WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable three-dimensional 3d

  1. S2PLOT: Three-dimensional (3D) Plotting Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bourke, P. D.; Parry, O. T.

    2011-03-01

    We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.

  2. Three-Dimensional (3D) Additive Construction: Printing with Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is a new and booming topic in many realms of research and engineering technology. When it comes to space science and aerospace engineering, it can be useful in numerous ways. As humans travel deeper into space and farther from Earth, sending large quantities of needed supplies from Earth for a mission becomes astronomically expensive and less plausible. In order to reach further to new places, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), a project that pushes for technologies to use materials already present in the destination's environment, is necessary. By using materials already available in space such as regolith from the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid's surface, fewer materials need to be brought into space on a launched vehicle. This allows a vehicle to be filled with more necessary supplies for a deep space mission that may not be found in space, like food and fuel. This project's main objective was to develop a 3D printer that uses regolith to "print" large structures, such as a dome, to be used as a heat shield upon a vehicle's reentry into the atmosphere or even a habitat. 3D printing is a growing technology that uses many different methods to mix, heat, and mold a material into a specific shape. In order to heat the regolith enough to stick together into a solid shape, it must be sintered at each layer of material that is laid. Sintering is a process that heats and compresses a powdered material until it fuses into a solid, which requires a lot of energy input. As an alternative, a polymer can be mixed with the regolith before or as it is sent to the 3D printer head to be placed in the specific shape. The addition of the polymer, which melts and binds at much lower temperatures than sintering temperatures, greatly decreases the required heating temperature and energy input. The main task of the project was to identify a functional material for the printer. The first step was to find a miscible. polymer/solvent solution. This solution

  3. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography (3D OCT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Science Innovations, Inc. proposes a new tool of 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) for cellular level imaging at video frame rates and dramatically...

  4. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography (3D OCT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Science Innovations, Inc. proposes to develop a new tool of 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) for cellular level imaging at video frame rates and...

  5. Three Dimensional (3D Lumbar Vertebrae Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bennani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D modelling can be used for a variety of purposes, including biomedical modelling for orthopaedic or anatomical applications. Low back pain is prevalent in society yet few validated 3D models of the lumbar spine exist to facilitate assessment. We therefore created a 3D surface data set for lumbar vertebrae from human vertebrae. Models from 86 lumbar vertebrae were constructed using an inexpensive method involving image capture by digital camera and reconstruction of 3D models via an image-based technique. The reconstruction method was validated using a laser-based arm scanner and measurements derived from real vertebrae using electronic callipers. Results show a mean relative error of 5.2% between image-based models and real vertebrae, a mean relative error of 4.7% between image-based and arm scanning models and 95% of vertices’ errors are less than 3.5 millimetres with a median of 1.1 millimetres. The accuracy of the method indicates that the generated models could be useful for biomechanical modelling or 3D visualisation of the spine.

  6. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susanna Fafenrot; Nils Grimmelsmann; Martin Wortmann; Andrea Ehrmann

    2017-01-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively...

  7. Interactive visualization of three-dimensional pipelines using Ajax and X3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhe; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Yunjun

    2008-10-01

    The developments of three dimensional pipelines are mainly on the COM component of GIS software, three dimensional visualization library and client-sever software architectures. These methods are still not sufficient in supporting remote management of 3D pipelines, because the client and the server involved in the process may require two-way communication frequently as well as modeling results visualization intuitively. In this paper we proposed a solution to 3D pipeline management system, which provides convenience of operation, exactness of position and rapidness of update for the pipelines in the web context. We realized web-based interactive visualization for 3D pipelines using AJAX and X3D.

  8. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printers in Libraries: Perspective and Preliminary Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging technology, three-dimensional (3D) printing has gained much attention as a rapid prototyping and small-scale manufacturing technology around the world. In the changing scenario of library inclusion, Makerspaces are becoming a part of most public and academic libraries, and 3D printing is one of the technologies included in…

  9. Three-Dimensional Interpretation of Sculptural Heritage with Digital and Tangible 3D Printed Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saorin, José Luis; Carbonell-Carrera, Carlos; Cantero, Jorge de la Torre; Meier, Cecile; Aleman, Drago Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Spatial interpretation features as a skill to acquire in the educational curricula. The visualization and interpretation of three-dimensional objects in tactile devices and the possibility of digital manufacturing with 3D printers, offers an opportunity to include replicas of sculptures in teaching and, thus, facilitate the 3D interpretation of…

  10. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun; Choi, Dongho

    2017-02-01

    The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6-8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%-90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers.

  11. The Current Role of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Parisa; Dean, David; Skoracki, Roman; Koolen, Pieter G L; Paul, Marek A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Lin, Samuel J

    2016-01-21

    Since the advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the 1980s, it is now possible to produce physical objects from digital files and create 3D objects by adding one layer at a time following a predetermined pattern. Due to the continued development of inexpensive and easy- to- use 3D printers and bioprinting, this technique has gained more momentum over time, especially in the field of medicine. This paper reviews the current and possible future application of 3D printing technology within the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  12. Three Dimensional Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (3D-FEED) Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latecki, L.J.; Schouten, Theo E.; Mount, D.M.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Wu, A.Y.; van den Broek, Egon

    2006-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. Recently, the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation was launched. In this paper, we present the three dimensional (3D) version of

  13. Selective electroless plating of 3D-printed plastic structures for three-dimensional microwave metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Kato, Taiki; Takeyasu, Nobuyuki; Fujimori, Kazuhiro; Tsuruta, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    A technique of selective electroless plating onto PLA-ABS (Polylactic Acid-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) composite structures fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing is demonstrated to construct 3D microwave metamaterials. The reducing activity of the PLA surface is selectively enhanced by the chemical modification involving Sn2+ in a simple wet process, thereby forming a highly conductive Ag-plated membrane only onto the PLA surface. The fabricated metamaterial composed of Ag-plated PLA and non-plated ABS parts is characterized experimentally and numerically to demonstrate the important bi-anisotropic microwave responses arising from the 3D nature of metallodielectric structures. Our approach based on a simple wet chemical process allows for the creation of highly complex 3D metal-insulator structures, thus paving the way toward the sophisticated microwave applications of the 3D printing technology.

  14. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles...

  15. Three dimensional (3D) modelling and surgical planning in trauma and orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadero, Patrick Eniola; Shah, Mahir

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional (3D) modelling facilitates visualization, manipulation, and analysis of image data, the three dimensional format of such image, allows a better appreciation of the geometry, size, and exact relationship between diseased and normal tissue. The role in orthopaedic surgical planning is highlighted. Surgical procedures in orthopaedics and trauma rely on imaging, which in addition to making the diagnosis also assist in planning the elected surgical procedure through to a successful execution. In the area of trauma management, the use of 3D modelling eases the execution of fracture operative approach, reduction and appropriate fixation, especially in complex fractures, like in the acetabulum. Post trauma correction of deformities is made easier using 3D modelling in the preoperative surgical planning. For the purposes of tumour excision, a more acceptable margin of excision can be planned and successfully implemented. There is an increasing role for computer assisted procedures in arthroplasty, the use of a 3D image for preoperative planning promises to deliver patient specific bone cut in dimensions that will allow less of inappropriate loading thereby promoting longevity of the implant especially in younger patients. The processes for acquiring 3D images need to be made simpler and easier to gain more widespread use in orthopaedics and trauma. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-Dimensional (3-D Scanning Within Academic Libraries: Exploring and Considering a New Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Reuscher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the creation of a three-dimensional (3-D scanning service within an academic library. Academic libraries generally offer two-dimensional (2-D or flatbed scanning to their patrons—why not 3-D scanning? Inspired by the routine use of the former, the author investigates the reasoning for offering as a service the latter, defining what it is from a library and information science perspective, how it complements the digital repository and digital scholarship projects being supported within academic libraries, and why libraries should consider it as a public service independently from 3-D printing. A technical description of the scanning equipment and an informal, qualitative account are given from experience using a NextEngine 3-D scanner within an academic library, highlighting some of the challenges and opportunities that such a technology might present. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing for microswimmers and bio-hybrid robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Trichet-Paredes, C; Sánchez, S

    2015-04-07

    This article will focus on recent reports that have applied three-dimensional (3D) printing for designing millimeter to micrometer architecture for robotic motility. The utilization of 3D printing has rapidly grown in applications for medical prosthetics and scaffolds for organs and tissue, but more recently has been implemented for designing mobile robotics. With an increase in the demand for devices to perform in fragile and confined biological environments, it is crucial to develop new miniaturized, biocompatible 3D systems. Fabrication of materials at different scales with different properties makes 3D printing an ideal system for creating frameworks for small-scale robotics. 3D printing has been applied for the design of externally powered, artificial microswimmers and studying their locomotive capabilities in different fluids. Printed materials have also been incorporated with motile cells for bio-hybrid robots capable of functioning by cell contraction and swimming. These 3D devices offer new methods of robotic motility for biomedical applications requiring miniature structures. Traditional 3D printing methods, where a structure is fabricated in an additive process from a digital design, and non-traditional 3D printing methods, such as lithography and molding, will be discussed.

  18. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC, and (ii heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  19. Three-dimensional (3D) printed endovascular simulation models: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafeld, Sebastian; Nesbitt, Craig; McCaslin, James; Bagnall, Alan; Davey, Philip; Bose, Pentop; Williams, Rob

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a manufacturing process in which an object is created by specialist printers designed to print in additive layers to create a 3D object. Whilst there are initial promising medical applications of 3D printing, a lack of evidence to support its use remains a barrier for larger scale adoption into clinical practice. Endovascular virtual reality (VR) simulation plays an important role in the safe training of future endovascular practitioners, but existing VR models have disadvantages including cost and accessibility which could be addressed with 3D printing. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of 3D printing an anatomically accurate human aorta for the purposes of endovascular training. A 3D printed model was successfully designed and printed and used for endovascular simulation. The stages of development and practical applications are described. Feedback from 96 physicians who answered a series of questions using a 5 point Likert scale is presented. Initial data supports the value of 3D printed endovascular models although further educational validation is required.

  20. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-slicing strategy for the three-dimensional discontinuity layout optimization (3D DLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming

    2017-03-01

    Discontinuity layout optimization (DLO) is a recently presented topology optimization method for determining the critical layout of discontinuities and the associated upper bound limit load for plane two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) problems. The modelling process (pre-processing) for DLO includes defining the discontinuities inside a specified domain and building the target function and the global constraint matrix for the optimization solver, which has great influence on the the efficiency of the computation processes and the reliability of the final results. This paper focuses on efficient and reliable pre-processing of the discontinuities within the 3D DLO and presents a multi-slicing strategy, which naturally avoids the overlapping and crossing of different discontinuities. Furthermore, the formulation of the 3D discontinuity considering a shape of an arbitrary convex polygon is introduced, permitting the efficient assembly of the global constraint matrix. The proposed method eliminates unnecessary discontinuities in 3D DLO, making it possible to apply 3D DLO for solving large-scale engineering problems such as those involving landslides. Numerical examples including a footing test, a 3D landslide and a punch indentation are considered, illustrating the effectiveness of the presented method. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Three-dimensional (3D) culture in sarcoma research and the clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Songtao; Shen, Jacson; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2017-08-03

    Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment, sarcomas have a high mortality rate due to local recurrence, metastasis, and the development of drug resistance to chemotherapy. New models for sarcoma research are required to further understand the disease and to develop new therapies. In vitro sarcoma modeling is challenging because of significant genetic heterogeneities, diverse pathological, and overlapping clinical characteristics. Studies on the mechanisms of recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance in sarcoma have resulted in the generation of novel three-dimensional (3D) culture models for sarcoma research. 3D culture models aim to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sarcoma using biomaterial scaffolds of natural biological materials and artificial polymers. An ideal 3D culture model can properly mimic not only the microenvironment, oncogenesis, and maintenance of sarcoma cell growth, but also imitate the interactions between cells and to the extracellular matrix. More recently, 3D cell culture has been used to research the biological behavior and mechanism of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance in different sarcoma models. Ultimately, findings using 3D models that more accurately reflect human sarcoma biology are likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances of 3D culture technologies in sarcoma research and emerging clinical applications.

  3. Phase correction for three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-weighted interleaved EPI using 3D multiplexed sensitivity encoding and reconstruction (3D-MUSER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Hui, Edward S; Chiu, Pui-Wai; Liu, Xiaoxi; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2017-09-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) multiplexed sensitivity encoding and reconstruction (3D-MUSER) algorithm is proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts and signal corruption caused by inter-shot 3D phase variations in 3D diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (DW-EPI). 3D-MUSER extends the original framework of multiplexed sensitivity encoding (MUSE) to a hybrid k-space-based reconstruction, thereby enabling the correction of inter-shot 3D phase variations. A 3D single-shot EPI navigator echo was used to measure inter-shot 3D phase variations. The performance of 3D-MUSER was evaluated by analyses of point-spread function (PSF), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and artifact levels. The efficacy of phase correction using 3D-MUSER for different slab thicknesses and b-values were investigated. Simulations showed that 3D-MUSER could eliminate artifacts because of through-slab phase variation and reduce noise amplification because of SENSE reconstruction. All aliasing artifacts and signal corruption in 3D interleaved DW-EPI acquired with different slab thicknesses and b-values were reduced by our new algorithm. A near-whole brain single-slab 3D DTI with 1.3-mm isotropic voxel acquired at 1.5T was successfully demonstrated. 3D phase correction for 3D interleaved DW-EPI data is made possible by 3D-MUSER, thereby improving feasible slab thickness and maximum feasible b-value. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. High Content Imaging (HCI) on Miniaturized Three-Dimensional (3D) Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pranav; Lee, Moo-Yeal

    2015-12-14

    High content imaging (HCI) is a multiplexed cell staining assay developed for better understanding of complex biological functions and mechanisms of drug action, and it has become an important tool for toxicity and efficacy screening of drug candidates. Conventional HCI assays have been carried out on two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayer cultures, which in turn limit predictability of drug toxicity/efficacy in vivo; thus, there has been an urgent need to perform HCI assays on three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. Although 3D cell cultures better mimic in vivo microenvironments of human tissues and provide an in-depth understanding of the morphological and functional features of tissues, they are also limited by having relatively low throughput and thus are not amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS). One attempt of making 3D cell culture amenable for HTS is to utilize miniaturized cell culture platforms. This review aims to highlight miniaturized 3D cell culture platforms compatible with current HCI technology.

  5. Kilo-scale droplet generation in three-dimensional monolithic elastomer device (3D MED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heon-Ho; Yelleswarapu, Venkata R; Yadavali, Sagar; Issadore, David; Lee, Daeyeon

    2015-12-07

    Droplet-based microfluidics has led to transformational new approaches in diverse areas including materials synthesis and high-throughput biological assays. However, the translation of droplet microfluidics technology into commercial applications requires scale-up of droplet generation from the laboratory (1 L h(-1)) scale. To address this challenge, we develop a three-dimensional monolithic elastomer device (3D MED) for mass production of monodisperse emulsion droplets. Using double-sided imprinting, 3D microchannels are formed in a single elastomer piece that has 1000 parallel flow focusing generators (k-FFGs). Compared to previous work that parallelizes droplet generation, the 3D MED eliminates the needs for alignment and bonding of multiple pieces and thus makes it possible to achieve the high flow rates and pressure necessary for the kilo-scale generation of droplets. Using this approach, we demonstrate mass production of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets at production rates as high as 1.5 L h(-1) (>30 billion 45 μm diameter droplets per hour), with a coefficient of variation of droplet diameter of only 6.6%. Because of the simplicity, robustness, and manufacturability of our 3D MED architecture, it is well suited to bridge the gap between the continuously growing library of promising microfluidic technologies to generate microparticles that have been demonstrated in laboratory settings and their successful application in industry.

  6. Developing a Three-Dimensional (3D) Assessment Method for Clubfoot-A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasankar; Luximon, Ameersing; Al-Jumaily, Adel A; Yip, Joanne; Gibbons, Paul J; Chivers, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot is a common pediatric congenital foot deformity that occurs 1 in 1,000 live births. Clubfoot is characterized by four types of foot deformities: hindfoot equinus; midfoot cavus; forefoot adductus; and hindfoot varus. A structured assessment method for clubfoot is essential for quantifying the initial severity of clubfoot deformity and recording the progress of clubfoot intervention. Aim: This study aims to develop a three-dimensional (3D) assessment method to evaluate the initial severity of the clubfoot and monitor the structural changes of the clubfoot after each casting intervention. In addition, this study explores the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting intervention and in the normal foot. Methods: In this study, a total of 10 clubfoot children who are 3D scanner will be used to collect the 3D images of the clubfoot and normal foot, and an Infrared thermography camera (IRT camera) will be used to collect the thermal images of the clubfoot. Three-dimensional scanning and IR imaging will be performed on the foot once a week before casting. In total, 6-8 scanning sessions will be performed for each child participant. The following parameters will be calculated as outcome measures to predict, monitor, and quantify the severity of the clubfoot: Angles cross section parameters, such as length, width, and the radial distance; distance between selected anatomical landmarks, and skin temperature of the clubfoot and normal foot. The skin temperature will be collected on selected areas (forefoot, mid foot, and hindfoot) to find out the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting treatment and in the normal foot. Ethics: The study has been reviewed and approved on 17 August 2016 by the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network Human Research Ethics Committee (SCHN HREC), Sydney, Australia. The Human

  7. Developing a Three-Dimensional (3D) Assessment Method for Clubfoot—A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasankar; Luximon, Ameersing; Al-Jumaily, Adel A.; Yip, Joanne; Gibbons, Paul J.; Chivers, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot is a common pediatric congenital foot deformity that occurs 1 in 1,000 live births. Clubfoot is characterized by four types of foot deformities: hindfoot equinus; midfoot cavus; forefoot adductus; and hindfoot varus. A structured assessment method for clubfoot is essential for quantifying the initial severity of clubfoot deformity and recording the progress of clubfoot intervention. Aim: This study aims to develop a three-dimensional (3D) assessment method to evaluate the initial severity of the clubfoot and monitor the structural changes of the clubfoot after each casting intervention. In addition, this study explores the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting intervention and in the normal foot. Methods: In this study, a total of 10 clubfoot children who are 3D scanner will be used to collect the 3D images of the clubfoot and normal foot, and an Infrared thermography camera (IRT camera) will be used to collect the thermal images of the clubfoot. Three-dimensional scanning and IR imaging will be performed on the foot once a week before casting. In total, 6–8 scanning sessions will be performed for each child participant. The following parameters will be calculated as outcome measures to predict, monitor, and quantify the severity of the clubfoot: Angles cross section parameters, such as length, width, and the radial distance; distance between selected anatomical landmarks, and skin temperature of the clubfoot and normal foot. The skin temperature will be collected on selected areas (forefoot, mid foot, and hindfoot) to find out the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting treatment and in the normal foot. Ethics: The study has been reviewed and approved on 17 August 2016 by the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network Human Research Ethics Committee (SCHN HREC), Sydney, Australia. The Human

  8. Three-dimensional (3-D) model utilization for fracture reconstruction in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Ista; Lilies, Latief, Benny S.

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing has been identified as an innovative manufacturing technology of functional parts. The 3-D model was produced based on CT-Scan using Osyrix software, where automatic segmentation was performed and convert into STL format. This STL format was then ready to be produced physically, layer-by-layer to create 3-D model.

  9. Procedure for creating a three-dimensional (3D) model for superficial hyperthermia treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linthorst, Marianne; Drizdal, Tomas; Joosten, Hans; Rhoon, Gerard C. van; Zee, Jacoba van der [Hyperthermia Unit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Erasmus MC Rotterdam

    2011-12-15

    To make a patient- and treatment-specific computed tomography (CT) scan and to create a three-dimensional (3D) patient model for superficial hyperthermia treatment planning (SHTP). Patients with recurrent breast adenocarcinoma in previously irradiated areas referred for radiotherapy (RT) and hyperthermia (HT) treatment and giving informed consent were included. After insertion of the thermometry catheters in the treatment area, a CT scan in the treatment position was made. A total of 26 patients have been, thus far, included in the study. During the study period, five types of adjustments were made to the procedure: (1) marking the RT field with radioopaque markers, (2) making the CT scan after the first HT treatment instead of before, (3) using an air- and foam-filled (dummy) water bolus, (4) a change to radiolucent catheters for which radioopaque markers were needed, and (5) marking the visible/palpable extent of the tumor with radioopaque markers, if necessary. With these adjustments, all necessary information is visible on the CT scan. Each CT slice was automatically segmented into muscle, fat, bone, and air. RT field, catheters, applicators, and tumor lesions, if indicated, were outlined manually using the segmentation program iSeg. Next the model was imported into SEMCAD X, a 3D electromagnetic field simulator. Using the final procedure to obtain a patient- and treatment-specific CT scan, it is possible to create a 3D model for SHTP.

