In order to research the impact of natural resources on tourism activity, on the one hand, and the influences of tourism on the environment, on the other hand, statistical and mathematical methods of analysis and forecast were used, namely, the analysis of the dynamics of significant indicators of the natural environment and of tourist activity, the correlation method, the Markov chains method. The analyses made lead us to the conclusion of the existence of a positive evolution of significant indicators of the natural environment, with an impact on tourist activity, such as natural parks. It has been emphasized; also, that this positive evolution has a direct influence on the attraction of visitors, specifically, foreign ones, but the intensity of this influence is average. The intensification of the actions of promotion of natural parks and, generally, of protected areas in Romania, would be a direction for attracting an increased number of visitors, with all the favourable economic consequences. On the other hand, the research has outlined the fact that, as far as the means of transportation used by tourists to visit Romania are concerned, on the first places we can see road and air transport, means of transportation which, aside from the obvious advantages for tourists, have a strong negative impact on the environment. The forecast made with the help of the Markov chains method has shown a negative trend, from the point of view of the impact on the environment, namely an increase in the share of road and air transport in the preference of foreign visitors to Romania. The current research represents a contribution to the efforts of measuring, through statistical and mathematical models, of the complex influences, in both senses, between the environment and tourist activity. Thus, an objective radiography has

  9. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  10. The impact of governance modes on sustainable transport - the case of bus transport in Greater Manchester, UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    'Sustainable transport' has become a priority for transport planning and policy making around the world. Sustainable transport plans often promote efforts to shift passengers from private cars to other modes such as public transport. However, the actual success of such efforts is likely to depend...... on how the transport sector is organised and governed. In this paper, we study the impacts of new public management (NPM) reforms in the British local transport sector on the attraction of passengers to buses. Britain is an interesting example since high level sustainable transport policies have been...... contributions. Second, we apply theoretical notions of 'governance modes', to examine whether the strengths and failures of 'market', 'hierarchy' and 'network' governance respectively can help to explain the results we observe. We find that these concepts are particularly useful to clarify the conditions under...

  11. The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) Code: Description and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bartel, Timothy James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) computer code was developed at Sandia National Laboratories as part of their nuclear launch accident consequences analysis suite of computer codes. The purpose of IAT is to predict the initial puff/plume rise resulting from either a solid rocket propellant or liquid rocket fuel fire. The code generates initial conditions for subsequent atmospheric transport calculations. The Initial Atmospheric Transfer (IAT) code has been compared to two data sets which are appropriate to the design space of space launch accident analyses. The primary model uncertainties are the entrainment coefficients for the extended Taylor model. The Titan 34D accident (1986) was used to calibrate these entrainment settings for a prototypic liquid propellant accident while the recent Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL, or simply APL) large propellant block tests (2012) were used to calibrate the entrainment settings for prototypic solid propellant accidents. North American Meteorology (NAM )formatted weather data profiles are used by IAT to determine the local buoyancy force balance. The IAT comparisons for the APL solid propellant tests illustrate the sensitivity of the plume elevation to the weather profiles; that is, the weather profile is a dominant factor in determining the plume elevation. The IAT code performed remarkably well and is considered validated for neutral weather conditions.

  12. Economic gains stimulate negative evaluations of corporate sustainability initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Tamar; Newman, George E.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many organizations have sought to align their financial goals with environmental ones by identifying strategies that maximize profits while minimizing environmental impacts. Examples of this `win-win' approach can be found across a wide range of industries, from encouraging the reuse of hotel towels, to the construction of energy efficient buildings, to the large-scale initiatives of multi-national corporations. Although win-win strategies are generally thought to reflect positively on the organizations that employ them, here we find that people tend to respond negatively to the notion of profiting from environmental initiatives. In fact, observers may evaluate environmental win-wins less favourably than profit-seeking strategies that have no environmental benefits. The present studies suggest that how those initiatives are communicated to the general public may be of central importance. Therefore, organizations would benefit from carefully crafting the discourse around their win-win initiatives to ensure that they avoid this type of backlash.

  13. Developing a Collaborative Planning Framework for Sustainable Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Örsan Özener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, as being the highest petroleum consuming sector in the world, transportation significantly contributes to the total greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Road transportation not only is responsible for approximately 20% of the total emissions of carbon dioxide in the EU and in the US but also has a steadily increasing trend in contributing to global warming. Initiatives undertaken by authorities, such as Emission cap and trade in the EU, limit the emissions resulted from the actions of the companies and also give economic incentives to companies to reduce their emissions. However, in logistics systems with multiple entities, it is difficult to assess the responsibilities of the companies both in terms of costs and emissions. In this study, we consider a delivery network with multiple customers served by a single carrier, which executes a delivery plan with the minimum transportation cost, and allocate the resulting costs and the emissions among the customers in a fair manner. We develop allocation mechanisms for both costs and emissions. In order to develop a mechanism that provides further reduction of the emissions, we study a setting where the carrier takes the responsibility of the emissions and reflects the resulting inefficiencies while charging the customers.

  14. Transnational Higher Education and Sustainable Development: Current Initiatives and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary educational institutions increasingly are relied upon for sustainable development initiatives. This policy research note analyzes newly available data regarding seven key dimensions of 295 transnational sustainable development projects involving US universities. Comparative regional analysis of the projects profiled in the APLU/AAU…

  15. Towards better embedding sustainability into companies’ systems: an analysis of voluntary corporate initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2012-01-01

    Corporate leaders and employees have been increasingly recognising their role in contributing to sustainability. In this context, different voluntary tools, approaches, and initiatives have been developed by and for corporations to engage with sustainability. However, there has been a lack of

  16. Predicting Reactive Transport Dynamics in Carbonates using Initial Pore Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, H. P.; Nunes, J. P. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding rock-fluid interaction at the pore-scale is imperative for accurate predictive modelling of carbon storage permanence. However, coupled reactive transport models are computationally expensive, requiring either a sacrifice of resolution or high performance computing to solve relatively simple geometries. Many recent studies indicate that initial pore structure many be the dominant mechanism in determining the dissolution regime. Here we investigate how well the initial pore structure is predictive of distribution and amount of dissolution during reactive flow using particle tracking on the initial image. Two samples of carbonate rock with varying initial pore space heterogeneity were reacted with reservoir condition CO2-saturated brine and scanned dynamically during reactive flow at a 4-μm resolution between 4 and 40 times using 4D X-ray micro-tomography over the course of 1.5 hours using μ-CT. Flow was modelled on the initial binarized image using a Navier-Stokes solver. Particle tracking was then run on the velocity fields, the streamlines were traced, and the streamline density was calculated both on a voxel-by-voxel and a channel-by-channel basis. The density of streamlines was then compared to the amount of dissolution in subsequent time steps during reaction. It was found that for the flow and transport regimes studied, the streamline density distribution in the initial image accurately predicted the dominant pathways of dissolution and gave good indicators of the type of dissolution regime that would later develop. This work suggests that the eventual reaction-induced changes in pore structure are deterministic rather than stochastic and can be predicted with high resolution imaging of unreacted rock.

  17. Assessment of sustainable urban transport development based on entropy and unascertained measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yancang; Yang, Jing; Shi, Huawang; Li, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    To find a more effective method for the assessment of sustainable urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment model of sustainable urban transport development was established based on the unascertained measure. On the basis of considering the factors influencing urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment indexes were selected, including urban economical development, transport demand, environment quality and energy consumption, and the assessment system of sustainable urban transport development was proposed. In view of different influencing factors of urban transport development, the index weight was calculated through the entropy weight coefficient method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted according to the actual condition. Then, the grade was obtained by using the credible degree recognition criterion from which the urban transport development level can be determined. Finally, a comprehensive assessment method for urban transport development was introduced. The application practice showed that the method can be used reasonably and effectively for the comprehensive assessment of urban transport development.

  18. Initial Studies of Core and Edge Transport of NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Bourdelle, C.; Darrow, D.; Dorland, W.; Ejiri, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peebles, W.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly developing diagnostic, operational, and analysis capability is enabling the first detailed local physics studies to begin in high-beta plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These studies are motivated in part by energy confinement times in neutral-beam-heated discharges that are favorable with respect to predictions from the ITER-89P scaling expression. Analysis of heat fluxes based on profile measurements with neutral-beam injection (NBI) suggest that the ion thermal transport may be exceptionally low, and that electron thermal transport is the dominant loss channel. This analysis motivates studies of possible sources of ion heating not presently accounted for by classical collisional processes. Gyrokinetic microstability studies indicate that long wavelength turbulence with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 0.1-1 may be suppressed in these plasmas, while modes with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 50 may be robust. High-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating efficiently heats electrons on NSTX, and studies have begun using it to assess transport in the electron channel. Regarding edge transport, H-mode [high-confinement mode] transitions occur with either NBI or HHFW heating. The power required for low-confinement mode (L-mode) to H-mode transitions far exceeds that expected from empirical edge-localized-mode-free H-mode scaling laws derived from moderate aspect ratio devices. Finally, initial fluctuation measurements made with two techniques are permitting the first characterizations of edge turbulence

  19. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    and sustainable development goals. Essential, uncertain and limited interactions are mapped out as a result, their overview indicates that a full reconciliation between these policies and sustainability goals is not always attainable. The careful alignment and contextual examination of interactions between...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development.......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  20. National sustainable transport planning - what it is and what it should be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    Sustainability has become a significant ambition for transport planners and policy-makers around the world. However, a transition to sustainable transport is a challenging, long term process, which raises important questions concerning how national, planning processes could support the integration...... of sustainability. This is the topic of the research project SUSTAIN. Internationally, research on national transport planning is limited, and not well established as a coherent field of research. This paper presents preliminary results within SUSTAIN. The aim of the paper is to discuss how to conceive and define...... the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...

  1. Sustainable Campus Dining: How Campuses Are Targeting Sustainability and Engagement through Dining Services Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable food and dining is a popular topic on college and university campuses. Popular areas of focus include equipment upgrades in the kitchen, installation of campus or community gardens, and streamlining existing campus recycling operations, such as by converting campus vehicles to run on used vegetable oil from the dining hall. Research…

  2. The Role of Integrated Indicators in Exhibiting Business Contribution to Sustainable Development: a Survey of Sustainability Reporting Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Azcárate

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pag. THE ROLE OF INTEGRATED INDICATORS IN EXHIBITING BUSINESS CONTRIBUTION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A SURVEY OF SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING INITIATIVESEL PAPEL DE LOS INDICADORES INTEGRADOS EN LA CONTRIBUCIÓN EMPRESARIAL AL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE: UN ESTUDIO DE LAS INICIATIVAS PARA EL REPORTING DE SOSTENIBILIDADEl papel de los indicadores integrados en la contribución empresarial al desarrollo sostenible: un estudio de las iniciativas para el reporting de sostenibilidadThis paper aims to analyse the role of integrated indicators included in sustainability reporting initiatives in exhibiting business contribution to Sustainable Development.Content analysis of five core initiatives has been carried out to identify strong or weak sustainability arguments within the whole set of indicators. According to the findings, the analyzed initiatives raise a collection of integrated indicators that suggest managerial capture of the concept of Sustainable Development.El presente trabajo aborda el estudio de los indicadores integrados como elemento central para conseguir que las memorias de sostenibilidad cumplan el objetivo de mostrar la contribución que una organización realiza a la consecución del Desarrollo Sostenible. Para ello se ha realizado un análisis de contenido de cinco de las principales iniciativas internacionales que las empresas pueden utilizar como guía para elaborar sus memorias de sostenibilidad con el objetivo de identificar los indicadores integrados que proponen y evidenciar cuál es la visión de la sostenibilidad que en ellos subyace. Los resultados muestran que las iniciativas analizadas plantean un conjunto de indicadores integrados que favorece que las organizaciones puedan capturar el concepto de Desarrollo Sostenible.

  3. National Sustainable Transport Planning – What is it and what should it be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    transport raises important questions concerning the organization of national, planning processes integrating sustainability. In Denmark the effectiveness of the previous ‘ad hoc’ approach has been questioned, and some planning innovations have been adopted, like longer time frames, fixed planning cadences...... and coherent, strategic analyses. Internationally, transdisciplinary research on national, sustainable transport planning is limited and it is not established as a coherent field of research. The ambition of this paper is to contribute to this new field of research by establishing understandings...... and definitions of national sustainable transport planning. This will be done by distinguishing between existing national transport planning frameworks; those frameworks that attempt to incorporate sustainability; and a more elaborate and or ideal concept of national sustainable transport planning. Selected...

  4. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  5. Investigation of RFID Based Sensors for Sustainable Transportation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    Through support of a University Transportation Research Center Faculty Development Minigrant an investigation was made into the use of RFID based sensing technologies for transportation purposes. Transportation applications would potentially include ...

  6. Measuring Sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across VHA organizational components and by staff characteristics. Subjects Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the VA’s Mental Health System Redesign initiative. Methods A one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test examined differences in sustainability by VISN, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify “a priori” and “in vivo” themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Results Sustainability differed across VISN and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for: 1) Benefits and Credibility of the change and 2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were: staff and institutional resistance, and non-supportive leadership. Facilitators were: commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of QI Tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of PDSA cycles. Conclusions Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the VA’s best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than “one-size-fits all” approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a QI collaborative affects sustainability. PMID:21971024

  7. Relationship between sustainable development initiatives and improved company financial performance: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darelle Groenewald

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: The study analysed the relationship between sustainability performance and FP in South African listed companies. Motivation for the study: Some South African listed companies acknowledge in their sustainability reports that there is a link between sustainability development and long-term shareholder value. This implies that FP is linked to sustainable development performance. This relationship has not been researched for South African listed companies and therefore needs to be investigated. Research design, approach and method: A similar research method was used as for an international study. Forty-five listed South African companies were selected as the sample. Their sustainable development reports were used for analysis. Data were analysed with the use of content and a canonical correlation analysis. Main findings: The results of the study revealed that an overall positive relationship exists between sustainability performance and FP. Practical implications: South African companies that have a high involvement and focus on specific sustainable development initiatives that are integrated into overall sustainable development strategy can deliver improved FP for the organisation and deliver long-term value to its shareholders. Contribution: Six sustainable development aspects were found to be significantly correlated with improved FP and if incorporated into a company’s sustainable development strategy can lead to increased successes.

  8. A Survey of Digital Cultural Heritage Initiatives and Their Sustainability Concerns. Managing Economic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorich, Diane M.

    In September 2002, the Council on Library and Information Re-sources (CLIR) commissioned a survey of North American-based digital cultural heritage initiatives (DCHIs). The purpose of the survey was to identify the scope, financing, organizational structure, and sustainability of DCHIs. To gain a funder's perspective on these initiatives, the…

  9. Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI) : User Needs Assessment: Stakeholder Engagement Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI) is a joint U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) initiative that is co-led by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). ATTRI ...

  10. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  11. Learning to Be Sustainable in ICT for Development: A Citizen Engagement Initiative in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pade-Khene , Caroline; Lannon , John

    2017-01-01

    Part 11: Sustainability in ICT4D; International audience; The uncertainty and complexity of ICT4D projects call into question the suitability of conventional approaches to project management that are imposed exogenously, particularly in relation to the challenge of supporting sustainability and resilience. Attempts to transfer knowledge or ownership to local stakeholders or other responsible bodies fail, and consequently many worthwhile initiatives become unsustainable. The problem is particu...

  12. Sustainability and public health nutrition at school: assessing the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in Vancouver schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.

  13. Sustainability in urban transport plans. Case study: Monorail in a hillside area in Medellin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Jaramillo, J.D.

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important concepts today is the incorporation of sustainability in urban transport plans. This paper presents the importance that sustainable urban transport plans must have on mobility policy in cities. It also shows the factors that make a transportation mode like urban railway be sustainable. Finally, the Monorail project in the Metropolitan Green Belt (Medellín-Colombia) is presented, showing its implication on the mobility in this low-income region and its integration with urban and regional plans. (Author)

  14. Impact of Advocacy Initiatives on Nurses' Motivation to Sustain Momentum in Public Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Sustainment Plan - Port Klang Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Curtis A.

    2009-09-29

    To reduce the risk of illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radiological materials, the Megaports Initiative installs radiation detection systems at international seaports. Port Klang, Malaysia, is one such seaport identified by the Megaports Initiative as a key area to install equipment to accomplish the mission of preventing the acquisition and smuggling of materials that could be used to create weapons of mass destruction or radiological dispersal devices. Sustainability is a critical factor of all components of the Megaports Initiative. The sustainability plan is developed to assist the partner country in securing the technical, financial, and policy commitments required to develop and implement a country-specific strategy. A robust sustainability plan will define the long-term relationship between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Government of Malaysia as well as promote the ongoing proficient radiation detection system operations at Port Klang, Malaysia.

  16. Nitrogen implantation of steels: A treatment which can initiate sustained oxidative wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, E.B.; Reinbold, R.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Kohser, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Falex wear tests on mild (SAE 3135) steel samples treated by either nitrogen implantation (2.5x10 17 N 2 + cm -2 at 180 keV) or low temperature (about 315 0 C) oxidation are reported. The results show that both treatments lead to about an order-of-magnitude reduction in the long-term wear rate of the steel. In addition to the wear rate measurements, the wear member asymmetry behavior, scanning electron microscopy studies, Auger spectra and sputter profiles all indicate that the wear modes induced by both treatments are the same and are oxidative wear. These results confirm the previously proposed initiator-sustainer wear model in which implanted nitrogen simply acts as an initiator of favorable oxidative wear but is not directly involved in maintaining the sustained wear resistance. Possible mechanisms for both the initiation process and the sustained wear process are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Sustainment Plan - Port Klang Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Curtis A.

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the risk of illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radiological materials, the Megaports Initiative installs radiation detection systems at international seaports. Port Klang, Malaysia, is one such seaport identified by the Megaports Initiative as a key area to install equipment to accomplish the mission of preventing the acquisition and smuggling of materials that could be used to create weapons of mass destruction or radiological dispersal devices. Sustainability is a critical factor of all components of the Megaports Initiative. The sustainability plan is developed to assist the partner country in securing the technical, financial, and policy commitments required to develop and implement a country-specific strategy. A robust sustainability plan will define the long-term relationship between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Government of Malaysia as well as promote the ongoing proficient radiation detection system operations at Port Klang, Malaysia.

  18. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World : Beyond Megacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pojani, D.; Stead, D.

    2015-01-01

    Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable

  19. Electric Road Systems: Strategic Stepping Stone on the Way towards Sustainable Freight Transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesko Schulte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrification of the transport sector has been pointed out as a key factor for tackling some of today’s main challenges, such as global warming, air pollution, and eco-system degradation. While numerous studies have investigated the potential of electrifying passenger transport, less focus has been on how road freight transport could be powered in a sustainable future. This study looks at Electric Road Systems (ERS in comparison to the current diesel system. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used to assess whether ERS could be a stepping stone on the way towards sustainability. Strategic life-cycle assessment was applied, scanning each life-cycle phase for violations against basic sustainability principles. Resulting sustainability “hot spots” were quantified with traditional life-cycle assessment. The results show that, if powered by renewable energy, ERS have a potential to decrease the environmental impact of freight transport considerably. Environmental payback times of less than five years are achievable if freight traffic volumes are sufficiently high. However, some severe violations against sustainability principles were identified. Still, ERS could prove to be a valuable part of the solution, as they drastically decrease the need for large batteries with high cost and sustainability impact, thereby catalyzing electrification and the transition towards sustainable freight transport.

  20. The Contribution of Natural Gas Vehicles to Sustainable Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The transport sector is currently responsible for 23% of energy-related CO2 emissions, and transport associated CO2 emissions will more than double by 2050. This working paper evaluates the potential costs and benefits of using natural gas as a vehicle fuel for road transportation, as well as the policy related to its market development.

  1. Supply Chains in the Apparel Industry: Do Transnational Initiatives for Social Sustainability Improve Workers’ Situation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Meier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-state driven Transnational Initiatives for Social Sustainability (TISSs have increasingly attempted to approach social issues like labour laws in global supply chains. The reason is that state-laws are territorially confined. But can TISSs contribute to effective solutions of issues on which they are focused? This examination presents a theoretical framework explaining the effectiveness of TISSs. For the empirical case study, the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI and the Fair Wear Foundation (FWF were selected. Data was collected from expert interviews and documents. The results led to the conclusion that stakeholder-involving approaches are adequate to support social sustainability in the future.

  2. Observations of bromine monoxide transport in the Arctic sustained on aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Peterson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The return of sunlight in the polar spring leads to the production of reactive halogen species from the surface snowpack, significantly altering the chemical composition of the Arctic near-surface atmosphere and the fate of long-range transported pollutants, including mercury. Recent work has shown the initial production of reactive bromine at the Arctic surface snowpack; however, we have limited knowledge of the vertical extent of this chemistry, as well as the lifetime and possible transport of reactive bromine aloft. Here, we present bromine monoxide (BrO and aerosol particle measurements obtained during the March 2012 BRomine Ozone Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX near Utqiaġvik (Barrow, AK. The airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS measurements provided an unprecedented level of spatial resolution, over 2 orders of magnitude greater than satellite observations and with vertical resolution unable to be achieved by satellite methods, for BrO in the Arctic. This novel method provided quantitative identification of a BrO plume, between 500 m and 1 km aloft, moving at the speed of the air mass. Concurrent aerosol particle measurements suggest that this lofted reactive bromine plume was transported and maintained at elevated levels through heterogeneous reactions on colocated supermicron aerosol particles, independent of surface snowpack bromine chemistry. This chemical transport mechanism explains the large spatial extents often observed for reactive bromine chemistry, which impacts atmospheric composition and pollutant fate across the Arctic region, beyond areas of initial snowpack halogen production. The possibility of BrO enhancements disconnected from the surface potentially contributes to sustaining BrO in the free troposphere and must also be considered in the interpretation of satellite BrO column observations, particularly in the context of the rapidly changing Arctic sea ice and snowpack.

  3. Optimization and Simulation of Collaborative Networks for Sustainable Production and Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, Giacomo; Kaihara, Toshiya; Stecca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Complex and delocalized manufacturing industries require high levels of integration between production and transportation in order to effectively implement lean and agile operations. There are, however, limitations in research and applications simultaneously embodying further sustainability dimen...

  4. Developing sustainable transportation performance measures for TXDOT's strategic plan : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    For this research project, sustainable transportation can be viewed as the provision of safe, effective, and : efficient access and mobility into the future while considering economic, social, and environmental needs. : This project developed a perfo...

  5. “Smart” Tools for Socially Sustainable Transport: A Review of Mobility Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtot Gebresselassie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the smart city, information and communications technologies (ICTs are proposed as solutions to urban challenges, including sustainability concerns. While sustainability commonly refers to economic and environmental dimensions, the concept also contains a social component. Our study asked how smartphone applications (apps address social-sustainability challenges in urban transport, if at all. We focused on transport disadvantages experienced due to low income, physical disability, and language barriers. A review of 60 apps showed that transport apps respond to these equity and inclusion issues in two ways: (a by employing a universal design in general-use apps, including cost-conscious features, and providing language options; and (b by specifically developing smartphone apps for persons with disabilities. The article discusses the study by positioning it in the literature of smart cities as well as socially sustainable transport.

  6. Rational and Safe Design of Concrete Transportation Structures for Size Effect and Multi-Decade Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the safety and sustainability in the design of large : prestressed concrete bridges and other transportation structures. The safety of large concrete : structures, including bridges, has been insufficie...

  7. SmartTrips Ithaca : encouraging sustainable transportation options through a personalized educational campaign : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    SmartTrips Ithaca is a neighborhood-based personalized educational campaign that encouraged residents : of downtown Ithaca to try out sustainable modes of transportation such as walking, biking, transit, and : carsharing through incentives and commun...

  8. Creation of a Sustainable Collaborative Transportation and Safety Model : Tech Transfer Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    The objective of this project was to create a sustainable asset management transportation and safety model for a designated area of St. Louis, Missouri, that can be replicated in other municipalities.

  9. Stimulation of sustainable installation. Initiatives in the market; Stimulering van duurzaam installeren. Initiatieven in de markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijman, J.N.M. [Intechnium, Woerden (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    Sustainable construction of buildings is stimulated by the Dutch government, while it is one of the options to realize reduction of CO2 emission. It is not only a matter of applying sustainable building materials and thermal insulation, but also technical aspects of installations play a part, e.g. low temperature heating, solar energy, heat pumps, underground heat and cold storage, high-efficient ventilation, etc. However, it appears that for a large-scale application of those techniques there are still some barriers with respect to knowledge and acceptation of sustainable installations by the market. Next to stimulation by the Dutch government private enterprises develop initiatives in this direction. Two of those initiatives are discussed in this article: 'Wasco Groothandelsgroep Centrale Verwarming' (wholesale company for central heating systems ) in Twello, Netherlands, set up the Wasco Energy Centre, and 'Stichting Dubotechniek' (foundation for sustainable building technology) in Zaltbommel, Netherlands. Both initiatives concern information centers to show the performance of and provide information on sustainable installations.

  10. Criteria for Sustainable Transport Planning - what, how and why to measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key concern for transport policy and planning, not only in terms of reducingimpacts like climate change or developing specific solutions such as electromobility, but also as a strategic overarching policy framework rooted in sustainability science and governance...

  11. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes...... of governance of bus transport in several countries, including Denmark and the United Kingdom. Our focus is on how New Public Mangement Reforms have changed the mix of governance modes and thus may have influenced the ability of urban bus transport to attract travellers from cars. We focus on a particular case...

  12. On Production and Green Transportation Coordination in a Sustainable Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a coordination problem of production and green transportation and the effects of production and transportation coordination on supply chain sustainability in a global supply chain environment with the consideration of important realistic characteristics, including parallel machines, different order processing complexities, fixed delivery departure times, green transportation and multiple transportation modes. We formulate the measurements for carbon emissions of different transportation modes, including air, sea and land transportation. A hybrid genetic algorithm-based optimization approach is developed to handle this problem, in which a hybrid genetic algorithm and heuristic procedures are combined. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by means of various problem instances. We observe that the coordination of production and green transportation has a large effect on the overall supply chain sustainability, which can reduce the total supply chain cost by 9.60% to 21.90%.

  13. NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION INITIATIVES IN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaza, Robert; Kinegyere, Alison; Mutatina, Boniface; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the design and implementation of policies for advancing the sustainability of knowledge translation (KT) initiatives and policies in Uganda's health system. We searched for and reviewed evidence about KT sustainability issues in Uganda, the impacts of options, barriers to implementing these options, and implementation strategies to address such barriers. In instances where the systematic reviews provided limited evidence, these were supplemented with relevant primary studies. Documents such as the government reports and unpublished literature were also included in the search. Key informant interviews and a policy dialogue were conducted, and an expert working group guided the study. The KT sustainability issues identified were: the absence of a specific unit within the health sector to coordinate and synthesize research; health worker not familiar with KT activities and not often used. Furthermore, Uganda lacks a mechanism to sustain its current national health frameworks or platforms, and does not have a system to ensure the sustained coordination of existing national health KT platforms. The policy options proposed include: (i) the identification of a KT champion; (ii) the establishment of an operational KT framework; (iii) KT capacity building for researchers and research users, as well as policy and decision makers. The sustainability of KT will be influenced by the prevailing context and concerns within healthcare both in Uganda and internationally. Furthermore, the availability of resources for KT advocacy, communication, and program design will impact on the sustainability of Uganda's KT activities.