  10. PIV measurements in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure with three-dimensional flow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Goranovic, Goran; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2002-01-01

    The design and production time for complex microfluidic systems is considerable, often up to several months. It is therefore important to be able to understand and predict the flow phenomena prior to design and fabrication of the microdevice in order to save costly fabrication resources. The stru......The design and production time for complex microfluidic systems is considerable, often up to several months. It is therefore important to be able to understand and predict the flow phenomena prior to design and fabrication of the microdevice in order to save costly fabrication resources....... The structures are often of complex geometry and include strongly three-dimensional flow behaviour, which poses a challenge for the micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique. The flow in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure has been measured throughout the volume using micro-PIV. In addition...

  11. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures: W3D-VBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Hatfield, Paul; Onal, Erhan; Tong, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Major efforts are being made to improve the teaching of human anatomy to foster cognition of visuospatial relationships. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine makes it possible to create virtual reality-based applications for teaching anatomy. Integration of traditional cadaver and illustration-based methods with Internet-based simulations brings us closer to this goal. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures (W3D-VBS) is a next-generation immersive anatomical training system for teaching human anatomy over the Internet. It uses Visible Human data to dynamically explore, select, extract, visualize, manipulate, and stereoscopically palpate realistic virtual body structures with a haptic device. Tracking user's progress through evaluation tools helps customize lesson plans. A self-guided "virtual tour" of the whole body allows investigation of labeled virtual dissections repetitively, at any time and place a user requires it.

  12. A Soft Sensor-Based Three-Dimensional (3-D Finger Motion Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wookeun Park

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a soft sensor-based three-dimensional (3-D finger motion measurement system is proposed. The sensors, made of the soft material Ecoflex, comprise embedded microchannels filled with a conductive liquid metal (EGaln. The superior elasticity, light weight, and sensitivity of soft sensors allows them to be embedded in environments in which conventional sensors cannot. Complicated finger joints, such as the carpometacarpal (CMC joint of the thumb are modeled to specify the location of the sensors. Algorithms to decouple the signals from soft sensors are proposed to extract the pure flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction joint angles. The performance of the proposed system and algorithms are verified by comparison with a camera-based motion capture system.

  13. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  14. Three-Dimensional (3D Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Fafenrot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM is a three-dimensional (3D printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid (PLA printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  15. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafenrot, Susanna; Grimmelsmann, Nils; Wortmann, Martin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-10-19

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  16. Developing a Three-Dimensional (3D Assessment Method for Clubfoot—A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasankar Ganesan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV or clubfoot is a common pediatric congenital foot deformity that occurs 1 in 1,000 live births. Clubfoot is characterized by four types of foot deformities: hindfoot equinus; midfoot cavus; forefoot adductus; and hindfoot varus. A structured assessment method for clubfoot is essential for quantifying the initial severity of clubfoot deformity and recording the progress of clubfoot intervention.Aim: This study aims to develop a three-dimensional (3D assessment method to evaluate the initial severity of the clubfoot and monitor the structural changes of the clubfoot after each casting intervention. In addition, this study explores the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting intervention and in the normal foot.Methods: In this study, a total of 10 clubfoot children who are <2 years old will be recruited. Also, the data of the unaffected feet of a total of 10 children with unilateral clubfoot will be obtained as a reference for normal feet. A Kinect 3D scanner will be used to collect the 3D images of the clubfoot and normal foot, and an Infrared thermography camera (IRT camera will be used to collect the thermal images of the clubfoot. Three-dimensional scanning and IR imaging will be performed on the foot once a week before casting. In total, 6–8 scanning sessions will be performed for each child participant. The following parameters will be calculated as outcome measures to predict, monitor, and quantify the severity of the clubfoot: Angles cross section parameters, such as length, width, and the radial distance; distance between selected anatomical landmarks, and skin temperature of the clubfoot and normal foot. The skin temperature will be collected on selected areas (forefoot, mid foot, and hindfoot to find out the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting treatment and in the

  17. Towards a gestural 3D interaction for tangible and three-dimensional GIS visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Agadakos, Ioannis; Pattakos, Nikolas; Maragakis, Michail

    2014-05-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a significant increase of spatially dependent applications that require storage, visualization, analysis and exploration of geographic information. GIS analysis of spatiotemporal geographic data is operated by highly trained personnel under an abundance of software and tools, lacking interoperability and friendly user interaction. Towards this end, new forms of querying and interaction are emerging, including gestural interfaces. Three-dimensional GIS representations refer to either tangible surfaces or projected representations. Making a 3D tangible geographic representation touch-sensitive may be a convenient solution, but such an approach raises the cost significantly and complicates the hardware and processing required to combine touch-sensitive material (for pinpointing points) with deformable material (for displaying elevations). In this study, a novel interaction scheme upon a three dimensional visualization of GIS data is proposed. While gesture user interfaces are not yet fully acceptable due to inconsistencies and complexity, a non-tangible GIS system where 3D visualizations are projected, calls for interactions that are based on three-dimensional, non-contact and gestural procedures. Towards these objectives, we use the Microsoft Kinect II system which includes a time of flight camera, allowing for a robust and real time depth map generation, along with the capturing and translation of a variety of predefined gestures from different simultaneous users. By incorporating these features into our system architecture, we attempt to create a natural way for users to operate on GIS data. Apart from the conventional pan and zoom features, the key functions addressed for the 3-D user interface is the ability to pinpoint particular points, lines and areas of interest, such as destinations, waypoints, landmarks, closed areas, etc. The first results shown, concern a projected GIS representation where the user selects points

  18. Comparing Microfluidic Performance of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Niall P; Cabot, Joan M; Smejkal, Petr; Guijt, Rosanne M; Paull, Brett; Breadmore, Michael C

    2017-04-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a potential revolutionary technology for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. A direct experimental comparison of the three 3D printing technologies dominating microfluidics was conducted using a Y-junction microfluidic device, the design of which was optimized for each printer: fused deposition molding (FDM), Polyjet, and digital light processing stereolithography (DLP-SLA). Printer performance was evaluated in terms of feature size, accuracy, and suitability for mass manufacturing; laminar flow was studied to assess their suitability for microfluidics. FDM was suitable for microfabrication with minimum features of 321 ± 5 μm, and rough surfaces of 10.97 μm. Microfluidic devices >500 μm, rapid mixing (71% ± 12% after 5 mm, 100 μL/min) was observed, indicating a strength in fabricating micromixers. Polyjet fabricated channels with a minimum size of 205 ± 13 μm, and a surface roughness of 0.99 μm. Compared with FDM, mixing decreased (27% ± 10%), but Polyjet printing is more suited for microfluidic applications where flow splitting is not required, such as cell culture or droplet generators. DLP-SLA fabricated a minimum channel size of 154 ± 10 μm, and 94 ± 7 μm for positive structures such as soft lithography templates, with a roughness of 0.35 μm. These results, in addition to low mixing (8% ± 1%), showed suitability for microfabrication, and microfluidic applications requiring precise control of flow. Through further discussion of the capabilities (and limitations) of these printers, we intend to provide guidance toward the selection of the 3D printing technology most suitable for specific microfluidic applications.

  19. 3D-ANTLERS: Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; De Feo, E.

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to establish a procedural method for measuring and cataloguing antlers through the use of laser scanner and of a 3D reconstruction of complex modeling. The deer's antlers have been used as a test and subjected to capture and measurement. For this purpose multiple data sources techniques have been studied and compared, (also considering low-cost sensors) estimating the accuracy and its errors in order to demonstrate the validity of the process. A further development is the comparison of results with applications of digital photogrammetry, considering also cloud computing software. The study has began with an introduction to sensors, addressing the underlying characteristics of the technology available, the scope and the limits of these applications. We have focused particularly on the "structured light", as the acquisition will be completed through three-dimensional scanners: DAVID and the ARTEC MH. The first is a low-cost sensor, a basic webcam and a linear laser pointer, red coloured, that leads to acquisition of three-dimensional strips. The other one is a hand scanner; even in this case we will explain how to represent a 3D model, with a pipeline that provides data export from the "proprietary" to a "reverse engineering" software. Typically, these are the common steps to the two approaches that have been performed in WRAP format: point sampling, manual and global registration, repair normals, surface editing and texture projection. In fact, after a first and common data processing was done with the use of a software supplied with the equipment, the proto-models thus obtained were treated in Geomagic Studio, which was also chosen to allow the homogenization and standardization of data in order to make a more objective comparison. It is commonplace to observe that the editing of the digital mock-up obtained with the DAVID - which had not yet been upgraded to the 3.5 release at the time of this study - is substantially different

  20. Three-dimensional display modes for CT colonography: Conventional 3D virtual colonoscopy versus unfolded cube projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Frans M.; van Gelder, Rogier E.; Serlie, Iwo W. O.; Florie, Jasper; Nio, C. Yung; Glas, Afina S.; Post, Frits H.; Truyen, Roel; Gerritsen, Frans A.; Stoker, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The authors compared a conventional two-directional three-dimensional (3D) display for computed tomography (CT) colonography with an alternative method they developed on the basis of time efficiency and surface visibility. With the conventional technique, 3D ante- and retrograde cine loops were

  1. Development of adaptive bust for female soft body armour using three dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics: Three dimensional (3D) design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, M. A.; Bruniaux, P.; Boussu, F.

    2017-10-01

    The traditional two dimensional (2D) pattern making method for developing female body armour has a negative effect on the ballistic protective performance as well as the comfort of the wearer. This is due to, unlike the male body armour, the female body armour manufacturing involves different darts to accommodate the natural curvature of the female body, i.e. bust area, which will reveals the weak parts at the seam and stitch area while ballistic impact. Moreover, the proper bra size also plays an important role not only in bra design but also in the design of a women’s ballistic vest. The present research study tried to propose the novel 3D designing approach for developing different volumes of breast using feature points (both bust surface and outline points) in the specific 3D adaptive mannequin. Later the flattened 3D bra patterns of this method has been also compare with the 2D standard pattern making in order to modify and match with 2D traditional method. The result indicated that the proposed method which conceives the 3D patterns on the 3D bust is easier to implement and can generate patterns with satisfactory fit and comfort as compared to 2D patterns.

  2. Three dimensional (3D percolation network structure: Key to form stable carbon nano grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Younes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano grease is found to be stable and homogeneous (wherein carbon nanotubes act as sole thickeners and oil is polyalphaolefin (PAO. This is a good indication that three dimensional (3D percolation network structures among carbon nanotubes (single wall and multi wall play a crucial role in stabilization. To better understand this assumption and provide further evidence, some additional carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanofiber (CNF, graphene, fullerene (C60, Ni-coated single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT, are selected to make the grease. Unfortunately, CNF, graphene, fullerene (C60 and Ni-coated SWNT do not form stable greases as nanotubes do. In addition, SWNTs were mixed with CNF and Ni-coated SWNT respectively to see if stable grease could be formed. The results indicate that the CNF/SWNT did not form the stable grease, while Ni-coated SWNT/SWNT did. Inter molecular Van der Waals forces could reasonably explain these experimental results. Appropriate tube size (nanotube and nanofiber, stereo structure (nanotube, graphene and fullerene, surface energy (nanotube and Ni-coated nanotube are critical factors that determine if Van der Waals forces could take effect or not. The scientific merit of this paper is that we understand in what manner stable greases are formed and what kinds of carbon materials are appropriate for acting as sole thickener.

  3. Software Package \\Nesvetay-3D" for modeling three-dimensional flows of monatomic rarefied gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Titarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of three-dimensional rarefied gas flowsin microdevices (micropipes, micropumps etc and over re-entry vehicles requires development of methods of computational modelling. One of such methods is the direct numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the velocity distribution function with either exact or approximate (model collision integral. At present, for flows of monatomic rarefied gas the Shakhov model kinetic equation, also called S-model, has gained wide-spread use. The equation can be regarded as a model equation of the incomplete thirdorder approximation. Despite its relative simplicity, the S-model is still a complicated integrodifferential equation of high dimension. The numerical solution of such an equation requires high-accuracy parallel methods.The present work is a review of recent results concerning the development and application of three-dimensional computer package Nesvetay-3D intended for modelling of rarefied gas flows. The package solves Boltzmann kinetic equation with the BGK (Krook and Shakhov model collision integrals using the discrete velocity approach. Calculations are carried out in non-dimensional variables. A finite integration domain and a mesh are introduced in the molecular velocity space. Next, the kinetic equation is re-written as a system of kinetic equations for each of the discrete velocities. The system is solved using an implicit finite-volume method of Godunov type. The steady-state solution is computed by a time marching method. High order of spatial accuracy is achieved by using a piece-wise linear representation of the distribution function in each spatial cell. In general, the coefficients of such an approximation are found using the least-square method. Arbitrary unstructured meshes in the physical space can be used in calculations, which allow considering flows over objects of general geometrical shape. Conservative property of the method with respect to the model collision

  4. THREE DIMENSIONAL INTEGRATED CHARACTERIZATION AND ARCHIVING SYSTEM (3D-ICAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Jarvis

    2001-06-18

    The overall objective of this project is to develop an integrated system that remotely characterizes, maps, and archives measurement data of hazardous decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) areas. The system will generate a detailed 3-dimensional topography of the area as well as real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides. The system will analyze substrate materials consisting of concrete, asbestos, and transite. The system will permanently archive the data measurements for regulatory and data integrity documentation. Exposure limits, rest breaks, and donning and removal of protective garments generate waste in the form of contaminated protective garments and equipment. Survey times are increased and handling and transporting potentially hazardous materials incur additional costs. Off-site laboratory analysis is expensive and time-consuming, often necessitating delay of further activities until results are received. The Three Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) has been developed to alleviate some of these problems. 3D-ICAS provides a flexible system for physical, chemical and nuclear measurements reduces costs and improves data quality. Operationally, 3D-ICAS performs real-time determinations of hazardous and toxic contamination. A prototype demonstration unit is available for use in early 2000. The tasks in this Phase included: (1) Mobility Platforms: Integrate hardware onto mobility platforms, upgrade surface sensors, develop unit operations and protocol. (2) System Developments: Evaluate metals detection capability using x-ray fluorescence technology. (3) IWOS Upgrades: Upgrade the IWOS software and hardware for compatibility with mobility platform. The system was modified, tested and debugged during 1999 and 2000. The 3D-ICAS was shipped on 11 May 2001 to FIU-HCET for demonstration and validation of the design modifications. These modifications included simplifying the design from a two

  5. NASA Centennial Challenge: Three Dimensional (3D) Printed Habitat, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Kim, Hong S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Centennial Challenges: 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge seeks to develop the fundamental technologies necessary to manufacture an off-world habitat using mission recycled materials andor local indigenous materials. The vision is that autonomous habitat manufacturing machines will someday be deployed to the Moon or Mars to construct shelters for human habitation.NASA and Bradley University, are holding a new US$ 2.5 million competition to design and build a 3-D printed habitat for deep space exploration, including the agencys journey to Mars.The multi-phase 3-D Printed Habitat Challenge, part of NASA's Centennial Challenges program, is designed to advance the additive construction technology needed to create sustainable housing solutions for Earth and beyond.The first phase of the competition ran through Sept. 27, 2015. This phase, a design competition, called on participants to develop state-of-the-art architectural concepts that take advantage of the unique capabilities 3-D printing offers. The top 3 prizes with a prize purse of $40,000 were awarded at the 2015 World Maker Faire in New York.The second phase of the competition is called the Structural Member Competition and it is divided into three levels happening in the spring and summer of 2017. The Compression Test Competition (Level 1) focuses on the fabrication technologies needed to manufacture structural components from a combination of indigenous materials and recyclables, or indigenous materials alone. For Level 1, teams will develop 3D printable materials, build a 3D printing machine, and print two specimens: a truncated cone and a cylinder. The Level 2 Beam Member Competition is the second of three sub-competitions within the overall Structural Member Competition. For Level 2, teams will print a beam that will be tested.The Level 3 Head to Head Competition is the third of three sub-competitions within the overall Structural Member Competition. For Level 3, teams will develop 3D printable materials

  6. Obtaining Three-Dimensional Nanosize Objects on a "3D Printer + Electrospinning" Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulbaev, Ch. B.; Dmitriev, T. P.; Sultanov, F. R.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Aliev, E. T.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of obtaining three-dimensional nanosize polymeric fibers has been shown. The obtained fibers are oriented, which makes it possible to create three-dimensional objects. The proposed method allows alignining strongly directive nanofibers from a polymethylmethacrylate polymer with a diameter of 50 to 500 nm. The use of different types of electrodes enables one to vary the nanofiber size. Oriented polymeric nanofibers were used to construct bioskeletons for biological cells.

  7. EISCAT_3D: the European three-dimensional imaging radar for atmospheric and geospace research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulich, Thomas; Aikio, Anita; McCrea, Ian; Turunen, Esa

    environment monitoring and technology solutions sup-porting sustainable development, well beyond atmospheric and space sciences. Here we will give an overview of this ambitious project, report on the current status of the preparatory phase, and invite interested parties to contribute to the planning of EISCAT 3D.

  8. The Three-Dimensional Elemental Distribution of 3D Printing Stainless Steel Gear via Confocal 3D–XRF Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Min; Yi, Longtao; Wang, Jingbang; Han, Yue; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo

    2017-11-01

    The macroscopic mechanical properties of 3D printing product are closely related to their microstructure, it has significant importance to accurately characterize the micro-structure of 3D printing products. Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. Therefore, this technique is also very suitable for element distribution measurement of 3D printing product which is printed layer by layer. In this paper the 3D-XRF technique was used to study the spatial elemental distribution of a micro zone from the 3D printing stainless steel gear. An elemental mapping of two orthogonal sections in the depth direction and three dimensional elemental rendering of one micro-region were obtained. The result shows that elemental distribution of the sample is not uniform, the elemental layer structure is formed in the depth direction, the content of the element in measured area vary smoothly, and with no elemental mutation region. This indicates that the 3D printing sample are fused well between layers and layers, with no large pores or bubbles inside the sample. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to make assessment for micro-structure of 3D printing metal product by using confocal 3D-XRF.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Three-Dimensional (3D) Core-Shell Structure Nanofibers Designed for 3D Dynamic Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Xu, Qinwei; Kuddannaya, Shreyas; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yilei; Wang, Zhenling

    2017-05-31

    Three-dimensional elastic nanofibers (3D eNFs) can offer a suitable 3D dynamic microenvironment and sufficient flexibility to regulate cellular behavior and functional protein expression. In this study, we report a novel approach to prepare 3D nanofibers with excellent mechanical properties by solution-assisted electrospinning technology and in situ polymerization. The obtained 3D eNFs demonstrated excellent biocompatible properties to meet cell culture requirements under a dynamic environment in vitro. Moreover, these 3D eNFs also promoted human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) adhesion and collagen expression under biomechanical stimulation. The results demonstrated that this dynamic cell culture system could positively impact cellular collagen but has no significant effect on the proliferation of hMSCs grown in the 3D eNFs. This work may give rise to a new approach for constructing a 3D cell culture for tissue engineering.

  10. A three-dimensional (3D) analytical model for subthreshold characteristics of uniformly doped FinFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shweta; Narendar, Vadthiya

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, three dimensional (3D) analytical model for subthreshold characteristics of doped FinFET has been presented. The separation of variables technique is used to solve the 3D Poisson's equation analytically with appropriate boundary conditions so as to obtain the expression for channel potential. The thus obtained potential distribution function has been employed in deriving subthreshold current and subthreshold slope model. The channel potential characteristics have been studied as a function of various device parameters such as gate length, gate oxide thickness and channel doping. The proposed analytical model results have been validated by comparing with the simulation data obtained by the 3D device simulator ATLAS™ from Silvaco.

  11. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Lin, Xue [Northwest University, School of Cultural Heritage, Xi' an (China)

    2016-09-15

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces. (orig.)