  14. City logistics initiatives aimed at improving sustainability by changing the context of urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available City logistics is a field that attracts increasing attention of professionals and scientific community and international organizations. Research on problems of urban areas' logistics gives different results and practical solutions. City logistics flows are characterized by partiality, spatial dispersion of generators, diversity in terms of the logistics chains structure, frequency of a large number of smaller shipments, dynamism, stochasticity etc. Problems and the complexity of logistics in urban areas as well as significant decline in the quality of life in modern cities have caused the development of initiatives and concepts of city logistics which should allow the sustainable development of urban areas. The first part of this paper presents the problems of city logistics and impact of logistics activities on urban areas in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The second part presents city logistics initiatives that involve the change of urban area context, in order to improve its sustainability.

  15. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

  16. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  17. Empowering individuals to make environmentally sustainable and healthy transportation choices in mega-cities through a smartphone app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A paradox of industrialized society is the overreliance on unsustainable fossil fuel energy for transportation and insufficient use of sustainable : bodily energy for more physically active modes of transport. Different modes of transportation requir...

  18. Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2015-01-01

    equivalent to 2 °C stabilization. Accounting for heterogeneity of national transport systems, these papers use diverse methods, frameworks and models to assess the response of the transport system to environmental policy, such as a carbon tax, as well as to a cluster of policies aimed at diverse development...

  19. Do Community Based Initiatives foster sustainability transitions? Towards a unique Environmental Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellozzo, Federico; Hendrickson, Cary; Gozdowska, Iga; Groß, Helge; Henderson, Charles; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The active participation in Community Based Initiatives (CBI) is a spreading phenomenon that has reached a significant magnitude and - in some cases - CBIs are also supposed to have catalysed social and technological innovation, thus contributing to global transition into low-carbon economy. Generally speaking, CBIs are grassroots initiatives with broad sustainability foci that promote a plethora of activities such as alternative transportation, urban gardening, renewable energy implementation, waste regeneration/reduction, etc. Some advocate that such practices fostered by bottom-up activities, rather than top-down policies, represent a proficient countermeasure to alleviate global environmental change and effectively foster a societal transition towards sustainability. However, thus far most empirical research grounds mainly on anecdotal evidence and little work has been done to quantitatively assess CBIs' "environmental impacts" (EI) or their carbon footprints using comparative methodologies. This research main aim is to frame a methodology to assess univocally CBIs' EIs which are crucial to understanding their role in societal sustainability transition. However, to do so, three main caveats need to be addressed: first, some CBIs do not directly produce tangible measurable outputs, nor have an intelligibly defined set of inputs (e.g. CBIs focusing on environmental education and awareness rising). Thus, calculating their "indirect" EI may represent an intricate puzzle that is very much open to subjective interpretation. Second, CBIs' practices are heterogenic and therefore existing methodologies to make comparisons of their EIs are neither straightforward nor proficient, also given the lack of available data. Third, another issue closely related to the one previously mentioned, is a general lack of consensus among already existing impact-assessment frameworks for certain practices (e.g. composting). A potential way of estimating a CBI's EI is a standard Carbon

  20. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, Amr Ah.; Masoumi, Houshmand E.

    2017-01-01

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  1. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, Amr Ah., E-mail: amr.gouda@eng.asu.edu.eg [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Sarayat St., Abassia, Cairo (Egypt); Masoumi, Houshmand E. [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  2. International Perspectives and Implementation of Sustainability Criteria in the Development of Biofuels for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Establishing sustainability criteria for the development of biofuels is an important step for the consolidation of an international market on biofuels for transport for several reasons: Biofuels are expected to play a significant role in a transition to low carbon future in transport in particular...

  3. Environmentally Sustainable Transport: Implementation and Impacts for the Netherlands for 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; Wee GP van; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the Dutch transport scenarios for the OECD project on Environmental Sustainable Transport (EST). The EST project contains a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) and three EST scenarios which attain the EST criteria (i.e. a reduction of CO2 by 80%, NOx by 90%, VOC by 90%, PM10 by

  4. Hydrogen , Hybrid and Electric Propulsion in a Strategy for Sustainable Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the scope for application of hydrogen and electric propulsion for improvement of the fuel cycle efficiency and introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector. The paper compares these fuels with each other as well as with other fuels (especially bio fuels) and outlines...... their individual roles in a strategy for sustainable transport. Finally, the fuels are compared to the present fuels....

  5. Analysis on the Chinese Urban Sustainable Development Demands for the Management Plan of Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵历男

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the demands of the sustainable development and Chinese urban environmental protection for the management plan of intelligent transportation systems. The article also comments on how to work out the management plan of intelligent transportation systems with China's own characteristics.

  6. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  7. Sustainability Initiatives Driving Supply Chain: Climate Governance on Beef Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Kanashiro Makiya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual frameworks have been analytically dominant in researching innovation dynamics in sustainability transition processes, namely technological innovation systems (TIS and the multi-level perspective (MLP. The innovation systems has been principally concerned with emerging new technologies and their potential contribution to future sustainability, whereas MLP has been more strongly oriented toward reconstructing historical processes of sectorial change. In this perspective, this study aims to analyses how global climate change and environmental pressures impact on the governance of supply chain and the ripple effects on natural resource-intensive economies. Some initiatives are taken to address regulatory issues and reconcile decision-making tools on quality assurance program on value chains. This includes a multi-level perspective (MLP as Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP and technological innovation systems (TIS as Geographic Information System (GIS used as a tracking system for monitoring sustainable practices. The paper discuss the drivers of sustainable beef production system, mainly in Legal Amazon, Brazil, and requirements from a largest retailer aligned to Brazilian public policies. This study presents three distinct strategies: (1 government and public policies to control deforestation related to beef cattle production system, (2 economic approach related to transnational supermarket chain and sustainability initiatives, (3 collective action for decision-making by multiple drivers

  8. Sustainable national transport planning: Managing multiple objectives and criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    not included in the CBA. One important part of the assessment is the selection of criteria to be included and this aspect will be examined by an appraisal study of the Rail Baltica corridor. In the study various alternatives are appraised with an explicit consideration of each alternative’s sustainability...... performance....

  9. Sustainable Transportation: Strategy for Security, Prosperity, and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    resiliency. The dominant, land-based leg of China’s triad also uti - lizes extensive subterranean storage and distribution infrastructure to ensure...considering impacts to children of the current and next generation while bal- ancing sustainable components related to resiliency, economy, and the

  10. Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrgott, Matthias [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science; Naujoks, Boris [Login GmbH, Schwelm (Germany).; Stewart, Theodor J. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Statistical Sciences; Wallenius, Jyrki (eds.) [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Dept. of Business Technology

    2010-07-01

    In the twenty-first century the sustainability of energy and transportation systems is on the top of the political agenda in many countries around the world and governments are establishing policies towards a sustainable, low emissions energy future. Environmental impacts of human economic activity necessitate the consideration of conflicting goals in decision making processes to develop sustainable systems. Any sustainable development has to reconcile conflicting economic and environmental objectives and criteria. The science of multiple criteria decision making has a lot to offer in addressing this need. Decision making with multiple (conflicting) criteria is the topic of research that is at the heart of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making. This book is based on selected papers presented at the societies 19th International Conference, held at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 7th to 12th January 2008 under the theme ''MCDM for Sustainable Energy and Transportation Systems''. (orig.)

  11. Sustainable transportation : technology, engineering, and science - summer camp instructor's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This document reproduces the instructors guide for a ten day transportation engineering summer camp that was held at the University of Idaho in July 2013. The instructors guide is split into three units: Unit 1: Vehicle Technology, Unit 2: Traf...

  12. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  13. Sustainability for road infrastructure : transportation responds to environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Safety was, until very recently, the prime : guiding criterion of road transport development. : Environmental impacts enjoyed scant regard, being : seen as a necessary evil if life and commerce were to : go on. A few, more progressive regional and na...

  14. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    for underlying sets of values and norms to enter the policy process more freely and explicitly. However, do we then have the cultures and moral force to build effective sustainable transport policies and plans? The article therefore also looks into a range of overlapping approaches that may potentially aid...... in rethinking and rebuilding transport policy-making and planning processes in terms of cultural learning processes. Finally, the role of the planner as a ‘cultural entrepreneur’ and ‘cultural story-teller’ is presented as potential tool to push through new agendas or ideas, such as more sustainable transport...

  15. Sustainable Transport: BRT experiences from Mexico and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogat, Jorge; Dhar, Subash; Joshi, Rutul

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population and urbanization is creating a steadily increasing demand for transportation in the cities of many developing countries, coinciding with rapid economic growth leading to increasing demand for higher standards of living and faster and more efficient modes of transportation...... transit (BRT). The BRT systems of Curitiba and Bogotá have subsequently been adopted all over the world with some variations. Implementation of two recent BRTs, Mexico City and Ahmedabad in India, are examined in this paper....

  16. Transport system as an element of sustainable economic growth in the tourist region

    OpenAIRE

    Mrnjavac, Edna

    2001-01-01

    Transport system is a whole composed of technical, technological, organisational, economic and legislative elements with the aim to perform transfer, loading and unloading of goods and passengers. Taking in consideration that most economic activities demand participation of certain transport system elements, any economic growth is impossible without an adequate transport system development. In order to secure environmental sustainable economic growth the economic policy subjects have to pay s...

  17. Grassroots Initiatives as Sustainability Transition Pioneers: Implications and Lessons for Urban Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gernert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the current evidence on the role and success factors of grassroots initiatives in sustainability transitions, with special attention given to social innovations and the transformation of urban food systems, a field that is still rather scantly dealt with in literature compared to technological innovations in other sectors such as energy. In addition to their contributions to get the necessary transformation towards sustainable futures off the ground, the preconditions for grassroots initiatives to thrive are presented—as well as limitations regarding their possibilities and the challenges they face. Increasingly, the importance of civil society and social movements in facilitating societal transformation is recognized by both researchers and policy makers. Within their radical niches, grassroots initiatives do not have to adhere to the logics of the wider systems in which they are embedded. This allows them to experiment with diverse solutions to sustainability challenges such as local food security and sovereignty. By means of democratic, inclusive and participatory processes, they create new pathways and pilot a change of course. Nevertheless, upscaling often comes at the loss of the transformative potential of grassroots initiatives.

  18. Applying sustainability theory to transport infrastructure assessment using a multiplicative ahp decision support model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryn, Marie Ridley; Cornet, Yannick; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    report, which is used to validate the nested model of sustainability for countries operating under the paradox of affluence. This provides a theoretical rationale for prioritising longer-term ecological integrity over shorter-term economic concerns, in line with the stronger conceptualisation......It is generally expected that the three dimensions of the economy, society and the environment must be included in any measurable sustainability pathway. However, these do not provide much guidance as to how to prioritize impacts within and between the dimensions. A conceptualized approach...... to sustainability based on the nested model is therefore presented seeking to provide an alternative approach to sustainable transportation assessment, namely the SUSTAIN Decision Support System (DSS) model. This model is based on a review of basic notions of sustainability presented by the Brundtland Commission...

  19. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  20. Understanding sustainable seafood consumption behavior: an examination of the Ocean Wise (OW initiative in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Dolmage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable seafood labeling programs have been developed as one of several efforts to address the current dire trends in fish stocks. The Ocean Wise (OW program, started at the Vancouver Aquarium (Canada, works with restaurateurs and suppliers to simplify sustainable purchasing decisions. By aiding restaurateurs with responsible purchasing, OW hopes to shift demand to sustainable seafood products. OW has grown in numbers and spread across Canada quickly; we examine the factors associated with individual and organizational decisions to participate in the program, including personal, business, and program-related factors. These factors were examined in relation to OW membership by Vancouver restaurateurs. Results show that restaurateurs with greater knowledge of seafood issues and restaurants with greater commitment to a range of green initiatives are more likely to participate in the OW program. By focusing efforts on education and incorporating a range of green values into marketing, OW can maximize their limited resources to grow membership.

  1. How sustainable are 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation biofuels for transportation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Guido; Hienz, Gunnar [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    After the successful implementation of 1{sup st} generation biofuels in the transport sector of several countries all over the world, 2{sup nd} generation biofuels are also being produced in the meantime. Recently, there is a distinct increase in publications on the question and the concerns of many stakeholders whether these biofuels are sustainable and public awareness of this issue is prevalent. This paper summarises the state of the art of the debate whether 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation biofuels are a sustainable alternative for fossil fuels for transportation. Results of several life cycle assessments are compared and conclusions are stated. An environmental assessment identifies the potentials for a sustainable development of biofuels for transportation. Conclusions are that 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation biofuels show both environmental advantages and disadvantages. The analyses of energy and greenhouse gas balances show a wide range of results. Lifecycle assessments and environmental impact assessments provide a method to determine whether biofuels are environmentally sustainable. Impacts on sustainable development are exemplified in the categories land use competition, biomass use competition and CO{sub 2} avoidance costs. Not all biofuels are regarded as being advantageous from an environmental perspective. However, 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation biofuels for transportation show a great potential that needs to be harmonised with other needs (e.g. land for food production or biomass use for industry and chemistry towards an overall sustainable approach). (orig.)

  2. Sense and Sustainability. Smart thinking to restart European transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication is intended to be a useful guide to what needs to be done and what can be done at EU level in the transportation sector. Six themes are covered and part of the five years work programme: true prices, climate change and energy use, aviation, shipping, health and quality of life, and European investment in transport. Each corresponding chapter explains the problems, gives an overview of recent developments, and explains why action is important. The chapters conclude with a series of specific recommendations for the Commission and Parliament

  3. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  4. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Circella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Monetary instruments to regulate parking are often used in central areas of cities to discourage long term parking of vehicles. The availability of parking facilities, and its cost, in fact represents an important element in the decision to operate private vehicles in urban areas. The availability of instruments and tools to check the outcome of modification in parking regulations, in terms of modification of car use, successfully support planners in the determination of the best policies to decrease congestion, and regulate the use of transportation in cities. Integrated land use transportation models may successfully contribute to the assessment of such policy packages. This contribution discusses the use of the model MARS-Bari (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator for the analysis of future scenarios of development of land use and transportation. MARS-Bari is a fast integrated land use transportation model, which is designed for applications in strategic planning of urban and metropolitan areas. The model was developed as a decision support tool, to help planners in the definition of sets of policies on land use and transportation, and promote equilibrated growth of the urban system (smart growth. MARS-Bari shares the basic assumptions of the Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator (MARS modeling system, so far successfully applied to many cities of both Europe and Asia. The structure of MARS-Bari is highly flexible on purpose, allowing multiple hypothesis tests of future scenarios and policies. MARS-Bari works at a high level of spatial aggregation, and its simulations are developed on a long-term time horizon (30-years in the current version. Two main sub-models run in MARS-Bari: they respectively simulate the development of land use, and the transportation system. Four different classes of users are distinguished in the transportation model, depending on the possible access to one or more of the five transportation modes: car

  5. Indicators and Performance Measures for Transportation, Environment and Sustainability in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    A study trip to USA and Canada was undertaken in October 2000 with support from the German Marshall Fund. The purpose of the trip was to learn about performance planning and performance indicators in the area of transportation and environment. The report describe findings from the trip in the fol......A study trip to USA and Canada was undertaken in October 2000 with support from the German Marshall Fund. The purpose of the trip was to learn about performance planning and performance indicators in the area of transportation and environment. The report describe findings from the trip...... in the following areas: how performance planning for transportation and environment is conducted in the US and Canada at federal, state and municipal level, to what extent performance planning serve as an instrument to integrate environmental and sustainability goals in transportation policy which specific...... indicators are used to measure the environmental sustainability of transportation systems and policies in the two North American countries....

  6. New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    ) and the COMBACTE and TRANSLOCATION projects under NewDrugs4BadBugs program, involving the EU Commission and the pharma industry. But also national initiatives, such as the successful Danish ban and regulations on antibiotic use in animal production, as well as educational efforts (the European Antibiotic Awareness......New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives Posted on March 19, 2014 by Timo Minssen Please find attached a ppt presentation on “New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives” given...... on March 7, 2014 at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The presentation was followed by a discussion moderated by US patent attorney Melissa Hunter-Ensor, Partner at Saul Ewing, Boston I started out by emphasizing increasing problems of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on a global level, providing new...

  7. Applications of partial order theory in the assessment of transportation sustainability for Islamic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassafi, A.M.; Vaziri, M.

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to characterize national passenger and freight transportation sustainability. Based on the indicator that measures the conformity of the growths of all sectors with transportation, the Islamic countries are comparatively studied. The proposed measure, elasticity for each pair of variables indicates the extent to which the two variables have been changing consistently. The study database consisted of key aspects of transportation sustainability in the form of national variables including transportation, economic, social and environmental categories for the period 1980-1995. Firstly, the elasticity of social, environmental and economic variables with respect to passenger and freight transportation variables was developed. Using individual elasticities, composite passengers and freight sustainability indices were suggested. Then, utilizing partial order theory and Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT), two composite indices were employed to visualize the comparative situation of the countries. Based on comparative appraisal achieved by HDT, country ranking were developed. The methodology may be applied to any other time and geographic area for addressing pertinent issues for balancing and sustainable development of transportation systems. (author)

  8. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-01-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  9. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-07-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  10. Accessible transportation technologies research initiative (ATTRI) : online dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In coordination with Easter Seals Project ACTION (ESPA) and with support from Noblis, ATTRI held an online dialogue from May 15-June 6, 2014 to garner input on : mobility and transportation technology for travelers with disabilities. Participants wer...

  11. Lessons from Transportation Agency Participation In Regional Conservation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Jaimee

    2017-01-01

    Transportation agencies struggle to maximize the benefits of transportation infrastructure while minimizing environmental harm. This dissertation examines institutional collaborations that integrate capital investments (e.g. highway and rail projects) with regional Habitat Conservation Plans (RHCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). It addresses ways of maintaining these collaborations over time. The ESA requires that public and private project developers mitigate any harm to endangered...

  12. Desirability and feasibility of sustainable urban transport systems. An expert-based strategic scenario approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Ouwersloot, H.; Rienstra, S.A. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    Current trends in transport indicate that the system is moving away from sustainability and that major changes are necessary to make the transport system more compatible with environmental sustainability. Main problems may occur in urban transport, where not many promising solutions are expected, while the problems are severe. In view of the great number of uncertainties, we will in our paper resort to scenarios. In the paper, expert scenarios, which lead to a sustainable transport system are constructed by applying the recently developed `Spider model`. Based on a set of distinct characteristics, leading to eight axes in the spatial, institutional, economic and social-psychological field, an evaluation framework is constructed, which visualizes the driving forces that largely influence the future of the transport system. Next, expected and desired scenarios are constructed by means of opinions of Dutch transport experts - both average scenarios and scenarios of segments of the respondents - which have been investigated by means of a survey. The expected scenarios indicate that many current trends will continue, while the transport system is largely the same as the current one. The desired scenarios on the other hand, suggest the emergence and the need for a more collective system, in which also many new modes are operating. In the paper the resulting urban transport systems are also discussed. By calculating the CO2 emissions in the average expected and desired scenario, it appears that the expected scenario does not lead to a large scale reduction of those emissions; the desired scenario however, may lead to a large scale reduction of the emissions. The conclusion is that the differences in expert opinion are small and that the road towards a sustainable (urban) transport system is still far away, although the compact city concept may perhaps offer some solution. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  13. Stable sustainment of plasmas with electron internal transport barrier by ECH in the LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Tokitani, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Ueda, Y.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Seki, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamada, I.; Yamada, H.; Mutoh, T.; Takeiri, Y.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2018-02-01

    The long pulse experiments in the Large Helical Device has made progress in sustainment of improved confinement states. It was found that steady-state sustainment of the plasmas with improved confinement at the core region, that is, electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB), was achieved with no significant difficulty. Sustainment of a plasma having e-ITB with the line average electron density n e_ave of 1.1 × 1019 m-3 and the central electron temperature T e0 of ˜3.5 keV for longer than 5 min only with 340 kW ECH power was successfully demonstrated.

  14. Competitive sustainability of a transport route in the transport service market

    OpenAIRE

    Poletan Jugović, Tanja; Šimić Hlača, Marija; Žgaljić, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    In order for the particular transport route and entities in the production of a transport service on that route to maintain their position in the transport service market, they have to ensure efficiency, orientation towards service users, rationality, environmental friendliness and quality dominance of an offered service. User orientation and flexible reaction to market demands create preconditions for the establishment of a competitive and attractive transport route and accompanying transpor...

  15. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    use are largely lost in the current fossil fuel dominated energy systems. Sustainable transport development requires solutions from an overall renewable energy system in which integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energy needs assistance. Technologies of alternative vehicle fuels...... in transport may play a role in furthering such integration. The objective of this research is to make a contribution to the development of methodologies to identify and develop future sustainable transport systems as well as to apply such methodologies to the case of China. In particular, the methodological...... development focuses on 1) identifying suitable transport technologies and strategies based on renewable energy and 2) evaluating such technologies from the perspective of overall renewable energy system integration. For this purpose, a methodological framework involving the research fields of both...

  16. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...

  17. Sustainability Initiatives and Organizational Performance: An Analysis of Publications in the WEB of SCIENCE DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luís Hepper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is going through a time of reflection about the preservation of natural resources, an issue that is increasingly considered in its agenda. The search for balance between environmental, social and economic aspects has been a challenge for business survival over the years and has led companies to adopt initiatives focused on sustainability. The objective of this article is to analyse how the international scientific production addresses sustainable practices and initiatives and their relationship with organizational performance. Considering this scope, a bibliometric study of the publications located on Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index (WoS-SSCI was developed. There were 33 articles identified and selected on the subject. Journals that stand out in quantity of articles and number of citations are the Journal of Cleaner Production and Strategic Management Journal, respectively. Analysing the results, a growing concern about this issue and the increase in publications was noticed after the 2000s. The results found, in general, associate sustainable practices to positive organizational performance, such as increased profit on the product sold, quality improvement, improved reputation, and waste reduction, among others gains identified.

  18. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  19. Reducing transport costs and improving sustainability simultaneously through horizontal logistics collaboration: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lier, Tom; Macharis, Cathy; Caris, An; Vrenken, Huub

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the potential of a more systematic bundling of the outbound freight flows out of three neighboring distribution centers (DCs) of the same company, each specialized in a specific product category and each using a separate planning system, is investigated. Most of the outbound flows are currently still transported by truck, so one way to simultaneously achieve lower transport costs and more sustainable logistics is through supply chain collaboration in outbound logistics. This pap...

  20. Transport and sustainability - with special emphasis on grocery distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Kaj

    1999-12-31

    The reduction of the number of retail shops, in principle, provide for better planning opportunities regarding the distribution of commodities to the shops. But this, according to the study is more than offset by the longer distances the goods have to travel before reaching the shops. The report investigates the potentials for reduction of the energy demand and emission by means of technical improvements of vehicles. The assessments are based on fuel cycle considerations covering both the energy system (that is, the system providing the fuel to the vehicle) and the vehicle system (the system on board the vehicle transforming the fuel to useful work). In general, there are substantial potentials for improvements of the energy efficiency of the transportation means - and even greater potentials for CO{sub 2}-reductions. The reap the full potentials, it is probably necessary to break with the present technological development trend. (au) 274 refs.

  1. Transport and sustainability - with special emphasis on grocery distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Kaj

    1998-12-31

    The reduction of the number of retail shops, in principle, provide for better planning opportunities regarding the distribution of commodities to the shops. But this, according to the study is more than offset by the longer distances the goods have to travel before reaching the shops. The report investigates the potentials for reduction of the energy demand and emission by means of technical improvements of vehicles. The assessments are based on fuel cycle considerations covering both the energy system (that is, the system providing the fuel to the vehicle) and the vehicle system (the system on board the vehicle transforming the fuel to useful work). In general, there are substantial potentials for improvements of the energy efficiency of the transportation means - and even greater potentials for CO{sub 2}-reductions. The reap the full potentials, it is probably necessary to break with the present technological development trend. (au) 274 refs.

  2. SOLUTIONS AND MEANS OF ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT IN THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN POPESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve an overview of innovative initiatives on alternative transport in recent years in the context of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context are presented the main problems caused by motorized traffic in the urban agglomerations. Also, there are mentioned measures that could be implemented in busy urban areas. On this occasion are mentioned both new technical solutions and new means of alternative transport type. Additional, specific projects and programs are highlighted using bicycle transportation. There are mentioned initiatives regarding urban transportation completed in European projects such as: CIVITAS, EFFECTS etc. The examples and figures are mainly focused on Romania.

  3. Future transportation: Lifetime considerations and framework for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeting, Walter J.; Winfield, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    Modern society cannot exist without mobility. It is now essential to maintain access to everyday necessities, as well as being a vital part of most economies. However, our current transportation system is placing unsustainable demands on finite resources of fossil fuels, minerals and materials; change is therefore essential. Identifying rational choices is difficult because a future transport option must not only abate these demands over the entire lifetime, but do so at an affordable cost whilst maintaining acceptable levels of utility. This paper offers a framework to evaluate powertrains for whole life criteria, in order to help validate current and future developments. It supports integrated comparisons of both fuel and vehicle technology combinations for cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions throughout a vehicles lifetime. Case studies illustrate the use of this framework. All powertrains were found to require considerable amounts of energy and emit some emissions over their whole lifetime. Significant benefits over incumbent vehicles were found to be potentially attainable through the use of alternative powertrains. However, the majority of these benefits were currently found to increase user costs, worsen the vehicle production impacts and be heavily reliant on the source of the vehicles in-use energy. - Highlight: ► Cost, energy and GHG emissions throughout a vehicle’s lifetime are evaluated. ► This paper offers a structure to evaluate powertrains for whole life criteria. ► Substantial amounts of energy and emissions were evident for all options. ► Significant environmental benefits over incumbent vehicles were found. ► In-use benefits were shown to shift impacts to other phases of a vehicle’s lifetime.

  4. An operational information systems architecture for assessing sustainable transportation planning: principles and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzacchiello, Maria Teresa; Torrieri, Vincenzo; Nijkamp, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper offers the description of an integrated information system framework for the assessment of transportation planning and management. After an introductory exposition, in the first part of the paper, a broad overview of international experiences regarding information systems on transportation is given, focusing in particular on the relationship between transportation system's performance monitoring and the decision-making process, and on the importance of this connection in the evaluation and planning process, in Italian and European cases. Next, the methodological design of an information system to support efficient and sustainable transportation planning and management aiming to integrate inputs from several different data sources is presented. The resulting framework deploys modular and integrated databases which include data stemming from different national or regional data banks and which integrate information belonging to different transportation fields. For this reason, it allows public administrations to account for many strategic elements that influence their decisions regarding transportation, both from a systemic and infrastructural point of view.

  5. LOCAL INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL HOKKAIDO: A CASE STUDY OF SAMANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Dublin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field investigation about sustainable development of Samani town—a rural area in Hidaka region, Hokkaido, Japan. Local activities, business, environmental, social and economic challenges that affect the town as well as the advantages were investigated. The research was done by means of field visits, questionnaires and interviews involving the local people and government. The main economic sectors: olivine industry, fishery, agriculture and tourism were targeted as well as the government sector and the local high school with a particular focus on rural-urban migration. Samani has quite unique natural features on hand but a few strong comprehensive challenges on the other hand. The authors focused on the citizens opinions and positions which were based on the uniqueness of Samani and their own local activities and initiatives for the sustainable development of the town in the future which can be replicated in other rural communities around the world.

  6. Energy equity: will the UN Sustainable Energy For All initiative make a difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma

    2012-05-15

    Access to affordable modern energy services may not be a Millennium Development Goal (MDG) but without it, sustainable development, indeed the MDGs themselves, cannot be achieved. Yet energy access remains an area of great global inequity. On one hand, wealthy countries and communities consume vast amounts of often subsidised energy resources every day. On the other hand, 1-in-5 people lives with no access to grid electricity, and around 40 per cent of the world's population (nearly three billion people) lack the technologies to make cooking fuels clean, safe and efficient. Can the UN's Sustainable Energy for All initiative in 2012 redress the balance? Perhaps, but only if it puts improving the lives of the poorest and most vulnerable at the heart of its efforts.

  7. Efficiency and sufficiency. Towards sustainable energy and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Van Swigchem, J.

    1997-03-01

    A crucial question today is whether the development of clean technology can reduce environmental pollution to an acceptable level, or whether the growth of polluting activities must be stemmed as a complementary measure. This is the key issue addressed in the title discussion paper, which focuses specifically on the CO2 emissions of the energy and transport sectors. A systems analysis of these two sectors shows that the required improvements in efficiency can only be achieved - through technological improvements - if there is also slightly less growth in polluting activities. The underlying reason is that improvements in technological efficiency also lead to a drop in the price of polluting activities, leading in turn to an increase in demand. Only by means of strong government policy can an absolute reduction in CO2 emissions be achieved, thus countering this negative feedback. Effective policy to this end inevitably leads to extra costs and/or to lower growth in comfort enhancement. This is the price tag associated with abatement of CO2 emissions. 29 refs

  8. Role of demonstration projects in innovation: transition to sustainable energy and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Coenen, Lars; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2013-01-01

    from road transport, and climate changes caused by greenhouse gas emissions, all these crises have contributed to a sense of urgency in political statements on the need for transition towards a sustainable society. Politicians have developed different types of instruments to achieve a development...

  9. Sustainable Transportation Attitudes and Health Behavior Change: Evaluation of a Brief Stage-Targeted Video Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen A; Paiva, Andrea L

    2018-01-18

    Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST) using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors. Earlier, measurement development confirmed both the structure of ST pros and cons and efficacy measures as well as the relationship between these constructs and ST stages of change, replicating results found for many other behaviors. The present paper discusses a brief pre-post video pilot intervention study designed for precontemplators and contemplators (N = 604) that was well received, effective in moving respondents towards increased readiness for ST behavior change, and improving some ST attitudes, significantly reducing the cons of ST. This research program shows that a brief stage-targeted behavior change video can increase readiness and reduce the cons for healthy transportation choices.

  10. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    Energy demand of a transport sector has constantly been increasing in the recent years, consuming one third of the total final energy demand in the European Union (EU) over the last decade. A transition of this sector towards sustainable one is facing many challenges in terms of suitable technolo...

  11. Sustainable Transportation Attitudes and Health Behavior Change: Evaluation of a Brief Stage-Targeted Video Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM, which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors. Earlier, measurement development confirmed both the structure of ST pros and cons and efficacy measures as well as the relationship between these constructs and ST stages of change, replicating results found for many other behaviors. The present paper discusses a brief pre-post video pilot intervention study designed for precontemplators and contemplators (N = 604 that was well received, effective in moving respondents towards increased readiness for ST behavior change, and improving some ST attitudes, significantly reducing the cons of ST. This research program shows that a brief stage-targeted behavior change video can increase readiness and reduce the cons for healthy transportation choices.

  12. Sustainable Transportation Attitudes and Health Behavior Change: Evaluation of a Brief Stage-Targeted Video Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen A.; Paiva, Andrea L.

    2018-01-01

    Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST) using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors. Earlier, measurement development confirmed both the structure of ST pros and cons and efficacy measures as well as the relationship between these constructs and ST stages of change, replicating results found for many other behaviors. The present paper discusses a brief pre-post video pilot intervention study designed for precontemplators and contemplators (N = 604) that was well received, effective in moving respondents towards increased readiness for ST behavior change, and improving some ST attitudes, significantly reducing the cons of ST. This research program shows that a brief stage-targeted behavior change video can increase readiness and reduce the cons for healthy transportation choices. PMID:29346314

  13. Status of NASA's commercial cargo and crew transportation initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmoyer, Alan; Stone, Dennis

    2010-03-01

    To stimulate the commercial space transportation industry, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is facilitating the demonstration of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by private-sector companies. In 2006, NASA entered into funded agreements with two such companies to share NASA's 500 million investment, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and Rocketplane Kistler (RpK), each of which proposed to obtain the additional private financing needed to complete its flight demonstrations. In 2007, NASA terminated the agreement with RpK because it failed to meet a series of technical and financial milestones which were necessary to receive the incremental NASA payments. In 2008, NASA conducted another competition for the remaining 170 million of NASA funding and entered into a funded agreement with Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). This paper provides an overview of the COTS approach of SpaceX and OSC and the status of their efforts to develop reliable and cost-effective commercial transportation to serve the LEO marketplace.

  14. A review on utilization of textile composites in transportation towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Nermin M.

    2017-10-01

    Transportation industry is rapidly developing owing to its size and importance which affects on various aspects of life. It includes all the transport means that facilitate mobility of people or goods either by air, land or sea like aircrafts, automotives, ships, trains, etc. The utilization of textiles in this industry is increasing as a result of moving towards achieving sustainability and enhancing performance, comfort and safety. Through substituting heavier materials with textiles of high performance specifications and textile reinforced composites to reduce weight, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Composite materials can fulfil the demands for sustainability in the transportation sector through using renewable, recycled and lightweight materials, considering the requirements of each category of transport vehicles. Textiles used in reinforcing composites are diverse including fibers, yarns or fabric preforms such as woven, nonwoven, knitted, braided which varies from 2D to complex 3D structures. This paper presents a brief review on the utilization of textiles in reinforcing composites for various transportation applications to achieve sustainability. Also, discussing the influence of textiles structural parameters like fiber material properties, fabric production technique and construction on their mechanical behaviour. Focusing on researches findings in this area and highlighting some prospects for further developments domestically.

  15. The Impact of Intelligent Transportation System Implementations on the Sustainable Growth of Passenger Transport in EU Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stawiarska

    2018-04-01

    conclusions emphasize the importance of data accumulated for ITS in decision-making processes aiming to ensure the sustainable development of mass/passenger transport. The article confirms a hypothesis which claims that “modeling the regional public transportation grid, applying the principles of ITS, stimulates a growth in the share of passenger transport in the overall bulk of transport, thus contributing to the sustainable development of the region”.

  16. Design and assessment of long-term sustainable transport system scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Rienstra, S.A.; Vleugel, J.M. [Systems and Control Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    Current trends in transport indicate that the system is moving away from a sustainable development because of a sky-rocketing mobility growth and a modal shift towards the most polluting modes. These trends are reinforced by several underlying factors, which may be found in the spatial, institutional, economic and social/psychological fields. It may be concluded that major changes in technology, public policy as well as in the behaviour of individuals are necessary to make the transport system more compatible with environmental sustainability. This provokes the need for assessing a set of future images for transport in relation to the environment. In this paper expert scenarios are constructed on the basis of the recently developed `spider model`. Based on a set of distinct characteristics of a transport system, represented by eight axes in the above mentioned fields, an evaluation framework is constructed, which visualizes the main discussed driving forces. Scenarios can be constructed by connecting points on the successive axes, which may lead to entirely different transport systems. An expected and desired scenario are constructed next, by means of opinions of Dutch transport experts, which have been investigated by means of a nation-wide survey. The expected scenario indicates that many current trends will continue, while the transport system is largely the same as the current one. The desired scenario on the other hand, gives a more collective system, in which also many new modes are operating. The conclusion is that expected trends may not lead to a sustainable transport system, but that the desired road will be very hard to follow. 5 figs., 2 tabs., 27 refs.

  17. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Initial Platform Chemicals: Chemistry and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, László T; Cséfalvay, Edit; Németh, Áron

    2018-01-24

    The replacement of fossil resources that currently provide more than 90% of our energy needs and feedstocks of the chemical industry in combination with reduced emission of carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing challenges of mankind. Biomass as a globally available resource has been proposed as an alternative feedstock for production of basic building blocks, which could partially or even fully replace the currently utilized fossil-based ones in well-established chemical processes. The destruction of lignocellulosic feed followed by oxygen removal from its cellulose and hemicellulose content by catalytic processes results in the formation of initial platform chemicals (IPCs). However, their sustainable production strongly depends on the availability of resources, their efficient or even industrially viable conversion processes, and replenishment time of feedstocks. Herein, we overview recent advances and developments in catalytic transformations of the carbohydrate content of lignocellulosic biomass to IPCs (i.e., ethanol, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, isoprene, succinic and levulinic acids, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). The mechanistic aspects, development of new catalysts, different efficiency indicators (yield and selectivity), and conversion conditions of their production are presented and compared. The potential biochemical production routes utilizing recently engineered microorganisms are reviewed, as well. The sustainability metrics that could be applied to the chemical industry (individual set of sustainability indicators, composite indices methods, material and energy flow analysis-based metrics, and ethanol equivalents) are also overviewed as well as an outlook is provided to highlight challenges and opportunities associated with this huge research area.

  18. 75 FR 80486 - Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... proceeding of Sustainable Star, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2354-000] Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  19. Transportation Electrification Education Partnership for Green Jobs and Sustainable Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Huei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mi, Chris [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gover, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This collaborative educational project between the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor, University of Michigan—Dearborn and the Kettering University successfully executed almost all the elements we proposed to do. In the original proposal, we proposed to develop four graduate courses, six undergraduate courses, four professional short courses, a K-12 electric vehicle education kit, a Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material to support the advancement of transportation electrification. The first four deliverables were all successfully developed and offered. When we held the kick-off meeting in NETL in Morgantown back in early 2010 with all the ten ARRA education teams, however, it quickly became clear that among the ten ARRA education grantee teams, our proposed “consume education” activities are not better or with the potential to create bigger impact than some of activities proposed in other teams. For example, the Odyssey 2010 event held by the West Virginia University team had planned and successfully reached to more than 230,000 attendees, which is way more than what our proposed 100k event could ever reach. It was under the suggestion of Joseph Quaranta, the ARRA education Program Director at that time, that we should coordinate and eliminate redundancy. The resources should then be focused on activities that have less overlap. Therefore, the originally proposed activities: Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material were dropped from our scope. We expanded the scope of our “education kit” activity to include some educational materials, mainly in the form of videos. The target audience also changed from general public to K-12 students. The majority of the project cost (~70%) goes toward the establishment of three undergraduate laboratories, which provides critically needed hands-on learning experience for next-generation green mobility engineers. We are very proud that the ARRA money

  20. Does Wind Discourage Sustainable Transportation Mode Choice? Findings from San Francisco, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkyoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether and to what extent wind discourages sustainable transportation mode choice, which includes riding public transportation, bicycling, and walking. A six month-long field study was carried out at four locations in San Francisco, a city that has been promoting sustainable transportation mode choice but that experiences high wind levels. It involved surveying pedestrians and on-site recording of microclimate data using various instruments. The survey adopted a mixed-method approach to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Statistical analyses using Kruskal Wallis tests and ordinal logistic regression models identified the significant effect of wind speed on San Francisco’s residents in estimating their discouragement for waiting at transit stop without shelter, bicycling, and walking. Qualitative data revealed a deeper understanding of how wind influences their sustainable transportation mode choice. This research argues for the need to adopt climate-based efforts in urban planning and policy and sheds light on the climate resilience of cities

  1. Analysis on Transportation Infrastructure Availability to Achieve Environmental and Social Sustainability in Karawang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarasati, A. D.; Octoria, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable infrastructure is the key to development success. At the same time, transportation infrastructure development will involve social and environmental conditions of the local surroundings. Assessment of the availability of such transport infrastructure is one of the solutions adapted from social and environmental impacts. By conducting a correlation test, the presence of transportation infrastructure and the social conditions of the environment can be identified. The results obtained show that the accessibility, the level of security, and the level of equality are correlated to social and environmental sustainability in Karawang. In terms of environment, the availability of transportation infrastructure is not directly related to the impact of environmental sustainability. The impact of the perceived environment also has no effect on the journey. Correlation results indicate that the length of travel time and congestion level do not make the perceived impact greater. The impact of the perceived environment is merely due to the high utilization of private vehicles in Karawang which subsequently leads to higher energy consumption.

  2. Sustainable transport strategy for promoting zero-emission electric scooters in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-06-15

    In Taiwan, the government considers the zero-emission scooters to be a sustainable form of transport like walking, cycling and public transport, which play a vital role to support sustainable urban mobility. Therefore, the development of zero-emission scooters is an important strategy in constructing the sustainable transport network of Taiwan. It is also the government's priorities about the policy of emission-reduction and energy-conservation in the transportation sector. Recently, Taiwan launched a new program for subsidy of purchasing zero-emission scooters, which aimed to shift the petroleum-powered scooters to the electric scooters. The present paper is providing an update review of the promotional programs in developing zero-emission scooters in Taiwan. It introduces the status of the establishment and progress of policy, standards, subsidies to users and manufacturers, practice infrastructure, and technology development. Moreover, the contribution of replacing petrol scooters by zero-emission scooters such as battery-powered electric scooters and fuel cell scooters to reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and improvement in energy efficiency is evaluated. (author)

  3. Transport mechanism of an initially spherical droplet on a combined hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kwon, Young Hoo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Fluid transport is a key issue in the development of microfluidic systems. Recently, Myong (2014) has proposed a new concept for droplet transport without external power sources, and numerically validated the results for a hypothetical 2D shape, initially having a hemicylindrical droplet shape. Myong and Kwon (2015) have also examined the transport mechanism for an actual water droplet, initially having a 3D hemispherical shape, on a horizontal hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface, based on the numerical results of the time evolution of the droplet shape, as well as the total kinetic, gravitational, pressure and surface free energies inside the droplet. In this study, a 3D numerical analysis of an initially spherical droplet is carried out to establish a new concept for droplet transport. Further, the transport mechanism of an actual water droplet is examined in detail from the viewpoint of the capillarity force imbalance through the numerical results of droplet shape and various energies inside the droplet.

  4. A new composite decision support framework for strategic and sustainable transport appraisals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    . The proposed framework is based on the use of cost-benefit analysis featuring feasibility risk assessment in combination with multi-criteria decision analysis and is supported by the concept of decision conferencing. The framework is applied for a transport related case study dealing with the complex decision....... The outcome of the case study demonstrates the decision making framework as a valuable decision support system (DSS), and it is concluded that appraisals of transport projects can be effectively supported by the use of the DSS. Finally, perspectives of the future modelling work are given.......This paper concerns the development of a new decision support framework for the appraisal of transport infrastructure projects. In such appraisals there will often be a need for including both conventional transport impacts as well as criteria of a more strategic and/or sustainable character...

  5. Transportation Big Data: Unbiased Analysis and Tools to Inform Sustainable Transportation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Today, transportation operation and energy systems data are generated at an unprecedented scale. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the go-to source for expertise in providing data and analysis to inform industry and government transportation decision making. The lab's teams of data experts and engineers are mining and analyzing large sets of complex data -- or 'big data' -- to develop solutions that support the research, development, and deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Urban Mobility Analysis on Efficiency and Sustainability by Means of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branea, Ana-Maria; Gaman, Marius; Badescu, Stefana

    2017-10-01

    Patterns of urban land use are inherently linked to the predominantly used means of transportation, both generating and being generated themselves. While each mode of transportation shapes a different development typology a clear understanding of their interrelations and dependencies is needed in order to create a comprehensive mobility strategy. The study proposes a 15-criteria analysis framework developed to identify and quantify the main modes of transportation’s key aspects. The analysis framework was applied to a yearlong research on Timisoara, Romania, comprising hard, quantitative data, digital simulations and mobility pattern analysis and soft data, quality assessment and perceived needs and satisfaction levels. The research was carried out in clear opposition to the national trend of official mobility strategies focusing on accommodating increased levels of car traffic on the underdeveloped existing roads infrastructure. By analysing the efficiency and sustainability of all four main modes of transportation the results offer a holistic comprehensive view. While, despite current practices, no mobility strategy can focus on a single means of transportation, the article will only present in detail the research on cycling, infrastructure and use, as it is the most underdeveloped and least discussed at the national level and proven through our study to be the most efficient for a city of Timisoara’s size and characteristics. By identifying a clear link between urban land use patterns, infrastructure quality and perceptions and the most efficient means of transportation for each particular city type mobility strategies could shift the trend of urban development towards a more sustainable one.

  7. The AGING Initiative experience: a call for sustained support for team science networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tullika; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Landyn, Valentina; Hajduk, Alexandra; Waring, Stephen; Hanson, Leah R; Whitson, Heather E

    2018-05-18

    Team science, defined as collaborative research efforts that leverage the expertise of diverse disciplines, is recognised as a critical means to address complex healthcare challenges, but the practical implementation of team science can be difficult. Our objective is to describe the barriers, solutions and lessons learned from our team science experience as applied to the complex and growing challenge of multiple chronic conditions (MCC). MCC is the presence of two or more chronic conditions that have a collective adverse effect on health status, function or quality of life, and that require complex healthcare management, decision-making or coordination. Due to the increasing impact on the United States society, MCC research has been identified as a high priority research area by multiple federal agencies. In response to this need, two national research entities, the Healthcare Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAIC), formed the Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth (AGING) Initiative to build nationwide capacity for MCC team science. This article describes the structure, lessons learned and initial outcomes of the AGING Initiative. We call for funding mechanisms to sustain infrastructures that have demonstrated success in fostering team science and innovation in translating findings to policy change necessary to solve complex problems in healthcare.

  8. Specific character of sustainable innovative development of transport construction in self-regulation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumba, Khuta; Belyaeva, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    The providing of sustainable development is impossible without activating the innovative activity of backbone economical sectors, in particular of transport construction. The system of self-regulation of activities is a specific feature of the transport industry development. The authors carried out the correlation analysis of innovative activity of construction enterprises, which proved the necessity of improving the normative and technical documents. The authors proposed and calculated the index of the legislation stability in the industry. The article suggests recommendations on the activation of innovative development in construction industry basing on the results of the modeling.

  9. Transport, spatio-economic equilibrium and global sustainability. Markets, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Dep. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    Interdependencies between transport, spatial economy, technology and environment are investigated in the context of regulatory environmental policies aiming at meeting a global environmental target, defined in terms of the environmental utilization space as a prerequisite for global sustainability. A small scale model, based on the adapted spatial price equilibrium methodology presented elsewhere was discussed, serving as an illustration of the formal analysis discussed there. Notwithstanding the model`s simplicity, the simulation results are found to be interesting in that they provide some revealing comparative static insights into issues that are believed to be quite important in the formulation of environmental and transport policies. 12 figs., 12 refs.

  10. Advanced corporate sustainability reporting - XBRL taxonomy for sustainability reports based on the G3-guidelines of the gobal reporting initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Isenmann, R.; Gomez, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability reporting describes a development path towards a concept of balanced corporate reporting, usually communicating the three pillars of environmental, social, and economic performance and its mutual interrelations, what in business terms is often called the triple bottom line approach.While early sustainability reports merely have been available on print media, today most are accessible on the WWW as HTML files or as PDFs. Such a layout oriented data format however, does not seem ...

  11. Rapid urbanization and the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Not only is Jakarta the largest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia, it is the also one of the most dynamic, though beset with most of the urban problems experienced in twenty-first century Southeast Asia. Batavia, colonial capital of the Netherland Indies in the first half of the 20th century was a small urban area of approximately 150,000 residents. In the second half, Batavia became Jakarta, the 28 million megacity capital of independent Indonesia. Among many urban problems, one major problem plagued Jakarta in the last two decades is traffic congestions. This paper discusses the extent to which rapid urbanization in Jakarta has contributed to the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta. The development of MRT could be viable solutions to alleviate the acute traffic jams in Jakarta. Jakarta will need to implement other innovative sustainable transportation policies including promoting active live through more walking and bicycling, carpool matching services, shuttle services, telecommuting and downzoning in downtown areas.

  12. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  13. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. 2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Hazard

    2005-05-07

    This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

  15. The laboratory efficiencies initiative: partnership for building a sustainable national public health laboratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderhof, John C; Moulton, Anthony D; Ned, Renée M; Nicholson, Janet K A; Chu, May C; Becker, Scott J; Blank, Eric C; Breckenridge, Karen J; Waddell, Victor; Brokopp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in early 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories launched the Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative (LEI) to help public health laboratories (PHLs) and the nation's entire PHL system achieve and maintain sustainability to continue to conduct vital services in the face of unprecedented financial and other pressures. The LEI focuses on stimulating substantial gains in laboratories' operating efficiency and cost efficiency through the adoption of proven and promising management practices. In its first year, the LEI generated a strategic plan and a number of resources that PHL directors can use toward achieving LEI goals. Additionally, the first year saw the formation of a dynamic community of practitioners committed to implementing the LEI strategic plan in coordination with state and local public health executives, program officials, foundations, and other key partners.

  16. Sustainability of transport structures - some aspects of the nonlinear reliability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukl, Radomír; Sajdlová, Tereza; Strauss, Alfred; Lehký, David; Novák, Drahomír

    2017-09-01

    Efficient techniques for both nonlinear numerical analysis of concrete structures and advanced stochastic simulation methods have been combined in order to offer an advanced tool for assessment of realistic behaviour, failure and safety assessment of transport structures. The utilized approach is based on randomization of the non-linear finite element analysis of the structural models. Degradation aspects such as carbonation of concrete can be accounted in order predict durability of the investigated structure and its sustainability. Results can serve as a rational basis for the performance and sustainability assessment based on advanced nonlinear computer analysis of the structures of transport infrastructure such as bridges or tunnels. In the stochastic simulation the input material parameters obtained from material tests including their randomness and uncertainty are represented as random variables or fields. Appropriate identification of material parameters is crucial for the virtual failure modelling of structures and structural elements. Inverse analysis using artificial neural networks and virtual stochastic simulations approach is applied to determine the fracture mechanical parameters of the structural material and its numerical model. Structural response, reliability and sustainability have been investigated on different types of transport structures made from various materials using the above mentioned methodology and tools.

  17. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  18. Strategies for sustainable development and transport, some actual tendencies in Sweden and California; Strategier for baeredygtig udvikling og transport, nogle aktuelle tendenser i Sverige og Californien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, H. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, og Handelshoejskolen i Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    The development and implementation of goals for pollution abatement is now a central element of transport policy, but currently in Denmark these goals are only short term, they are neither satisfactorily integrated nor are they based on sustainable criteria, it is stated. In California, USA, there is a tendency to change the type of car usage by producing a wider variation of types (including electric powered cars) and organizing car and van-pooling to an even higher degree. Car journeys to the workplace are curtailed by the initiation of telecommuting and compressed work weeks. Methods of economic control are on the increase, mostly to help promote technological development. Strong political barriers exist, and these may lead to an even closer connection between taxation and car etc. uses. Swedish initiatives in this respect are also described. These seem to be concentrated on the laying of demands on the types of vehicles and on automotive fuels and also on the taxation of pollution from exhaust gases and on petrol. The author hopes that Danish transport policy can be inspired by that of USA and Sweden. (ARW) 18 refs.

  19. On the initiation of sustained slip-weakening ruptures by localized stresses

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin

    2014-12-10

    Numerical simulations of dynamic earthquake rupture require an artificial initiation procedure, if they are not integrated in long-term earthquake cycle simulations. A widely applied procedure involves an \\'overstressed asperity\\', a localized region stressed beyond the static frictional strength. The physical properties of the asperity (size, shape and overstress) may significantly impact rupture propagation. In particular, to induce a sustained rupture the asperity size needs to exceed a critical value. Although criteria for estimating the critical nucleation size under linear slip-weakening friction have been proposed for 2-D and 3-D problems based on simplifying assumptions, they do not provide general rules for designing 3-D numerical simulations. We conduct a parametric study to estimate parameters of the asperity that minimize numerical artefacts (e.g. changes of rupture shape and speed, artificial supershear transition, higher slip-rate amplitudes). We examine the critical size of square, circular and elliptical asperities as a function of asperity overstress and background (off-asperity) stress. For a given overstress, we find that asperity area controls rupture initiation while asperity shape is of lesser importance. The critical area obtained from our numerical results contrasts with published theoretical estimates when background stress is low. Therefore, we derive two new theoretical estimates of the critical size under low background stress while also accounting for overstress. Our numerical results suggest that setting the asperity overstress and area close to their critical values eliminates strong numerical artefacts even when the overstress is large. We also find that properly chosen asperity size or overstress may significantly shorten the duration of the initiation. Overall, our results provide guidelines for determining the size of the asperity and overstress to minimize the effects of the forced initiation on the subsequent spontaneous

  20. Urban Sustainability by Analysis of Renewable Technologies in the Public Transport of the City of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dullius

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To work sustainability issues in the urban environment is one of the great challenges in current. One of the ways to reach goals of this size is through the insertion of sustainable technologies in the public transportation sector. Examples include the use of biofuel instead of fossil fuels and the adoption of hybrid electric buses. Such replacements have been carried out in the collective transportation of the city of Curitiba, Paraná, which has been a pioneer in this type of management and has 1.7 vehicles per inhabitant. Therefore, the proposal of the article is to question the extent to which these actions contribute to the sustainability of the planet. For this purpose, emissions from the vehicles that compose the city's bus fleet were quantified over a one-year period, with evaluation of opacity tests and greenhouse gas emissions [GHG's]. In the period, the public transport sector was responsible for the emission of approximately 200,000 metric tons CO2 eq. The use of biodiesel in public transportation in Curitiba prevented the emission of approximately 10,000 metric tons of CO2. The results of the opacity tests indicated that the hybrid model operating the B100 emits about 93% less black smoke. It was verified that there is a significant contribution by the city to reduce the emission of GHG's. By economic analysis, if the entire fleet of the city of Curitiba were hybrid, with the total volume of fuel used, an economy of R $ 62,558,868.08 would be obtained, which would cover public health expenditures emissions from public transportation, for example, from the city of São Paulo, the most populous in South America.