  12. NPSNET: JANUS-3D Providing Three-Dimensional Displays for a Traditional Combat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-24

    thanked for his extreme patience when pestered by our numerous phone calls concerning the UNIX version of JANUS. His advice was invaluable. A very warm...prototype for connecting DoD combat models to the DoD Defense Simulation Internet . Likewise, when "two-way" communication between the three-dimensional

  13. Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-02-01

    Complex fabrication process and expensive materials have restricted the development of smart three-dimensional (3D) lightweight structures, which are expected to possess self-shaping, self-folding and self-unfolding performances. Here we present a simple approach to fabricate smart lightweight structures by triggering shape transformation from thin printed composite sheets. The release of the internal strain in printed polymer materials enables the printed composite sheet to keep flat under heating and transform into a designed 3D configuration when cooled down to room temperature. The 3D lightweight structure can be switched between flat and 3D configuration under appropriate thermal stimuli. Our work exploits uniform internal strain in printed materials as a controllable tool to fabricate smart 3D lightweight structures, opening an avenue for possible applications in engineering fields.

  14. Three-Dimensional Sensor Common Operating Picture (3-D Sensor COP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Picture (3-D Sensor COP). To test the 3-D Sensor COP, we took advantage of a sensor network that had been deployed for the Enterprise Challenge 2016 at... app .............9 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Fusion3D is a software application for...took advantage of a sensor network that had been deployed for the Enterprise Challenge 2016 (EC16) at Fort Huachuca in Sierra Vista, Arizona. The

  15. Evaluation of three-dimensional surface-reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in children with craniosynostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jirou; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi

    1987-10-01

    In this study, 3D-CT images were reconstructed from axial computed tomographic scans using the new software on 10 children with craniosynostosis. The authors discuss the advantages of the 3D-CT imaging technique in the diagnosis and surgical planning for craniosynostosis. The following conclusions may be drawn: 1) The images obtained from the new 3D-CT software are more accurate and realistic than the images previously reported by Vannier and Marsh. Reconstruction artifacts, known as pseudoforamina, have not appeared in the 3D-CT images reconstructed by the new software, and the top axial view of the 3D-CT reveals precisely anatomical details of the intracranial skull base. 2) The use of this new method provides accurate anatomical data which cannot be obtained by means of conventional radiological techniques in living subjects. 3) This technique of three-dimensional reconstruction from CT scans is most helpful in surgical planning and in the postoperative assessments of surgical results for craniosynostosis. The 3D-CT images allow the surgeon to visualize precisely the abnormalities of the skull to be corrected by the craniofacial surgery. Based on our experience with this study, we would expect that three-dimensional surface reconstruction from CT scans will henceforth be widely used in the planning of craniofacial surgery and in the postoperative follow-up assessment of craniosynostosis or craniofacial anomalies. (J.P.N.).

  16. Rapid Staining of Circulating Tumor Cells in Three-Dimensional Microwell Dialysis (3D-?Dialysis) Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Wanying; Pradhan, Rangadhar; Chen, Hsin Ying; Weng, Yi-Hsuan; Chu, Hsueh Yao; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Lin, Chien-Ping; Jiang, Jeng-Kai

    2017-01-01

    The conventional techniques to detect circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are lengthy and the use of centrifugal forces in this technique may cause cell mortality. As the number of CTCs in patients is quite low, the present study aims towards a gentler diagnostic procedure so as not to lose too many CTCs during the sample preparation process. Hence, a Three-Dimensional Microwell dialysis (3D-?Dialysis) chip was designed in this study to perform gentle fluorescence-removal process by using dialysi...

  17. Genome wide expression after different doses of irradiation of a three-dimensional (3D model of oral mucosal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Lambros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a three-dimensional (3D human oral cell culture that consisted of two types of cells, oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts as a model of oral mucositis which is a debilitating adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. The 3D cell culture model was irradiated with 12 or 2 Gy, and total RNA was collected 6 h after irradiation to compare global gene expression profiles via microarray analysis. Here we provide detailed methods and analysis on these microarray data, which have been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE62395.

  18. Genome wide expression after different doses of irradiation of a three-dimensional (3D) model of oral mucosal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambros, Maria P; DeSalvo, Michael K; Mulamalla, Hari Chandana; Moreno, Jonathan; Kondapalli, Lavanya

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated a three-dimensional (3D) human oral cell culture that consisted of two types of cells, oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts as a model of oral mucositis which is a debilitating adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. The 3D cell culture model was irradiated with 12 or 2 Gy, and total RNA was collected 6 h after irradiation to compare global gene expression profiles via microarray analysis. Here we provide detailed methods and analysis on these microarray data, which have been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE62395.

  19. Measuring three-dimensional flow structures in the conductive airways using 3D-PTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Thomas; Schwarze, Rüdiger; Bauer, Katrin

    2017-10-01

    Detailed information about flow patterns and mass transport in the conductive airways is of crucial interest to improve ventilation strategies as well as targeted drug delivery. Despite a vast number of flow studies in this field, there is still a dearth in experimental data of three-dimensional flow patterns, in particular for the validation of numerical results. Therefore, oscillating flow within a realistic model of the upper human conductive airways is studied here experimentally. The investigated range of Reynolds numbers is Re = 250-2000 and the Womersley number is varied between α = 1.9-5.1, whereby physiological flow at rest conditions is included. In employing the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry measurement technique, we can directly visualize airway specific flow structures as well as examine Lagrangian trajectory statistics, which has not been covered to date. The systematic variation of characteristic flow parameters in combination with the advanced visualization technique sheds new light on the mechanisms of evolving flow patterns. By determining Lagrangian properties such as pathline curvature and torsion, we find that both strongly depend on the Reynolds number. Moreover, the probability density function of the curvature reveals a unique shape for certain flow regions and resembles a turbulent like behavior at the small scales.

  20. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  1. Three-dimensional measurement of small inner surface profiles using feature-based 3-D panoramic registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Seibel, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development in the performance of sophisticated optical components, digital image sensors, and computer abilities along with decreasing costs has enabled three-dimensional (3-D) optical measurement to replace more traditional methods in manufacturing and quality control. The advantages of 3-D optical measurement, such as noncontact, high accuracy, rapid operation, and the ability for automation, are extremely valuable for inline manufacturing. However, most of the current optical approaches are eligible for exterior instead of internal surfaces of machined parts. A 3-D optical measurement approach is proposed based on machine vision for the 3-D profile measurement of tiny complex internal surfaces, such as internally threaded holes. To capture the full topographic extent (peak to valley) of threads, a side-view commercial rigid scope is used to collect images at known camera positions and orientations. A 3-D point cloud is generated with multiview stereo vision using linear motion of the test piece, which is repeated by a rotation to form additional point clouds. Registration of these point clouds into a complete reconstruction uses a proposed automated feature-based 3-D registration algorithm. The resulting 3-D reconstruction is compared with x-ray computed tomography to validate the feasibility of our proposed method for future robotically driven industrial 3-D inspection.

  2. Three-dimensional measurement of small inner surface profiles using feature-based 3-D panoramic registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Seibel, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development in the performance of sophisticated optical components, digital image sensors, and computer abilities along with decreasing costs has enabled three-dimensional (3-D) optical measurement to replace more traditional methods in manufacturing and quality control. The advantages of 3-D optical measurement, such as noncontact, high accuracy, rapid operation, and the ability for automation, are extremely valuable for inline manufacturing. However, most of the current optical approaches are eligible for exterior instead of internal surfaces of machined parts. A 3-D optical measurement approach is proposed based on machine vision for the 3-D profile measurement of tiny complex internal surfaces, such as internally threaded holes. To capture the full topographic extent (peak to valley) of threads, a side-view commercial rigid scope is used to collect images at known camera positions and orientations. A 3-D point cloud is generated with multiview stereo vision using linear motion of the test piece, which is repeated by a rotation to form additional point clouds. Registration of these point clouds into a complete reconstruction uses a proposed automated feature-based 3-D registration algorithm. The resulting 3-D reconstruction is compared with x-ray computed tomography to validate the feasibility of our proposed method for future robotically driven industrial 3-D inspection.

  3. Three-dimensional Printing and 3D Slicer: Powerful Tools in Understanding and Treating Structural Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Z; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Folch, Erik; Onieva, Jorge; Gangadharan, Sidhu; Majid, Adnan

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in the three-dimensional (3D) printing industry have enabled clinicians to explore the use of 3D printing in preprocedural planning, biomedical tissue modeling, and direct implantable device manufacturing. Despite the increased adoption of rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing techniques in the health-care field, many physicians lack the technical skill set to use this exciting and useful technology. Additionally, the growth in the 3D printing sector brings an ever-increasing number of 3D printers and printable materials. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to keep abreast of this rapidly developing field in order to benefit. In this Ahead of the Curve, we review the history of 3D printing from its inception to the most recent biomedical applications. Additionally, we will address some of the major barriers to wider adoption of the technology in the medical field. Finally, we will provide an initial guide to 3D modeling and printing by demonstrating how to design a personalized airway prosthesis via 3D Slicer. We hope this information will reduce the barriers to use and increase clinician participation in the 3D printing health-care sector. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-dimensional (3D) MRI for indication of breast conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Seigo; Sugiura, Koji; Nishio, Takenori; Abe, Osahiko; Sakurai, Kenji [Saint Luke`s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Masanori; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Doi, Osamu

    1996-12-01

    3D-MRI has the following advantages: To observe the whole breast from any direction. To calculate each volume of the main tumor, whole breast and the planned surgical area. At this time, Gd-enhanced 3D-MRI was performed to 56 patients with 58 lesions to determine indication of breast conserving surgery. Extensive intraductal component (EIC) was evaluated by 3D-MRI preoperatively and it was confirmed by pathological examination postoperatively. The main tumor was detected in 56 of 58 lesions by 3D-MRI (sensitivity, 96.6%). EIC (+) was pointed out in 19 of 27 lesions (sensitivity, 70.4%) EIC (-) was correctly estimated in 19 of 29 lesions (specificity, 65.5%). Next, the volumes of the main lesion, whole breast and the planned surgical area were calculated (23 of 56 patients). The volume ratio of the main tumor/whole breast and the planned surgical area/whole breast were compared to the postoperative cosmetic result respectively. To maintain the volume ratio of the planned surgical area/whole breast under 20% was one of the key factors to obtain good cosmetic result. Therefore, 3-D MRI may become indispensable to indication of breast conserving surgery. (author)

  5. Three-Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS). Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    3D-ICAS is being developed to support Decontamination and Decommissioning operations for DOE addressing Research Area 6 (characterization) of the Program Research and Development Announcement. 3D-ICAS provides in-situ 3-dimensional characterization of contaminated DOE facilities. Its multisensor probe contains a GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using noncontact infrared heating) sensor for organics, a molecular vibrational sensor for base material identification, and a radionuclide sensor for radioactive contaminants. It will provide real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides on bare materials (concrete, asbestos, transite); it will provide 3-D display of the fusion of all measurements; and it will archive the measurements for regulatory documentation. It consists of two robotic mobile platforms that operate in hazardous environments linked to an integrated workstation in a safe environment.

  6. Modeling Three-Dimensional Shock Initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-08

    A recent SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate and study code predictions. These SMIS tests used a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments into a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. This SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because (1) SMIS tests facilitate the investigation of 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) within the context of a considerable suite of diagnostics, and (2) many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. A particular goal of these model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the ALE3D implementation of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth reactive flow model [2] within a fully 3-dimensional regime of SDT. The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations reproduce observed 'Go/No-Go' 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  7. Three-Dimensional (3-D) Plastic Part Extrusion And Conductive Ink Printing For Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    required learning Blender (a 3-D modeling software) was too long to fit within the time limit of the Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program...first ink tested. Black, non-conductive ink was used to learn how to use the DMP. The first test was done with all nozzles at 19 volts. This...APPENDIX A HOW TO PRINT ON THE MAKERBOT CUPCAKE CNC A-1 I. ACQUIRE A 3-D MODEL TO PRINT A. Make it yourself Using software such as Blender

  8. Fast and background-free three-dimensional (3D) live-cell imaging with lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hong Li; Song, Yo Han; Park, Jinho; Jo, Eun-Jung; Goh, Yeongchang; Shin, Kyujin; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Kang Taek

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development of a three-dimensional (3D) live-cell imaging technique with high spatiotemporal resolution using lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). It employs the sectioning capability of confocal microscopy except that the two-dimensional (2D) section images are acquired by wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy. Although epi-fluorescence images are contaminated with the out-of-focus background in general, the near-infrared (NIR) excitation used for the excitation of UCNPs does not generate any autofluorescence, which helps to lower the background. Moreover, the image blurring due to defocusing was naturally eliminated in the image reconstruction process. The 3D images were used to investigate the cellular dynamics such as nuclear uptake and single-particle tracking that require 3D description.We report on the development of a three-dimensional (3D) live-cell imaging technique with high spatiotemporal resolution using lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). It employs the sectioning capability of confocal microscopy except that the two-dimensional (2D) section images are acquired by wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy. Although epi-fluorescence images are contaminated with the out-of-focus background in general, the near-infrared (NIR) excitation used for the excitation of UCNPs does not generate any autofluorescence, which helps to lower the background. Moreover, the image blurring due to defocusing was naturally eliminated in the image reconstruction process. The 3D images were used to investigate the cellular dynamics such as nuclear uptake and single-particle tracking that require 3D description. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Methods for synthetic procedure, characterization, live-cell imaging with UCNPs, and two video files for 3D imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05875a

  9. Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction Using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D improves chest CT image quality and reduces radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Yamashiro

    Full Text Available To assess the advantages of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D for image quality improvement and dose reduction for chest computed tomography (CT.Institutional Review Boards approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-eight subjects underwent chest CT at five institutions using identical scanners and protocols. During a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to images using AIDR3D and a conventional reconstruction mode (without AIDR3D. Using a 5-point scale from 1 (non-diagnostic to 5 (excellent, three blinded observers independently evaluated image quality for three lung zones, four patterns of lung disease (nodule/mass, emphysema, bronchiolitis, and diffuse lung disease, and three mediastinal measurements (small structure visibility, streak artifacts, and shoulder artifacts. Differences in these scores were assessed by Scheffe's test.At each tube current, scans using AIDR3D had higher scores than those without AIDR3D, which were significant for lung zones (p<0.0001 and all mediastinal measurements (p<0.01. For lung diseases, significant improvements with AIDR3D were frequently observed at 120 and 60 mA. Scans with AIDR3D at 120 mA had significantly higher scores than those without AIDR3D at 240 mA for lung zones and mediastinal streak artifacts (p<0.0001, and slightly higher or equal scores for all other measurements. Scans with AIDR3D at 60 mA were also judged superior or equivalent to those without AIDR3D at 120 mA.For chest CT, AIDR3D provides better image quality and can reduce radiation exposure by 50%.

  10. Perfusion-based three dimensional (3D) tissue engineering platform with integrated bioimpedance sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    We present an 8-channel bioreactor array with integrated bioimpedance sensors, which enables perfusion culture of cells seeded onto porous 3D scaffolds. Results show the capability of the system for monitoring cell proliferation within the scaffolds through a culture period of 19 days....

  11. 4-mm-diameter three-dimensional imaging endoscope with steerable camera for minimally invasive surgery (3-D-MARVEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sam Y; Korniski, Ronald J; Shearn, Michael; Manohara, Harish M; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging (stereo imaging) by endoscopes in minimally invasive surgery, especially in space-constrained applications such as brain surgery, is one of the most desired capabilities. Such capability exists at larger than 4-mm overall diameters. We report the development of a stereo imaging endoscope of 4-mm maximum diameter, called Multiangle, Rear-Viewing Endoscopic Tool (MARVEL) that uses a single-lens system with complementary multibandpass filter (CMBF) technology to achieve 3-D imaging. In addition, the system is endowed with the capability to pan from side-to-side over an angle of [Formula: see text], which is another unique aspect of MARVEL for such a class of endoscopes. The design and construction of a single-lens, CMBF aperture camera with integrated illumination to generate 3-D images, and the actuation mechanism built into it is summarized.

  12. First intraoperative experience with three-dimensional (3D) high-definition (HD) nasal endoscopy for lacrimal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to report our preliminary experiences with regard to safety and feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopic lacrimal surgeries with a recently launched latest generation 3D endoscope. A 4-mm rigid three-dimensional (3D) endoscope (TIPCAM 1S 3D ORLR, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) was used. Fifteen patients who underwent various endoscopic lacrimal procedures by a single surgeon (MJA) were included. The procedures included probing with nasolacrimal intubation, cruciate marsupialization of intranasal cysts for congenital dacryoceles, powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, post-operative stent removal with ostium granuloma excision. The implementation, visualization, optical performance, ease of tissue handling and complications were noted. Ten surgical observers filled a questionnaire to rate their experiences. Enhanced depth perception was found to be very beneficial intraoperatively. Greater anatomical delineation facilitated improved hand-eye coordination and dexterity. Intraoperative assessment and handling of tissues and surgical manoeuvring were precise and did not require the additional spatial cues that the surgeon derives from a two-dimensional image. These benefits were more appreciated in the complex cases. The setup was easy on previous endoscopic platforms and did not consume any additional time. All the surgical procedures were completed successfully without any complications. The surgical observers unanimously noted enhanced anatomical understanding and surgical learning as compared to the routine 2D planes. Operating in 3D planes enhances depth perception, dexterity and precision. Although initial results are promising, further randomized studies with head-on comparisons between 3D and 2D would help formulate specific guidelines.

  13. Intracranial volume measurements in craniosynostosis using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Yasuhide; Nishimura, Jiro [Saitama Children`s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan); Tsubokawa, Takashi

    1995-06-01

    The premature fusion of skull sutures in children with craniosynostosis produces deformities of the skull and is thought to restrict skull growth. Therefore, the intracranial volume in these children was believed to be reduced. However, the value of craniofacial surgery designed to compensate for the reduced intracranial volume by expanding the skull has recently been questioned. This study concerns serial measurements of the intracranial volume of 25 children with craniosynostosis. Intracranial volumes were calculated from mathematical data of three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT scans obtained before and after craniofacial surgery. The intracranial volumes sampled at various time intervals after surgery were then compared with those of normal children (Gault DT et al., 1990, 1992), and the clinical significance of the measurements evaluated for the management of craniosynostosis. In contrast to previous beliefs, despite the forms of craniosynostosis, the preoperative intracranial volumes were within normal limits in 24 of the 25 children. The intracranial volume of all patients had increased immediately after the standard craniofacial surgery (orbito-frontal advancement); the percentage of volume gain ranged from 6.4 to 9.6. Serial intracranial volume measurements after craniofacial surgery in five children with Crouzon`s disease or brachycephaly revealed that the growth rates of their skulls were significantly lower than those of normal subjects. (author).

  14. Differences in growth properties of endometrial cancer in three dimensional (3D) culture and 2D cell monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitcholtan, Kenny, E-mail: kenny.chitcholtan@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Asselin, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Asselin@uqtr.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Quebec, at Trois-Rivières, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7 (Canada); Parent, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Parent@uqtr.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Quebec, at Trois-Rivières, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7 (Canada); Sykes, Peter H., E-mail: peter.sykes@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Evans, John J., E-mail: john.evans@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Centre of Neuroendocrinology and The MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand)

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections in PC-Windows platform by using 3D_Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Hua; Lahvis, Garet; Edwards, Harlene; Pitot, Henry C

    2004-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from serial sections allows identification of objects of interest in 3D and clarifies the relationship among these objects. 3D_Viewer, developed in our laboratory for this purpose, has four major functions: image alignment, movie frame production, movie viewing, and shift-overlay image generation. Color images captured from serial sections were aligned; then the contours of objects of interest were highlighted in a semi-automatic manner. These 2D images were then automatically stacked at different viewing angles, and their composite images on a projected plane were recorded by an image transform-shift-overlay technique. These composition images are used in the object-rotation movie show. The design considerations of the program and the procedures used for 3D reconstruction from serial sections are described. This program, with a digital image-capture system, a semi-automatic contours highlight method, and an automatic image transform-shift-overlay technique, greatly speeds up the reconstruction process. Since images generated by 3D_Viewer are in a general graphic format, data sharing with others is easy. 3D_Viewer is written in MS Visual Basic 6, obtainable from our laboratory on request.