  1. How much transport can the climate stand?-Sweden on a sustainable path in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, Jonas; Hoejer, Mattias

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an image of a sustainable transport system for Sweden in 2050 is outlined. The emissions per capita in this image may be generalized to a global population of 9 billions, and still be consistent with a stabilization of the carbon dioxide concentration at 450 ppm (parts per million). Swedish transport energy use per capita is 4.6 MWh in the image, compared to 12.5 MWh at present. The aim is, first, to widen the perspective of sustainable transport futures and, second, to provide a basis for present decisions in areas characterized by a high inertia, e.g. regarding infrastructure and the built-up environment. All transport generated by the lifestyles of Swedish residents are included. The reduction of energy use in the image is primarily achieved by an introduction of energy efficient vehicles and a conscious combination of IT-services and urban planning. The latter aims at increasing functional accessibility while reducing commuting. A prioritization of leisure travel to structurally-enforced travel gives the possibility to increase leisure travel per capita by one third. However, this is contingent on a 50% reduction of per capita car travel in cities. Given the set-up target, it may be concluded that the need for new arterial road capacity in cities often is negligible, even with a considerable population increase

  2. Social sustainability of alternate transportation modes at the University of British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cato, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TREK Program

    2006-08-03

    As a result of the University of British Columbia's U-Pass program, more than $3 million per month has been saved in transportation cost savings for the university and its students. In addition, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been reduced by 16,000 tonnes per year. This research study examined the social implications of the U-Pass program and examined the social sustainability of alternate transportation modes, including cycling, walking, carpooling, and telecommuting. The report was intended as a preliminary investigation, and provided recommendations for future quantitative research. The study identified the social factors that caused student to resist using alternative transportation modes. Social factors were then evaluated in order to determine changes that could be made to encourage sustainable transportation choices. Results of the study suggested that the lack of availability and frequency of public transit buses was a significant barrier for students. More frequent service in the evenings and on weekends was recommended. The expansion of all-door boarding was recommended to reduce travel times. Other recommendations included investigating the feasibility of dedicated bus lanes; improving comfort and increasing travel speed; and introducing more effective ways of communicating route and schedule information, including the development of software programs for electronic devices. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Initial and sustained brain responses to threat anticipation in blood-injection-injury phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Brinkmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-injection-injury (BII phobia differs from other subtypes of specific phobia in that it is associated with elevated disgust-sensitivity as well as specific autonomic and brain responses during processing of phobia-relevant stimuli. To what extent these features play a role already during threat anticipation is unclear. In the current fMRI experiment, 16 female BII phobics and 16 female healthy controls anticipated the presentation of phobia-specific and neutral pictures. On the behavioral level, anxiety dominated the anticipatory period in BII phobics relative to controls, while both anxiety and disgust were elevated during picture presentation. By applying two different models for the analysis of brain responses to anticipation of phobia-specific versus neutral stimuli, we found initial and sustained increases of activation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, insula, lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC, thalamus and visual areas, as well as initial activation in the amygdala for BII phobics as compared to healthy controls. These results suggest that BII phobia is characterized by activation of a typical neural defense network during threat anticipation, with anxiety as the predominant emotion.

  4. Beyond the Conflict and Weak Civil Society; Stories from Ukraine: Cases of Grassroots Initiatives for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Udovyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the diversity of grassroots initiatives (GIs for sustainable development that are emerging in post-EuroMaidan Ukraine. It first focuses on an overview of different theories on civil society and trends in Ukrainian civil society development. Eight cases of GIs are selected to represent different pillars of sustainability work done by the initiatives (economic, social, environmental, and political-institutional. These cases question the arguments behind the weak and pseudo-plenipotentiary vision of civil society in Ukraine, and demonstrate mechanisms of sustainable development suggested by analyzed GIs. In general, this study challenges the myth of a weak civil society in Ukraine, opens up a broader discussion on the meaning and role of civil society, and provides new ideas for building a sustainable society.

  5. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  6. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E; Jennings, Merrisa

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  7. Recent innovations in last mile deliveries. In : Non-technological Innovations for Sustainable Transport: Four Transport Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    MORGANTI, Eléonora; DABLANC, Laetitia

    2014-01-01

    In cities and metropolitan areas, last mile deliveries are a key factor contributing to local economic vitality, urban life quality and attractiveness of urban communities. However, the freight transport sector is responsible for negative impacts, mainly with regards to congestion, CO2 emissions and air and noise pollution. In order to improve efficiency and reduce adverse impacts, private companies as well as city planners and policy makers have designed initiatives to promote urban logistic...

  8. Perception, understanding and initiatives with regard to sustainable development: A profile of Québec tourism organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Denis; Bélanger, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is not new. However, its application in the field of tourism in Québec needs to be clarified. This way, this study is aimed at drawing the profile of Québec tourist organizations, at comparing the initiatives developed according to various perspectives (environmental, social and economic) and finally, to verify the coherence between the level of importance these organizations give to the concepts of sustainable development and the application of these wi...

  9. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  10. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  11. Increasing sustainable cataract services in sub-Saharan Africa: an experimental initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasipriya M Karumanchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To begin to meet the need for cataract surgery in sub-Saharan Africa, the cataract surgical rate (CSR should be at least 2,000 to 3,000; i.e. there should be 2,000-3,000 cataract operations per million population, per year. The current levels are below 1,000 (and often much lower. Sub-Saharan Africa poses a unique set of challenges: low population density; inadequate transportation systems that inhibit access; big differences in wealth; and a shortage of eye care resources (which are usually concentrated in larger cities. Additional issues relate to productivity, the supply chain and the quality of outcomes, all of which contribute to the low cataract surgical rates. It is in this context that the Hilton Foundation sought to enhance cataract surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa, through the Hilton Cataract Initiative.

  12. The BEST project - BioEthanol for the Sustainable Transportation - a contribution to the environment of the metropolis; O projeto BEST - BioEtanol para o Transporte Sustentavel - uma contribuicao ao meio ambiente das metropoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvia@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The BEST Project - Bio Ethanol for the Sustainable Transportation was an initiative of the European Union, coordinated by the Stockholm City Hall, at Sweden. This project gave incentives the use of ethanol, replacing the Diesel fuel, at the public transportation in Brazil and in the world. The used vehicles in the tests were monitored and evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency and environmental energy of the ethanol, and after the results, the BEST project and the European Union gave recommendations for the formulation of public politics of incentives to the use of technology.

  13. Sustainability for the Americas Initiative: Land Design Institute, Ball State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Motloch; Pedro Pacheco; Eloy F. Jr. Casagrande

    2006-01-01

    The Ball State University Land Design Institute (LDI) pursues ecologically and culturally sustainable land design through education, research, outreach, and demonstration. LDI seeks to lead communities (local, regional, global) to sustainable futures. It connects communities and sustainability experts to optimize education about land management, planning, and design...

  14. A Modified Method for Evaluating Sustainable Transport Solutions Based on AHP and Dempster–Shafer Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyuan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the challenge of transportation environment, a large amount of attention is paid to sustainable mobility worldwide, thus bringing the problem of the evaluation of sustainable transport solutions. In this paper, a modified method based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP and Dempster–Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory is proposed for evaluating the impact of transport measures on city sustainability. AHP is adapted to determine the weight of sustainability criteria while D-S theory is used for data fusion of the sustainability assessment. A Transport Sustainability Index (TSI is presented as a primary measure to determine whether transport solutions have a positive impact on city sustainability. A case study of car-sharing is illustrated to show the efficiency of our proposed method. Our modified method has two desirable properties. One is that the BPA is generated with a new modification framework of evaluation levels, which can flexibly manage uncertain information. The other is that the modified method has excellent performance in sensitivity analysis.

  15. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  16. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waber, H.N.; Hobbs, M.Y.; Frape, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ 37 Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  17. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H.N. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hobbs, M.Y. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), 22 St. Clair Avenue East, M4T 2S3 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ{sup 37}Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  18. Earth Stewardship: An initiative by the Ecological Society of America to foster engagement to sustain Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. Stuart; Pickett, S.T.A.; Power, Mary E.; Collins, Scott L.; Baron, Jill S.; Inouye, David W.; Turner, Monica G.

    2017-01-01

    The Ecological Society of America (ESA) has responded to the growing commitment among ecologists to make their science relevant to society through a series of concerted efforts, including the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative (1991), scientific assessment of ecosystem management (1996), ESA’s vision for the future (2003), Rapid Response Teams that respond to environmental crises (2005), and the Earth Stewardship Initiative (2009). During the past 25 years, ESA launched five new journals, largely reflecting the expansion of scholarship linking ecology with broader societal issues. The goal of the Earth Stewardship Initiative is to raise awareness and to explore ways for ecologists and other scientists to contribute more effectively to the sustainability of our planet. This has occurred through four approaches: (1) articulation of the stewardship concept in ESA publications and Website, (2) selection of meeting themes and symposia, (3) engagement of ESA sections in implementing the initiative, and (4) outreach beyond ecology through collaborations and demonstration projects. Collaborations include societies and groups of Earth and social scientists, practitioners and policy makers, religious and business leaders, federal agencies, and artists and writers. The Earth Stewardship Initiative is a work in progress, so next steps likely include continued nurturing of these emerging collaborations, advancing the development of sustainability and stewardship theory, improving communication of stewardship science, and identifying opportunities for scientists and civil society to take actions that move the Earth toward a more sustainable trajectory.

  19. Green Decision Making: How Systemic Planning can support Strategic Decision Making for Sustainable Transport Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    for Strategic Management. The book was published in 2012 by Springer-Verlag, London, as a research monograph in the publisher’s series about Decision Engineering. The intention behind this new book – with its focus upon ‘greening’ of strategic decisions – is to provide a general and less technical description......The book is based on my participation in the SUSTAIN research project 2012-2017 about National Sustainable Transport Planning funded by the Danish Research Council (Innovationsfonden). Many of the issues treated here have a backdrop in my book Complex Strategic Choices – Applying Systemic Planning...... to this application area. In fact a company relocation decision case has been used to introduce the potential of SP as regards providing decision support for strategic decision making. A main concern in this presentation of SP, which deviates from the Springer book referred to above, is to highlight that ‘greening...

  20. Study on Corrosion-induced Crack Initiation and Propagation of Sustaining Loaded RCbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X. P.; Li, Y.; Yuan, C. B.; Yang, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2018-05-01

    For 13 pieces of reinforced concrete beams with HRB500 steel bars under long-term sustained loads, at time of corrosion-induced initial crack of concrete, and corrosion-induced crack widths of 0.3mm and 1mm, corrosion of steel bars and time-varying behavior of corrosion-induced crack width were studied by the ECWD (Electro-osmosis - constant Current – Wet and Dry cycles) accelerated corrosion method. The results show that when cover thickness was between 30 and 50mm,corrosion rates of steel bars were between 0.8% and 1.7% at time of corrosion-induced crack, and decreased with increasing concrete cover thickness; when corrosion-induced crack width was 0.3mm, the corrosion rate decreased with increasing steel bar diameter, and increased with increasing cover thickness; its corrosion rate varied between 0.98% and 4.54%; when corrosion-induced crack width reached 1mm, corrosion rate of steel bars was between 4% and 4.5%; when corrosion rate of steel bars was within 5%, the maximum and average corrosion-induced crack and corrosion rate of steel bars had a good linear relationship. The calculation model predicting the maximum and average width of corrosion-induced crack is given in this paper.

  1. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosz, Ben; Grant-Muller, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO 2 equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO 2 equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO 2 equivalency over 25 years. • ISA and AHS

  2. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolosz, Ben, E-mail: kolosz27@gmail.com; Grant-Muller, Susan, E-mail: S.M.Grant-Muller@its.leeds.ac.uk

    2015-01-15

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 25 years

  3. Enhance the sustainability of private land transport system at Ayer Keroh, Melaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Heoy Shin; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Yang, Yu Xin Ou

    2017-03-01

    Ayer Keroh Toll that under the administration of Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is the main entrance for the people to enter to the city from North-South Expressway. This situation causes congestion to happen in this area especially during weekend and holiday and lead to air pollution. Hence, it is important to solve this problem beginning with the transport system and brings the city toward the sustainable way by learning the foreign city experience. In this research, the researchers start to revise the case study from foreign city councils on what and how they improve their cities transport system in term of sustainability. There are total of 17 case studies been studied including the cities that recognize with Sustainable Transport Award (STA) and other special activity and event that held worldwide. These cases studied are merged with the behavioral modification. There are four methods of changing behavior: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Besides, the data from the administrative staff (HTJMC's officer) also important to success the planning. There are 16 officers that involved in this research and the data that obtained is used as the primary data resources. By knowing the behavioral modification and suggestion that brought by each case studies, the researchers will conclude whether the solution practicable in Ayer Keroh, Melaka or not. Throughout the research, the researchers can conclude that the not all the foreign experience is practical in Ayer, Keroh, Melaka due to the problem of weather, culture and technology that available in the city. The experience from foreign city cannot be exactly to implement in the city but need to redesign to match culture in the city.

  4. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    The widespread of transport is recognized as a major contributor to an extensive range of undesirable side effects, covering all stages, from production to use and disposal. The transport sector is one of the major consumers of energy mainly fossil fuels and therefore contributes adverse emissions with local direct health effects as well as a significant share of 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs), which play a crucial role in determining the earth's climate. Moreover, the transportation sector is implicated in causing some social problems such as intensive use of public space. Present growth in vehicle ownership and use in urban areas, is unsustainable. Petroleum fuels, which are the main energy source for the transport sector, are essentially non-renewable. In short, the transportation system is unsustainable and is becoming more unsustainable. Measures need to be taken at a number of levels to mitigate the negative effects of transport and to reduce the increasing dependence on the fossil fuels as a main transportation energy soruce. The main objectives of this study are: (a) analyzing the transportation's role in the energy markets and its related environmental problems and defining the sustainable transport in urban areas, (b) analyzing alternative urban planning philosophies, (c) presenting a suggested procedure for sustainable develop ment of urban transport and energy consumption, (d) identifying the potential impacts of this procedure by being applied to Alexandria city, as a case study. The identification is based on evaluating four different scenarios for the year 2015 which are compared to each other, as well as with a business-as usual scenario (Do-Nothing Solution). These scenarios are based on the proposed sustainable transport and energy systems started from (Do-Minimum Solution) until (Do-Maximum Solution). To facilitate the calculations, an interactive computer program called 'TraEnergy' is developed in the framework of this

  5. Avoiding, transforming, transitioning: pathways to sustainable low carbon passenger transport in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Fulton, Lewis; Tiwari, Geetam

    2013-01-01

    This review examines conditions affecting road passenger transport in developing countries that can be instrumental to building a pathway for reducing carbon emissions while concurrently meeting sustainable development goals. By contrasting present and future status of these conditions a vision...... in motorized travel are also necessary from OECD countries; the focus there is given to what level of pricing and regulatory interventions could change behavior. The articulation of detailed visions can help clarify and prioritize areas where policy efforts can have great impact. Strong actions are necessary...

  6. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  7. Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  8. The Impact of Project-Based Learning on Improving Student Learning Outcomes of Sustainability Concepts in Transportation Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Elham H.; Awadallah, Faisal; Parast, Mahour M.; Abu-Lebdeh, Taher

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an intervention to enhance students' learning by involving students in brainstorming activities about sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation engineering. The paper discusses the process of incorporating the intervention into a transportation course, as well as the impact of this intervention on…

  9. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers : Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more

  10. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  11. Initiatives in the Hydro Sector Post-World Commission on Dams – The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Locher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD has called for developers, governments, civil society, etc. to use its Strategic Priorities as a starting point for dialogue and initiatives to address issues regarding the development of dams. One very notable follow-up initiative has been led by the hydropower industry. The International Hydropower Association developed Sustainability Guidelines (IHA, 2004 and a Sustainability Assessment Protocol (IHA, 2006, and most recently has been involved in a two-year process with governments, NGOs and the finance sector to develop a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool based on review and update of the IHA Sustainability Assessment Protocol. This cross-sectoral process, known as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF, has drawn on the knowledge base and many of the findings and recommendations of the World Commission on Dams, as well as a number of other developments in the last ten years. A fundamental premise of the work of the Forum is that an industry-driven and -owned initiative has far-reaching potential to influence performance in the hydropower sector. At the same time, the potential for the use of a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool for hydropower by those in other sectors is well recognised and aspired to by the Forum. This paper describes the work of the Forum up to August 2009 and the contents of the Draft Protocol released publicly in August 2009, and considers some of the commonalities and points of departure between this process and the WCD. The Forum’s work on the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is a work in progress, so this paper can describe but not give a full analysis of the work while it is in train.

  12. Transport of fresh MOX fuel assemblies for the Monju initial core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakami, J.; Ouchi, Y.; Usami, M.

    1997-01-01

    Transport of fresh MOX fuel assemblies for the prototype FBR MONJU initial core started in July 1992 and ended in March 1994. As many as 205 fresh MOX fuel assemblies for an inner core, 91 assemblies for an outer core and 5 assemblies for testing) were transported in nine transport missions. The packaging for fuel assemblies, which has shielding and shock absorbing material inside, meets IAEA regulatory requirements for Type B(U) packaging including hypothetical accident conditions such as the 9 m drop test, fire test, etc. Moreover, this package design feature such advanced technologies as high performance neutron shielding material and an automatic hold-down mechanism for the fuel assemblies. Every effort was made to carry out safe transport in conjunction with the cooperation of every competent organisation. This effort includes establishment of the transport control centre, communication training, and accompanying of the radiation monitoring expert. No transport accident occurred during the transport and all the transport missions were successfully completed on schedule. (Author)

  13. Sustainable remote Australian transport for living on country and going out bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Spandonide

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the domestic and international academic literature’s analysis of links between transport and wellbeing focuses mainly on urban settings and vulnerable population groups including older people, people with health issues, socio-economically disadvantaged people, or people undergoing more frequent extreme climatic events. While the relationship between remote Australians wellbeing and travelling activities is evident, its complexity still remains an under-researched topic. This is paradoxical when considering that extreme distances, high supply chain costs, limited access to services and to economic participation are well recognised obstacles for sustaining vibrant remote Australian communities. The latest accessibility-driven technological innovations in both the digital and the sharing economies are highly topical in transport projects in urban agglomerations but still a distant reality for remote Australia. There is a need for researching an appropriateness framework of such technologies because of the strong relevance of the multiple outcomes in terms of wellbeing that some of these innovations provide. Furthermore what defines a good quality of life can sometimes be very similar and other times greatly differ between remote and urban contexts. In the light of some recent transport and mobility research this paper analyses the potential connections between more appropriate transport innovations and increasingly resilient remote communities.

  14. Could sustainable transport policies lead to behavioural change? - A user's point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polain, Celine; Lannoy, Pierre [Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Implementing sustainable transport policies can among others be achieved by encouraging shifts from car to public transport. Several cities have therefore carried out free public transport experiences, especially in Belgium. The federal research on which we will base our account is intended to assess the (expected) results of a free transit policy on a focus group: students from higher institutions located in Brussels. Dutch speaking students can indeed benefit from free season tickets within Brussels whereas French speaking students do not have this opportunity. Through this natural laboratory situation, we wish to analyse from a sociological perspective, by means of qualitative and comprehensive methods, the cognitive logics guiding mobility behaviours of students and particularly, the reasons why free public transport could or not change their behaviours. Our account is divided into four parts, which will analyse: The context, the objectives and techniques of the survey, The role of environmental concerns in users' talks, The role of price concerns in students' arguments, Users' global assessment of a 'free transit policy' and their behavioural (expected) changes. Sociological types emerging from the different lines of arguments used will be described. Transport experts generally consider the second and third topics analysed as essential components of any efficient free public transport policy. We will however show that few students regard these as crucial when reasoning about mobility behaviours. More practical factors are referred to. The last point will present a 'mixed' assessment of this kind of policy, mentioning some unexpected arguments.

  15. 44. Causes of initiation and promotion of cannabis among local transport drivers of Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzullah Khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Cannabis smoking is common in local transport drivers. The major causes that are involved in the initiation and progression of cannabis smoking are; driving in young age, poverty, lack of education, easy availability of cannabis, inspiration from colleagues and smoker parents.

  16. Using local knowledge and sustainable transport to promote a greener city: The case of Bucharest, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niță, Mihai R; Badiu, Denisa L; Onose, Diana A; Gavrilidis, Athanasios A; Grădinaru, Simona R; Năstase, Irina I; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    Cities undergoing climate change and rapid urbanization are faced with significant transformational processes that affect the environment and society, challenging them to become more sustainable and resilient. The promotion of nature-based solutions represents an efficient approach to meet sustainability targets in cities and improve the quality of life of citizens. The association of large components of green infrastructure, such as urban parks, with physical activity can counteract the sedentary lifestyle endemic to cities and improve the overall health and well-being of individuals (Carrus et al., 2013; Scopelliti et al., 2016). By promoting a sustainable means of transport and connecting green spaces within a highly urbanized city, bicycle lanes represent an effective tool for associating physical activity with nature in cities allowing bicycle users to benefit from the positive health effects of nature-based solutions. Our study focuses on the potential of bicycle lanes to improve functional connectivity among green spaces. We administered 820 questionnaires in 34 green spaces (i.e., urban parks) in Bucharest, Romania, to identify the factors influencing the use of bicycle lanes connecting urban parks and to understand which planning criteria for bicycle lanes are considered as the most important by park visitors. We applied binary and ordinal logistic regressions and found that the factors affecting bicycle lane use are illegally parked cars and lack of accessibility to urban parks. The criteria preferred by park visitors for bicycle lane planning are determined by experience level and frequency of bicycle use. To develop a functional and integrated bicycle lane network that can make cities healthier and more sustainable, policy makers are advised to engage in a public participatory process and focus on the needs of bicycle users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  18. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-01-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current 'metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  19. Sustained transfer of knowledge to practice in long-term care: facilitators and barriers of a mental health learning initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; McAiney, Carrie A; Hillier, Loretta M; Harris, Diane; Hamilton, Pam; Kessler, Linda; Madsen, Victoria; Le Clair, J Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This article explores facilitators and barriers to the impact and sustainability of a learning initiative to increase capacity of long-term care (LTC) homes to manage the mental health needs of older persons, through development of in-house Psychogeriatric Resource Persons (PRPs). Twenty interviews were conducted with LTC staff. Management support, particularly designation of time for PRP activities, development of PRP teams, and supportive learning strategies were significant factors affecting sustained knowledge transfer. Continuing education that is provided and evaluated on an ongoing basis, secures management commitment, is integrated within a broader system strategy, and provides on-the-job support has the greatest potential to affect care.

  20. Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris De Gruyter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of public transport sustainability in cities have been very limited to date, particularly in more developing countries located throughout Asia and the Middle East. This paper assesses the sustainability of urban public transport systems in cities by adopting a quantitative measurement framework containing 15 public transport sustainability indicators. It compares aggregate sustainability performance of urban public transport in international regions of cities, and then examines the relative sustainability of selected cities in the Asia and Middle East region. The world region analysis shows that Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America achieve the highest aggregate normalised scores for sustainable public transport, in that order. In general, the results suggest that western developed countries (Western Europe, North America, and Oceania have better performance on environmental and social indicators but poorer performance on system effectiveness and economic indicators. Asia and Latin America perform the other way round; better on economic and system effectiveness and worse on social and environmental indicators. Eastern Europe is one of the few regions with higher level performance all round. The city-based analysis of Asia/Middle East suggested that out of the 26 cities studied, the top 3 cities in terms of sustainable public transport in the Asia and Middle East Region are: 1st, Manila (Philippines; 2nd, Tokyo (Japan; and 3rd, Chennai (India. Dubai (United Arab Emirates (UAE, rated 26th, Shizuoka (Japan, rated 25th and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia, rated 24th were the lowest rated cities. The paper explores the implications of the findings and makes suggestions for future research.

  1. Modeling the role of public transportation in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jason R; Morrow, Carl; Wood, Robin

    2013-03-15

    Current tuberculosis notification rates in South Africa are among the highest ever recorded. Although the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has been a critical factor, the density of respiratory contacts in high-risk environments may be an important and underappreciated driver. Using a modified Wells-Riley model for airborne disease transmission, we estimated the risk of tuberculosis transmission on 3 modes of public transit (minibus taxis, buses, and trains) in Cape Town, South Africa, using exhaled carbon dioxide as a natural tracer gas to evaluate air exchange. Carbon dioxide measurements were performed between October and December of 2011. Environmental risk, reflected in the rebreathed fraction of air, was highest in minibus taxis and lowest in trains; however, the average number of passengers sharing an indoor space was highest in trains and lowest in minibus taxis. Among daily commuters, the annual risk of tuberculosis infection was projected to be 3.5%-5.0% and was highest among minibus taxi commuters. Assuming a duration of infectiousness of 1 year, the basic reproductive number attributable to transportation was more than 1 in all 3 modes of transportation. Given its poor ventilation and high respiratory contact rates, public transportation may play a critical role in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South African cities.

  2. Fostering Sustainable Transportation Operations through Corridor Management: A Simulation Gaming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Kurapati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchromodality is described as a network of well-synchronised and interconnected transportation modes. One of the most important advantages of synchromodality is the development of a sustainable transportation system. Given the numerous stakeholders and network interdependencies within freight transport corridors, achieving efficient coordination and management is complex. In this paper, we regard information exchange as one of the main enablers of collaboration between the infrastructure managers. We developed a digital single-player simulation game called “Modal Manager” comprising logistic service providers and infrastructure managers. Each player takes over the role of an infrastructure manager who must use information provision as a tool to control flows in a network where various planned and unplanned disruptions occur. We include the game in a session where participants are able to interact with the game and with each other. The first gameplay session with Dutch experts revealed that infrastructure managers perceive synchromodality as a way to cope with disruptions more efficiently. On the other hand, the concept of synchromodal corridor management is ambiguous and various legal and governance barriers exist that hinder its implementation.

  3. Sustainable transport planning using GIS and remote sensing: an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgoudis, Marios D.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Shiftan, Yoram

    2014-08-01

    The main advantage of using GIS is its ability to access and analyze spatially distributed data. The applications of GIS to transportation can be viewed as involving either on data retrieval; data integrator; or data analysis. The use of remote sensing can assist the retrieval of land use changes. Indeed, the integration of GIS and remote sensing will be used to fill the gap in the smart transport planning. A four step research is going to be done in order to try to integrate the usage of GIS and remote sensing to sustainable transport planning. The proposed research will be held in the city of Limassol, Cyprus. The data that are going to be used are data that are going to be collected through questionnaires, and other available data from the Cyprus Public Works Department and from the Remote Sensing Laboratory and Geo-Environment Research Lab of the Cyprus University of Technology. Overall, statistical analysis and market segmentation of data will be done, the land usage will be examined, and a scenario building on mode choice will be held. This paper presents an overview of the methodology that will be adopted.