  16. Hybrid Three-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Thick Composite Architectures in Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Mark; Quabili, Ashiq; Yen, Chian-Fong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three 3-dimensional (3-D) woven composite materials were examined to determine how yarn tow configurations affect the flexural response of the structure. Woven fabric preforms were manufactured with a Z-fiber architecture in 2-3 in. thicknesses. These preforms contained S-2 Glass (AGY, Aiken, SC, USA), carbon, and Twaron (Teijin Aramid, Arnhem, The Netherlands) yarns in different architectures creating a hybrid material system. Due to the thickness of the material, these samples required a significant span length (30 in.). The results showed a change in the strength and degradation after failure with the addition of carbon layers in tension.

  17. Label-free three-dimensional (3D) structural imaging in live cells using intrinsic optical refractive index

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen

    2017-04-14

    Here we report a method for visualization of volumetric structural information of live biological samples with no exogenous contrast agents. The process is made possible through a technique that involves generation, synthesis and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) Fourier components of light diffracted by the sample. This leads to the direct recovery of quantitative cellular morphology with no iterative procedures for reduced computational complexity. Combing with the fact that the technique is easily adaptive to any imaging platform and requires minimum sample preparation, our proposed method is particularly promising for observing fast, volumetric and dynamic events previously only accessible through staining methods.

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar bone resorption by image processing of 3-D dental CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel system that provides total support for assessment of alveolar bone resorption, caused by periodontitis, based on three-dimensional (3-D) dental CT images. In spite of the difficulty in perceiving the complex 3-D shape of resorption, dentists assessing resorption location and severity have been relying on two-dimensional radiography and probing, which merely provides one-dimensional information (depth) about resorption shape. However, there has been little work on assisting assessment of the disease by 3-D image processing and visualization techniques. This work provides quantitative evaluation results and figures for our system that measures the three-dimensional shape and spread of resorption. It has the following functions: (1) measures the depth of resorption by virtually simulating probing in the 3-D CT images, taking advantage of image processing of not suffering obstruction by teeth on the inter-proximal sides and much smaller measurement intervals than the conventional examination; (2) visualizes the disposition of the depth by movies and graphs; (3) produces a quantitative index and intuitive visual representation of the spread of resorption in the inter-radicular region in terms of area; and (4) calculates the volume of resorption as another severity index in the inter-radicular region and the region outside it. Experimental results in two cases of 3-D dental CT images and a comparison of the results with the clinical examination results and experts' measurements of the corresponding patients confirmed that the proposed system gives satisfying results, including 0.1 to 0.6mm of resorption measurement (probing) error and fairly intuitive presentation of measurement and calculation results.

  19. Postoperative follow-up study of craniosynostosis using three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jiro; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1988-12-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three-dimensional images from high-resolution CT-scan series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephalocele, and other skeletal pathologies. In this study, the postoperative assessment of craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using 3D-CT techniques in craniosynostosis. The results are as follows: (1) Postoperative 3D-CTs reveal the bony anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and more stereographically than do conventional radiological techniques. (2) Secondary changes in the cranium after the surgery, such as reossification at the area of osteotomies or postoperative asymmetric skull deformities, are more early detected by the 3D-CT imaging technique than by a craniogram. (3) In 3D-CT images, internal views of the skull, such mid-sagittal, rear internal, or top axial views of the intracranial skull base, are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results and of postoperative secondary changes in the cranium. Based on our experience, we expect that 3D-CT imaging techniques will become more important in the management of craniosynostosis.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstructions come to life--interactive 3D PDF animations in functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering.

  1. Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  2. Digestive toxicities after palliative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for cervico-thoracic spinal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraga, Guillaume; Caron, Delphine; Lizee, Thibaut; Metayer, Yann; Septans, Anne-Lise; Pointreau, Yoann; Denis, Fabrice; Ganem, Gerard; Lafond, Cedrik; Roche, Sophie; Dupuis, Olivier

    2017-12-23

    The palliative treatment for cervico-thoracic spinal metastases is based on a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Digestive toxicities are common and cause a clinical impact frequently underestimated in patients. We performed a retrospective study of digestive side effects occurring after palliative 3D-CRT for cervico-thoracic spinal metastases. All patients receiving palliative 3D-CRT at Jean Bernard Center from January 2013 to December 2014 for spinal metastases between the 5th cervical vertebra (C5) and the 12th thoracic vertebra (T12) were eligible. Three-dimensional conformal RT was delivered by a linear accelerator (CLINAC, Varian). Premedication to prevent digestive toxicities was not used. Adverse events ("esophagitis" and "nausea and/or vomiting") were evaluated according to the NCI-CTCae (version 4). From January 2013 to December 2014, 128 patients met the study criteria. The median age was 68.6 years [31.8; 88.6]. Most patients (84.4%) received 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The median overall time of treatment was 13 days [3-33]. Forty patients (31.3%) suffered from grade ≥ 2 of "esophagitis" (35 grade 2 (27.4%) and 5 grade 3 (3.9%)). Eight patients (6.3%) suffered from grade ≥ 2 of "nausea and/or vomiting" (6 grade 2 (4.7%), 1 grade 3 (0.8%), and 1 grade 4 (0.8%)). The high incidence of moderate to severe digestive toxicities after palliative 3D-CRT for cervico-thoracic spinal metastases led to consider static or dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to reduce the dose to organ at risk (the esophagus and stomach). Dosimetric studies and implementation in the clinic should be the next steps.

  3. Cellular reactions to three-dimensional matrices of polylactic acid and hydroxyapatite generated by 3D-printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Druzhinina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate Ex vivo physicochemical and biological features of three-dimensional (3D biodegradable matrices “polylactic acid/calcium phosphates” (hereafter 3D composites designed with the help of additive technologies (3D printing as potential materials for bone tissue regeneration.Materials and methods. Experimental samples (disks 1,2–1,6 mm thick, and 11 mm or 8 mm in diameter of composite biodegradable 3D matrices (hereafter 3D composites have been produced from initial mixture of 95 mas% polylactic acid (PLA and 5 mas% hydroxyapatite (HAP. Computer-aided design method, Blender software and fused filament fabrication (FFF; fiber diameter 1,75 mm with 3D printing were used in sample production. 100 mas% PLA disks served as control. One of the sample surfaces was textured with 0,3–0,5 mm wide grooves. Physicochemical properties of 11 mm disks (geometry, mass, morphology, roughness, electrostatic voltage, surface wettability, and element composition were studied. Biological trials included the evaluation of 24-hour cytotoxicity of 8 mm samples in culture of mononuclear leukocytes of a healthy volunteer or human Jurkat T cell leukemia-derived cell line (hereafter Jurkat T cells. Moreover, osteogenic potential of 11 mm disks was determined in 21-day culture of human adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (AMMSCs be means of osteocalcin secretion and intercellular matrix mineralization visualized by alizarin red S staining.Results. The features of PLA-HAP 3D composites generated by 3D printing correspond to physicochemical parameters which are crucial for bone tissue recovery. In case of small amount of calcium and phosphorus they facilitated ex vivo mineralization of extracellular matrix formed in AMMSCs culture. The number of died (by necrosis, mainly leukemic Jurkat T cells but not mononuclear leukocytes of a health volunteer increased to 9–10% in 24-hour in vitro contact with PLA-HAP 3D

  4. Predicting Subtype Selectivity for Adenosine Receptor Ligands with Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song-Bing; Ben Hu; Kuang, Zheng-Kun; Wang, Dong; Kong, De-Xin

    2016-11-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are potential therapeutic targets for Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, pain, stroke and cancers. Prediction of subtype selectivity is therefore important from both therapeutic and mechanistic perspectives. In this paper, we introduced a shape similarity profile as molecular descriptor, namely three-dimensional biologically relevant spectrum (BRS-3D), for AR selectivity prediction. Pairwise regression and discrimination models were built with the support vector machine methods. The average determination coefficient (r2) of the regression models was 0.664 (for test sets). The 2B-3 (A2B vs A3) model performed best with q2 = 0.769 for training sets (10-fold cross-validation), and r2 = 0.766, RMSE = 0.828 for test sets. The models’ robustness and stability were validated with 100 times resampling and 500 times Y-randomization. We compared the performance of BRS-3D with 3D descriptors calculated by MOE. BRS-3D performed as good as, or better than, MOE 3D descriptors. The performances of the discrimination models were also encouraging, with average accuracy (ACC) 0.912 and MCC 0.792 (test set). The 2A-3 (A2A vs A3) selectivity discrimination model (ACC = 0.882 and MCC = 0.715 for test set) outperformed an earlier reported one (ACC = 0.784). These results demonstrated that, through multiple conformation encoding, BRS-3D can be used as an effective molecular descriptor for AR subtype selectivity prediction.

  5. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines.

  6. Adaptation of the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS) for the Korean cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Knight, Bob G

    2014-10-23

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous research on wisdom has suggested that wisdom is comprised of cognitive, reflective, and affective components and has developed and validated wisdom measures based on samples from Western countries. To apply the measurement to Eastern cultures, the present study revised an existing wisdom scale, the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS, Ardelt, 2003) for the Korean cultural context. Methods: Participants included 189 Korean heritage adults (age range 19-96) living in Los Angeles. We added a culturally specific factor of wisdom to the 3D-WS: Modesty and Unobtrusiveness (Yang, 2001), which captures an Eastern aspect of wisdom. The structure and psychometrics of the scale were tested. By latent cluster analysis, we determined acculturation subgroups and examined group differences in the means of factors in the revised wisdom scale (3D-WS-K). Results: Three factors, Cognitive Flexibility, Viewpoint Relativism, and Empathic Modesty were found using confirmatory factor analysis. Respondents with high biculturalism were higher on Viewpoint Relativism and lower on Empathic Modesty. Conclusion: This study discovered that a revised wisdom scale had a distinct factor structure and item content in a Korean heritage sample. We also found acculturation influences on the meaning of wisdom.

  7. Usefulness of three-dimensional CT pancreatography (3D-CTP) after the balloon-ERP for pancreatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, Toshiharu; Oishi, Yayoi; Sakaguchi, Seigo; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Yao, Tsuneyoshi [Fukuoka Univ., Chikushino (Japan). Chikushi Hospital; Ichimaru, Yoshihiko; Koga, Yuki; Ikeda, Seiyo

    1998-03-01

    The clinical usefulness of 3D-CTP combined with the balloon-ERP and helical-CT was discussed. Authors diagnosed 42 patients with pancreatic diseases, including 5 of pancreatic carcinoma, 3 of serous cystadenoma, 6 of muciparous pancreatic cyst, 28 of chronic pancreatitis (including 8 cases of complicated pseudocyst). The images could reconstruct three-dimensionally the tapering constriction in the main pancreatic duct for all 5 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, the exclusion in the main pancreatic duct for 3 cases of serous cystadenoma and 1 case of muciparous pancreatic cyst, the parietal irregularity for 14 cases and the smooth constriction for 9 cases in main pancreatic duct of chronic pancreatitis, the morphology of the cyst and the spatial relationship between the cyst and the pancreatic duct in 5 of 6 cases of muciparous pancreatic cyst and 7 of 8 cases of complicated pseudocyst. Furthermore, the 3D-CTP could demonstrate the branched pancreatic duct at the constriction site which was not detected by the balloon-ERP in 2 cases of chronic pancreatitis with the constriction at the main pancreatic duct, and the joining manner of cyst to the pancreatic duct which was indistinct by the balloon-ERP in 6 cases of pancreatic cyst. These results show that 3D-CTP is useful for the qualitative diagnosis and applicable for the understanding of pancreatic diseases and for the simulation of surgery. (K.H.)

  8. Development Of Multistitched Three-Dimensional (3D Nanocomposite And Evaluation Of Its Mechanical And Impact Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilisik Kadir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multistitched three-dimensional (3D woven E-glass/polyester/nanosilica composite (MNS was developed. Its mechanical and impact performances were characterized for particular end-use applications. It was found that the warp-weft directional tensile strength and modulus of MNS structure were higher than those of the off-axis directions. In addition, there was not a big difference between warp and weft directional bending and short beam strengths of MNS structure. The MNS structure had a small damaged area under low velocity impact load. The failure was confined at a narrow area because of multistitching and nanomaterial and resulted in the catastrophic fiber breakages in the normal direction of the applied load of the structure. The results from the study indicated that the multistitching and the addition of nanosilica in the composite structure improved its damage tolerance.

  9. Identifying cell and molecular stress after radiation in a three-dimensional (3-D) model of oral mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambros, Maria Polikandritou, E-mail: mlambros@westernu.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Parsa, Cyrus [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Mulamalla, HariChandana [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Orlando, Robert [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Lau, Bernard [Center for Advancement of Drug Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Huang, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Center for Advancement of Drug Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Pon, Doreen [Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Chow, Moses [Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Center for Advancement of Drug Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} We irradiated a 3-D human oral cell culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts with 12 and 2 Gy. {yields} 6 h after irradiation the histopathology and apoptosis of the 3-D culture were evaluated. Microarrays were used to assess the gene expression in the irradiated 3-D tissue. {yields} 12 Gy induced significant histopathologic changes and cellular apoptosis. {yields} 12 Gy significantly affected genes of the NF-kB pathway, inflammatory cytokines and DAMPs. -- Abstract: Mucositis is a debilitating adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. It is important to develop a simple and reliable in vitro model, which can routinely be used to screen new drugs for prevention and treatment of mucositis. Furthermore, identifying cell and molecular stresses especially in the initiation phase of mucositis in this model will help towards this end. We evaluated a three-dimensional (3-D) human oral cell culture that consisted of oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts as a model of oral mucositis. The 3-D cell culture model was irradiated with 12 or 2 Gy. Six hours after the irradiation we evaluated microscopic sections of the cell culture for evidence of morphologic changes including apoptosis. We used microarrays to compare the expression of several genes from the irradiated tissue with identical genes from tissue that was not irradiated. We found that irradiation with 12 Gy induced significant histopathologic effects including cellular apoptosis. Irradiation significantly affected the expression of several genes of the NF-kB pathway and several inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1B, 1L-8, NF-kB1, and FOS compared to tissue that was not irradiated. We identified significant upregulation of several genes that belong to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as HMB1, S100A13, SA10014, and SA10016 in the 3-D tissues that received 12 Gy but not in tissues that received 2 Gy. In conclusion, this model quantifies radiation damage and this

  10. iBem3D, a three-dimensional iterative boundary element method using angular dislocations for modeling geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerten, F.; Maerten, L.; Pollard, D. D.

    2014-11-01

    Most analytical solutions to engineering or geological problems are limited to simple geometries. For example, analytical solutions have been found to solve for stresses around a circular hole in a plate. To solve more complex problems, mathematicians and engineers have developed powerful computer-aided numerical methods, which can be categorized into two main types: differential methods and integral methods. The finite element method (FEM) is a differential method that was developed in the 1950s and is one of the most commonly used numerical methods today. Since its development, other differential methods, including the boundary element method (BEM), have been developed to solve different types of problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe iBem3D, formally called Poly3D, a C++ and modular 3D boundary element computer program based on the theory of angular dislocations for modeling three-dimensional (3D) discontinuities in an elastic, heterogeneous, isotropic whole- or half-space. After 20 years and more than 150 scientific publications, we present in detail the formulation behind this method, its enhancements over the years as well as some important applications in several domains of the geosciences. The main advantage of using this formulation, for describing geological objects such as faults, resides in the possibility of modeling complex geometries without gaps and overlaps between adjacent triangular dislocation elements, which is a significant shortcoming for models using rectangular dislocation elements. Reliability, speed, simplicity, and accuracy are enhanced in the latest version of the computer code. Industrial applications include subseismic fault modeling, fractured reservoir modeling, interpretation and validation of fault connectivity and reservoir compartmentalization, depleted area and fault reactivation, and pressurized wellbore stability. Academic applications include earthquake and volcano monitoring, hazard mitigation, and slope

  11. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  12. Innovative three-dimensional (3D) eco-TiO2 photocatalysts for practical environmental and bio-medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Young-Chul; Son, Byoungchul; Park, So Young; Lee, Jae Won; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Yooseok; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Young-Seak; Lee, Jouhahn

    2014-01-01

    It is known that water purified by conventional TiO2 photocatalysts may not be safe enough for drinking, due to the toxicity by tiny existence of TiO2 nanoparticles after water treatment. We herein demonstrate a facile design of a three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 photocatalyst structure with which both the efficiency of purification and the safety level of the final purified water can be improved and ensured, respectively. The structure, consisting of 3D sulfur-doped TiO2 microtubes in nanotubes (eco-TiO2), is suitable for both environmental and bio-medical applications. Investigation of its formation mechanism reveals that anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), owing to a spatial constraint, causes a simple, nanoparticles-to-nanotubes structural rearrangement as a template for nanotube growth. It is found that eco-TiO2 can be activated under visible-light irradiation by non-metal (sulfur; S) doping, after which it shows visible-light photocatalytic activities over a range of solar energy. Importantly, an in vitro cytotoxicity test of well-purified water by eco-TiO2 confirms that eco-TiO2 satisfies the key human safety conditions. PMID:25338845

  13. Human platelet lysate improves human cord blood derived ECFC survival and vasculogenesis in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Prasain, Nutan; Vemula, Sasidhar; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Yoder, Mervin C

    2015-09-01

    Human cord blood (CB) is enriched in circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) that display high proliferative potential and in vivo vessel forming ability. Since diminished ECFC survival is known to dampen the vasculogenic response in vivo, we tested how long implanted ECFC survive and generate vessels in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen matrices in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that human platelet lysate (HPL) would promote cell survival and enhance vasculogenesis in the 3D collagen matrices. We report that the percentage of ECFC co-cultured with HPL that were alive was significantly enhanced on days 1 and 3 post-matrix formation, compared to ECFC alone containing matrices. Also, co-culture of ECFC with HPL displayed significantly more vasculogenic activity compared to ECFC alone and expressed significantly more pro-survival molecules (pAkt, p-Bad and Bcl-xL) in the 3D collagen matrices in vitro. Treatment with Akt1 inhibitor (A-674563), Akt2 inhibitor (CCT128930) and Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-263/Navitoclax) significantly decreased the cell survival and vasculogenesis of ECFC co-cultured with or without HPL and implicated activation of the Akt1 pathway as the critical mediator of the HPL effect on ECFC in vitro. A significantly greater average vessel number and total vascular area of human CD31(+) vessels were present in implants containing ECFC and HPL, compared to the ECFC alone implants in vivo. We conclude that implantation of ECFC with HPL in vivo promotes vasculogenesis and augments blood vessel formation via diminishing apoptosis of the implanted ECFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Three-dimensional (3D power Doppler and uterine artery Doppler differentiate between fibroids and adenomyomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Elkattan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine if the three-dimensional power Doppler and uterine arteries Doppler were able to differentiate between fibroids and adenomyomas. Methods: 123 patients who were scheduled for hysterectomy were enrolled in the study. They were evaluated by ultrasound before hysterectomy. We included only cases with either fibroids or adenomymas. For each benign myometrial mass, mass volume, 3D power Doppler vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI and vascularization flow index (VFI and uterine artery Doppler indices were measured. The results were compared with the histopathological examination. Results: No significant difference was detected between the volume of the fibroids or the adenomyomas (P = 0.896. There was significant difference in the vascular location of the power Doppler flow between fibroids and adenomyomas being more scattered in adenomyoma and more peripheral in fibroids (P < 0.00. In fibroids, higher 3D power Doppler vascular flow (VI = 2.42 ± 2.0, FI = 39.931 ± 5.8 and VFI = 1.29 ± 1.54 than adenomyomas (VI = 1.19 ± 1.04, FI = 28.33 ± 6.88, VFI = 0.89 ± 0.49. That was statistically significant (P = 0.005, 0.00, 0.004 respectively. The uterine artery Doppler indices (RI, PI showed no significant difference between fibroids and adenomyoma (P = 0.349, 0.067. Conclusion: 3D power Doppler can differentiate between fibroids and adenomyomas. The uterine arteries Doppler Can’t differentiate between fibroids and adenomyomas.

  15. Overview of 3D-TRACE, a NASA Initiative in Three-Dimensional Tomography of the Aerosol-Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony; Diner, David; Yanovsky, Igor; Garay, Michael; Xu, Feng; Bal, Guillaume; Schechner, Yoav; Aides, Amit; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing is a key tool for sorting cloud ensembles by dynamical state, aerosol environments by source region, and establishing causal relationships between aerosol amounts, type, and cloud microphysics-the so-called indirect aerosol climate impacts, and one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate models. Current satellite imagers use data processing approaches that invariably start with cloud detection/masking to isolate aerosol air-masses from clouds, and then rely on one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer (RT) to interpret the aerosol and cloud measurements in isolation. Not only does this lead to well-documented biases for the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and cloud optical depths in current missions, but it is fundamentally inadequate for future missions such as EarthCARE where capturing the complex, three-dimensional (3D) interactions between clouds and aerosols is a primary objective. In order to advance the state of the art, the next generation of satellite information processing systems must incorporate technologies that will enable the treatment of the atmosphere as a fully 3D environment, represented more realistically as a continuum. At one end, there is an optically thin background dominated by aerosols and molecular scattering that is strongly stratified and relatively homogeneous in the horizontal. At the other end, there are optically thick embedded elements, clouds and aerosol plumes, which can be more or less uniform and quasi-planar or else highly 3D with boundaries in all directions; in both cases, strong internal variability may be present. To make this paradigm shift possible, we propose to combine the standard models for satellite signal prediction physically grounded in 1D and 3D RT, both scalar and vector, with technologies adapted from biomedical imaging, digital image processing, and computer vision. This will enable us to demonstrate how the 3D distribution of atmospheric constituents, and their associated

  16. Three-dimensional (3D) evaluation of liquid distribution in shake flask using an optical fluorescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Amizon; Büchs, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Biotechnological development in shake flask necessitates vital engineering parameters e.g. volumetric power input, mixing time, gas liquid mass transfer coefficient, hydromechanical stress and effective shear rate. Determination and optimization of these parameters through experiments are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides the ability to predict and validate these parameters in bioprocess engineering. This work provides ample experimental data which are easily accessible for future validations to represent the hydrodynamics of the fluid flow in the shake flask. A non-invasive measuring technique using an optical fluorescence method was developed for shake flasks containing a fluorescent solution with a waterlike viscosity at varying filling volume (VL = 15 to 40 mL) and shaking frequency (n = 150 to 450 rpm) at a constant shaking diameter (do = 25 mm). The method detected the leading edge (LB) and tail of the rotating bulk liquid (TB) relative to the direction of the centrifugal acceleration at varying circumferential heights from the base of the shake flask. The determined LB and TB points were translated into three-dimensional (3D) circumferential liquid distribution plots. The maximum liquid height (Hmax) of the bulk liquid increased with increasing filling volume and shaking frequency of the shaking flask, as expected. The toroidal shapes of LB and TB are clearly asymmetrical and the measured TB differed by the elongation of the liquid particularly towards the torus part of the shake flask. The 3D liquid distribution data collected at varying filling volume and shaking frequency, comprising of LB and TB values relative to the direction of the centrifugal acceleration are essential for validating future numerical solutions using CFD to predict vital engineering parameters in shake flask.

  17. Toxicology studies of primycin-sulphate using a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro human liver aggregate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Ágota; Mahmud Abdelwahab, Elhusseiny Mohamed; Rapp, Judit; Péteri, Zsanett A; Bovári-Biri, Judit; Fekete, Csaba; Miskei, György; Kvell, Krisztián; Pongrácz, Judit E

    2017-11-05

    Primycin-sulphate is a highly effective compound against Gram (G) positive bacteria. It has a potentially synergistic effect with vancomycin and statins which makes primycin-sulphate a potentially very effective preparation. Primycin-sulphate is currently used exclusively in topical preparations. In vitro animal hepatocyte and neuromuscular junction studies (in mice, rats, snakes, frogs) as well as in in vitro human red blood cell experiments were used to test toxicity. During these studies, the use of primycin-sulphate resulted in reduced cellular membrane integrity and modified ion channel activity. Additionally, parenteral administration of primycin-sulphate to mice, dogs, cats, rabbits and guinea pigs indicated high level of acute toxicity. The objective of this study was to reveal the cytotoxic and gene expression modifying effects of primycin-sulphate in a human system using an in vitro, three dimensional (3D) human hepatic model system. Within the 3D model, primycin-sulphate presented no acute cytotoxicity at concentrations 1μg/ml and below. However, even at low concentrations, primycin-sulphate affected gene expressions by up-regulating inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL6), chemokines (e.g., CXCL5) and by down-regulating molecules of the lipid metabolism (e.g., peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR) alpha, gamma, etc). Down-regulation of PPAR alpha cannot just disrupt lipid production but can also affect cytochrome P450 metabolic enzyme (CYP) 3A4 expression, highlighting the need for extensive drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies before human oral or parenteral preparations can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-dimensional automated reporter quantification (3D-ARQ) technology enables quantitative screening in retinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, M Natalia; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Aparicio-Domingo, Silvia; McNally, Minda; Wahlin, Karl J; Saxena, Meera T; Mumm, Jeff S; Canto-Soler, M Valeria

    2017-10-15

    The advent of stem cell-derived retinal organoids has brought forth unprecedented opportunities for developmental and physiological studies, while presenting new therapeutic promise for retinal degenerative diseases. From a translational perspective, organoid systems provide exciting new prospects for drug discovery, offering the possibility to perform compound screening in a three-dimensional (3D) human tissue context that resembles the native histoarchitecture and to some extent recapitulates cellular interactions. However, inherent variability issues and a general lack of robust quantitative technologies for analyzing organoids on a large scale pose severe limitations for their use in translational applications. To address this need, we have developed a screening platform that enables accurate quantification of fluorescent reporters in complex human iPSC-derived retinal organoids. This platform incorporates a fluorescence microplate reader that allows xyz-dimensional detection and fine-tuned wavelength selection. We have established optimal parameters for fluorescent reporter signal detection, devised methods to compensate for organoid size variability, evaluated performance and sensitivity parameters, and validated this technology for functional applications. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Three-dimensional (3D) palladium-zinc oxide nanowire nanofiber as photo-catalyst for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungsu; Chan, Sophia; Joo, Hyunjong; Yang, Heejae; Ko, Frank K

    2016-09-15

    Zinc Oxide Nano Wires (ZNWs) has been considered as a promising material for purification and disinfection of water and remediation of hazardous waste owing to its high activity and lower cost. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) structured palladium (Pd)/ZNWs were synthesized on the fabricated electrospun nanofibers and explored for enhancement of organic matter (OM) removal efficiency in water by suppressing electron-hole recombination during photocatalytic activity and increased surface area. The densely populated ZNWs were fabricated on the electrospun nanofiber by electroless plating (EP) and hydrothermal synthesis. In order to improve photocatalytic efficiency, a thin layer of Pd was coated prior to ZNWs growth to induce suppression of electron hole recombination produced during catalyst activity. The creation of a highly porous network of nanofibers decorated with ZNWs resulted in an increase of specific removal rate (SRR) of OM from 0.0249 to 0.0377 mg CODCr removed/mg ZNWs-hr when ZNW were grown on a Pd layer. It is believed that the demonstration of OM removal in the water through Pd/ZNWs membrane and enhanced photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation from layered structure can broaden potential applicability of Pd/ZNWs membranes for various photo catalytic water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar (3D SISAR). Final report, September 22, 1993--September 22, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground.

  1. Reconstruction of blood propagation in three-dimensional rotational X-ray angiography (3D-RA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Holger; Grass, Michael; Suurmond, Rolf; Köhler, Thomas; Rasche, Volker; Hähnel, Stefan; Heiland, Sabine

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a framework of non-interactive algorithms for the mapping of blood flow information to vessels in 3D-RA images. With the presented method, mapping of flow information to 3D-RA images is done automatically without user interaction. So far, radiologists had to perform this task by extensive image comparisons and did not obtain visualizations of the results. In our approach, flow information is reconstructed by forward projection of vessel pieces in a 3D-RA image to a two-dimensional projection series capturing the propagation of a short additional contrast agent bolus. For accurate 2D-3D image registration, an efficient patient motion compensation technique is introduced. As an exemplary flow-related quantity, bolus arrival times are reconstructed for the vessel pieces by matching of intensity-time curves. A plausibility check framework was developed which handles projection ambiguities and corrects for noisy flow reconstruction results. It is based on a linear programming approach to model the feeding structure of the vessel. The flow reconstruction method was applied to 12 cases of cerebral stenoses, AVMs and aneurysms, and it proved to be feasible in the clinical environment. The propagation of the injected contrast agent was reconstructed and visualized in three-dimensional images. The flow reconstruction method was able to visualize different types of useful information. In cases of stenosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), flow reconstruction can reveal impeded blood flow depending on the severeness of the stenosis. With cases of AVMs, flow reconstruction can clarify the feeding structure. The presented methods handle the problems imposed by clinical demands such as non-interactive algorithms, patient motion compensation, short reconstruction times, and technical requirements such as correction of noisy bolus arrival times and handling of overlapping vessel pieces. Problems occurred mainly in the reconstruction and segmentation of 3D

  2. Thoracic Temporal Subtraction Three Dimensional Computed Tomography (3D-CT: Screening for Vertebral Metastases of Primary Lung Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Iwano

    Full Text Available We developed an original, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD software that subtracts the initial thoracic vertebral three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT image from the follow-up 3D-CT image. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this CAD software during screening for vertebral metastases on follow-up CT images of primary lung cancer patients.The interpretation experiment included 30 sets of follow-up CT scans in primary lung cancer patients and was performed by two readers (readers A and B, who each had 2.5 years' experience reading CT images. In 395 vertebrae from C6 to L3, 46 vertebral metastases were identified as follows: osteolytic metastases (n = 17, osteoblastic metastases (n = 14, combined osteolytic and osteoblastic metastases (n = 6, and pathological fractures (n = 9. Thirty-six lesions were in the anterior component (vertebral body, and 10 lesions were in the posterior component (vertebral arch, transverse process, and spinous process. The area under the curve (AUC by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis and the sensitivity and specificity for detecting vertebral metastases were compared with and without CAD for each observer.Reader A detected 47 abnormalities on CT images without CAD, and 33 of them were true-positive metastatic lesions. Using CAD, reader A detected 57 abnormalities, and 38 were true positives. The sensitivity increased from 0.717 to 0.826, and on ROC curve analysis, AUC with CAD was significantly higher than that without CAD (0.849 vs. 0.902, p = 0.021. Reader B detected 40 abnormalities on CT images without CAD, and 36 of them were true-positive metastatic lesions. Using CAD, reader B detected 44 abnormalities, and 39 were true positives. The sensitivity increased from 0.783 to 0.848, and AUC with CAD was nonsignificantly higher than that without CAD (0.889 vs. 0.910, p = 0.341. Both readers detected more osteolytic and osteoblastic metastases with CAD than without CAD

  3. Visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distributions (ISEE_3D) as a plug-in for SPEDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Machida, Shinobu; Ieda, Akimasa; Seki, Kanako; Hori, Tomoaki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Shoji, Masafumi; Shinohara, Iku; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Lewis, Jim W.; Flores, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces ISEE_3D, an interactive visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distribution functions, developed by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Japan. The tool provides a variety of methods to visualize the distribution function of space plasma: scatter, volume, and isosurface modes. The tool also has a wide range of functions, such as displaying magnetic field vectors and two-dimensional slices of distributions to facilitate extensive analysis. The coordinate transformation to the magnetic field coordinates is also implemented in the tool. The source codes of the tool are written as scripts of a widely used data analysis software language, Interactive Data Language, which has been widespread in the field of space physics and solar physics. The current version of the tool can be used for data files of the plasma distribution function from the Geotail satellite mission, which are publicly accessible through the Data Archives and Transmission System of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The tool is also available in the Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software to visualize plasma data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. The tool is planned to be applied to data from other missions, such as Arase (ERG) and Van Allen Probes after replacing or adding data loading plug-ins. This visualization tool helps scientists understand the dynamics of space plasma better, particularly in the regions where the magnetohydrodynamic approximation is not valid, for example, the Earth's inner magnetosphere, magnetopause, bow shock, and plasma sheet.

  4. Three Dimensional (3D) Printing: A Straightforward, User-Friendly Protocol to Convert Virtual Chemical Models to Real-Life Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Brenna, Davide; Porta, Riccardo; Orlandi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A simple procedure to convert protein data bank files (.pdb) into a stereolithography file (.stl) using VMD software (Virtual Molecular Dynamic) is reported. This tutorial allows generating, with a very simple protocol, three-dimensional customized structures that can be printed by a low-cost 3D-printer, and used for teaching chemical education…

  5. Expansion method of the three-dimensional viewing freedom of autostereoscopic 3D display with dynamic merged viewing zone (MVZ) under eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2017-05-01

    We studied expansion method of the three-dimensional viewing freedom of autostereoscopic 3D display with dynamic MVZ under tracking of viewer's eye. The dynamic MVZ technique can provide three dimensional images with minimized crosstalk when observer move at optimal viewing distance (OVD). In order to be extended to movement in the depth direction of the observer of this technology, it is provided a new pixel mapping method of the left eye and the right eye images at the time of the depth direction movement of the observer. When this pixel mapping method is applied to common autostereoscopic 3D display, the image of the 3D display as viewed from the observer position has the nonuniformed brightness distribution of a constant period in the horizontal direction depending on depth direction distance from OVD. It makes it difficult to provide a three-dimensional image of good quality to the observer who deviates from OVD. In this study, it is simulated brightness distribution formed by the proposed pixel mapping when it is moved in the depth direction away OVD and confirmed the characteristics with the captured photos of two cameras on observer position to simulated two eyes of viewer using a developed 3D display system. As a result, we found that observer can perceive 3D images of same quality as OVD position even when he moves away from it in the developed 3D display system.

  6. Comparison of Three-Dimensional (3D) Conformal Proton Radiotherapy (RT), 3D Conformal Photon RT, and Intensity-Modulated RT for Retroperitoneal and Intra-Abdominal Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Erika L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G.; Paryani, Nitesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Slopsema, Roelf [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To compare three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3DCPT), intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), and 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) to predict the optimal RT technique for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Methods and Materials: 3DCRT, IMRT, and 3DCPT plans were created for treating eight patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumor plus a 2-cm margin, limited by bone and intact fascial planes. For photon plans, the planning target volume (PTV) included a uniform expansion of 5 mm. For the proton plans, the PTV was nonuniform and beam-specific. The prescription dose was 50.4 Gy/Cobalt gray equivalent CGE. Plans were normalized so that >95% of the CTV received 100% of the dose. Results: The CTV was covered adequately by all techniques. The median conformity index was 0.69 for 3DCPT, 0.75 for IMRT, and 0.51 for 3DCRT. The median inhomogeneity coefficient was 0.062 for 3DCPT, 0.066 for IMRT, and 0.073 for 3DCRT. The bowel median volume receiving 15 Gy (V15) was 16.4% for 3DCPT, 52.2% for IMRT, and 66.1% for 3DCRT. The bowel median V45 was 6.3% for 3DCPT, 4.7% for IMRT, and 15.6% for 3DCRT. The median ipsilateral mean kidney dose was 22.5 CGE for 3DCPT, 34.1 Gy for IMRT, and 37.8 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral mean kidney dose was 0 CGE for 3DCPT, 6.4 Gy for IMRT, and 11 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral kidney V5 was 0% for 3DCPT, 49.9% for IMRT, and 99.7% for 3DCRT. Regardless of technique, the median mean liver dose was <30 Gy, and the median cord V50 was 0%. The median integral dose was 126 J for 3DCPT, 400 J for IMRT, and 432 J for 3DCRT. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCPT result in plans that are more conformal and homogenous than 3DCRT. Based on Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in Clinic benchmarks, the dosimetric advantage of proton therapy may be less gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity.

  7. Three-dimensional quantification of vorticity and helicity from 3D cine PC-MRI using finite-element interpolations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Julio; Urbina, Jesús; Valverde, Israel; Mura, Joaquín; Tejos, Cristián; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Andia, Marcelo E; Hurtado, Daniel E; Uribe, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    We propose a 3D finite-element method for the quantification of vorticity and helicity density from 3D cine phase-contrast (PC) MRI. By using a 3D finite-element method, we seamlessly estimate velocity gradients in 3D. The robustness and convergence were analyzed using a combined Poiseuille and Lamb-Ossen equation. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was used to compared our method with others available in the literature. Additionally, we computed 3D maps for different 3D cine PC-MRI data sets: phantom without and with coarctation (18 healthy volunteers and 3 patients). We found a good agreement between our method and both the analytical solution of the combined Poiseuille and Lamb-Ossen. The computational fluid dynamics results showed that our method outperforms current approaches to estimate vorticity and helicity values. In the in silico model, we observed that for a tetrahedral element of 2 mm of characteristic length, we underestimated the vorticity in less than 5% with respect to the analytical solution. In patients, we found higher values of helicity density in comparison to healthy volunteers, associated with vortices in the lumen of the vessels. We proposed a novel method that provides entire 3D vorticity and helicity density maps, avoiding the used of reformatted 2D planes from 3D cine PC-MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:541-553, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. The Rho family GEF Asef2 regulates cell migration in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices through myosin II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Léolène; Yang, Lijie; Majumdar, Devi; Gao, Yandong; Shi, Mingjian; Brewer, Bryson M.; Li, Deyu; Webb, Donna J

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to a variety of physiological processes, including tissue development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Migration has been extensively studied with cells on 2-dimensional (2D) substrates, but much less is known about cell migration in 3D environments. Tissues and organs are 3D, which is the native environment of cells in vivo, pointing to a need to understand migration and the mechanisms that regulate it in 3D environments. To investigate cell migration in 3D environments, we developed microfluidic devices that afford a controlled, reproducible platform for generating 3D matrices. Using these devices, we show that the Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Asef2 inhibits cell migration in 3D type I collagen (collagen I) matrices. Treatment of cells with the myosin II (MyoII) inhibitor blebbistatin abolished the decrease in migration by Asef2. Moreover, Asef2 enhanced MyoII activity as shown by increased phosphorylation of serine 19 (S19). Furthermore, Asef2 increased activation of Rac, which is a Rho family small GTPase, in 3D collagen I matrices. Inhibition of Rac activity by treatment with the Rac-specific inhibitor NSC23766 abrogated the Asef2-promoted increase in S19 MyoII phosphorylation. Thus, our results indicate that Asef2 regulates cell migration in 3D collagen I matrices through a Rac-MyoII-dependent mechanism. PMID:25517435

  9. Acetic acid-confined synthesis of uniform three-dimensional (3D) bismuth telluride nanocrystals consisting of few-quintuple-layer nanoplatelets

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    High-selectivity, uniform three-dimensional (3D) flower-like bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanocrystals consisting of few-quintuple-layer nanoplatelets with a thickness down to 4.5 nm were synthesized for the first time by a facile, one-pot polyol method with acetic acid as the structure-director. Micrometre-sized 2D films and honeycomb-like spheres can be obtained using the uniform 3D Bi2Te3 nanocrystals as building blocks. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  10. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present "Met.3D", a new open-source tool for the interactive three-dimensional (3-D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns; however, it is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output – 3-D visualization, ensemble visualization and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2-D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3-D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3-D context. We address the issue of spatial perception in the 3-D view and present approaches to using the ensemble to allow the user to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to our approach. Met.3D uses modern graphics technology to achieve interactive visualization on standard consumer hardware. The tool supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF and can operate directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. We describe the employed visualization algorithms, and analyse the impact of the ECMWF grid topology on computing 3-D ensemble statistical quantities. Our techniques are demonstrated with examples from the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX – North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment campaign.

  11. Three-Dimensional Phylogeny Explorer: Distinguishing paralogs, lateral transfer, and violation of "molecular clock" assumption with 3D visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Christopher

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Construction and interpretation of phylogenetic trees has been a major research topic for understanding the evolution of genes. Increases in sequence data and complexity are creating a need for more powerful and insightful tree visualization tools. Results We have developed 3D Phylogeny Explorer (3DPE, a novel phylogeny tree viewer that maps trees onto three spatial axes (species on the X-axis; paralogs on Z; evolutionary distance on Y, enabling one to distinguish at a glance evolutionary features such as speciation; gene duplication and paralog evolution; lateral gene transfer; and violation of the "molecular clock" assumption. Users can input any tree on the online 3DPE, then rotate, scroll, rescale, and explore it interactively as "live" 3D views. All objects in 3DPE are clickable to display subtrees, connectivity path highlighting, sequence alignments, and gene summary views, and etc. To illustrate the value of this visualization approach for microbial genomes, we also generated 3D phylogeny analyses for all clusters from the public COG database. We constructed tree views using well-established methods and graph algorithms. We used Scientific Python to generate VRML2 3D views viewable in any web browser. Conclusion 3DPE provides a novel phylogenetic tree projection method into 3D space and its web-based implementation with live 3D features for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of COG database.