  4. Together on the road towards a sustainable transport system; Samen op weg naar een duurzaam mobiliteitssysteem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korz, S. [TNO Mobiliteit, Delft (Netherlands); Weterings, R. [Het Den Haag Centrum voor Strategische Studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    The transition to a sustainable mobility system requires joint effort of businesses, knowledge institutes and authorities. Separate initiatives of these parties are needed, but not sufficient to give the transition the required speed and guidance. A joint transition program is needed in which the parties can bundle their initiatives and each contribute maximally based on their own role and expertise [Dutch] De transitie naar een duurzaam mobiliteitssysteem vraagt een gezamenlijke inzet van bedrijven, kennisinstellingen en overheden. Initiatieven van deze partijen afzonderlijk zijn noodzakelijk, maar niet toereikend om deze transitie richting en snelheid te geven. Een gezamenlijk transitieprogramma is nodig waarin partijen hun initiatieven bundelen en elk vanuit de eigen rol en expertise maximaal bijdragen.

  5. On the initiation of sustained slip-weakening ruptures by localized stresses

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin; Pelties, C.; Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Ampuero, J.- P.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    stressed beyond the static frictional strength. The physical properties of the asperity (size, shape and overstress) may significantly impact rupture propagation. In particular, to induce a sustained rupture the asperity size needs to exceed a critical

  6. Sustainable mobility. Sustainable development and the passenger transportation facilities structure in the Randstad, Netherlands; Duurzame mobiliteit. Duurzame ontwikkeling en de voorzieningenstructuur van het personenvervoer in de Randstad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggen, J.

    1994-06-23

    The environmental problems in the Netherlands and the necessity of a sustainable development are outlined in chapter 1. Sustainable development is situated and studied in the area of tension of environment/ecology and economy. Sustainable mobility is located in the area of tension between amenity and accessibility. In chapter 2 a conceptual framework is created to indicate ways that result in a lasting compatibility of (car)mobility with both physical environment and social-economic development. In chapter 3 instruments are chosen for the empirical part of this study: reduction of unwanted car mobility by construction of alternative infrastructure (public transport) in combination with a reduction (prevention) of mobility needs by means of physical planning. A theoretical system description of transport systems in their spatial and regional-economic context is given, resulting in a layout for present and future transport systems, based on transport mode (private and public transport), function (main route or feeder) and spatial level (from international to local). In chapter 4 spatial levels are the basis for a description and analysis of developments and policy in the fields of physical planning, transport and environment. Chapter 6 gives a description and an analysis of present facilities structures and their effects on amenity in the area of study. In chapter 7 a number of land-use scenarios for facilities structures and effects on amenity of passenger transport in future are designed for the Randstad in 2015. These scenarios are chosen on the basis of a number of factors that effect land-use planning: the exogenous effects of demographic developments and endogenous effects of physical planning on future land-use of the study area. A combination of these two factors results in four land-use scenarios. They are mainly supplemented with various configurations of housing locations on the basis of different physical planning principles. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Facility of Laboratories for Sustainable Habitation - an Initial Design of a Closed-Loop Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Quantius, Dominik; Schubert, Daniel; Maiwald, Volker; Parìs Lopéz, Rosa; Hauslage, Jens; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Doule, Ondrej; Schlacht, Irene Lia; Ransom, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    An effective and self-sustainable artificial habitat design is essential for human spaceflight and expansion of mankind into orbit or towards other celestial bodies. Besides the necessity to create an artificial habitat for the extreme environments of space, development of a self-sustainable habitat can also enable more effective exploration of extreme environments on Earth. One major application of the habitat’s closed-loop capabilities can also be in enabling ecological habitation of human ...

  8. Large-scale tropospheric transport in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbe, Clara; Yang, Huang; Waugh, Darryn W.; Zeng, Guang; Morgenstern, Olaf; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Plummer, David A.; Scinocca, John F.; Josse, Beatrice; Marecal, Virginie; Jöckel, Patrick; Oman, Luke D.; Strahan, Susan E.; Deushi, Makoto; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Yoshida, Kohei; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Yamashita, Yousuke; Stenke, Andreas; Revell, Laura; Sukhodolov, Timofei; Rozanov, Eugene; Pitari, Giovanni; Visioni, Daniele; Stone, Kane A.; Schofield, Robyn; Banerjee, Antara

    2018-05-01

    Understanding and modeling the large-scale transport of trace gases and aerosols is important for interpreting past (and projecting future) changes in atmospheric composition. Here we show that there are large differences in the global-scale atmospheric transport properties among the models participating in the IGAC SPARC Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). Specifically, we find up to 40 % differences in the transport timescales connecting the Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitude surface to the Arctic and to Southern Hemisphere high latitudes, where the mean age ranges between 1.7 and 2.6 years. We show that these differences are related to large differences in vertical transport among the simulations, in particular to differences in parameterized convection over the oceans. While stronger convection over NH midlatitudes is associated with slower transport to the Arctic, stronger convection in the tropics and subtropics is associated with faster interhemispheric transport. We also show that the differences among simulations constrained with fields derived from the same reanalysis products are as large as (and in some cases larger than) the differences among free-running simulations, most likely due to larger differences in parameterized convection. Our results indicate that care must be taken when using simulations constrained with analyzed winds to interpret the influence of meteorology on tropospheric composition.

  9. Large-scale tropospheric transport in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Orbe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and modeling the large-scale transport of trace gases and aerosols is important for interpreting past (and projecting future changes in atmospheric composition. Here we show that there are large differences in the global-scale atmospheric transport properties among the models participating in the IGAC SPARC Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI. Specifically, we find up to 40 % differences in the transport timescales connecting the Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitude surface to the Arctic and to Southern Hemisphere high latitudes, where the mean age ranges between 1.7 and 2.6 years. We show that these differences are related to large differences in vertical transport among the simulations, in particular to differences in parameterized convection over the oceans. While stronger convection over NH midlatitudes is associated with slower transport to the Arctic, stronger convection in the tropics and subtropics is associated with faster interhemispheric transport. We also show that the differences among simulations constrained with fields derived from the same reanalysis products are as large as (and in some cases larger than the differences among free-running simulations, most likely due to larger differences in parameterized convection. Our results indicate that care must be taken when using simulations constrained with analyzed winds to interpret the influence of meteorology on tropospheric composition.

  10. Environmentally Sustainable Transport. Implementation and Impacts for the Netherlands for 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Geurs, K.T.

    2000-02-01

    Dutch transport scenarios for the OECD project on Environmental Sustainable Transport (EST) are described in this Phase 3 report of the project. The EST project contains a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) and three EST scenarios which attain the EST criteria (i.e. a reduction of CO2 by 80%, NOx by 90%, VOC by 90%, PM10 by 90%): (1) a 'high-technology' scenario containing only technological changes, (2) a 'mobility-management' scenario containing only mobility changes, (3) a combination scenario containing a combination of technological and mobility changes. Furthermore, the report describes possible instrument packages for the implementation of EST and the social and economic impacts of EST. The main conclusions are: (1) only if a high increase in technological developments and/or very stringent behaviour adaptations and changes in spatial and economic structures at the national and international level are assumed, the EST criteria can be met, (2) if EST is to be realised, measures will have to be taken in the short term and innovative policy instruments must be developed and implemented. The implementation of the tradeable CO2 emission permit system for passenger and freight transport is crucial for the attainment of EST, (3) a timely implementation of the policy instruments for the attainment of EST means that the current policy life cycle must radically change, (4) the level of material wealth (expressed in GDP) and employment will be somewhat slower in EST compared to BAU, but several social factors will improve. Firstly, differences between societal groups in (a) travel behaviour, (b) the level of accessibility of economic and social opportunities and (c) (perceived) environmental quality will decrease. Secondly, the level of motorised transport will be strongly reduced which will improve traffic safety and reduce health problems caused by local air pollution and noise nuisance from road traffic and aviation

  11. Initiative and Innovation in Tourism, Discussion on their Applicability in the Context of Sustainable Tourism in Delta Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nicoleta Diaconescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the economic field, especially in tourism, initiative and innovation are effective ways to finding new approaches to various problems occurring with time or unforeseen, which leads to greater adaptation to ever-changing environment of economic life and resistance to shocks, experience having a decisive role. In terms of sustainable tourism not any initiative even if it is an innovative one is appropriate, it is the sector where actions must be thought out long-term and to exist concerns in achieving sustainability in all four branches simultaneously (economic, social, environmental and cultural. In order to achieve sustainable development in the true sense it is not enough to only meet the needs to one of them. Therefore, the challenge lies in finding optimal solutions for each branch separately, but also for making their relationship become sustainable. The need to continually adapt and monitoring the results to improve them, have a primary importance. The paper aims at analyzing in terms of advantages and disadvantages of new tourism forms implementation in a fragile environment as delta, which needs special attention in that it can't be operated at high tourism level, such as mass tourism.

  12. Web-based Traffic Noise Control Support System for Sustainable Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lisa; Dai, Liming; Li, Anson

    Traffic noise is considered as one of the major pollutions that will affect our communities in the future. This paper presents a framework of web-based traffic noise control support system (WTNCSS) for a sustainable transportation. WTNCSS is to provide the decision makers, engineers and publics a platform to efficiently access the information, and effectively making decisions related to traffic control. The system is based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) which takes the advantages of the convenience of World Wide Web system with the data format of XML. The whole system is divided into different modules such as the prediction module, ontology-based expert module and dynamic online survey module. Each module of the system provides a distinct information service to the decision support center through the HTTP protocol.

  13. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  14. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  15. The RCE Initiative as a Policy Instrument for Sustainable Development: Can It Match the World Heritage List and the Global Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the United Nations University's (UNU) Regional Centres of Expertise on education for sustainable development (RCE) initiative. While many have discussed RCE's contribution to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), there has been no attempt to contextualise the RCE initiative in…

  16. On the effectiveness of private transnational governance regimes - evaluating corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Preuss, Lutz; Lee, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The increasing involvement of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in global governance has been both applauded for its potential to make governance more effective and criticized for lacking democratic legitimization. Hence we investigate the effectiveness of one transnational governance regime, corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). We found that the GRI has been successful in terms of output effectiveness by promoting the dissemination of sustaina...

  17. Decision Simulation Technique (DST) as a scanning tool for exploring and explicating sustainability issues in transport decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Sara Lise

    2009-01-01

    This paper places focus on explicit consideration of sustainability issues in transport decision making by presenting and using a developed “Decision Simulation Technique” (DST). This technique can be used by an analyst to ‘scan’ a transport planning problem with regard to what in DST terms...... is called a sustainability strategy. This scanning can serve the purpose of informing a group of decision makers before they actually have to deal with, for example, the choice among a number of alternatives that have all been formulated as being relevant. The main focus of the paper is to illustrate how...

  18. Formation and sustainment of internal transport barriers in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor with the baseline heating mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Francesca M.; Kessel, Charles E. [Princeton Plasma Physics laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) are a potential and attractive route to steady-state operation in ITER. These plasmas exhibit radially localized regions of improved confinement with steep pressure gradients in the plasma core, which drive large bootstrap current and generate hollow current profiles and negative magnetic shear. This work examines the formation and sustainment of ITBs in ITER with electron cyclotron heating and current drive. The time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the power delivered to the equatorial and to the upper launcher, the sustainment of steady-state ITBs can be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration.

  19. Formation and sustainment of internal transport barriers in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor with the baseline heating mixa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Francesca M.; Kessel, Charles E.

    2013-05-01

    Plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) are a potential and attractive route to steady-state operation in ITER. These plasmas exhibit radially localized regions of improved confinement with steep pressure gradients in the plasma core, which drive large bootstrap current and generate hollow current profiles and negative magnetic shear. This work examines the formation and sustainment of ITBs in ITER with electron cyclotron heating and current drive. The time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the power delivered to the equatorial and to the upper launcher, the sustainment of steady-state ITBs can be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration.

  20. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu

    2007-05-30

    This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.

  1. Study on the Formation and Initial Transport for Non-Homogeneous Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ping Shu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-homogeneous debris flows generally occur during the rainy seasons in Southwest China, and have received considerable attention in the literature. Regarding the complexity in debris flow dynamics, experimental approaches have proven to be effective in revealing the formative mechanism for debris flow, and quantifying the relations between the various influencing factors with debris-flow formation and subsequent transport processes. Therefore, a flume-based and experimental study was performed at the Debris Flow Observation and Research Station of Jiangjia Gully in Yunnan Province, to theoretically analyze favorable conditions for debris-flow formation and initial transport by selecting the median particle size d50, flow rate Q, vertical grading coefficient ψ, slopes S, and the initial soil water contents W as the five variables for investigation. To achieve this, an optimal combination of these variables was made through an orthogonal experimental design to determine their relative importance upon the occurrence and initial mobilization behavior of a debris flow and to further enhance our insight into debris-flow triggering and transport mechanisms.

  2. Self-sustained high-temperature reactions : Initiation, propagation and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Pacheco, M.

    2007-01-01

    Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis is an exothermic and self-sustained reaction between the constituents, which has assumed significance for the production of ceramics and ceramic-metallic materials (cermets), because it is a very rapid processing

  3. The Role of Leadership Capacity in Sustaining the School Improvement Initiative of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Christine; Martin, Barbara N.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines what occurred within schools successfully implementing and sustaining Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports through the lens of leadership capacity. Leadership capacity, a broad-based, skillful participation in leadership, promotes the capabilities of many organizational members to lead. Researchers used quantitative analysis…

  4. Teachers' Initial and Sustained Use of an Instructional Assistive Technology Tool: Exploring the Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored factors that mitigated teachers implementing an instructional assistive technology and factors that mitigated its sustained use. Specifically, it explored these issues in relation to a social studies based instructional assistive technology (Virtual History Museum [VHM]), which was originally implemented…

  5. Is "Being Green" a Determinant of Participation in University Sustainability Initiatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Felita R.; Tsarenko, Yelena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop and test a model to explain students' willingness to participate in sustainability programs. Specifically, the authors aimed to determine those factors, apart from students' environmental orientation (self-perception of "being green"), that influence students' willingness to participate…

  6. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  7. An Experience-Based Learning Framework: Activities for the Initial Development of Sustainability Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniglia, Guido; John, Beatrice; Kohler, Martin; Bellina, Leonie; Wiek, Arnim; Rojas, Christopher; Laubichler, Manfred D.; Lang, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an experience-based learning framework that provides a bottom-up, student-centered entrance point for the development of systems thinking, normative and collaborative competencies in sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: The framework combines mental mapping with exploratory walking. It interweaves…

  8. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer" - a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs not only in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2011-01-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in the Balkans has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in Kosova. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy developed by IVeH "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services not only in developing countries, but in developed countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs is described. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the very core of healthcare infrastructure. The end point is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova and Albania has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program is transitioned to the Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Macedonia, Montenegro and other countries

  10. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Watson; Karen A. Hegtvedt; Cathryn Johnson; Christie L. Parris; Shruthi Subramanyam

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization) or from students’ peers (endorsement)—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context o...

  11. Sustainability Action Planning and Initiatives at Twentynine Palms Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Energy and water security/ independence; sustain leadership • Compliance and environmental stewardship (cannot impact training mission...reduction, with efforts underway and cogeneration opportunities 18.3% of energy consumed by facilities is produced or procured from renewable...payback timeframes of ɠ years on existing cogeneration plant and ɛ years on new cogeneration plant Renewable Energy • In FY2010, approximately 6.2% of

  12. SeSBench - An initiative to benchmark reactive transport models for environmental subsurface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Diederik

    2017-04-01

    As soil functions are governed by a multitude of interacting hydrological, geochemical and biological processes, simulation tools coupling mathematical models for interacting processes are needed. Coupled reactive transport models are a typical example of such coupled tools mainly focusing on hydrological and geochemical coupling (see e.g. Steefel et al., 2015). Mathematical and numerical complexity for both the tool itself or of the specific conceptual model can increase rapidly. Therefore, numerical verification of such type of models is a prerequisite for guaranteeing reliability and confidence and qualifying simulation tools and approaches for any further model application. In 2011, a first SeSBench -Subsurface Environmental Simulation Benchmarking- workshop was held in Berkeley (USA) followed by four other ones. The objective is to benchmark subsurface environmental simulation models and methods with a current focus on reactive transport processes. The final outcome was a special issue in Computational Geosciences (2015, issue 3 - Reactive transport benchmarks for subsurface environmental simulation) with a collection of 11 benchmarks. Benchmarks, proposed by the participants of the workshops, should be relevant for environmental or geo-engineering applications; the latter were mostly related to radioactive waste disposal issues - excluding benchmarks defined for pure mathematical reasons. Another important feature is the tiered approach within a benchmark with the definition of a single principle problem and different sub problems. The latter typically benchmarked individual or simplified processes (e.g. inert solute transport, simplified geochemical conceptual model) or geometries (e.g. batch or one-dimensional, homogeneous). Finally, three codes should be involved into a benchmark. The SeSBench initiative contributes to confidence building for applying reactive transport codes. Furthermore, it illustrates the use of those type of models for different

  13. Urban Environmental Education for Global Transformation Initiatives - Integrating Information and Communication Systems for Urban Sustainability in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Urban population of developing countries is predicted to rise from one third in 1990 to over 50% by 2025. In 1950 the world's total urban population was 734 million, of whom 448 million were living in developed countries and remaining 286 were in developing region. The total population on earth is predicted to increase by more than one billion people within the next 15 years, reaching 8.5 billion in 2030, and to increase further to 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Looking at the ever increasing urbanization.In 2016, an estimated 54.5 per cent of the world's populations inhabited in urban region. By 2030, urban areas are projected to shelter 60 per cent of people worldwide and one in every three people will live in cities with at least half a million inhabitants.On the basis of these figures and other global trends, it would appear that Africa and Asia will have the highest share of world's urban growth in next 25 years, resulting consideration rise of large number of metropolitan cities and towns. Therefore issues related to urban climate change will be important for socio economic development for urban transformation through environmental sustainability.The information and communication systems plays an important role in achieving the social sustainability through environmental sustainability for urban transformation. This presentation aims to start the Global initiatives on the problem identifications in environment education for global transformation, education for socio-economic and environmental sustainability due to urbanization in 2050 to investigate problems related to social-economic risks and management issues resulting from urbanization to aid mitigation planning in globalized world and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable solutions in environment learning.The presentation aims to assess the potential of information and communication technology for environment education,both within different

  14. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerike, Regine; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-07

    Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14,000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European Commission before the start of the survey. The PASTA website

  15. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xucheng.

    1992-01-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included

  16. Study of internal transport barriers in the initial phase of Ohmic discharges in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Bulanin, V V; Vildjunas, M I; Golant, V E; Gorokhov, M V; Kornev, V A; Krikunov, S V; Lebedev, S V; Petrov, A V; Rozhdestvensky, V V; Tukachinsky, A S; Zhubr, N A

    2004-01-01

    A regime with electron heat confinement improvement was recently found in the initial phase of discharges in the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in this regime was confirmed by Thomson scattering measurements and by transport modelling. Two possible reasons for the ITB formation are discussed in the paper: by reduction of turbulent transport in the presence of low magnetic shear or by plasma sheared rotation. It is demonstrated that low magnetic shear formation is possible in the current ramp-up phase of the Ohmic discharge. The low magnetic shear does not seem to be the only reason for the transport reduction. Results of Doppler reflectometry measurements of poloidal rotation of density fluctuations are presented. It is found that core confinement improvement correlates with the appearance of sheared rotation of the density fluctuations and with a burst of the MHD activity. The ITB formation in the regime seems to be a result of a combined action of reduced magnetic shear and plasma sheared rotation

  17. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment in the Global South: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cervero

    2015-04-01

    investments but city-shaping investments as well should not be squandered. Transit-oriented development is but one of a number of built forms that hold considerable promise toward placing cities of the Global South on more sustainable mobility and urbanization pathways.Keywords. Public Transport, bus rapid transit, land use, sustainability, transit oriented development

  18. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  19. Patterns and Predictors of Failed and Sustained Return-to-Work in Transport Injury Insurance Claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shannon E; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Cameron, Ian D; Kendall, Elizabeth; Kenardy, Justin; Collie, Alex

    2018-02-12

    Purpose To determine the incidence of employed people who try and fail to return-to-work (RTW) following a transport crash. To identify predictors of RTW failure. A historical cohort study was conducted in the state of Victoria, Australia. People insured through the state-based compulsory third party transport accident compensation scheme were included. Inclusion criteria included date of crash between 2003 and 2012 (inclusive), age 15-70 years at the time of crash, sustained a non-catastrophic injury and received at least 1 day of income replacement. A matrix was created from an administrative payments dataset that mapped their RTW pattern for each day up to 3 years' post-crash. A gap of 7 days of no payment followed by resumption of a payment was considered a RTW failure and was flagged. These event flags were then entered into a regression analysis to determine the odds of having a failed RTW attempt. 17% of individuals had a RTW fail, with males having 20% lower odds of experiencing RTW failure. Those who were younger, had minor injuries (sprains, strains, contusions, abrasions, non-limb fractures), or were from more advantaged socio-economic group, were less likely to experience a RTW failure. Most likely to experience a RTW failure were individuals with whiplash, dislocations or particularly those admitted to hospital. Understanding the causes and predictors of failed RTW can help insurers, employers and health systems identify at-risk individuals. This can enable earlier and more targeted support and more effective employment outcomes.

  20. Social Initiatives in Food Consumption and Distribution as Part of Sustainable Consumption and Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bachnik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to extract and describe recent social initatves in food consumpton and distributon in Poland and indicate their characteristcs related to sustainable consumpton, sharing economy and collaboratve consumpton and to indicate the processes, mechanisms and future development optons. Food is among areas that seem to adapt to those ideas more easily which means that individual consumers seem to see value in behaving in a more responsible way. In Poland, social awareness is rather limited and responsible behavior happens on a minor scale for the moment, but more internatonal research shows the great potental of sharing economy. Food is being wasted therefore it consttutes a good ground for changing consumpton habits. The paper presents four chosen social initatves in Poland that refer to a sustainable consumpton philosophy and collaboratve consumpton. Those mini case studies are backed by a thorough analysis of relevant literature, theme contents on websites, and results of secondary research studies dedicated to the issues discussed in the paper. Due to the qualitatve character of the study, it shall be followed by more quanttatve research to allow for more general insights and conclusions.

  1. Spatial Heterogeneity, Scale, Data Character and Sustainable Transport in the Big Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    In light of the emergence of big data, I have advocated and argued for a paradigm shift from Tobler's law to scaling law, from Euclidean geometry to fractal geometry, from Gaussian statistics to Paretian statistics, and - more importantly - from Descartes' mechanistic thinking to Alexander's organic thinking. Fractal geometry falls under the third definition of fractal - that is, a set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times (Jiang and Yin 2014) - rather than under the second definition of fractal, which requires a power law between scales and details (Mandelbrot 1982). The new fractal geometry is more towards living geometry that "follows the rules, constraints, and contingent conditions that are, inevitably, encountered in the real world" (Alexander et al. 2012, p. 395), not only for understanding complexity, but also for creating complex or living structure (Alexander 2002-2005). This editorial attempts to clarify why the paradigm shift is essential and to elaborate on several concepts, including spatial heterogeneity (scaling law), scale (or the fourth meaning of scale), data character (in contrast to data quality), and sustainable transport in the big data era.

  2. A Paired Comparison of Initial and Recurrent Concussions Sustained by US High School Athletes Within a Single Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Dustin W; Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Cantu, Robert C

    To compare initial and recurrent concussions regarding average number of days between concussions, acute concussion symptoms and symptom resolution time, and return to play time. High school athletes sustaining multiple concussions linked within sport seasons drawn from a large sports injury surveillance study. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal surveillance data. Number of days between concussions, number of symptoms endorsed, specific symptoms endorsed, symptom resolution time, return to play time. Median time between initial and recurrent concussions was 21 days (interquartile range = 10-43 days). Loss of consciousness, the only significant symptom difference, occurred more frequently in recurrent (6.8%) than initial (1.7%) concussions (P = .04). No significant difference was found in the number of symptoms (P = .84) or symptom resolution time (P = .74). Recurrent concussions kept athletes from play longer than initial concussions (P concussions were season ending. We found that athletes' initial and recurrent concussions had similar symptom presentations and resolution time. Despite these similarities, athletes were restricted from returning to play for longer periods following a recurrent concussion, indicating clinicians are managing recurrent concussions more conservatively. It is probable that concussion recognition and management are superior now compared with when previous studies were published, possibly improving recurrent concussion outcomes.

  3. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  4. Health initiatives to target obesity in surface transport industries: Review and implications for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Naweed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle-related chronic diseases pose a considerable burden to the individual and the wider society, with correspondingly negative effects on industry. Obesity is a particular problem for the Australasian road and rail industries where it is associated with specific cardiac and fatigue-related safety risks, and levels are higher than those found in the general population. Despite this recognition, and the introduction of National Standards, very little consensus exists regarding approaches to preventative health for surface transport workers. A review of evidence regarding effective health promotion initiatives is urgently needed to inform best practice in this cohort. This review draws together research informing the scope and effectiveness of health promotion programs, initiatives and interventions targeting overweight and obesity in safety critical surface transport domains including the truck, bus and rail industries. A number of health interventions demonstrated measurable successes, including incentivising, peer mentoring, verbal counselling, development of personalised health profiles, and offer of healthier on-site food choices – some of which also resulted in sizeable return on investment over the long term.

  5. Putting Teachers First: Leading Change through Design--Initiating and Sustaining Effective Teaching of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt-White, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The Teachers First initiative is a grass-roots cluster-model approach for bringing together primary and secondary teachers and school principals: to analyse student performance data; design and practice activities and assessment tools; and promote teaching practices that address students' learning difficulties in mathematics. The balance of both…

  6. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  7. α-Tubulin Tyrosination and CLIP-170 Phosphorylation Regulate the Initiation of Dynein-Driven Transport in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Nirschl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor-cargo recruitment to microtubules is often the rate-limiting step of intracellular transport, and defects in this recruitment can cause neurodegenerative disease. Here, we use in vitro reconstitution assays with single-molecule resolution, live-cell transport assays in primary neurons, computational image analysis, and computer simulations to investigate the factors regulating retrograde transport initiation in the distal axon. We find that phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal-organelle linker protein CLIP-170 and post-translational modifications of the microtubule track combine to precisely control the initiation of retrograde transport. Computer simulations of organelle dynamics in the distal axon indicate that while CLIP-170 primarily regulates the time to microtubule encounter, the tyrosination state of the microtubule lattice regulates the likelihood of binding. These mechanisms interact to control transport initiation in the axon in a manner sensitive to the specialized cytoskeletal architecture of the neuron.