  12. DYNA3D: A nonlinear, explicit, three-dimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics, User manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report is the User Manual for the 1993 version of DYNA3D, and also serves as a User Guide. DYNA3D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of three-dimensional solids and structures. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA3D includes solid, shell, beam, and truss elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding and single surface contact. Rigid materials provide added modeling flexibility. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA3D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. Along with the DYNA3D Example Problem Manual, this document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA3D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.

  13. iRegNet3D: three-dimensional integrated regulatory network for the genomic analysis of coding and non-coding disease mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Siqi; Tippens, Nathaniel D; Zhou, Yaoda; Mort, Matthew; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Yu, Haiyuan

    2017-01-18

    The mechanistic details of most disease-causing mutations remain poorly explored within the context of regulatory networks. We present a high-resolution three-dimensional integrated regulatory network (iRegNet3D) in the form of a web tool, where we resolve the interfaces of all known transcription factor (TF)-TF, TF-DNA and chromatin-chromatin interactions for the analysis of both coding and non-coding disease-associated mutations to obtain mechanistic insights into their functional impact. Using iRegNet3D, we find that disease-associated mutations may perturb the regulatory network through diverse mechanisms including chromatin looping. iRegNet3D promises to be an indispensable tool in large-scale sequencing and disease association studies.

  14. Influence of 3D porous galactose containing PVA/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds on three-dimensional spheroidal morphology of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthan, Kirthanashri S; Subramaniam, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional liver scaffolds are temporary framework that mimics native ECM architecture and positively influence hepatocyte lodging, proliferation with retention of metabolic activities. The aim of the current study is to develop galactose containing physical cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (P/G 8:2 and 9:1) hydrogel scaffolds via freeze/thaw technique. The 8:2 and 9:1 P/G hydrogels exhibited comparable pore size and porosity (P > 0.05). The tensile strength of the fabricated 8:2 and 9:1 P/G hydrogel scaffolds were found to be in accordance with native human liver. Pore interconnectivity of both the P/G hydrogel scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron micrographs and liquid displacement method. Further galactose containing hydrogel promoted cell-cell and cell-hydrogel interaction, aiding cellular aggregation leading to spheroids formation compared to void P/G hydrogel by 7 days. Hence, galactose containing P/G hydrogel could be more promising substrate as it showed significantly higher cell proliferation and albumin secretion for 21 days when compared to non-galactose P/G hydrogels (P < 0.05).

  15. A Microfluidic DNA Sensor Based on Three-Dimensional (3D) Hierarchical MoS2/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dahou; Tayebi, Mahnoush; Huang, Yinxi; Yang, Hui Ying; Ai, Ye

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel microfluidic biosensor for sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA based on 3D architectural MoS2/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites. The proposed platform exhibits a high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability with a visible manner and operation simplicity. The excellent fluorescence quenching stability of a MoS2/MWCNT aqueous solution coupled with microfluidics will greatly simplify experimental steps and reduce time for large-scale DNA detection. PMID:27854247

  16. A Microfluidic DNA Sensor Based on Three-Dimensional (3D Hierarchical MoS2/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahou Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel microfluidic biosensor for sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA based on 3D architectural MoS2/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT nanocomposites. The proposed platform exhibits a high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability with a visible manner and operation simplicity. The excellent fluorescence quenching stability of a MoS2/MWCNT aqueous solution coupled with microfluidics will greatly simplify experimental steps and reduce time for large-scale DNA detection.

  17. A Microfluidic DNA Sensor Based on Three-Dimensional (3D) Hierarchical MoS₂/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dahou; Tayebi, Mahnoush; Huang, Yinxi; Yang, Hui Ying; Ai, Ye

    2016-11-14

    In this work, we present a novel microfluidic biosensor for sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA based on 3D architectural MoS₂/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites. The proposed platform exhibits a high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability with a visible manner and operation simplicity. The excellent fluorescence quenching stability of a MoS₂/MWCNT aqueous solution coupled with microfluidics will greatly simplify experimental steps and reduce time for large-scale DNA detection.

  18. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of visible-light irradiation on physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of nitrogen-doped three-dimensional (3D) titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Choi, Saehae; Son, Byoungchul; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Sang Moon; Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Jouhahn

    2013-08-15

    We report highly active visible-light driven nitrogen-doped three-dimensional polycrystalline anatase TiO2 photocatalysts (N-3D TiO2) for environmental and biomedical applications. N-3D TiO2 is synthesized at a low temperature (<90°C) without thermal treatment via a modified hydrothermal process (HP) and ultrasound irradiation (UI). The N-3D TiO2 is additionally irradiated with visible-light to improve the hydroxylation of its surface. Under visible-light irradiation, the photocatalytic activity of visible-light irradiated N-3D TiO2 (*N-3D TiO2; [k]=1.435 h(-1)) is 26.1 times higher than that of 3D TiO2 ([k]=0.055 h(-1)). The *N-3D TiO2 is highly recyclable and retained 91.8% of the initial decolorization rate after fifteen cycles. Interestingly, the *N-3D TiO2 shows very strong antibacterial properties against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) after exposure to visible-light for 3h. The antibacterial properties of *N-3D TiO2 are more effective than those of TiO2, 3D TiO2, and N-3D TiO2. More than 91.3% of the E. coli is sterilized after ten cycles. There are a large increase in the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of *N-3D TiO2 relative to that of N-3D TiO2 owing to the hydroxylation of the N-3D TiO2 surface as a result of the visible-light irradiation. These results indicate that *N-3D TiO2 might have utility in several promising applications such as highly efficient water/air treatment, inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, and solar-energy conversion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Image Quality and Radiation Dose of CT Coronary Angiography with Automatic Tube Current Modulation and Strong Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction Three-Dimensional (AIDR3D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Shen

    Full Text Available To investigate image quality and radiation dose of CT coronary angiography (CTCA scanned using automatic tube current modulation (ATCM and reconstructed by strong adaptive iterative dose reduction three-dimensional (AIDR3D.Eighty-four consecutive CTCA patients were collected for the study. All patients were scanned using ATCM and reconstructed with strong AIDR3D, standard AIDR3D and filtered back-projection (FBP respectively. Two radiologists who were blinded to the patients' clinical data and reconstruction methods evaluated image quality. Quantitative image quality evaluation included image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR. To evaluate image quality qualitatively, coronary artery is classified into 15 segments based on the modified guidelines of the American Heart Association. Qualitative image quality was evaluated using a 4-point scale. Radiation dose was calculated based on dose-length product.Compared with standard AIDR3D, strong AIDR3D had lower image noise, higher SNR and CNR, their differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05; compared with FBP, strong AIDR3D decreased image noise by 46.1%, increased SNR by 84.7%, and improved CNR by 82.2%, their differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05 or 0.001. Segments with diagnostic image quality for strong AIDR3D were 336 (100.0%, 486 (96.4%, and 394 (93.8% in proximal, middle, and distal part respectively; whereas those for standard AIDR3D were 332 (98.8%, 472 (93.7%, 378 (90.0%, respectively; those for FBP were 217 (64.6%, 173 (34.3%, 114 (27.1%, respectively; total segments with diagnostic image quality in strong AIDR3D (1216, 96.5% were higher than those of standard AIDR3D (1182, 93.8% and FBP (504, 40.0%; the differences between strong AIDR3D and standard AIDR3D, strong AIDR3D and FBP were all statistically significant (P<0.05 or 0.001. The mean effective radiation dose was (2.55±1.21 mSv.Compared with standard AIDR3D and FBP, CTCA

  1. Using subject-specific three-dimensional (3D) anthropometry data in digital human modelling: case study in hand motion simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Liuxing; Ma, Liang

    2016-11-01

    Digital human modelling enables ergonomists and designers to consider ergonomic concerns and design alternatives in a timely and cost-efficient manner in the early stages of design. However, the reliability of the simulation could be limited due to the percentile-based approach used in constructing the digital human model. To enhance the accuracy of the size and shape of the models, we proposed a framework to generate digital human models using three-dimensional (3D) anthropometric data. The 3D scan data from specific subjects' hands were segmented based on the estimated centres of rotation. The segments were then driven in forward kinematics to perform several functional postures. The constructed hand models were then verified, thereby validating the feasibility of the framework. The proposed framework helps generate accurate subject-specific digital human models, which can be utilised to guide product design and workspace arrangement. Practitioner Summary: Subject-specific digital human models can be constructed under the proposed framework based on three-dimensional (3D) anthropometry. This approach enables more reliable digital human simulation to guide product design and workspace arrangement.

  2. A Review of Three-Dimensional Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (3D-SNOM and Its Applications in Nanoscale Light Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bazylewski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an overview of aperture and apertureless type scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM techniques that have been developed, with a focus on three-dimensional (3D SNOM methods. 3D SNOM has been undertaken to image the local distribution (within ~100 nm of the surface of the electromagnetic radiation scattered by random and deterministic arrays of metal nanostructures or photonic crystal waveguides. Individual metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticle arrays exhibit unique effects under light illumination, including plasmon resonance and waveguiding properties, which can be directly investigated using 3D-SNOM. In the second part of this article, we will review a few applications in which 3D-SNOM has proven to be useful for designing and understanding specific nano-optoelectronic structures. Examples include the analysis of the nano-optical response phonetic crystal waveguides, aperture antennae and metal nanoparticle arrays, as well as the design of plasmonic solar cells incorporating random arrays of copper nanoparticles as an optical absorption enhancement layer, and the use of 3D-SNOM to probe multiple components of the electric and magnetic near-fields without requiring specially designed probe tips. A common denominator of these examples is the added value provided by 3D-SNOM in predicting the properties-performance relationship of nanostructured systems.

  3. THREE DIMENSIONAL COMPLEX SHAPES ANALYSIS FROM 3D LOCAL CURVATURE MEASUREMENTS. APPLICATION TO INTERMETALLIC PARTICLES IN ALUMINIUM ALLOY 5XXX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Parra-Denis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The studied material is a 5xxx aluminium alloys containing 2 types of intermetallic particles : Alx(Fe;Mn and Mg2Si. It is usually used in car industry as reinforcement pieces or in packaging industry, such as bottle liquid box lid. Scanning electronic microscope coupled with EDX analysis shows complex shapes of intermetallic particles. The particle shape is obtained during the solidification of alloys. Particles fill vacant spaces between aluminium grains. Therefore final sheet properties depend on intermetallic particles shapes and notably on the matrix-particle interface properties. The goal of the present study is to classify intermetallic particles versus their shapes using local curvature information. The aluminium alloys sample is observed by X ray micro tomography performed at the ESRF. Three dimensional images are segmented, and intermetallic particles are identified in a data base. Each particle is stored as a set of voxels. The surface of each particle is meshed by a marching cubes triangular meshing with the software Amira©. A simplification of the surface is performed by an algorithm contracting the edges. Finally, principal curvatures: kmin and kmax are estimated by Amira© on each facet centre of the mesh. From the full intermetallic population, the bivariate distribution of kmin and kmax is estimated. The obtained graph kmin ¡kmax shows geometrical properties of interface portions of the surface of particles. A factorial correspondence analysis is performed to summarize the information on all intermetallic particles. In the obtained subspace, particles are classified into five shape families, in relation with their interface geometrical properties.

  4. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Three-dimensional image technology in forensic anthropology: Assessing the validity of biological profiles derived from CT-3D images of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Leon Valenzuela, Maria Julia

    This project explores the reliability of building a biological profile for an unknown individual based on three-dimensional (3D) images of the individual's skeleton. 3D imaging technology has been widely researched for medical and engineering applications, and it is increasingly being used as a tool for anthropological inquiry. While the question of whether a biological profile can be derived from 3D images of a skeleton with the same accuracy as achieved when using dry bones has been explored, bigger sample sizes, a standardized scanning protocol and more interobserver error data are needed before 3D methods can become widely and confidently used in forensic anthropology. 3D images of Computed Tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 130 innominate bones from Boston University's skeletal collection (School of Medicine). For each bone, both 3D images and original bones were assessed using the Phenice and Suchey-Brooks methods. Statistical analysis was used to determine the agreement between 3D image assessment versus traditional assessment. A pool of six individuals with varying experience in the field of forensic anthropology scored a subsample (n = 20) to explore interobserver error. While a high agreement was found for age and sex estimation for specimens scored by the author, the interobserver study shows that observers found it difficult to apply standard methods to 3D images. Higher levels of experience did not result in higher agreement between observers, as would be expected. Thus, a need for training in 3D visualization before applying anthropological methods to 3D bones is suggested. Future research should explore interobserver error using a larger sample size in order to test the hypothesis that training in 3D visualization will result in a higher agreement between scores. The need for the development of a standard scanning protocol focusing on the optimization of 3D image resolution is highlighted. Applications for this research include the possibility

  6. Use of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in type A aortic dissections: Advantages of 3D TEE illustrated in three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stanford type A aortic dissections often present to the hospital requiring emergent surgical intervention. Initial diagnosis is usually made by computed tomography; however transesophageal echocardiography (TEE can further characterize aortic dissections with specific advantages: It may be performed on an unstable patient, it can be used intra-operatively, and it has the ability to provide continuous real-time information. Three-dimensional (3D TEE has become more accessible over recent years allowing it to serve as an additional tool in the operating room. We present a case series of three patients presenting with type A aortic dissections and the advantages of intra-operative 3D TEE to diagnose the extent of dissection in each case. Prior case reports have demonstrated the use of 3D TEE in type A aortic dissections to characterize the extent of dissection and involvement of neighboring structures. In our three cases described, 3D TEE provided additional understanding of spatial relationships between the dissection flap and neighboring structures such as the aortic valve and coronary orifices that were not fully appreciated with two-dimensional TEE, which affected surgical decisions in the operating room. This case series demonstrates the utility and benefit of real-time 3D TEE during intra-operative management of a type A aortic dissection.

  7. Development of a 12-Item Abbreviated Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS-12): Item Selection and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L; Bangen, Katherine J; Ardelt, Monika; Jeste, Dilip V

    2017-01-01

    Wisdom has been reported to be associated with better mental health and quality of life among older adults. Over the past decades, there has been considerable growth in empirical research on wisdom, including the development of standardized measures. The 39-item Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS) is a useful assessment tool, given its rigorous development and good psychometric properties. However, the measure's length can prohibit use. In this article, we used a sample of 1,546 community-dwelling adults aged 21 to 100 years (M = 66 years) from the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study to develop an abbreviated 12-item version of the 3D-WS: the 3D-WS-12. Balancing concerns for measurement precision, internal structure, and content validity, factor analytic methods and expert judgment were used to identify a subset of 12-items for the 3D-WS-12. Results suggest that the 3D-WS-12 can provide efficient and valid assessments of Wisdom within the context of epidemiological surveys. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Biljecki, F.; Kolbe, T.H.; Bill, R.; Donaubauer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises the on going research activities of the 3D Geoinformation Group at the Delft University of Technology. The main challenge underpinning the research of this group is providing clean and appropriate 3D data about our environment in order to serve a wide variety of applications.

  9. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  10. Aneuploidy screening during pregnancy by a three-dimensional Advanced First Trimester Screening model: description of the AFS-3D algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter; Hörmansdörfer, Cindy; Vaske, Bernhard; Hillemanns, Peter; Scharf, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    A novel screening method for fetal aneuploidies was developed, in which nuchal translucency (NT), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and free-β human chorionic gonadotropin (free-β hCG) are placed into a three-dimensional scatter plot. Likelihood ratios are directly inferred from the ratio of already observed healthy and diseased fetuses. This method is called 'Three-dimensional Advanced First trimester Screening' (AFS-3D). It was aimed to develop and test a new algorithm based on the results of previous studies. A new static-sized sphere model was developed. Several scaling factors of the axes and the optional application of the modifications 'simulation' (SIM) and 'empty sphere positive' were tested on 15,227 data sets. An additional examination was performed on a second collective (n = 458). The application of the new AFS-3D model with static-sized spheres, a re-sampled ∆NT axis by a scaling factor of 0.125, and the application of SIM and Empty Box Positive resulted in a marked improvement of the test performance (area under curve, AUC = 0.9668). Analogous results (AUC = 0.9807) were found for the second test collective. This novel approach is promising and should be tested on a larger, independent collective. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Reliability of a Three-Dimensional Photo System- (3dMDface- Based Evaluation of the Face in Cleft Lip Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ort

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ample data exists about the high precision of three-dimensional (3D scanning devices and their data acquisition of the facial surface. However, a question remains regarding which facial landmarks are reliable if identified in 3D images taken under clinical circumstances. Sources of error to be addressed could be technical, user dependent, or patient respectively anatomy related. Based on clinical 3D photos taken with the 3dMDface system, the intra observer repeatability of 27 facial landmarks in six cleft lip (CL infants and one non-CL infant was evaluated based on a total of over 1,100 measurements. Data acquisition was sometimes challenging but successful in all patients. The mean error was 0.86 mm, with a range of 0.39 mm (Exocanthion to 2.21 mm (soft gonion. Typically, landmarks provided a small mean error but still showed quite a high variance in measurements, for example, exocanthion from 0.04 mm to 0.93 mm. Vice versa, relatively imprecise landmarks still provide accurate data regarding specific spatial planes. One must be aware of the fact that the degree of precision is dependent on landmarks and spatial planes in question. In clinical investigations, the degree of reliability for landmarks evaluated should be taken into account. Additional reliability can be achieved via multiple measuring.

  12. Precision of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD™) in anthropometry of the auricle and its application in microtia reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zung-Chung; Albdour, Mohammad Nayef; Lizardo, Jesus Ablaza; Chen, Ying-An; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting

    2015-05-01

    The advent of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry in recent years has vastly helped the craniomaxillofacial field improve in terms of preoperative and intraoperative decision making. With regard to the auricle though, there is paucity of research as to the application of this promising technology. A total of 20 normal adult ears were included in this study. Thirteen anthropometric measurements were taken, twice by two plastic surgeons using direct measurement (DM) and through images captured via 3dMD™. The purpose was to compare the reliability of measurements involving the two instruments. The overall mean absolute differences (MADs) of all ear anthropometries of DM and 3dMD™ were 0.52 mm (range: 0.28-0.72 mm) and 0.27 mm (range: 0.15-0.53 mm), respectively, and the grand mean relative error magnitudes (REMs) were 2.85% (range: 1.01-5.99%) and 1.57% (range: 0.48-3.62%), respectively, across observers. Thus, the precision of all ear anthropometries across observers was high in both methods, but the precision of 3dMD was better than DM irrespective of observers. In addition, the MADs were less than a millimeter across all measurements. The application of three-dimensional technology in microtia surgery for both template production and soft tissue analysis leads to improved planning and satisfactory results with fewer complications. We believe that with further refinement and enhancement, the use of this innovation will pave the way for prefabricated, individualized autologous or biocompatible alloplastic implantable frameworks based on an accurate mirror image of each patient's normal ear in unilateral cases and in bilateral cases, appropriately sized. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of personalized three-dimensional (3D printed pelvicalyceal system models on patient information in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy surgery: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Anil Atalay

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impact of personalized three dimensional (3D printed pelvicalyceal system models on patient information before percutaneous nephrolithotripsy surgery. Material and Methods Patients with unilateral complex renal stones with indicatation of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy surgery were selected. Usable data of patients were obtained from CT scans as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM format. Mimics software version 16.0 (Materialise, Belgium was used for segmentation and extraction of pelvicalyceal systems. DICOM format were converted to Stereolithography file format. Finally, fused deposition modeling was used to create plasticine 3D models of pelvicalyceal systems. A questionnaire was designed for patients to assess personalized 3D models effect on patient’s understanding their conditions before percutaneous nephrolithotripsy surgery (PCNL. The day before surgery, each patient was seen by a urologist to deliver information about surgery. Questionnaire forms were asked to patients complete before and after presentation of 3D models and the results of the questions were compared. Results Five patient’s anatomically accurate models of the human renal collecting system were successfully generated. After the 3D printed model presentation, patients demonstrated an improvement in their understanding of basic kidney anatomy by 60% (p=0.017, kidney stone position by 50% (p=0.02, the planned surgical procedure by 60% (p=0.017, and understanding the complications related to the surgery by 64% (p=0.015. In addition, overall satisfaction of conservation improvement was 50% (p=0.02. Conclusion Generating kidney models of PCSs using 3D printing technology is feasible, and understandings of the disease and the surgical procedure from patients were well appreciated with this novel technology.