  8. Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration in Russian and Swedish Model Forest Initiatives: Adaptive Governance Toward Sustainable Forest Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Elbakidze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Building the adaptive capacity of interlinked social and ecological systems is assumed to improve implementation of sustainable forest management (SFM policies. One mechanism is collaborative learning by continuous evaluation, communication, and transdisciplinary knowledge production. The Model Forest (MF concept, developed in Canada, is intended to encourage all dimensions of sustainable development through collaboration among stakeholders of forest resources in a geographical area. Because the MF approach encompasses both social and ecological systems, it can be seen as a process aimed at improving adaptive capacity to deal with uncertainty and change. We analyzed multi-stakeholder approaches used in four MF initiatives representing social-ecological systems with different governance legacies and economic histories in the northwest of the Russian Federation (Komi MF and Pskov MF and in Sweden (Vilhelmina MF and the Foundation Säfsen Forests in the Bergslagen region. To describe the motivations behind development of the initiative and the governance systems, we used qualitative open-ended interviews and analyzed reports and official documents. The initial driving forces for establishing new local governance arrangements were different in all four cases. All MFs were characterized by multi-level and multi-sector collaboration. However, the distribution of power among stakeholders ranged from clearly top down in the Russian Federation to largely bottom up in Sweden. All MF initiatives shared three main challenges: (a to develop governance arrangements that include representative actors and stakeholders, (b to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance, and (c to coordinate different sectors' modes of landscape governance. We conclude that, in principle, the MF concept is a promising approach to multi-stakeholder collaboration. However, to understand the local and regional dimensions of sustainability, and the level of adaptability

  9. A mixed-methods study of system-level sustainability of evidence-based practices in 12 large-scale implementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Ashley T; Taber-Thomas, Sarah M; Schaffner, Kristen; Pemberton, Joy R; Hunter, Leah; Herschell, Amy D

    2017-12-07

    In recent decades, evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been broadly promoted in community behavioural health systems in the United States of America, yet reported EBP penetration rates remain low. Determining how to systematically sustain EBPs in complex, multi-level service systems has important implications for public health. This study examined factors impacting the sustainability of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in large-scale initiatives in order to identify potential predictors of sustainment. A mixed-methods approach to data collection was used. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys examining sustainability processes and outcomes were completed by participants from 12 large-scale initiatives. Sustainment strategies fell into nine categories, including infrastructure, training, marketing, integration and building partnerships. Strategies involving integration of PCIT into existing practices and quality monitoring predicted sustainment, while financing also emerged as a key factor. The reported factors and strategies impacting sustainability varied across initiatives; however, integration into existing practices, monitoring quality and financing appear central to high levels of sustainability of PCIT in community-based systems. More detailed examination of the progression of specific activities related to these strategies may aide in identifying priorities to include in strategic planning of future large-scale initiatives. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02543359 ; Protocol number PRO12060529.

  10. Towards a relevant and sustainable R&D agenda for transport and transport infrastructure in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available and technological solutions summarised in main Research and Development (R&D) themes and sub-themes. DRIVERS, TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR The drivers that will influence the transport industry in the future were discussed in a... previous chapter. A recent technology foresight study for the construction industry in South Africa (Rust et al 2008) also listed a number of trends in the industry. Many of these trends are also important to the transport and transport infrastructure...

  11. Initial sustainability assessment of tapioca starch production system in Lake Toba area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Asido; Manik, Yosef

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore to what extent the principles of sustainability have been applied in a tapioca industry located in Lake Toba area and to explore the aspects that open the opportunities for system improvement. In conducting such assessment, we adopted the life-cycle approach using Mass Flow Analysis methods that covers all cassava starch production processes from fresh cassava root till dry cassava starch. The inventory data were collected from the company, in the form of both production record and interviews. From data analysis the authors were able to present a linked flow that describes the production process of tapioca starch that quantifies into the functional unit of one pack marketable tapioca starch weighs 50 kg. In order to produce 50 kg of tapioca, 200 kg cassava root and 800 kg of water are required. This production efficiency translates to 25% yield. This system generates 40 kg of cassava peel, 60 kg of pulp and 850 kg of waste water. For starch drying 208.8 MJ of thermal energy is required in the form of heating fuel. The material flow analysis is employed for impact assessment. Several options in improving the operation are proposed includes utilization of pulp into more valuable co-products, integration of waste treatment plant to enable the use of water recycled from the extraction operation for the washing process, and to application of a waste water treatment system that produces biogas as a renewable energy, which reduces the consumption of fuel in dryer unit.

  12. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AS AN INITIATOR OF SUSTAINABLE URBANISM IN EMERGING METROPOLISES: THE CASE OF DOHA, QATAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comprehensive coverage of a research project of the National Priority Research Program of the Qatar National Research Fund, entitled ‘Investigating the Qualities of the Urban Environment in Emerging Regional Metropolises’, and carried out between 2011 and 2014 through the joint collaboration of Qatar University and Technische Universität München. Through the shift of global economic forces Gulf cities, such as Qatar’s capital Doha, are developed as central hubs between developed economies in the West and the rising economies of Asia. In the context of international competition between cities new challenges are emerging where cities need to find ways to sustain and extend their position in a globalizing world. Therefore the research process placed emphasis on the complex interrelationship of knowledge economies and spatial developments in the Gulf region. The work is premised on the assumption that non-physical economic aspects and the qualities of the urban environment are interdependent. It analyses the qualities of the urban environment of Doha as an important regional metropolis through a comprehensive investigation utilizing a set of interdisciplinary research methods that include analysis of historic documents, Delphi interview series, company network analysis, GIS analysis, cognitive mapping, behavioural studies, media surveys, attitude surveys, and space syntax analysis. The outcomes promise important results regarding urban qualities in the city of Doha culminating into various recommendations aimed at potential beneficiaries including public sector organizations, private sector and real estate development companies, and academia.

  13. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...

  14. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans

  15. Highlight report local initiatives. Experiences with electric transport; Highlight report lokale initiatieven. Ervaringen met elektrisch vervoer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In March 2013 Linkingreen and XTNT started a survey on local electric transportation initiatives. The aim is to learn from the experiences, problems and obstacles of business users of electric vehicles: cars, vans or trucks, scooters, boats and special vehicles (e.g. garbage trucks) that are all-electric or plug-in (with plug). In this brief report, the main results are presented [Dutch] In maart 2013 is door Linkingreen en XTNT in opdracht van Agentschap NL een enquete uitgezet naar lokale initiatieven elektrisch vervoer. Doel is te leren wat de ervaringen, knelpunten en belemmeringen zijn van zakelijke gebruikers van elektrisch vervoer: personenauto's, bestel- of vrachtauto's, scooters, vaartuigen en bijzondere voertuigen (vuilniswagens etc.) die volledig elektrische of plug in (met stekker) zijn. In dit korte verslag zijn de belangrijkste resultaten opgenomen.

  16. Spatial Heterogeneity of Sustainable Transportation Offer Values: A Comparative Analysis of Nantes Urban and Periurban/Rural Areas (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bulteau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovative solutions have been implemented to promote sustainable mobility in urban areas. In the Nantes area (northwestern part of France, alternatives to single-occupant car use have increased in the past few years. In the urban area, there is an efficient public transport supply, including tramways and a “busway” (Bus Rapid Transit, as well as bike-sharing services. In periurban and rural areas, there are carpool areas, regional buses and the new “tram-train” lines. In this article, we focus on the impact on house prices of these “sustainable” transportation infrastructures and policies, in order to evaluate their values. The implicit price of these sustainable transport offers was estimated through hedonic price functions describing the Nantes urban and periurban/rural housing markets. Spatial regression models (SAR, SEM, SDM and GWR were carried out to capture the effect of both spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. The results show patterns of spatial heterogeneity of transportation offer implicit prices at two scales: (i between urban and periurban/rural areas, as well as (ii within each territory. In the urban area, the distance to such offers was significantly associated with house prices. These associations varied by type of transportation system (positive for tramway and railway stations and negative for bike-sharing stations. In periurban and rural areas, having a carpool area in a 1500-m buffer around the home was negatively associated with house prices, while having a regional bus station in a 500-m buffer was non-significant. Distance to the nearest railway station was negatively associated with house prices. These findings provide research avenues to help public policy-makers promote sustainable mobility and pave the way for more locally targeted interventions.

  17. Bangkok's transport ecosystem : some thoughts on transitions to sustainable urban mobility in an Asian megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, F.H.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Romijn, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Much previous research on sustainability transitions highlights two things. 1) The empirical interrogation of contexts in Western Europe. 2) The importance of the national level by conceptualizing the nation-state as the unit ‘under transition’. This paper presents an account of sustainability

  18. Ramjet Nozzle Analysis for Transport Aircraft Configuration for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Baidya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For the past several decades, research dealing with hypersonic flight regimes has been restricted mainly to military applications. Hypersonic transportation could be a possible and affordable solution to travel in the medium term and there is renewed interest from several private organisations for commercial exploitation in this direction. Various combined cycle propulsion configurations have been proposed and the present paper deals with implications for the nozzle component of a ramjet configuration as part of one such combined cycle propulsion configuration. An investigation was undertaken for a method of turbine-based propulsion which enables the hypersonic vehicle to take off under its own power and propel the aircraft under different mission profiles into ramjet operational Mach regimes. The present study details an optimal method of ramjet exhaust expansion to produce sufficient thrust to propel the vehicle into altitudes and Mach regimes where scramjet operation can be initiated. This aspect includes a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-based geometric study to determine the optimal configuration to provide the best thrust values. The CFD parametric analysis investigated three candidate nozzles and indicated that the dual bell nozzle design produced the highest thrust values when compared to other nozzle geometries. The altitude adaptation study also validated the effectiveness of the nozzle thrust at various altitudes without compromising its thrust-producing capabilities. Computational data were validated against published experimental data, which indicated that the computed values correlated well with the experimental data.

  19. Applied Mycology Can Contribute to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Building upon China's Matsutake Management Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Madeline; McLellan, Timothy; Li, Huili; Karunarathna, Samantha C.

    2018-02-01

    Matsutake mushrooms are an important part of rural livelihoods and forest ecosystems across large parts of China, as well as elsewhere in East Asia, Northern Europe and North America. Mushroom harvesters have developed sophisticated understandings of matsutake ecology and production, and are applying this knowledge in various innovative management strategies. At the same time, Chinese government agencies and scientists are promoting matsutake-based livelihoods to support development and conservation goals. We collaborated with matsutake harvesters in one Yunnan community to carry out a systematic experiment on a popular shiro-level management technique: covering matsutake shiros with either plastic or leaf litter. Our experimental results suggest that although leaf litter coverings are superior to plastic coverings, shiros that are left uncovered may produce the highest yields. Complementing our experimental work is a multi-sited household survey of existing matsutake management practices across Yunnan, which shows that a high proportion of harvesters are already engaged in a broad range of potentially beneficial management strategies. Though both findings highlight limitations of previous initiatives led by government and research actors in China, this existing body of work is an important foundation and opportunity for developing applied mycology in the region. In and beyond China, working with communities to develop site-specific management strategies through rigorous and participatory scientific inquiry can provide salient benefits for both scientists and resource users.

  20. An Investigation of Global Reporting Initiative Performance Indicators in Corporate Sustainability Reports: Greek, Italian and Spanish Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Tarquinio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has two main purposes. First, it explores the performance indicators disclosed in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI-based Sustainability Reports (SRs produced by the companies of three different countries: Italy, Spain and Greece. Second, it verifies how some corporate variables, country of origin variables and “attributes” of the SRs can explain the disclosure of GRI indicators. To verify the quantity and type of the indicators disclosed, we performed a content analysis of the SRs. We use a regression trees technique to describe how the companies’ variables explain a different use of the indicators. The findings show that Spanish companies, on average, disclose the greatest number of indicators. The social indicators related to Labour are those more frequently reported in the SRs of the three countries. The least reported are social indicators related to Human Rights. The results show the central role that assurance, ROA and sector may have in classifying the disclosure level of indicators. The study contributes both theoretical and empirical literature on sustainability indicators. It also sheds further light on the determinants of the disclosure of indicators.

  1. Organic food in Denmark – from grass root initiative to market niche: potentials and barriers for further sustainable transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms in the shaping of organic food in Denmark since the 1970’ies are analysed as a contribution to the discussion of strategies for a more sustainable production and consumption of food. The background is the major achievements in Denmark within organic food since the 1970’ies, but also...... the recent years’ reduction in the land converted to organic farming. The analyses are based on experiences from projects, analyses and literature and draw on innovation theory and theory about social construction of technology. The analyses show an ongoing interaction between production, consumption....../use, knowledge and governmental regulation, where these systems constantly are co-shaping each other. The role of the initial conditions in the shaping of the area is shown. The big Danish pork export and the specialised farms have implied a limited focus on organic pig production and more focus on the milk...

  2. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research - an initiative to meet the strategic research needs for sustainable mining rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) was established through a mining industry initiative to meet the need of industry governments and the community for sustainable systems for land affected by exploration, mining and mineral processing activities. The Centre, which is a consortium of the major groups associated with mining rehabilitation research in Australia, has a focus on both strategic research and technology transfer and combines a wide range of multidisciplinary skills covering engineering and the physical and biological sciences. The paper briefly describes the goals, structure, expertise and research and technology transfer activities of the Centre. The major research program areas of waste rock dump and final void stability, acid mine drainage, tailings disposal and remediation of ecosystem reconstruction are described in the context of national priorities. 3 refs., 1 fig

  3. Building a sustainable GIS framework for supporting a tribal transportation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Due to the recent oil boom, the Fort Berthold Reservation has experienced a dramatic increase in highway and local traffic. To support energy transportation and provide safe roads, the reservation needs cost-efficient and effective transportation pla...

  4. A multi-objective sustainable model for transportation asset management practices : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Transportation Asset Management (TAM) practices has gained popularity in the United States and worldwide with the aim to provide the required level of service for the transportation infrastructure network in the most cost-effective manner. However, T...

  5. Developing a sustainable freight transportation framework with the consideration of improving safety and minimizing carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Despite the difficulties of the American economy in recent years the transportation sector continues to expand. Freight transportation alone has been projected to increase enormously even if the economy as a whole only manages a very moderate growth....

  6. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  7. Measuring buildings for sustainability: Comparing the initial and retrofit ecological footprint of a century home – The REEP House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, Guoshu; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Life cycle energy, carbon and ecological footprints of a century home are studied. ► The operational impact accounts for most of the total lifecycle impact. ► Sourcing energy-intensive materials locally only reduces embodied impacts a little. ► Deep energy retrofits (80% savings) achieved substantial environmental benefits. ► The environmental payback period of major energy retrofits is less than 2 years. - Abstract: The residential sector is recognized as a major energy consumer and thus a significant contributor to climate change. Rather than focus only on current energy consumption and the associated emissions, there is a need to broaden sustainability research to include full life cycle contributions and impacts. This paper looks at houses from the perspective of the ecological footprint (EF), a well-known sustainability indicator. Exemplifying single-detached houses of the early 20th century, the century-old REEP House (downtown Kitchener, Canada), together with its high performance energy retrofits, is examined in detail. This research combines material, energy and carbon emission studies. Its scope covers the life cycle of the house, including the direct and indirect consumption of material and energy, and concomitant carbon emissions during its stages of material extraction, transportation, construction, operation, and demolition. It is revealed that the REEP House had a typical impact on the environment when it was built, and, even though the renovations to improve energy efficiency by 80% introduce additional embodied environmental impacts, they are environmentally sound activities because the environmental payback period is less than 2 years.

  8. Incorporating sustainability into TxDOT's transportation decision-making : interactive workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The workshop is intended for new and experienced technical staff in TxDOT headquarters, district, and area offices to better understand how sustainability performance measures can be used at the sketch-planning level of project consideration. The wor...

  9. Assessing sustainability effect of infrastructure transportation projects using systems-based analytic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Sustainability means providing for the necessities of today without endangering the necessities of tomorrow within the technical, environmental, economic, social/cultural, and individual contexts. However, the assessment tools available to study the ...

  10. Organizational Learning, Building and Sustaining Core Competencies: Knowledge Management Initiatives on Inspection and Regulatory Enforcement in BAPETEN Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeng Beta, W. P.; Nurwidi Astuti, Y. H.; Hermawan, A. S.; Syaifulloh, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Regulatory inspection and law enforcement are among the core competencies of the Indonesia Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Knowledge management (KM) initiatives are based on strategic planning of BAPETEN. KM in BAPETEN is in its early stage, it is realized since 2015–2016, although its elements have stayed in service for 18 years. Its architecture and performance-information are: to conduct risk based inspection for medical, industrial and research facilities; to plan, monitor and evaluate of effective inspection, including standard operating procedures (SOPs); to utilize inspectors for safety security of radiation sources along with coordination with related stakeholders; to enforce the safety and security facilities report to users; to optimize reliable data communication, processing and information technology (B@LIS); to perform regulatory enforcement along with other related stakeholders. KM processes are performed through the “Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization” (SECI) model. Technical knowledge for inspectors are based on the IAEA–TECDOC–1526 plus supporting knowledge. With KM, innovation products can easily be used, because they are documented, distributed in a KM portal, knowledge is shared through the BAPETEN website, B@LIS database and others. Our challenge is that KM initiatives still need a tremendous effort, not only internally, but also externally, especially in coordination and collaboration. Information access brings about not only positive but also negative impacts. Innovations in regulatory inspection and law enforcement in BAPETEN are planned innovations, sustained, and systematically performed. (author

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL RESULTS OBTAINED BY ROMANIA IN THE FIELD OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perțicaș Diana Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We know that between the transport sector and all other branches of economy there is a strong interdependence link but also between it and the surrounding environment, being one of the most polluting sectors of activity. Transport is considered a primary field in any national economy development context, especially if we take into account its interdependence with other branches of national economy. Developing of transports also includes improving road, rail, river and sea services, as well as air transports. The objectives of the EU aim especially to modernize the transport infrastructures, be them by road, ship or by air, which would result in increasing the speed of freight transport, fluidizing traffic, attracting new foreign investors in various areas, accelerating the renewal of the auto park and decommissioning morally and physically worn vehicles which are extremely pollutant, the revival of maritime transports through Romanian ports, progressive completion of imposed performances through standards and regulations on the transport market, etc. All these objectives have as a main purpose the reducing of energy consumption, reducing transport costs as well as increasing competition in the national transport system.The development of transport has the role of stimulating public transport services and to guarantee a minimum general accessibility to public services for all citizens. Children, the elderly, disabled people or other vulnerable categories of people are not and will not be forgotten, for which certain standards set by the European Union must be respected.The present paper wishes to analyze a part of the results, either positive or negative, in the field of transports, made by our country.

  12. Knowledge Management Initiatives Used to Maintain Regulatory Expertise in Transportation and Storage of Radioactive Materials - 12177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Haile; Garcia-Santos, Norma; Saverot, Pierre; Day, Neil; Gambone Rodriguez, Kimberly; Cruz, Luis; Sotomayor-Rivera, Alexis; Vechioli, Lucieann; Vera, John; Pstrak, David [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop EBB-03D-02M, 6003 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1974 with the mission to license and regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials for commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses in order to protect public health and safety, and the environment, and promote the common defense and security. Currently, approximately half (∼49%) of the workforce at the NRC has been with the Agency for less than six years. As part of the Agency's mission, the NRC has partial responsibility for the oversight of the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. The NRC has experienced a significant level of expertise leaving the Agency due to staff attrition. Factors that contribute to this attrition include retirement of the experienced nuclear workforce and mobility of staff within or outside the Agency. Several knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been implemented within the Agency, with one of them including the formation of a Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation (SFST) KM team. The team, which was formed in the fall of 2008, facilitates capturing, transferring, and documenting regulatory knowledge for staff to effectively perform their safety oversight of transportation and storage of radioactive materials, regulated under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 71 and Part 72. In terms of KM, the SFST goal is to share critical information among the staff to reduce the impact from staff's mobility and attrition. KM strategies in place to achieve this goal are: (1) development of communities of practice (CoP) (SFST Qualification Journal and the Packaging and Storing Radioactive Material) in the on-line NRC Knowledge Center (NKC); (2) implementation of a SFST seminar program where the seminars are recorded and placed in the Agency's repository, Agency-wide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS); (3) meeting of technical discipline group programs to share knowledge within specialty areas; (4

  13. FREIGHTVISION. Sustainable European freight transport 2050. Forecast, vision and policy recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Stephan [AustriaTech Federal Agency for Technological Measurements Ltd., Wien (Austria). Future of Transport; Keller, Hartmut (eds.) [TransVer GmbH-Transport Research and Consultancy, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This book has been written on the basis of the research done between 2008 and 2010 as part of the European Commission funded FREIGHTVISION project. The ''FREIGHTVISION - Freight Transport 2050 Foresight'' project was funded by the Directorate General MOVE to design a long term vision for European freight transport in 2050 and to identify actions and research to progress appropriate freight transport measures in Europe. The project was carried out as a foresight process encompassing four conferences in which the project team identified and developed with the aid of more than 100 experts an action plan for securing long term freight transport in Europe. The book provides insights into the freight transport visions and Backcasts identified for 2035 and 2050, issues which need to be addressed and measures which were assessed to be part of future paths to assure an economical, environmental, and social freight transport system. (orig.)

  14. The impact of project-based learning on improving student learning outcomes of sustainability concepts in transportation engineering courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Elham H.; Awadallah, Faisal; Parast, Mahour M.; Abu-Lebdeh, Taher

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes an intervention to enhance students' learning by involving students in brainstorming activities about sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation engineering. The paper discusses the process of incorporating the intervention into a transportation course, as well as the impact of this intervention on students' learning outcomes. To evaluate and compare students' learning as a result of the intervention, the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education survey instrument was used. The survey instrument includes five constructs: higher-order cognitive skills, self-efficacy, ease of learning subject matter, teamwork, and communication skills. Pre- and post-intervention surveys of student learning outcomes were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on enhancing students' learning outcomes. The results show that the implementation of the intervention significantly improved higher-order cognitive skills, self-efficacy, teamwork, and communication skills. Involving students in brainstorming activities related to sustainability concepts and their implications in transportation proved to be an effective teaching and learning strategy.

  15. Highly Adoptable Improvement: A Practical Model and Toolkit to Address Adoptability and Sustainability of Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher William; Goldmann, Don

    2018-03-01

    Failure to consider the impact of change on health care providers is a barrier to success. Initiatives that increase workload and have low perceived value are less likely to be adopted. A practical model and supporting tools were developed on the basis of existing theories to help quality improvement (QI) programs design more adoptable approaches. Models and theories from the diffusion of innovation and work stress literature were reviewed, and key-informant interviews and site visits were conducted to develop a draft Highly Adoptable Improvement (HAI) Model. A list of candidate factors considered for inclusion in the draft model was presented to an expert panel. A modified Delphi process was used to narrow the list of factors into main themes and refine the model. The resulting model and supporting tools were pilot tested by 16 improvement advisors for face validity and usability. The HAI Model depicts how workload and perceived value influence adoptability of QI initiatives. The supporting tools include an assessment guide and suggested actions that QI programs can use to help design interventions that are likely to be adopted. Improvement advisors reported good face validity and usability and found that the model and the supporting tools helped address key issues related to adoption and reported that they would continue to use them. The HAI Model addresses important issues regarding workload and perceived value of improvement initiatives. Pilot testing suggests that the model and supporting tools are helpful and practical in guiding design and implementation of adoptable and sustainable QI interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecological sustainability and personal behavior: relations demonstrated by the decision-making process of selecting a certain transportation mean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priewasser, Reinhold [Linz Univ., Inst. for Environmental Management in Enterprises and Regions, Linz (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    Facing the aim of ecological sustainability only little emphasis has been placed on the fact that the extent of environmental stresses is not only a consequence of certain factual or structural conditions but also essentially determined by varying human behaviour patterns. Technologies and structures are not ecologically effective by themselves, their environmental relevance strongly depends on the persons' way of acting within the prevailing system. Recognising the importance of that perspective psychological and social theories about the generation of personal behaviour as well as the theoretical models of learning can offer useful indications concerning the interpersonal and extrapersonal preconditions of environmentally oriented acting. With reference to the decision-making process of selecting a certain transportation mean, the influences of rational and emotional factors and obstacles to an ecologically sustainable personal act should be exemplary demonstrated. At the same time very effective points of departure for behavioural change can be identified. (Author)

  17. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  18. Sustainable Development and Strategic Transport Management in the Øresund Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Sara Lise; Leleur, Steen

    2006-01-01

    regional transport planning. This is done by setting up a so-called holistic approach to planning and afterwards, based on holistic planning, by presenting the ideas of Strategic Transport Management (STM) as an important new planning and management concept. Finally some conclusions are given together...

  19. Analysis Insights, August 2015: Sustainable Transportation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we examine transportation systems, alternative fuels, and implications of increasing electrification of transit. Moving people and goods from point A to B has never been easier, but our current transportation systems also take a toll on our environment. Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation’s total carbon emissions. With new technology, can we make our transportation system cleaner and more cost effective? NREL is applying its analytical expertise and imagination to do just that. Solutions start with systems thinking. Connecting the dots between physical components - vehicles, fueling stations, and highways - and institutional components - traffic laws, regulations, and vehicle standards - helps illuminate solutions that address the needs of the transportation system's many stakeholders.

  20. Supplier-initiated outsourcing: A methodology to exploit synergy in transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.; Fleuren, H.; Hamers, H.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades, transportation has been evolving from a necessary, though low priority function to an important part of business that can enable companies to attain a competitive edge over their competitors. To cut down transportation costs, shippers often outsource their transportation

  1. The sustainable development of transports: the motors and the fuels; Le developpement durable des transports: quels moteurs, quels carburants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This panorama 2005 between politicians, industrialists and scientists discussed the following topics: exploration-production activities and markets, refining and petrochemistry, the future world gas market, the petroleum supply and demand, the new petroleum and gas reserves, the today and tomorrow alternative fuels, the biofuels in the world, the hybrid vehicles future, the energy consumption in the transport sector, the road fuels in europe and the increase of diesel fuel, the de-pollution techniques of industrial vehicles. The slides of the interventions are provided. The sheets ''le point sur'' of the year 2005 are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Safety accessibility and sustainability: The importance of micro-scale outcomes to an equitable design of transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tyler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential conflicts that can arise when trying to design a transport system to be sustainable, safe and accessible. The paper considers first the overarching vision that drives such an aim and how that determines choices for design and implementation of such schemes. Using the example of a shared space project, Exhibition Road in London, to illustrate how these issues come to arise and how research could help to resolve them, the paper then considers how science is able to support better design and implementation. This raises questions for scientific methods that could support better consideration of such issues, learning from the small-samples analysis of transport safety research to be amplified to include the detailed research that drives accessible design.

  3. Sustainable streets and highways : an analysis of green roads rating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    As sustainability increasingly becomes a concern to society, it is in state transportation : agencies best interests to embrace and adopt initiatives that will both educate their : employees and the communities they serve on how transportation sys...