  14. Comparative study of voxel-based epileptic foci localization accuracy between statistical parametric mapping (SPM and Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiang Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 18F-FDG-PET is widely used to help localize the hypometabolic epileptogenic focus for presurgical evaluation of drug-refractory epilepsy patients. Two voxel-based brain mapping methods to interpret 18F-FDG-PET, statistical parametric mapping (SPM, and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP, improve the detection rate of seizure foci. This study aimed to compare the consistency of epileptic focus detection between SPM and 3D-SSP for 18F-FDG-PET brain mapping analysis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, electroecephalographic, and brain imaging results of 35 patients with refractory epilepsy. 18F-FDG-PET studies were revaluated by SPM, 3D-SSP, and visual assessment, and the results were compared to the MRI lesion location and to the presumed epileptogenic zone (PEZ defined by video-EEG and other clinical data. A second consistency study compared PET analyses to histopathology and surgical outcomes in the 19 patients who underwent lesion resection surgery. Results: Of the 35 patients, consistency with the PEZ was 29/35 for SPM, 25/35 for 3D-SSP, 14/35 for visual assessment, and 10/35 for MRI. Concordance rates with the PEZ were significantly higher for SPM and 3D-SSP than for MRI (P0.05. A favorable Engel outcome (class I/II was found in 16 of 19 cases (84%, and failure of seizure control was found in 3 of 19 patients (class III/IV. Conclusion: Voxel-based 18F-FDG-PET brain mapping analysis using SPM or 3D-SSP can improve the detection rate of the epileptic focus compared to visual assessment and MRI. Consistency with PEZ was similar between SPM and 3D-SSP; According to their own characteristics, 3D-SSP is recommended for primary evaluation due to greater efficiency and operability of the software, while SPM is recommended for high-accuracy localization of complex lesions. Therefore, joint application of both software packages may be the best solution for FDG-PET analysis of epileptic focus

  15. A global sustainability perspective on 3D printing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebler, Malte; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.; Visser, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional printing (3DP) represents a relative novel technology in manufacturing which is associated with potentially strong stimuli for sustainable development. Until now, research has merely assessed case study-related potentials of 3DP and described specific aspects of 3DP. This

  16. A Three-Dimensional Sustainability Evaluation of Jatropha Plantations in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Sacramento Rivero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unique sustainability analysis of one of the first attempts to establish a biodiesel industry in Mexico. From 2008, several companies established medium to large-sized Jatropha curcas plantations in Yucatan, hiring local peasants to carry out the agricultural work. After five years, the plantations were abandoned due to poor seed yields and a lack of key knowledge for large-scale cultivation. Based on a multidisciplinary approach, we performed a three-dimensional sustainability evaluation of the potential biodiesel production chain, which included household interviews, a socioeconomic survey, and a life-cycle assessment (LCA. We identified both negative and positive effects in the three dimensions analyzed. Socially and culturally, the local peasant families understood sustainability as their ability to preserve their traditional lifestyle, and associated environmental services with their sense of identity. They therefore considered the jatropha plantations to be positive for sustainability, since they brought income, even though some perceived damage to the natural resources of the surrounding areas. Economically, peasants’ annual household income increased by approximately $1080 USD due to the increased salaries paid by the jatropha companies. The LCA predicted large savings of greenhouse gas emissions (>50% compared to fossil diesel, but also potential negative impacts in some categories (human/ecological toxicity and eutrophication potentials associated with the use of mineral fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides applied during the cultivation stage. Biodiesel production would be potentially energetically self-sufficient, in addition to producing a 40% energy surplus. Finally, even though the sustainability indicators suggested a positive overall assessment, the reality was that the jatropha projects failed because they were predicated on unrealistically optimistic projections and poor agronomic knowledge of the

  17. Soft-tissue volumetric changes following monobloc distraction procedure: analysis using digital three-dimensional photogrammetry system (3dMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fuan Chiang; Kawamoto, Henry K; Federico, Christina; Bradley, James P

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis resulted in decreased morbidity and greater advancement with less relapse compared with acute monobloc advancement with bone grafting. In this study, we examine the three-dimensional (3D) volumetric soft-tissue changes in monobloc distraction.Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who underwent monobloc distraction from 2002 to 2010 at University of California-Los Angeles Craniofacial Center were studied (n = 12). We recorded diagnosis, indications for the surgery, and volumetric changes for skeletal and soft-tissue midface structures (preoperative/postoperative [6 weeks]/follow-up [>1 year]). Computed tomography scans and a digital 3D photogrammetry system were used for image analysis.Patients ranged from 6 to 14 years of age (mean, 10.1 years) at the time of the operation (follow-up 2-11 years); mean distraction advancement was 19.4 mm (range, 14-25 mm). There was a mean increase in the 3D volumetric soft-tissue changes: 99.5 ± 4.0 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 6 weeks and 94.9 ± 3.6 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 1-year follow-up. When comparing soft-tissue changes at 6 weeks postoperative to 1-year follow-up, there were minimal relapse changes. The overall mean 3D skeletal change was 108.9 ± 4.2 cm. For every 1 cm of skeletal gain, there was 0.78 cm(3) of soft-tissue gain.Monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis using internal devices resulted in increased volumetric soft-tissue changes, which remained stable at 1 year. The positive linear correlation between soft-tissue increments and bony advancement can be incorporated during the planning of osteotomies to achieve optimum surgical outcomes with monobloc distraction.

  18. Structure-based and multiple potential three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (SB-MP-3D-QSAR) for inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Gao, Jing; Wei, Yu-Tuo; Du, Li-Qin; Wang, Shu-Qing; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2012-04-23

    The inhibitions of enzymes (proteins) are determined by the binding interactions between ligands and targeting proteins. However, traditional QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) is a one-side technique, only considering the structures and physicochemical properties of inhibitors. In this study, the structure-based and multiple potential three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (SB-MP-3D-QSAR) is presented, in which the structural information of host protein is involved in the QSAR calculations. The SB-MP-3D-QSAR actually is a combinational method of docking approach and QSAR technique. Multiple docking calculations are performed first between the host protein and ligand molecules in a training set. In the targeting protein, the functional residues are selected, which make the major contribution to the binding free energy. The binding free energy between ligand and targeting protein is the summation of multiple potential energies, including van der Waals energy, electrostatic energy, hydrophobic energy, and hydrogen-bond energy, and may include nonthermodynamic factors. In the foundational QSAR equation, two sets of weighting coefficients {aj} and {bp} are assigned to the potential energy terms and to the functional residues, respectively. The two coefficient sets are solved by using iterative double least-squares (IDLS) technique in the training set. Then, the two sets of weighting coefficients are used to predict the bioactivities of inquired ligands. In an application example, the new developed method obtained much better results than that of docking calculations.

  19. Three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction of the American and African oil-palms β-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II protein by comparative modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edina; Chinni, Suresh; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    The fatty-acid profile of the vegetable oils determines its properties and nutritional value. Palm-oil obtained from the African oil-palm [Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Tenera)] contains 44% palmitic acid (C16:0), but, palm-oil obtained from the American oilpalm [Elaeis oleifera] contains only 25% C16:0. In part, the b-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase II (KASII) [EC: 2.3.1.179] protein is responsible for the high level of C16:0 in palm-oil derived from the African oil-palm. To understand more about E. guineensis KASII (EgKASII) and E. oleifera KASII (EoKASII) proteins, it is essential to know its structures. Hence, this study was undertaken. The objective of this study was to predict three-dimensional (3D) structure of EgKASII and EoKASII proteins using molecular modelling tools. The amino-acid sequences for KASII proteins were retrieved from the protein database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), USA. The 3D structures were predicted for both proteins using homology modelling and ab-initio technique approach of protein structure prediction. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to refine the predicted structures. The predicted structure models were evaluated and root mean square deviation (RMSD) and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) values were calculated. The homology modelling showed that EgKASII and EoKASII proteins are 78% and 74% similar with Streptococcus pneumonia KASII and Brucella melitensis KASII, respectively. The EgKASII and EoKASII structures predicted by using ab-initio technique approach shows 6% and 9% deviation to its structures predicted by homology modelling, respectively. The structure refinement and validation confirmed that the predicted structures are accurate. The 3D structures for EgKASII and EoKASII proteins were predicted. However, further research is essential to understand the interaction of EgKASII and EoKASII proteins with its substrates.

  20. Calculation of three-dimensional (3-D) internal flow by means of the velocity-vorticity formulation on a staggered grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to accurately compute the viscous flow in three-dimensional (3-D) enclosures. This method is the 3-D extension of a two-dimensional (2-D) method developed for the calculation of flow over airfoils. The 2-D method has been tested extensively and has been shown to accurately reproduce experimental results. As in the 2-D method, the 3-D method provides for the non-iterative solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by means of a fully coupled implicit technique. The solution is calculated on a body fitted computational mesh incorporating a staggered grid methodology. In the staggered grid method, the three components of vorticity are defined at the centers of the computational cell sides, while the velocity components are defined as normal vectors at the centers of the computational cell faces. The staggered grid orientation provides for the accurate definition of the vorticity components at the vorticity locations, the divergence of vorticity at the mesh cell nodes and the conservation of mass at the mesh cell centers. The solution is obtained by utilizing a fractional step solution technique in the three coordinate directions. The boundary conditions for the vorticity and velocity are calculated implicitly as part of the solution. The method provides for the non-iterative solution of the flow field and satisfies the conservation of mass and divergence of vorticity to machine zero at each time step. To test the method, the calculation of simple driven cavity flows have been computed. The driven cavity flow is defined as the flow in an enclosure driven by a moving upper plate at the top of the enclosure. To demonstrate the ability of the method to predict the flow in arbitrary cavities, results will he shown for both cubic and curved cavities.

  1. Automatic Generation of 3D Building Models for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sugihara, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    3D city models are important in urban planning for sustainable development. Urban planners draw maps for efficient land use and a compact city. 3D city models based on these maps are quite effective in understanding what, if this alternative plan is realized, the image of a sustainable city will be. However, enormous time and labour has to be consumed to create these 3D models, using 3D modelling software such as 3ds Max or SketchUp. In order to automate the laborious steps, a GIS and CG inte...

  2. Imaging the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathway in Human Eyes by Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomography (3D micro-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Hann; M Bentley; A Vercnocke; E Ritman; M Fautsch

    2011-12-31

    The site of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma is believed to be located in the region of Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and the adjacent juxtacanalicular tissue. Evidence also suggests collector channels and intrascleral vessels may have a role in intraocular pressure in both normal and glaucoma eyes. Traditional imaging modalities limit the ability to view both proximal and distal portions of the trabecular outflow pathway as a single unit. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) as a potential method to view the trabecular outflow pathway. Two normal human eyes were used: one immersion fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and one with anterior chamber perfusion at 10 mmHg followed by perfusion fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/2% glutaraldehyde. Both eyes were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and scanned with 3D micro-CT at 2 {mu}m or 5 {mu}m voxel resolution. In the immersion fixed eye, 24 collector channels were identified with an average orifice size of 27.5 {+-} 5 {mu}m. In comparison, the perfusion fixed eye had 29 collector channels with a mean orifice size of 40.5 {+-} 13 {mu}m. Collector channels were not evenly dispersed around the circumference of the eye. There was no significant difference in the length of Schlemm's canal in the immersed versus the perfused eye (33.2 versus 35.1 mm). Structures, locations and size measurements identified by 3D micro-CT were confirmed by correlative light microscopy. These findings confirm 3D micro-CT can be used effectively for the non-invasive examination of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels and intrascleral vasculature that comprise the distal outflow pathway. This imaging modality will be useful for non-invasive study of the role of the trabecular outflow pathway as a whole unit.

  3. From the Cover: Three-Dimensional (3D) HepaRG Spheroid Model With Physiologically Relevant Xenobiotic Metabolism Competence and Hepatocyte Functionality for Liver Toxicity Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa C; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Dixon, Darlene; DeVito, Michael J; Paules, Richard S; Ferguson, Stephen S

    2017-09-01

    Effective prediction of human responses to chemical and drug exposure is of critical importance in environmental toxicology research and drug development. While significant progress has been made to address this challenge using invitro liver models, these approaches often fail due to inadequate tissue model functionality. Herein, we describe the development, optimization, and characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model using differentiated HepaRG cells that achieve and maintain physiologically relevant levels of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5). This invitro model maintains a stable phenotype over multiple weeks in both 96- and 384-well formats, supports highly reproducible tissue-like architectures and models pharmacologically- and environmentally important hepatic receptor pathways (ie AhR, CAR, and PXR) analogous to primary human hepatocyte cultures. HepaRG spheroid cultures use 50-100× fewer cells than conventional two dimensional cultures, and enable the identification of metabolically activated toxicants. Spheroid size, time in culture and culture media composition were important factors affecting basal levels of xenobiotic metabolism and liver enzyme inducibility with activators of hepatic receptors AhR, CAR and PXR. Repeated exposure studies showed higher sensitivity than traditional 2D cultures in identifying compounds that cause liver injury and metabolism-dependent toxicity. This platform combines the well-documented impact of 3D culture configuration for improved tissue functionality and longevity with the requisite throughput and repeatability needed for year-over-year toxicology screening. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Development of a Three-Dimensional (3D Printed Biodegradable Cage to Convert Morselized Corticocancellous Bone Chips into a Structured Cortical Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chao Chou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new biodegradable polymeric cage to convert corticocancellous bone chips into a structured strut graft for treating segmental bone defects. A total of 24 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent a left femoral segmental bone defect creation. Twelve rabbits in group A underwent three-dimensional (3D printed cage insertion, corticocancellous chips implantation, and Kirschner-wire (K-wire fixation, while the other 12 rabbits in group B received bone chips implantation and K-wire fixation only. All rabbits received a one-week activity assessment and the initial image study at postoperative 1 week. The final image study was repeated at postoperative 12 or 24 weeks before the rabbit scarification procedure on schedule. After the animals were sacrificed, both femurs of all the rabbits were prepared for leg length ratios and 3-point bending tests. The rabbits in group A showed an increase of activities during the first week postoperatively and decreased anterior cortical disruptions in the postoperative image assessments. Additionally, higher leg length ratios and 3-point bending strengths demonstrated improved final bony ingrowths within the bone defects for rabbits in group A. In conclusion, through this bone graft converting technique, orthopedic surgeons can treat segmental bone defects by using bone chips but with imitate characters of structured cortical bone graft.

  5. Radiation-Induced Liver Injury in Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) for Postoperative or Locoregional Recurrent Gastric Cancer: Risk Factors and Dose Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guichao; Wang, Jiazhou; Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the status of radiation-induced liver injury in adjuvant or palliative gastric cancer radiation therapy (RT), identified risk factors of radiation-induced liver injury in gastric cancer RT, analysed the dose-volume effects of liver injury, and developed a liver dose limitation reference for gastric cancer RT. Data for 56 post-operative gastric cancer patients and 6 locoregional recurrent gastric cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) from Sep 2007 to Sep 2009 were analysed. Forty patients (65%) were administered concurrent chemotherapy. Pre- and post-radiation chemotherapy were given to 61 patients and 43 patients, respectively. The radiation dose was 45-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions. Clinical parameters, including gender, age, hepatic B virus status, concurrent chemotherapy, and the total number of chemotherapy cycles, were included in the analysis. Univariate analyses with a non-parametric rank test (Mann-Whitney test) and logistic regression test and a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression test were completed. We also analysed the correlation between RT and the changes in serum chemistry parameters [including total bilirubin, (TB), direct bilirubin (D-TB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum albumin (ALB)] after RT. The Child-Pugh grade progressed from grade A to grade B after radiotherapy in 10 patients. A total of 16 cases of classic radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) were observed, and 2 patients had both Child-Pugh grade progression and classic RILD. No cases of non-classic radiation liver injury occurred in the study population. Among the tested clinical parameters, the total number of chemotherapy cycles correlated with liver function injury. V35 and ALP levels were significant predictive factors for radiation liver injury. In 3D-CRT for gastric cancer patients

  6. A User’s Guide for BIE3D - A Boundary Integral Equation Computer Program for Three-Dimensional Elastostatic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    tool for the stress analysis of three-dimensional cracked components in linea elastic Isotropic bodies. Ibs fundamntals of the Boundary Zntegral...linear, algebraic equatioma* which are solved mubj eat to the bousdery cown- diticas (eithei displacement or stress) of the problem. Diplacts u* tioas of

  7. Fabrication of Three Dimensional Tissue Engineering Polydimethylsiloxane ( PDMS) Microporous Scaffolds Integrated in a Bioreactor Using a 3D Printed Water Dissolvable Sacrificial Mould

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Mantis, Ioannis; Chetan, Aradhya Mallikarjunaiah

    2015-01-01

    We present a new scalable and general approach for manufacturing structured pores/channels in 3D polymer based scaffolds. The method involves 3D printing of a sacrificial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) mould whose geometrical features are designed according to the required vascular channel network...

  8. Synoptic monthly gridded three dimensional (3D) World Ocean Database temperature and salinity from January 1945 to December 2014 (NCEI Accession 0140938)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The synoptic gridded WOD (SG-WOD) provides 3D world ocean gridded temperature and salinity data in monthly increment from WOD profiles using the Optimal Spectral...

  9. Interpolation of Three-Dimensional (3-D) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Point Cloud Data onto a Uniform Upsampled Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    SUBJECT TERMS 3-D point cloud, LiDAR, uniform upsampling, image inpainting , Cahn-Hilliard PDE 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Z39.18 iii Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. PDE Based Image Inpainting 3 3. Application to 3-D LiDAR Point Cloud 5 4...6 Figure 2. Upsampling and inpainting of building A area. ...............................................................8

  10. Three-dimensional (3D) simulation versus two-dimensional (2D) enhances surgical skills acquisition in standardised laparoscopic tasks: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, A; Collins, D; Whelan, M; O'Sullivan, R; Balfe, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if simulated 3D vision improves the speed and accuracy of laparoscopic phantom tasks in laparoscopically naïve subjects. Thirty laparoscopically naïve subjects were divided into matched groups according to age, sex, hand dominance and initial scores on a standardised visio-spatial test. Laprotrain(©) laparoscopic simulators were used, one attached to the standard 2D monitor and the other to a simulated 3D monitor and 3D glasses were worn by the subjects in this group. Five standardised laparoscopic tasks were developed and the subjects underwent testing on four separate occasions with more than 24 h between sessions. The subjects were timed for each task and errors were recorded by two independent observers. In the second part of the study, subjects switched to the opposite group and task times and errors were again recorded. Statistical differences between groups were calculated using student t-test and Fisher's exact test. There were fifteen subjects in each group with no significant difference in demographic or psychometric variables. The mean time to complete the tasks was faster in the 3D group compared with the 2D group. There was a lower rate of errors noted in the 3D group compared with the 2D group but this only reached statistical significance in two of the five laparoscopic tasks. In the crossover study, subjects who had trained on simulated 3D had better task times and fewer errors compared to those who had trained on 2D simulators. Training on a simulated 3D model (compared to standard 2D) allows trainees to reach proficiency sooner. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Chemical Characteristics at Micrometric Scale by Combining 2D SEM-EDX Data and 3D X-Ray CT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, Simona; Baveye, Philippe C.; Wilson, Clare; Lark, Richard Murray; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological limitations, most chemical and biological measurements can be carried out only on exposed soil surfaces or 2-dimensional cuts through soil samples. Methods need to be developed to produce 3D maps of soil properties based on spatial sequences of 2D maps. In this general context, the objective of the research described here was to develop a method to generate 3D maps of soil chemical properties at the microscale by combining 2D SEM-EDX data with 3D X-ray computed tomography images. A statistical approach using the regression tree method and ordinary kriging applied to the residuals was developed and applied to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron, and oxygen at the microscale. The spatial correlation between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the chemical maps made it possible to use a regression-tree model as an initial step to predict the 3D chemical composition. For chemical elements, e.g., iron, that are sparsely distributed in a soil sample, the regression-tree model provides a good prediction, explaining as much as 90% of the variability in some of the data. However, for chemical elements that are more homogenously distributed, such as carbon, silicon, or oxygen, the additional kriging of the regression tree residuals improved significantly the prediction with an increase in the R2 value from 0.221 to 0.324 for carbon, 0.312 to 0.423 for silicon, and 0.218 to 0.374 for oxygen, respectively. The present research develops for the first time an integrated experimental and theoretical framework, which combines geostatistical methods with imaging techniques to unveil the 3-D chemical structure of soil at very fine scales. The methodology presented

  12. A semiautomatic method for in vivo three-dimensional quantitative analysis of fascial layers mobility based on 3D ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condino, S; Turini, G; Parrini, S; Stecco, A; Busoni, F; Ferrari, V; Ferrari, M; Gesi, M

    2015-11-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the role of deep fascia mobility in musculoskeletal dynamics and chronic pain mechanisms; however, no strategies have been presented so far to study in vivo fascial motion in 3D. This paper presents a semiautomatic method, based on ultrasound (US) imaging, enabling a 3D evaluation of fascia mobility. The proposed approach relies on the acquisition of 3D US datasets at rest and during a voluntary muscular contraction and consists of two phases: 3D US dataset analysis and generation of a displacement vector field using a block matching technique (Phase 1) and validation and filtering of the resulting displacement vector field for outliers removal (Phase 2). The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method were preliminarily tested on different 3D US datasets, undergoing either simulated (procedural) or real (muscular contraction) deformations. As for the simulated deformation, estimated displacement vectors resulting from Phase 1 presented a mean magnitude percentage error of 8.05 % and a mean angular error of 4.78° which, after Phase 2, were reduced by 69.44 and by 83.05 %, respectively. Tests on real deformations further validated the effectiveness of Phase 2 in the removal of outliers from the displacement vector field. Obtained results preliminarily demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithm for the analysis of fascia mobility. Such analysis can enable clinicians to better understand the fascia role in musculoskeletal dynamics and disorder. Further experiments are needed to optimize the method in consideration of the anatomical region to be studied.