  4. Fiscal instruments for regulating the sustainable development of urban transport systems in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburov, I.; Leontyeva, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The article explains the role of public transport pricing. It proves the need for a systemic approach to building a modern public transit system. The authors argue that the main objective of the approach should be to reduce the use of private vehicles in the urban environment and increasing public transport use. It is proven that for the consumer of transport services the price per trip is an important factor when deciding whether to travel by car or by public transport. The authors analyze the available literature assessing the effects of widespread car ownership on users of the city transit system. Conflict situations that occur due to the unabated desire of city residents to travel by car are analyzed. A research method is proposed. It is shown that public transport fares have been growing in Russia at an accelerated pace when compared to the overall increase in prices of all goods and services, including motor vehicles, petrol and oils. The fare growth has resulted in a 3.6 fold drop in demand for public transport services over the 15 years being analyzed. Over the same period, the number of privately owned cars grew 120 percent. A conclusion is drawn that regular fare hikes have encouraged urban population to gradually opt against travelling by public transport. That resulted in higher demand for car travel and, eventually, in an accelerated growth in car usage. One can conclude that a persistent institutional trap has taken shape in Russian metropolises. Essentially, it means that higher public transport fares have led to lower demand for public transit services. As ridership goes down, public transport operators have to again increase prices, thus driving the demand for their services down. It is proven that escaping the trap will require restoring the ratio of prices to make sure that the price charged for a public transport trip is far lower than the cost of travelling by car. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of the factor of public

  5. The effect of oxygen content during an initial sustained inflation on heart rate in asphyxiated near-term lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, K S; Ong, T; Polglase, G R; Crossley, K J; Moss, T J M; Hooper, S B

    2015-07-01

    At birth, an initial sustained inflation (SI) uniformly aerates the lungs, increases arterial oxygenation and rapidly improves circulatory recovery in asphyxiated newborns. We hypothesised that lung aeration, in the absence of an increase in arterial oxygenation, can increase heart rate (HR) in asphyxiated near-term lambs. Lambs were delivered and instrumented at 139±2 days of gestation. Asphyxia was induced by umbilical cord clamping and then delaying the onset of ventilation until mean carotid arterial pressures (CAPs) had decreased <20 mm Hg. Lambs then received a single 30-s SI using nitrogen (N2; n=6), 5% oxygen (O2; n=6), 21% O2 (n=6) or 100% O2 (n=6) followed by ventilation in air for 30 min. HR, CAP and pulmonary blood flow (PBF) were continuously recorded. HR and PBF increased more quickly in lambs resuscitated with 100% and 21% O2 than with 5% O2 or N2. HR and PBF recovery in the 5% O2 group was delayed relative to all other oxygen SI groups. HR in 5%, 21% and 100% O2 groups reached 100 bpm before the SI was complete. HR and PBF in the N2 group did not increase until 10 s after the SI was completed and ventilation was initiated with air. CAP tended to increase quicker in all O2 groups than in N2 group. Oxygen content during an SI is important for circulatory recovery in asphyxiated lambs. This increase in HR is likely driven by the increase in PBF and venous return to the heart. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Strengthening the partnership between routine immunization and the global polio eradication initiative to achieve eradication and assure sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Dietz, Vance; Eggers, Rudolf; Maher, Christopher; Olaniran, Marianne; Sandhu, Hardeep; Vandelaer, Jos

    2014-11-01

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, the number of polio endemic countries has declined from 125 to 3 in 2013. Despite this remarkable achievement, ongoing circulation of wild poliovirus in polio-endemic countries and the increase in the number of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases, especially those caused by type 2, is a cause for concern. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP) was developed and includes 4 objectives: detection and interruption of poliovirus transmission, containment and certification, legacy planning, and a renewed emphasis on strengthening routine immunization (RI) programs. This is critical for the phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine, beginning with the type 2 component, and the introduction of a single dose of inactivated polio vaccine into RI programs. This objective has inspired renewed consideration of how the GPEI and RI programs can mutually benefit one another, how the infrastructure from the GPEI can be used to strengthen RI, and how a strengthened RI can facilitate polio eradication. The PEESP is the first GPEI strategic plan that places strong and clear emphasis on the necessity of improving RI to achieve and sustain global polio eradication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Seeking Sustainable Heights in the Lives of Women Through Aipan: Case Study of Enactus IP College Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeta Virmani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available India is home to a multitude of art forms. The rich cultural diversity of India lies at the very root of its existence. However, many of these art forms have either completely vanished into the unknown or are on the verge of extinction. This paper provides a brief account of one such art forms called, Aipan, a Kumaoni folk art practised in the North Indian state of Uttarakhand. This is discussed in the backdrop of ‘Project Aipan’, initiated by the Enactus team of Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi. Consisting of rhythmic geometrical patterns made of lines and dots, Aipan is traditionally made on Geru (an earthy-red surface with white rice paste. It is practiced on special ceremonies and household rituals to evoke divine blessings. Project Aipan worked towards strengthening communities, bound by a common thread of hope fostered by collective entrepreneurial actions. Through this paper, an attempt is made to highlight the struggle to keep alive the Aipan art form and sustaining it for posterity. The role of women in this struggle is also highlighted, be it the Kumaoni women who have been the practitioners of this art form, or the women team of Enactus IPCW who took the charge of protecting this heritage.

  8. Changing attitudes toward sustainable transportation: The impact of meta-arguments on persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    An experiment tested the effects of both communications about the functions of an attitude and communications about the functions of an attitude object on persuasion. Participants received a conventional message about the benefits of public transport...

  9. Structural determinants of electric vehicle market growth : a National Center for Sustainable Transportation research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Zero emission vehicles (ZEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are critical technologies to attain deep reductions in greenhouse gases from transportation. PEV markets, however, have grown more slowly than anticipated by many observers. In this stu...

  10. Sustainable transportation : technology, engineering, and science : summer camp instructor’s guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This document reproduces the instructors guide for a ten day transportation engineering summer camp that was held at the University of Idaho in July 2013. The instructors guide is split into three units: Unit 1: Vehicle Technology, Unit 2: Traf...

  11. Innovative bio-mediated particulate materials for sustainable maritime transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The mechanical properties of sandy soils in the coastal area and beach sands often do not satisfy construction expectation for maritime transportation infrastructure. The salty, loose sand makes it difficult for quick construction of port, building a...

  12. COMPARISON OF SUSTAINABILITY BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT CONSIDERING URBAN STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Masanobu KII

    2003-01-01

    It is said that the car is convenient but consumes high-energy per passenger, while public transport is an environmentally friendly mode but needs high cost of investment and management. However, this view does not take account of urban structure such as population size and density. For instance, higher population density would cause congestion and consequent inconvenience for car usage. This may shift demand to public transport use. On the other hand, in a lower density of urban area, public...

  13. Kappa Group: The initial guess. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Kappa Aerospace presents their Aeroworld Aircraft, the Initial Guess (IG). This aircraft is designed to generate profit in the market which is currently controlled by the train and boat industry. The main priority of the design team was to develop an extremely efficient aircraft that could be sold at a reasonable price. The IG offers a quick and safe alternative to the existing means of transportation at a competitive price. The cruise velocity of 28 ft/sec. allows all flights to be between 20 and 45 minutes, which is a remarkable savings in time compared to travel by boat or train. The IG is propelled by a single Astro-05 engine with a Zinger 10-6 propeller. The Astro-05 is not an extremely powerful engine; however, it provides enough thrust to meet the design and safety requirements. The major advantage of the Astro-05 is that it is the most efficient engine available. The fuel efficiency of the Astro-05 is what puts the aircraft ahead of the competition. The money saved on an efficient engine can be passed on as lower ticket prices or increased revenue. The IG has a payload of 56 passengers and a wingspan of 7 ft. The 7 ft. wingspan allows the aircraft to fit into the gates of all of the cities that are targeted. Future endeavors of Kappa Aerospace will include fitting a stretch version of the IG with a larger propulsion system. This derivative aircraft will be able to carry more passengers and will be placed on the routes which have the greatest demand for travel. The fuselage and empennage are made of a wooden truss configuration, while the wing is made of a rib/spare configuration. The stress carrying elements are made of spruce, the nonstress carrying elements are made of balsa. The wing is removable for easy access into the fuselage. The easy access to the batteries will keep maintenance costs down.

  14. IAEA education and training in radiation protection, transport and waste safety-status and new developments for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, G.; Mrabit, K.; Wheatley, J.

    2008-01-01

    IAEA 's education and training activities in radiation, transport and waste safety follow the IAEA vision, strategy and resolutions of its annual General Conferences and reflect the latest IAEA standards and guidance. IAEA prepared a Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation and Waste Safety (Strategy on Education and Training) aiming at establishing, by 2010, sustainable education and training programmes in Member States, which was endorsed by the GC(45)/RES/10C in 2001. In implementing the strategy, IAEA is organising training events at the regional level and assisting the Member States at the national level by providing them the exemplary quality of training material developed at the IAEA. This work will continue ensuring its completeness in all areas of radiation safety. An Inter Centre Network between the Agency and regional, collaborating national training centres is established to facilitate information exchange, improve communication and dissemination of training material. There is a challenge to enhance the technical capability of the Member States to reach sustainability. This is intended through organising number of Train the Trainers events to develop a pool of qualified trainers. The new developments include establishing E-learning, developing a syllabus for training of Radiation Protection Officers and training materials, information materials for radiation workers. These are aimed at assisting Member States attain self sustainability. (author)

  15. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations

  16. Direct and indirect land use changes issues in European sustainability initiatives: State-of-the-art, open issues and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Brose, Isabelle; Schenkel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Facing climate change and growing energy prices, the use of bioenergy is continuously increasing in order to diminish greenhouse gas emissions, secure energy supply and create employment in rural areas. Because the production of biomass or biofuels, wherever it takes place, comes along with externalities, positive or negative, the need for biomass and bioenergy sustainability criteria is more than ever felt. Research on sustainability criteria and certification systems has started through several national and international initiatives. Considering the benefits of an increased use of bioenergy but also the urge for limiting potential negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, the aim of these initiatives was to make the first move regarding bioenergy sustainability, while waiting for the European legislation to regulate this crucial issue. Land use changes, whether direct or indirect, are one of the most important consequences of bioenergy production. While direct land use changes are more easily assessed locally, indirect land use changes exceed the company level and need to be considered at a global scale. Methodologies for dealing with direct and indirect land use changes are proposed among others in the European, Dutch, British and German sustainability initiatives. This paper aims at presenting and comparing those four European initiatives, with a focus on their propositions for direct and indirect land use changes assessment. Key issues are discussed and recommendations are made for steps to overcome identified difficulties in accurately assessing the effects of indirect land use change due to bioenergy production.

  17. Micromechanism of oxygen transport during initial stage oxidation in Si(100) surface: A ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu, E-mail: yu.sun@xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Institute for Computational Mechanics and Its Applications, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yilun [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Fei [Institute for Computational Mechanics and Its Applications, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yijun [Institute for Computational Mechanics and Its Applications, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A competition mechanism between thermal actuation and compressive stress blocking was found for the oxygen transport. • At low temperature, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked oxygen transport into the deeper region. • O atoms gained larger possibility to go deeper inward as temperature increase. • The related film quality was well explained by the competition mechanism. - Abstract: The early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface has been investigated in this work by a reactive force field molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD) simulation, manifesting that the oxygen transport acted as a dominant issue for initial oxidation process. Due to the oxidation, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked the oxygen transport perpendicular to the Si(100) surface and further prevented oxidation in the deeper layer. In contrast, thermal actuation was beneficial to the oxygen transport into deeper layer as temperature increases. Therefore, a competition mechanism was found for the oxygen transport during early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface. At room temperature, the oxygen transport was governed by the blocking effect of compressive stress, so a better quality oxide film with more uniform interface and more stoichiometric oxide structure was obtained. Indeed, the mechanism presented in this work is also applicable for other self-limiting oxidation (e.g. metal oxidation) and is helpful for the design of high-performance electronic devices.

  18. Micromechanism of oxygen transport during initial stage oxidation in Si(100) surface: A ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A competition mechanism between thermal actuation and compressive stress blocking was found for the oxygen transport. • At low temperature, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked oxygen transport into the deeper region. • O atoms gained larger possibility to go deeper inward as temperature increase. • The related film quality was well explained by the competition mechanism. - Abstract: The early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface has been investigated in this work by a reactive force field molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD) simulation, manifesting that the oxygen transport acted as a dominant issue for initial oxidation process. Due to the oxidation, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked the oxygen transport perpendicular to the Si(100) surface and further prevented oxidation in the deeper layer. In contrast, thermal actuation was beneficial to the oxygen transport into deeper layer as temperature increases. Therefore, a competition mechanism was found for the oxygen transport during early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface. At room temperature, the oxygen transport was governed by the blocking effect of compressive stress, so a better quality oxide film with more uniform interface and more stoichiometric oxide structure was obtained. Indeed, the mechanism presented in this work is also applicable for other self-limiting oxidation (e.g. metal oxidation) and is helpful for the design of high-performance electronic devices.

  19. Participation for Sustainable Urban Freight Transport Systems : A Case Study of Freight Receivers in the City of Gothenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Lindkvist, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a case study research that look into the difficulty in engaging freight receivers in initiatives related to urban freight transport. The aim of the paper is to investigate how participatory processes could be formed for more successful outcomes and how the freight receivers could become more engaged in the processes. By conducting a qualitative research where primarily interviews with freight receivers and other concerned stakeholder were made, it was possible to distinguish di...

  20. An initial study on atmospheric pressure ion transport by laser ionization and electrostatic fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Conde, Álvaro; Romero, Carolina; Boyero, Juan; Apiñaniz Aginako, Jon Imanol; Raposo Funcia, Cesar; Roso Franco, Luis; Padilla Moreno, Carlos Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Laser ionization of mixtures of gases at atmospheric pressure and the subsequent transport through electrostatic field is studied. A prototype is designed to perform the transport and detection of the ions. Relevance of the composition of the mixture of gases and ionization parameters is shown

  1. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Initial Management, Stabilization, and Transport of Newborn Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianshen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review experience of the transport and stabilization of infants with CDH who were treated with high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. Study Design. Retrospective chart review was performed of infants with antenatal diagnosis of CDH born between 2004 and 2009, at Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Detailed information was abstracted from the charts of all infants who received HFJV. Results. Of the 55 infants, 25 were managed with HFJV at some point during resuscitation and stabilization prior to transport. HFJV was the initial ventilation mode in six cases and nineteen infants were placed on HFJV as rescue therapy. Blood gases procured from the umbilical artery before and/or after the initiation of HFJV. There was a significant difference detected for both PaCO2 (P=0.0002 and pH (P<0.0001. The pre- and posttransport vital signs remained stable and no transport related deaths or significant complications occurred. Conclusion. HFJV appears to be safe and effective providing high frequency rescue therapy for infants with CDH failing conventional mechanical ventilation. This paper supports the decision to utilize HFJV as it likely contributed to safe transport of many infants that would not otherwise have tolerated transport to a surgical centre.

  2. Performance based standards: A sustainable solution for transportation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The costs of logistics in South Africa are dominated by high transportation and fuel costs which are ultimately carried by consumers. An alternative regulatory framework for governing heavy vehicles is explored as a means to not only decrease...

  3. The Paris-Nairobi climate initiative. Access to clean energy for all in Africa and countries vulnerable to climate change. Access to energy, sustainable development and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report highlights the importance of a universal access to energy, the role of public policies and renewable energies, the need to implement sustainable economic models for energy services, and indicates the major objectives and essential actions for these purposes. The second part outlines the weakness of electricity production in Africa, the degradation of the energy mix balance, the vulnerability to climate change, and the fact that Africa, like other countries vulnerable to climate change, possess huge and unexploited renewable energy resources (biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind). The third part proposes an approach to energy services by developing sustainable cooking, supplying energy to support rural development and to poles of economic growth, by developing sustainable cities (notably in transports and buildings), and by developing national and regional electricity grids. The last part addresses the issue of energy financing in developing countries

  4. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  5. A Comparative Proteome Profile of Female Mouse Gonads Suggests a Tight Link between the Electron Transport Chain and Meiosis Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cong; Li, Mingrui; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Bo; Teng, Hui; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells. We identified 3666 proteins, of which 473 were differentially expressed. Further bioinformatics analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the mitochondria, especially in the electron transport chain and, notably, 9 proteins in electron transport chain Complex I were differentially expressed. We disrupted the mitochondrial electron transport chain function by adding the complex I inhibitor, rotenone to 11.5 days post coitum female gonads cultured in vitro. This treatment resulted in a decreased proportion of meiotic germ cells, as assessed by staining for histone γH2AX. Rotenone treatment also caused decreased ATP levels, increased reactive oxygen species levels and failure of the germ cells to undergo premeiotic DNA replication. These effects were partially rescued by adding Coenzyme Q10. Taken together, our results suggested that a functional electron transport chain is important for meiosis initiation. Our characterization of the quantitative proteome of female gonads provides an inventory of proteins, useful for understanding the mechanisms of meiosis initiation and female fertility. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, Julie; Abeyta, Cristy L.; Griffin, Justin M.; Matzke, James L.; Pearson, Michael W.; Cuthbertson, Abigail; Rawl, Richard; Singley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (sm b ullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (sm b ullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (sm b ullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (sm b ullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (sm b ullet) Technology transfer of

  7. Initial study and verification of a distributed fiber optic corrosion monitoring system for transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For this study, a novel optical fiber sensing system was developed and tested for the monitoring of corrosion in : transportation systems. The optical fiber sensing system consists of a reference long period fiber gratings (LPFG) sensor : for corrosi...

  8. East Tennessee hydrogen initiative Chattanooga : charting a course for the region's hydrogen transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    This report documents the results of the research project completed by the Center for Energy, Transportation and the Environment (CETE) at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) under Federal Transit Administration Cooperative Agreement TN-...

  9. Analytical decision-making methods for evaluating sustainable transport in European corridors

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Eurocorridors are characterized by intensive transport flows and dynamic patterns of establishment and household locations. They are also considered the backbones of powerful spatial and economic forces in the areas that connect urban regions. One of the main difficulties in the spatial planning of eurocorridors has been the need to engage in different types of collective action. Such an approach can be extremely challenging in practice, useful to researchers in the field and to professionals as well. In the light of this, the book’s main objectives are:  - To define the problem by analyzing the key features, which include freight and passenger transport policies and issues; the territorial context, with its geographical, social, economic and cultural aspects; the plurality of subjects with different aims and resources and the lack of homogeneous information. - To illustrate assessment models and evaluation frameworks (MCDA; Discrete Choice Analysis; Collaborative Assessments; Geovisualization Technologi...

  10. Modeling the sustainable development of innovation in transport construction based on the communication approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revunova, Svetlana; Vlasenko, Vyacheslav; Bukreev, Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    The article proposes the models of innovative activity development, which is driven by the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth”. The models are based on the analysis of the current state and dynamics of innovative development of construction enterprises in the transport sector and take into account a number of essential organizational and economic changes in management. The authors substantiate implementing such development models as an organizational innovation that has a communication genesis. The use of the communication approach to the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth” allowed the authors to apply the mathematical tools of the graph theory in order to activate the innovative activity of the transport industry in the region. As a result, the authors have proposed models that allow constructing an optimal mechanism for the formation of “points of innovation-driven growth”.

  11. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning : efforts to improve transportation efficiency, safety and sustainability on critical : highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor (CHC) program. : It is i...

  12. The power and value of green in promoting sustainable transport behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaker, David; Vautin, David; Vij, Akshay; Walker, Joan L

    2011-01-01

    While it is increasingly popular to broadcast information regarding environmental impact, little is known regarding the effects that this information has on human behavior. This research aims to provide insight into whether, and to what extent, presenting environmental attributes of transport alternatives influences individual transport decisions. We designed and conducted three experiments in which subjects (UC Berkeley undergraduates) were presented with hypothetical scenarios of transport decisions, including auto purchase choice, mode choice, and route choice. We analyzed their decisions via a choice model to determine how they value reducing their emissions relative to other attributes. We found that our subjects are willing to adjust their behavior to reduce emissions, exhibiting an average willingness to pay for emissions reduction, or value of green (VoG), of 15 cents per pound of CO 2 saved. Despite concern that people cannot meaningfully process quantities of CO 2 , we found evidence to the contrary in our subject pool in that the estimated VoG was consistent across context (the wide range of transport decisions that we presented) and presentation (e.g., whether the information was presented in tons or pounds, or whether a social reference point of the emissions of an average person was provided). We also found significant heterogeneity in VoG, with most of the respondents valuing green somewhere between 0 and 70 cents per pound and with women, on average, willing to pay 7 cents more per saved pound than men. While the findings are encouraging, further work is required to determine whether they hold outside of a lab environment and with a more representative pool of subjects.

  13. The power and value of green in promoting sustainable transport behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaker, David; Vautin, David; Vij, Akshay; Walker, Joan L.

    2011-07-01

    While it is increasingly popular to broadcast information regarding environmental impact, little is known regarding the effects that this information has on human behavior. This research aims to provide insight into whether, and to what extent, presenting environmental attributes of transport alternatives influences individual transport decisions. We designed and conducted three experiments in which subjects (UC Berkeley undergraduates) were presented with hypothetical scenarios of transport decisions, including auto purchase choice, mode choice, and route choice. We analyzed their decisions via a choice model to determine how they value reducing their emissions relative to other attributes. We found that our subjects are willing to adjust their behavior to reduce emissions, exhibiting an average willingness to pay for emissions reduction, or value of green (VoG), of 15 cents per pound of CO2 saved. Despite concern that people cannot meaningfully process quantities of CO2, we found evidence to the contrary in our subject pool in that the estimated VoG was consistent across context (the wide range of transport decisions that we presented) and presentation (e.g., whether the information was presented in tons or pounds, or whether a social reference point of the emissions of an average person was provided). We also found significant heterogeneity in VoG, with most of the respondents valuing green somewhere between 0 and 70 cents per pound and with women, on average, willing to pay 7 cents more per saved pound than men. While the findings are encouraging, further work is required to determine whether they hold outside of a lab environment and with a more representative pool of subjects.

  14. The power and value of green in promoting sustainable transport behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaker, David; Vautin, David; Vij, Akshay; Walker, Joan L, E-mail: joanwalker@berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    While it is increasingly popular to broadcast information regarding environmental impact, little is known regarding the effects that this information has on human behavior. This research aims to provide insight into whether, and to what extent, presenting environmental attributes of transport alternatives influences individual transport decisions. We designed and conducted three experiments in which subjects (UC Berkeley undergraduates) were presented with hypothetical scenarios of transport decisions, including auto purchase choice, mode choice, and route choice. We analyzed their decisions via a choice model to determine how they value reducing their emissions relative to other attributes. We found that our subjects are willing to adjust their behavior to reduce emissions, exhibiting an average willingness to pay for emissions reduction, or value of green (VoG), of 15 cents per pound of CO{sub 2} saved. Despite concern that people cannot meaningfully process quantities of CO{sub 2}, we found evidence to the contrary in our subject pool in that the estimated VoG was consistent across context (the wide range of transport decisions that we presented) and presentation (e.g., whether the information was presented in tons or pounds, or whether a social reference point of the emissions of an average person was provided). We also found significant heterogeneity in VoG, with most of the respondents valuing green somewhere between 0 and 70 cents per pound and with women, on average, willing to pay 7 cents more per saved pound than men. While the findings are encouraging, further work is required to determine whether they hold outside of a lab environment and with a more representative pool of subjects.

  15. Transport and homeostasis of potassium and phosphate: limiting factors for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Mingda; Tang, Ren-Jie; Tang, Yumei; Tian, Wang; Hou, Congong; Zhao, Fugeng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Potassium (K) and phosphate (Pi) are both macronutrients essential for plant growth and crop production, but the unrenewable resources of phosphorus rock and potash have become limiting factors for food security. One critical measure to help solve this problem is to improve nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants by understanding and engineering genetic networks for ion uptake, translocation, and storage. Plants have evolved multiple systems to adapt to various nutrient conditions for growth and production. Within the NUE networks, transport proteins and their regulators are the primary players for maintaining nutrient homeostasis and could be utilized to engineer high NUE traits in crop plants. A large number of publications have detailed K+ and Pi transport proteins in plants over the past three decades. Meanwhile, the discovery and validation of their regulatory mechanisms are fast-track topics for research. Here, we provide an overview of K+ and Pi transport proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, which participate in the uptake, translocation, storage, and recycling of these nutrients in plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Collisional plasma transport: two-dimensional scalar formulation of the initial boundary value problem and quasi one-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugge, J.W.

    1979-10-01

    The collisional plasma transport problem is formulated as an initial boundary value problem for general characteristic boundary conditions. Starting from the full set of hydrodynamic and electrodynamic equations an expansion in the electron-ion mass ratio together with a multiple timescale method yields simplified equations on each timescale. On timescales where many collisions have taken place for the simplified equations the initial boundary value problem is formulated. Through the introduction of potentials a two-dimensional scalar formulation in terms of quasi-linear integro-differential equations of second order for a domain consisting of plasma and vacuum sub-domains is obtained. (Auth.)

  17. Empirical Study on the Sustainability of China’s Grain Quality Improvement: The Role of Transportation, Labor, and Agricultural Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Duan, Fang; Mao, Zisen

    2018-01-01

    As a major part of farming sustainability, the issues of grain production and its quality improvement have been important in many countries. This paper aims to address these issues in China. Based on the data from the main production provinces and by applying the stochastic frontier analysis methodology, we find that the improvement of transportation and the use of agricultural machinery have become the main driving forces for grain quality improvement in China. After further studying different provinces’ potentials of grain quality improvement, we show that grain quality has increased steadily. Therefore, we can conclude China’s grain quality improvement is indeed sustainable. Furthermore, different grains like rice, wheat, and corn share similar characteristics in terms of quality improvement, but the improvement rate for rice is relatively low, while those of corn and wheat are relatively high. Moreover, the overall change of efficiency gain of grain quality improvement is not significant for different provinces. The efficiency gains of the quality improvements for rice and wheat even decrease slightly. In addition, we find that only expanding grain quality improvement potential can simultaneously achieve the dual objectives of improving grain quality and increasing yield. PMID:29401727

  18. Empirical Study on the Sustainability of China's Grain Quality Improvement: The Role of Transportation, Labor, and Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Duan, Fang; Mao, Zisen

    2018-02-05

    As a major part of farming sustainability, the issues of grain production and its quality improvement have been important in many countries. This paper aims to address these issues in China. Based on the data from the main production provinces and by applying the stochastic frontier analysis methodology, we find that the improvement of transportation and the use of agricultural machinery have become the main driving forces for grain quality improvement in China. After further studying different provinces' potentials of grain quality improvement, we show that grain quality has increased steadily. Therefore, we can conclude China's grain quality improvement is indeed sustainable. Furthermore, different grains like rice, wheat, and corn share similar characteristics in terms of quality improvement, but the improvement rate for rice is relatively low, while those of corn and wheat are relatively high. Moreover, the overall change of efficiency gain of grain quality improvement is not significant for different provinces. The efficiency gains of the quality improvements for rice and wheat even decrease slightly. In addition, we find that only expanding grain quality improvement potential can simultaneously achieve the dual objectives of improving grain quality and increasing yield.

  19. Empirical Study on the Sustainability of China’s Grain Quality Improvement: The Role of Transportation, Labor, and Agricultural Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As a major part of farming sustainability, the issues of grain production and its quality improvement have been important in many countries. This paper aims to address these issues in China. Based on the data from the main production provinces and by applying the stochastic frontier analysis methodology, we find that the improvement of transportation and the use of agricultural machinery have become the main driving forces for grain quality improvement in China. After further studying different provinces’ potentials of grain quality improvement, we show that grain quality has increased steadily. Therefore, we can conclude China’s grain quality improvement is indeed sustainable. Furthermore, different grains like rice, wheat, and corn share similar characteristics in terms of quality improvement, but the improvement rate for rice is relatively low, while those of corn and wheat are relatively high. Moreover, the overall change of efficiency gain of grain quality improvement is not significant for different provinces. The efficiency gains of the quality improvements for rice and wheat even decrease slightly. In addition, we find that only expanding grain quality improvement potential can simultaneously achieve the dual objectives of improving grain quality and increasing yield.

  20. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    A necessary prerequisite of cloud formation, aerosol particles represent one of the largest uncertainties in computer simulations of climate change1,2, in part because of a poor understanding of processes under natural conditions3,4. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions5-7. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in clean Amazonia are mostly produced by the growth of smaller particles in the boundary layer8-10, whereas these smaller particles themselves 31 appear to be produced elsewhere5,11. Key questions are in what part of the atmosphere they might 32 be produced and what could be the transport processes that deliver them to the boundary layer, where they grow into CCN. Here, using recent aircraft measurements above central Amazonia, we show high concentrations of small particles in the lower free troposphere. The particle size spectrum shifts towards larger sizes with decreasing altitude, implying particle growth as air descends from the free troposphere towards Earth's surface. Complementary measurements at ground sites show that free tropospheric air having high concentrations of small particles (diameters of less than 50 nm) is transported into the boundary layer during precipitation events, both by strong convective downdrafts and by weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This vertical transport helps maintain the population of small particles and ultimately CCN in the boundary layer, thereby playing an important role in controlling the climate state under natural conditions. In contrast, this mechanism becomes masked under polluted conditions, which sometimes prevail at times in Amazonia as well as over other tropical continental regions5,12.

  1. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  2. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. Few technical issues remain in determining the shape of the IAEA's revision of its regulations to accommodate air transport of large quantities of radioactive material. In the next two years the detailed wording of the regulations will be fully worked out and proposed for inclusion in SS6. Considering the breadth of the member state participation in the process, it seems likely that the approved version of the 1995 revision of SS6 will contain air mode revisions that move away from the predominantly mode independent character that characterized their first 30 years. (J.P.N.)

  3. Analysis of Transportation Energy Consumption: En Route Towards Carbon Reduction for Sustainable Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Asmah Hassan, Sitti

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the estimation of transportation energy consumption based on the travel behaviour characteristics of the population in the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The travel behaviour characteristics include the travel distance, travel speed, number of trips per day, and modal share of the transport, which only focused on the trips that were made inside the campus. The travel behaviour data were collected through online and pencil-and-paper questionnaire survey involving 1000 respondents including staffs and students, which is equivalent to 25% of the total population. The result from the survey showed that a total of 1897 trips per day were made by the motorised vehicle owners including car and motorcycle owners. The total trip length per day was 1056.29 km with an average speed of 45km/h. The average trip for each person was four trips per day. The estimate energy consumption from the motorised vehicles in this campus was reported to be 1.25E9 MJ.

  4. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  5. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A T; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T

    2016-11-17

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  6. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  7. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  8. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  9. EFA6 regulates selective polarised transport and axon regeneration from the axon initial segment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eva, R.; Koseki, H.; Kanamarlapudi, V.; Fawcett, James

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 21 (2017), s. 3663-3675 ISSN 0021-9533 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : axon regeneration * axon transport * neuronal polarisation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neuroscience s (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.431, year: 2016

  10. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. The impetus for this effort was spawned in part by the decision of the Japanese government to move large quantities of reprocessed plutonium by air from France to Japan. The exploration of options for overflights of United States and Canadian airspace (among others) and landings in Anchorage, Alaska, generated intense debate in the US and countries that might have been overflown. The debate centered on general questions of the need to air transport plutonium in large quantities, package survival in an accident, prenotification, emergency response, routing, safeguards and other facets of the proposed operations. In the US, which already had the most stringent regulations for packaging of plutonium shipped by air (NUREG-0360), there was immediate additional legislative action to increase the stringency by requiring demonstration that an aircraft carrying plutonium in certified packagings could undergo a severe crash without release of plutonium (the Murkowski amendment). In the United Kingdom there was an official inquiry that resulted in a high visibility report (ACTRAM 88) and a conclusion that the IAEA should examine regulatory needs in the general area of air transport

  11. The impact of intermittent or sustained carbon dioxide on intermittent hypoxia initiated respiratory plasticity. What is the effect of these combined stimuli on apnea severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateika, Jason H; Panza, Gino; Alex, Raichel; El-Chami, Mohamad

    2017-10-31

    The following review explores the effect that intermittent or sustained hypercapnia coupled to intermittent hypoxia has on respiratory plasticity. The review explores published work which suggests that intermittent hypercapnia leads to long-term depression of respiration when administered in isolation and prevents the initiation of long-term facilitation when administered in combination with intermittent hypoxia. The review also explores the impact that sustained hypercapnia alone and in combination with intermittent hypoxia has on the magnitude of long-term facilitation. After exploring the outcomes linked to intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia and intermittent hypoxia/sustained hypercapnia the translational relevance of the outcomes as it relates to breathing stability during sleep is addressed. The likelihood that naturally induced cycles of intermittent hypoxia, coupled to oscillations in carbon dioxide that range between hypocapnia and hypercapnia, do not initiate long-term facilitation is addressed. Moreover, the conditions under which intermittent hypoxia/sustained hypercapnia could serve to improve breathing stability and mitigate co-morbidities associated with sleep apnea are considered. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. RESEARCH OF APPROACHES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF FUNCTIONING OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT SUBDIVISIONS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern transport systems are not stable and can not stand up to the destabilizing factors. Global track record in the economic and commercial management systems is the use of the concept of sustainable development. It is necessary on the basis of analysis of literary sources to define the directions of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions from the point of view of sustainable development. Methodology. To achieve the purpose the features of the use of sustainable development conception and its realization were investigated at a management of the complex systems. The existent models were also analyzed in the field of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions. Findings. On the basis of literary sources analysis, keeping up the conceptual essence of the sustainable development, the main directions of efficiency increase of subdivisions functioning were selected. They take into account the basic requirements of steady development and should be considered as a complex. Originality. New directions to consider the efficiency increase issues from position of sustainable development were offered by the author. Three components of conceptions of sustainable development (economic, ecological and social should be examined in a balanced way. Thus, the above mentioned theoretical studies can promote the forming of new economy model corresponding to the purposes and principles of sustainable development. Practical value. The conducted analysis development confirms the necessity of researches on perspective directions of development of railway transport subdivisions, which are marked by the guidance of Ukrzaliznytsia. It enables to select basic directions for further research in the area of efficiency increase.

  13. Plans for longitudinal and transverse neutralized beam compression experiments, and initial results from solenoid transport experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Armijo, J.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grote, D.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Molvik, A.W.; Rose, D.V.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.; Vay, J.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plans for neutralized drift compression experiments, precursors to future target heating experiments. The target-physics objective is to study warm dense matter (WDM) using short-duration (∼1 ns) ion beams that enter the targets at energies just above that at which dE/dx is maximal. High intensity on target is to be achieved by a combination of longitudinal compression and transverse focusing. This work will build upon recent success in longitudinal compression, where the ion beam was compressed lengthwise by a factor of more than 50 by first applying a linear head-to-tail velocity tilt to the beam, and then allowing the beam to drift through a dense, neutralizing background plasma. Studies on a novel pulse line ion accelerator were also carried out. It is planned to demonstrate simultaneous transverse focusing and longitudinal compression in a series of future experiments, thereby achieving conditions suitable for future WDM target experiments. Future experiments may use solenoids for transverse focusing of un-neutralized ion beams during acceleration. Recent results are reported in the transport of a high-perveance heavy ion beam in a solenoid transport channel. The principal objectives of this solenoid transport experiment are to match and transport a space-charge-dominated ion beam, and to study associated electron-cloud and gas effects that may limit the beam quality in a solenoid transport system. Ideally, the beam will establish a Brillouin-flow condition (rotation at one-half the cyclotron frequency). Other mechanisms that potentially degrade beam quality are being studied, such as focusing-field aberrations, beam halo, and separation of lattice focusing elements

  14. The problem of criticality and initial-value problem in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    1984-10-01

    The problem of criticality and the initial value problem are studied in the case of a linear Boltzmann equation and of both finite and infinite media. The space of functions where the problems are solved is chosen in such a way as to cover a wide range of physical situations. The asymptotic time behavior of the solution to the initial-value problem is also discussed, and main results are summarized in three basic theorems. (author)

  15. Publishing Sustainability Research Visually: A Film about the Opportunities and Challenges of a Rural Entrepreneurship Initiative in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Ness

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have witnessed a large increase in the number of publications on sustainability challenges over the past decade. One important characteristic of the research is with the wide variety of actors that can make use of the results. Sustainability knowledge is often not only relevant for those in academia or policy-making circles, but it can also be useful for decision-makers in a diversity of societal facets and sectors. It is therefore essential that the sustainability research community have access to a diversity of knowledge dissemination outlets, including those that extend beyond the traditional, and often inaccessible, academic publishing realms. One positive development over the past decade in sustainability research reaching broader audiences has been the proliferation of open access publication outlets. The alternative has provided greater access to scientific articles to almost anyone with an Internet connection. But, is this medium of knowledge dissemination sufficient? Are there additional channels that sustainability researchers can use to broadcast knowledge to even broader user groups?

  16. Veterans Affairs methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention initiative associated with a sustained reduction in transmissions and health care-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Freyberg, Ron W; Obrosky, D Scott; Roselle, Gary A; Jain, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    Implementation of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Prevention Initiative was associated with significant declines in MRSA transmission and MRSA health care-associated infection rates in Veterans Affairs acute care facilities nationwide in the 33-month period from October 2007 through June 2010. Here, we show continuing declines in MRSA transmissions (P = .004 for trend, Poisson regression) and MRSA health care-associated infections (P < .001) from July 2010 through June 2012. The Veterans Affairs Initiative was associated with these effects, sustained over 57 months, in a large national health care system. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Analysis of initial events following hypothetical criticality of a transport flask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, F.; Bonhomme, C.; Brown, M.L.; Hague, P.; Mather, D.J.; Shaw, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report deals with the estimation of possible consequences, eg energy release, temperatures reached etc, of such a hypothetical accident in a particular notional transport package design. This particular study examines the situation if criticality occurs during unloading or refilling of a PWR flask. In the first instance, an idealised model has been chosen in order to develop the calculational techniques; it is not initself a realistic accident representation

  18. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. N-MYC down-regulated-like proteins regulate meristem initiation by modulating auxin transport and MAX2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Ghawana, Sanjay; Jones, Alan M

    2013-01-01

    N-MYC down-regulated-like (NDL) proteins interact with the Gβ subunit (AGB1) of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the present study, we analyzed whether NDL proteins play an important role in AGB1-dependent, auxin-mediated meristem development. Expression levels of NDL gene family members need to be tightly regulated, and altered expression (both over-expression and down-regulation) confers ectopic growth. Over-expression of NDL1 disrupts vegetative and reproductive organ development. Reduced expression of the NDL gene family members results in asymmetric leaf emergence, twinning of rosette leaves, defects in leaf formation, and abnormal silique distribution. Reduced expression of the NDL genes in the agb1-2 (null allele) mutant rescues some of the abnormal phenotypes, such as silique morphology, silique distribution, and peduncle angle, suggesting that proper levels of NDL proteins are maintained by AGB1. We found that all of these abnormal aerial phenotypes due to altered NDL expression were associated with increases in basipetal auxin transport, altered auxin maxima and altered MAX2 expression within the inflorescence stem. NDL proteins, together with AGB1, act as positive regulators of meristem initiation and branching. AGB1 and NDL1 positively regulate basipetal inflorescence auxin transport and modulate MAX2 expression in shoots, which in turn regulates organ and lateral meristem formation by the establishment and maintenance of auxin gradients.

  20. N-MYC down-regulated-like proteins regulate meristem initiation by modulating auxin transport and MAX2 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwanti Mudgil

    Full Text Available N-MYC down-regulated-like (NDL proteins interact with the Gβ subunit (AGB1 of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the present study, we analyzed whether NDL proteins play an important role in AGB1-dependent, auxin-mediated meristem development.Expression levels of NDL gene family members need to be tightly regulated, and altered expression (both over-expression and down-regulation confers ectopic growth. Over-expression of NDL1 disrupts vegetative and reproductive organ development. Reduced expression of the NDL gene family members results in asymmetric leaf emergence, twinning of rosette leaves, defects in leaf formation, and abnormal silique distribution. Reduced expression of the NDL genes in the agb1-2 (null allele mutant rescues some of the abnormal phenotypes, such as silique morphology, silique distribution, and peduncle angle, suggesting that proper levels of NDL proteins are maintained by AGB1. We found that all of these abnormal aerial phenotypes due to altered NDL expression were associated with increases in basipetal auxin transport, altered auxin maxima and altered MAX2 expression within the inflorescence stem.NDL proteins, together with AGB1, act as positive regulators of meristem initiation and branching. AGB1 and NDL1 positively regulate basipetal inflorescence auxin transport and modulate MAX2 expression in shoots, which in turn regulates organ and lateral meristem formation by the establishment and maintenance of auxin gradients.

  1. The development, validation and initial results of an integrated model for determining the environmental sustainability of biogas production pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; van Someren, Christian; Benders, René M.J.; Bekkering, Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Moll, Henri C.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas produced through Anaerobic Digestion can be seen as a flexible and storable energy carrier. However, the environmental sustainability and efficiency of biogas production is not fully understood. Within this article the use, operation, structure, validation, and results of a model for the

  2. Analytical model for advective-dispersive transport involving flexible boundary inputs, initial distributions and zero-order productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Li, Loretta Y.; Lai, Keng-Hsin; Liang, Ching-Ping

    2017-11-01

    A novel solution method is presented which leads to an analytical model for the advective-dispersive transport in a semi-infinite domain involving a wide spectrum of boundary inputs, initial distributions, and zero-order productions. The novel solution method applies the Laplace transform in combination with the generalized integral transform technique (GITT) to obtain the generalized analytical solution. Based on this generalized analytical expression, we derive a comprehensive set of special-case solutions for some time-dependent boundary distributions and zero-order productions, described by the Dirac delta, constant, Heaviside, exponentially-decaying, or periodically sinusoidal functions as well as some position-dependent initial conditions and zero-order productions specified by the Dirac delta, constant, Heaviside, or exponentially-decaying functions. The developed solutions are tested against an analytical solution from the literature. The excellent agreement between the analytical solutions confirms that the new model can serve as an effective tool for investigating transport behaviors under different scenarios. Several examples of applications, are given to explore transport behaviors which are rarely noted in the literature. The results show that the concentration waves resulting from the periodically sinusoidal input are sensitive to dispersion coefficient. The implication of this new finding is that a tracer test with a periodic input may provide additional information when for identifying the dispersion coefficients. Moreover, the solution strategy presented in this study can be extended to derive analytical models for handling more complicated problems of solute transport in multi-dimensional media subjected to sequential decay chain reactions, for which analytical solutions are not currently available.

  3. Anomalous transport in cellular flows: The role of initial conditions and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschke, Patrick; Sokolov, Igor M.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.; Zaks, Michael A.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion-advection problem in two simple cellular flow models (often invoked as examples of subdiffusive tracer motion) and concentrate on the intermediate time range, in which the tracer motion indeed may show subdiffusion. We perform extensive numerical simulations of the systems under different initial conditions and show that the pure intermediate-time subdiffusion regime is only evident when the particles start at the border between different cells, i.e., at the separatrix, and is less pronounced or absent for other initial conditions. The motion moreover shows quite peculiar aging properties, which are also mirrored in the behavior of the time-averaged mean squared displacement for single trajectories. This kind of behavior is due to the complex motion of tracers trapped inside the cell and is absent in classical models based on continuous-time random walks with no dynamics in the trapped state.

  4. Sustainability of Latin American initiatives that publish open access journals using the XML-JATS standard: the case SciELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Guzmán-Useche

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is performed a sustainability analysis of the Latin American initiative scielo.org based on two main aspects, the economic and the need for its existence. Method: To achieve that, the required man-hours to publish a scientific paper were measured, using its new publication methodology called XML SPS. 40 articles published in scientific journals of different areas of knowledge are processed; journals from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela, using that methodology. Results showed that the preparation of the document takes on average 35% of the total time (σ = 9.72%, while the tagging process takes on average 50% of the time (σ = 8.50%, finally the sections corresponding to references, acknowledgments and appendices (back takes the majority of the time. Conclusions: This analysis indicates that the SciELO publishing model is sustainable from the point of view of the need for its existence, but in the economic terms seems not to be fully sustainable for all countries in the region, because it is a technically complex process that not all publishers are able to perform, making outsourcing of that procedure to be necessary, which requires a greater budget for the journal that can jeopardize the sustainability and the control of this publishing model.

  5. At The Threshold Of The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Sustainable Initiatives In Brazilian Industries In The Context Of Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Zaleski Neto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexityand multiplicity of the possible interactions involved in the phenomenon of anthropogenicclimate change make it difficult, even for eminent scientists, to be absolutelycertain regarding the occurrence of global climate change and its consequences.Nevertheless, there is a consensus that the crisis is already here.  While top-down solutions to this problem arebeing discussed, this paper addresses the bottom-up approach to reducing GHGemissions.   On investigating thebehavior of three leading companies in the drinks, food and paint sector, whichare proactive specifically in relation to the problem of global climate changeand regarding sustainability in general, this study identifies the bestpractices and documents and disseminates them with a view to their implementationin other organizations.   With the use ofa tool containing 51 variables, which are each associated with five scenarios,it was possible to identify the degree to which the companies meet thechallenges imposed by the search for sustainability.  In this context, the overall objective ofthis study was to investigate and identify the behavior of three large companieswhich are leaders in their sector with regard to sustainability and,specifically, their actions aimed at reducing the effects of anthropogenicclimate change.

  6. Water sector fund (CT-hi dro) and wastewater reuse activities: initiatives to promote environment ally sustainable development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, S.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Sector Fund (CT-Hidro) is presented as an innovative mechanism to foster the scientific and technological sector of the country as well as a model instrument to promote environmentally sustainable development in Brazil and in other developing countries. CT-Hidro is shown as an instrument that provides support for scientific and technological development research activities in the following areas: experimental technological development, scientific and technological research projects, development of basic industrial technology and implantation of research infrastructure. CT-Hidro is presented as a key mechanism to finance wastewater reuse projects as an imperative action to fight poverty and promote social inclusion in Brazil. The concept of wastewater reuse for beneficial purposes is presented. Its growing importance as an essential part of the planning of the integrated and sustainable water resources management is also evidenced. In this perspective, the need for sanitation, wastewater treatment and its reuse in agriculture for food production are presented as imperative measures that must be taken in Brazil in order to promote sustainable development, fight poverty, improve public health conditions and enhance environmental quality in the country. (author)

  7. A new reading of the Physics teaching learning process in the initial formation of teachers, from the perspective of the education for the sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onelia E. Evora Larios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated scientific and technical progress, as well as its implication in all the spheres of the society, it forces to reorient the teaching of sciences in the scholastic institutions and to integrate to themes of the sustainable development. For this reason, the pedagogical sciences universities must incorporate these ideas in the process of formation by means of educational actions that allow students reach the professional competition necessary to be able to advance successfully in this direction. The article deals about a research in the initial formation of Physics teachers, in which a didactic strategy was developed with the objective to contribute to the environmental education for the sustainable development in the students.

  8. A NEW READING OF THE PHYSICS TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS IN THE INITIAL FORMATION OF TEACHERS, FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE EDUCATION FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onelia E. Evora Larios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated scientific and technical progress, as well as its implication in all the spheres of the society, it forces to reorient the teaching of sciences in the scholastic institutions and to integrate to themes of the sustainable development. For this reason, the pedagogical sciences universities must incorporate these ideas in the process of formation by means of educational actions that allow students reach the professional competition necessary to be able to advance successfully in this direction. The article deals about a research in the initial formation of Physics teachers, in which a didactic strategy was developed with the objective to contribute to the environmental education for the sustainable development in the students.

  9. STEEP STREAMS - Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Cardoso, Antonio H.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Bellin, Alberto; Breinl, Korbinian; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Larcher, Michele; Majone, Bruno; Matos, Jorges; Meninno, Sabrina; Nucci, Elena; Rigon, Riccardo; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zardi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The STEEP STREAMS (Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS) project consists of a collaboration among the Universities of Trento, Uppsala and Lisbon, who joined in a consortium within the ERANET Water JPI call WaterWorks2014. The aim of the project is to produce new rational criteria for the design of protection works against debris flows, a phenomenon consisting in hyper-concentrated flows of water and sediments, classified as catastrophic events typical of small mountainous basins (area triggered by intense rainstorms. Such events are non-stationary phenomena that arise in a very short time, and their recurrence is rather difficult to determine. Compared to flash floods, they are more difficult to anticipate, mostly since they are triggered by convective precipitation events, posing a higher risk of damage and even loss of human lives. These extreme events occur almost annually across Europe, though the formal return period in an exposed site is much larger. Recently, an increase in intensity and frequency of small-scale storm events, leading to extreme solid transport in steep channels, are recognized as one of the effects of climate change. In this context, one of the key challenges of this project is the use of comparatively coarse RCM projections to the small catchments examined in STEEP STREAMS. Given these changes, conventional protection works and their design criteria may not suffice to provide adequate levels of protection to human life and urban settlements. These structures create a storage area upstream the alluvial fans and the settlements, thereby reducing the need of channelization in areas often constrained by urban regulations. To optimize the lamination, and in particular to reduce the peak of solid mass flux, it is necessary that the deposition basin is controlled by a slit check dam, capable of inducing a controlled sedimentation of the solid mas flux. In

  10. Incorporating sustainability into TxDOT's transportation decision making : summary of work performed, methods used, and results achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 and 2010 under TxDOT : Implementation Project 5-5541-01 Regional Workshops on Sustainability Enhancement : Tool. TxDOT Research Project 0-5541, Developing Sustainable Tra...

  11. Evaluating the Credibility of Transport Processes in Simulations of Ozone Recovery using the Global Modeling Initiative Three-dimensional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2004-01-01

    The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) has integrated two 36-year simulations of an ozone recovery scenario with an offline chemistry and tra nsport model using two different meteorological inputs. Physically ba sed diagnostics, derived from satellite and aircraft data sets, are d escribed and then used to evaluate the realism of temperature and transport processes in the simulations. Processes evaluated include barri er formation in the subtropics and polar regions, and extratropical w ave-driven transport. Some diagnostics are especially relevant to sim ulation of lower stratospheric ozone, but most are applicable to any stratospheric simulation. The global temperature evaluation, which is relevant to gas phase chemical reactions, showed that both sets of me teorological fields have near climatological values at all latitudes and seasons at 30 hPa and below. Both simulations showed weakness in upper stratospheric wave driving. The simulation using input from a g eneral circulation model (GMI(GCM)) showed a very good residual circulation in the tropics and Northern Hemisphere. The simulation with inp ut from a data assimilation system (GMI(DAS)) performed better in the midlatitudes than it did at high latitudes. Neither simulation forms a realistic barrier at the vortex edge, leading to uncertainty in the fate of ozone-depleted vortex air. Overall, tracer transport in the offline GML(GCM) has greater fidelity throughout the stratosphere tha n it does in the GMI(DAS)

  12. A dynamic isotope power system for Space Exploration Initiative surface transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, M.E.; Harty, R.B.; Cataldo, R.

    1992-03-01

    The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy with support funding from NASA, is currently focused on the development of a standardized 2.5-kWe portable generator for multiple applications on the lunar or Martian surface. A variety of remote and mobile potential applications have been identified by NASA, including surface rovers for both short- and extended-duration missions, remote power to science packages, and backup to central base power. Recent work focused on refining the 2.5-kWe design and emphasizing the compatibility of the system with potential surface transport systems. Work included an evaluation of the design to ensure compatibility with the Martian atmosphere while imposing only a minor mass penalty on lunar operations. Additional work included a study performed to compare the DIPS with regenerative fuel cell systems for lunar mobile and remote power systems. Power requirements were reviewed and a modular system chosen for the comparison. 4 refs

  13. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  14. Modeling the downward transport of 210Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration‐Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olid, Carolina; Diego, David; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 210 Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100–150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of 210 Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from 210 Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived 210 Pb ( 210 Pb xs ) in peat taking into account both incorporation of 210 Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of 210 Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous 210 Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used 210 Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. 241 Am and 137 Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where 210 Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Accurate age dating of peat and sediment cores is critical for evaluating change. • A new 210 Pb dating model that includes vertical transport of 210 Pb was developed. • The IP-CRS model provided consistent peat accumulation rates. • The IP-CRS ages were consistent with independent chronological markers. • The IP-CRS model derives peat ages where downward 210 Pb transport is evidenced.

  15. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite

  16. Initial chemical transport of reducing elements and chemical reactions in oxide cathode base metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Dufour, P.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, the formation of compounds associated to the diffusion of reducing elements (Mg and Al) to the nickel surface of a one-piece oxide cathode has been studied. Those compounds have been evidenced after the annealing steps at high temperature performed on cathode base metal prior to the emitting coating deposition. Therefore, they form the ''initial'' interface between the nickel and the coating, in other words, the interface existing at the beginning of cathode life. Extensive analysis to characterize the nickel base prior to coating deposition has been performed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). TEM and AES analysis have allowed to identify for the first time a spinel compound of MgAl 2 O 4 . The preferential distribution of the different compounds on the nickel surface has been studied by EDX mapping. Experimental profiles of diffusion of the reducing elements in the nickel have been obtained over the entire thickness of the material by GDOES. The mechanism of formation of these compounds together with a related diffusion model are proposed

  17. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Ph.D. thesis containing two principal parts: one investigating the background for the growth of mobility, especially the motor vehicle based mobility, in Denmark during the post war, and one analysing the scope for technical improvements of motor vehicles. The former is based on a case study of t...

  18. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  19. Implementing and Sustaining Higher Education Service-Learning Initiatives: Revisiting Young et al.'s Organizational Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn; Sunderland, Naomi; Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Power, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Although the value of service-learning opportunities has long been aligned to student engagement, global citizenship, and employability, the rhetoric can be far removed from the reality of coordinating such activities within higher education. This article stems from arts-based service-learning initiatives with Indigenous communities in Australia.…

  20. Sustainability of Foundation-Funded Grant Programs beyond Initial Funding: A Multicase Study at Selective Liberal Arts Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Deborah Chang

    2010-01-01

    College and university leaders must remain responsive to their environments by promoting institutional innovation and change. External grant-funders, such as foundations, view themselves as initiators of change. Foundations can provide the necessary tools to jump start innovation within colleges and universities. However, despite the best…