  13. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  14. Estimate of the damage in organs induced by neutrons in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Estimacion del dano en organos inducido por neutrones en radioterapia conformada en 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calzada de la Cruz 118 sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Uribe, M. del R., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Instituto Tecnico Superior de Radiologia, Calle Leon No. 129, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    By means of Monte Carlo methods was considered the damage in the organs, induced by neutrons, of patients with cancer that receive treatment in modality of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with lineal accelerator Varian Ix. The objective of this work was to estimate the damage probability in radiotherapy patients, starting from the effective dose by neutrons in the organs and tissues out of the treatment region. For that a three-dimensional mannequin of equivalent tissue of 30 x 100 x 30 cm{sup 3} was modeled and spherical cells were distributed to estimate the Kerma in equivalent tissue and the absorbed dose by neutrons. With the absorbed dose the effective dose was calculated using the weighting factors for the organ type and radiation type. With the effective dose and the damage factors, considered in the ICRP 103, was considered the probability of damage induction in organs. (Author)

  15. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D) Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Carolyn M.; Maeda, Yuuki; Horiuchi, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture) for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture). We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-), A (Membrane/activin+), M (Matrigel/activin-), and M+A (Matrigel/activin+). We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A). Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A) than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A). In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A) success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian culture

  16. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Higuchi

    Full Text Available In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture. We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-, A (Membrane/activin+, M (Matrigel/activin-, and M+A (Matrigel/activin+. We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A. Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A. In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian

  17. CLINICAL USE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND (3D US IN THE FIELD OF HEPATOBILIARY SYSTEM AND THE REST OF THE ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Brvar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. We are presenting our first experiences with a new method of ultrasound checkup of abdominal organs.Conclusions. 3D US can serve as a useful supplement to the classical 2D examination since it can provide more information necessary for the diagnostic process. We believe that technological development will eliminate the majority of deficiencies of this method and thus increase its accuracy and applicability.

  18. Endometrial and Subendometrial Vascularity by Three-Dimensional (3D) Power Doppler and Its Correlation with Pregnancy Outcome in Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet V; Agarwal, Ritu; Sharma, Urmila; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Bandwal, Pradeep

    2016-10-01

    To study the role of endometrial and subendometrial blood flow measured by 3D power Doppler as predictors of pregnancy in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A hospital-based prospective study of two hundred and twenty-one (221) women undergoing FET cycles with a triple-line endometrium ≥7 mm on day 14 endometrial and subendometrial blood flow was assessed using 3D power Doppler, and various indices endometrial volume, subendometrial volume and their vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation flow index (VFI) were obtained and compared between the pregnant and the non-pregnant group. Primary outcome was clinical pregnancy. Out of 221 women, 97(43.89 %) became pregnant, while 124 (56.10 %) failed to become pregnant. The endometrial volume was comparable between the two groups. Endometrial VI, FI and VFI were significantly higher in the pregnant as compared to the non-pregnant group. There was a significant difference in subendometrial VI and VFI between the two groups, but FI was similar. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularity by 3D power Doppler can be a useful parameter in predicting pregnancy in FET cycles.

  19. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  20. Scattering and emission from inhomogeneous vegetation canopy and alien target beneath by using three-dimensional vector radiative transfer (3D-VRT) equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yaqiu [Center for Wave Scattering and Remote Sensing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: yqjin@fundan.ac.cn; Liang Zichang [Center for Wave Scattering and Remote Sensing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-05-15

    To solve the 3D-VRT equation for the model of spatially inhomogeneous scatter media, the finite enclosure of the scatter media is geometrically divided, in both vertical z and transversal (x,y) directions, to form very thin multi-boxes. The zeroth order emission, first-order Mueller matrix of each thin box and an iterative approach of high-order radiative transfer are applied to derive high-order scattering and emission of whole inhomogeneous scatter media. Numerical results of polarized brightness temperature at microwave frequency and under different radiometer resolutions from inhomogeneous scatter model such as vegetation canopy and alien target beneath canopy are simulated and discussed.

  1. Adult Sex Identification Using Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography (3D-CT of the Pelvis: A Study Among a Sample of the Egyptian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas M. A. Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex identification of unknown human skeletal remains is of great importance in establishing identity and individuality. In adults, the hip bone is the most reliable sex indicator because of its sexual dimorphism. Each population should have its own specific standards of identification. The objective of this study is to develop a logistic regression formula for adult sex identification using threedimensional computed tomography (3D-CT of the pelvis and to perform an assessment of its validity in sex determination among a sample of the Egyptian population in the Suez Canal region. 141 pelvic-abdominal CT images (free of any pelvic orthopaedic disorder were included; they were reconstructed to produce 3D-CT pelvic images which were divided into a calibration group (47 male and 47 female and a test group (47 CT images the sex of which was unknown to the observers. Twenty radiometric variables were measured for the calibration group. A logit response formula for sex prediction was developed and applied on the test group for sex prediction. The logit response formula for the test sample showed sensitivity, specificity, and an overall accuracy of 100%. The proposed method represents a quick and reliable metric method in establishing sex from a CT image of the pelvis bone.

  2. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structural Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR Studies of Some 1,5-Diarylpyrazoles: Analogue Based Design of Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosahalli S. Subramanya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors have attracted much attention in recent times in the design of new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID. 3D-QSAR studies have been performed on a series of 1,5-diarylpyrazoles that act as selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors, using three different methods: comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA with partial least squares (PLS fit; molecular field analysis (MFA and; receptor surface analysis (RSA with genetic function algorithms (GFA. The analyses were carried out on 30 analogues of which 25 were used in the training set and the rest considered for the test set. These studies produced reasonably good predictive models with high cross-validated and conventional r2 values in all the three cases.

  3. The Three Dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (3D-QSAR and Docking Studies of Curcumin Derivatives as Androgen Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor antagonists have been proved to be effective anti-prostate cancer agents. 3D-QSAR and Molecular docking methods were performed on curcumin derivatives as androgen receptor antagonists. The bioactive conformation was explored by docking the potent compound 29 into the binding site of AR. The constructed Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA and Comparative Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA models produced statistically significant results with the cross-validated correlation coefficients q2 of 0.658 and 0.567, non-cross-validated correlation coefficients r2 of 0.988 and 0.978, and predicted correction coefficients r2pred of 0.715 and 0.793, respectively. These results ensure the CoMFA and CoMSIA models as a tool to guide the design of novel potent AR antagonists. A set of 30 new analogs were proposed by utilizing the results revealed in the present study, and were predicted with potential activities in the developed models.

  4. A SiPM-based isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube with a three-dimensional array of 1 mm{sup 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawai, Hideyuki; Suga, Mikio [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Watanabe, Mitsuo, E-mail: taiga@nirs.go.jp [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu 434-8601 (Japan)

    2011-11-07

    We are developing a novel, general purpose isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube which has high spatial resolution in all three dimensions. The research challenge for this detector is implementing effective detection of scintillation photons by covering six faces of a segmented crystal block with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). In this paper, we developed the second prototype of the X'tal cube for a proof-of-concept. We aimed at realizing an ultimate detector with 1.0 mm{sup 3} cubic crystals, in contrast to our previous development using 3.0 mm{sup 3} cubic crystals. The crystal block was composed of a 16 x 16 x 16 array of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystals 0.993 x 0.993 x 0.993 mm{sup 3} in size. The crystals were optically glued together without inserting any reflector inside and 96 multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs, S10931-50P, i.e. six faces each with a 4 x 4 array of MPPCs), each having a sensitive area of 3.0 x 3.0 mm{sup 2}, were optically coupled to the surfaces of the crystal block. Almost all 4096 crystals were identified through Anger-type calculation due to the finely adjusted reflector sheets inserted between the crystal block and light guides. The reflector sheets, which formed a belt of 0.5 mm width, were placed to cover half of the crystals of the second rows from the edges in order to improve identification performance of the crystals near the edges. Energy resolution of 12.7% was obtained at 511 keV with almost uniform light output for all crystal segments thanks to the effective detection of the scintillation photons.

  5. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  6. Modelling three dimensional flows in a primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor-type nuclear power plant with CFDS-FLOW3D- code; Virtausten kolmidimensionaalinen mallintaminen painevesi tyyppisen ydinvoimalaitoksen primaeaeripiirissae CFDS-FLOW3D- virtauslaskentaohjelmalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, J.; Sarkomaa, P.; Haapalehto, T.

    1996-12-31

    Capability of CFDS-FLOW3D-code to model 3-D flows in Loviisa NPP primary circuit has been studied. Primary circuit has been modelled from the main circulation pumps to the inlet of the core. In the theoretical part, the flow equations and their time-averaging are introduced. Different turbulence models are presented as well as velocity profiles of turbulent flow in shear layers. The special issues of discretization of the flow equations, such as numerical diffusion, are considered. Different discretization methods, convergence criterias and gird generation are introduced. Main goal was to generate the grid for the wide and complex geometry with multi-block technique. The total amout of grid points is 131000. During analyzing Upwind and Van Leer discretization methods are used as well as ke- and RNG-ke-turbulencemodels. The computational results have been compared to the measured results of a 1/5 model scale reactor. (orig.) (21 refs.).

  7. [Controlled evaluation of a high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic detector system (3D-MAGMA) as a proof of concept - examination of healthy volunteers before and after application of Metoclopramide (MCP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, V Y P; Stallmach, A; Felber, J

    2016-06-01

    Changes in gastric and small bowel motility are a common clinical problem. Currently diagnostic options are limited because each method harbors certain disadvantages. It has been shown that the high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic detector system 3D-MAGMA is capable of reliably measuring gastric and small intestine motor activity. This system allows precise localization of a small magnetic marker and determination of its three-dimensional orientation inside a human body. The aim of the current study was to determine if 3D-MAGMA is reliably able to detect changes in gastric and small bowel motility under controlled conditions. MCP was used as a well known prokinetic agent to shorten the gastric and small bowel passage. 8 healthy volunteers (fasting) underwent motility testing of the stomach and small bowel by 3D-MAGMA with and without administration of MCP (10 mg orally). Among other data the time the capsule needed to pass through the stomach and the duodenum and the time the capsule needed to pass through the first 50 cm of the jejunum were recorded. The retention time of the capsule in the stomach under physiological conditions was 49.1 minutes (median; min. 18 min; max. 88.8 min). The median time the capsule needed to pass through the duodenum was 13.8 minutes (median; min. 1.7 min; max. 24.8 min). The time the capsule needed to pass through the first 50 cm of the jejunum under physiological conditions was 33.0 minutes (median; min. 20.2 min; max. 67.2 min). The retention time of the capsule in the stomach decreased significantly after administration of MCP to 20.9 minutes (median; min. 1.7 min; max. 62.8 min; p = 0.008). The time the capsule needed to pass through the duodenum was also reduced to 7.1 minutes (median; min. 3.1 min; max. 18.3 min; p = 0.055). The time the capsule needed to pass through the first 50 cm of the jejunum was also reduced to 21.7 minutes (median; min. 10.7 min; max. 31.2 min; p = 0.069). 3D-MAGMA is able

  8. Inflammatory aortic arch syndrome: contrast-enhanced, three-dimensional MR - angiography in stenotic lesions; Entzuendliches Aortenbogensyndrom: Stenosediagnostik mittels kontrastmittelverstaerkter 3D-MR-Angiographie im Vergleich mit der DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, M.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Biederer, J.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Reinhold-Keller, E.; Gross, W.L. [Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt GmbH (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of contrast-enhanced, three-dimensional MR angiography for the evaluation of stenotic and occlusive vascular lesions in inflammatory aortic arch syndrome. Materials and Methods: 14 patients with inflammatory aortic arch syndrome (giant cell arteritis: n = 8, Takayasu arteritis: n = 4, ankylosing spondylitis: n = 1 sarcoidosis: n = 1) underwent MR angiography of the aortic arch and the supra-aortic vessels (n = 15,2 patients were examined twice) and of the abdominal aorta (n = 2). MRA was performed using a 3D-FLASH sequence (TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, flip angle 30 ) on a 1.5T system. MRA imaging was compared with the findings of DSA, which served as gold standard. Results: In a total of 467 examined vascular territories, DSA revealed 50 stenoses and 35 occlusions. All lesions were detected by MRA. In 23 segments, the degree of stenosis was overestimated by MRA. Sensitivity and specificity of MRA were 100% and 94,3%, positive and negative predictive values were 73.6 and 100%, and the accuracy was 95,1%. Conclusions: Despite a tendency to overestimate stenoses, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography is a valid, non-invasive technique in the assessment of inflammatory aortic arch syndrome. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bestimmung der Aussagekraft der kontrastmittelverstaerkten 3D-Magnetresonanzangiographie bei der Bewertung stenosierender und okkludierender Gefaessveraenderungen im Rahmen des entzuendlichen Aortenbogensyndroms. Material und Methoden: Bei 14 Patienten mit entzuendlichem Aortenbogensyndrom (Arteriitis temporalis: n = 8, Takayasu-Arteriitis: n = 4, Morbus Bechterew: n = 1, Sarkoidose: n = 1) erfolgte eine MRA des Aortenbogens und der supraaortalen Aeste (n = 15, darunter zwei Doppeluntersuchungen) sowie der Aorta abdominalis (n = 2). Zur Anwendung kam eine kontrastmittelverstaerkte 3D-FLASH-Sequenz (TR/TE 0,4/1,8 ms, Flipwinkel 30 ) an einem 1,5 Tesla-System. Die Befunde der MRA wurden mit der DSA als Referenzmethode

  9. Real-time monitoring of cell viability and cell density on the basis of a three dimensional optical reflectance method (3D-ORM): investigation of the effect of sub-lethal and lethal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brognaux, Alison; Bugge, Jörg; Schwartz, Friedel H; Thonart, Philippe; Telek, Samuel; Delvigne, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Cell density and cell viability have been followed on-line by using a three-dimensional optical reflectance method (3D-ORM) probe. This method has allowed to highlight the differences between a well-mixed and a scale-down bioreactor configured in order to reproduce mixing deficiencies during a fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli. These differences have been observed both for the obscuration factor (OBF) and the coincidence probability delivered by the probe. These parameters are correlated to flow cytometry measurement based on the PI-uptake test and cell density based on optical density measurement. This first set of results has pointed out the fact that the 3D-ORM probe is sensitive to sub-lethal injuries encountered by microbial cells in process-related conditions. The effect of lethal injuries has been further investigated on the basis of additional experiments involving heat stress and a sharp increase of the OBF has been observed indicating that cells are effectively injured by the increase of temperature. However, further improvement of the probe are needed in order to give access to single-cell measurements.

  10. Fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) raspberry-like copper chromite spinel catalyst in a facile hydrothermal route and its activity in selective hydroxylation of benzene to phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Shankha S; Ghosh, Shilpi; Bal, Rajaram

    2014-08-27

    Three-dimensional (3D) raspberry-like CuCr2O4 spinel nanoparticles were prepared hydrothermally in the presence of cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Detailed characterization of the material was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD revealed the formation of CuCr2O4 spinel phase, and SEM showed the formation of a 3D raspberry-like structure, composed of 20-50 nm nanoparticles. The raspberry-like particles exhibited excellent catalytic behavior for the hydroxylation of benzene to phenol with H2O2. The influence of reaction parameters were investigated in detail. A benzene conversion of 68.5% with 95% phenol selectivity was achieved at 80 °C. The catalyst did not show any leaching up to 10 reuses, showing the true heterogeneity of the catalyst. However, significant H2O2 decomposition occurs on the catalyst necessitating its use in 5-fold excess.

  11. A family of three-dimensional 3d-4f and 4d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers based on mixed isonicotinate and 2-sulfobenzoate ligands: syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinfa; Huang, Yuanbiao; Cao, Rong

    2012-05-28

    Hydrothermal reactions of isonicotinic acid (Hina), 2-sulfobenzoic acid (H(2)sba), d-block metal salts and lanthanide oxides/hydroxides yielded 17 three-dimensional (3D) 3d-4f and 4d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers (HCPs). They are formulated as [LaAg(sba)(ina)(2)](n) (1), [Ln(2)Ag(2)(sba)(2)(ina)(4)(H(2)O)(2)](n) [Ln = Pr (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Eu (5), Gd (6), Tb (7), Dy (8), Ho (9), Er (10)] and [Ln(2)Cu(2)(sba)(2)(ina)(4)(H(2)O)(2)](n) [Ln = La (11), Pr (12), Nd (13), Sm (14), Eu (15), Gd (16), Tb (17)]. Their structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It reveals that they represent two structural types of 3D HCPs. Furthermore, the investigations of their solid-state photoluminescent (PL) property demonstrate the extraordinary emission behaviors. HCP 1(La-Ag) exhibits tunable blue-to-green PL emissions by variation of excitation light. HCPs 6(Gd-Ag), 11(La-Cu), 12(Pr-Cu) and 16(Gd-Cu) show d(10)-metal-based ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) or metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) emissions. HCPs 3(Nd-Ag), 4(Sm-Ag), 5(Eu-Ag), 7(Tb-Ag), 8(Dy-Ag), 13(Nd-Cu), 14(Sm-Cu), 15(Eu-Cu) and 17(Tb-Cu) display characteristic PL emissions of the corresponding Ln(III) ions, while both d(10)-metal-based and 4f-metal-centered emissions are observed in the emission spectra of 4(Sm-Ag), 8(Dy-Ag), 14(Sm-Cu) and 17(Tb-Cu).

  12. Combination therapy of three-dimensional (3D) visualisation operative treatment planning system and US-guided percutaneous microwave ablation in larger renal cell carcinomas (D ≥ 4 cm): preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jie; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Huang, Hui; Duan, Shaobo; Zheng, Jiasheng

    2016-12-07

    To analyse the clinical outcomes of combination therapy of three-dimensional (3D) visualisation operative treatment planning system and US-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) in larger renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) (D ≥ 4 cm). The results from 20 patients with 20 larger RCCs treated with a 3D visualisation operative treatment planning system and US-guided PMWA were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were followed up by contrast-enhanced images at 1, 3, and 6 months and every 6 months thereafter. The outcomes of overall survival and local tumour progression rate were statistically analysed. The median follow-up period was 26 months. The mean time of ablation for one tumour was 1.1 ± 0.3 sessions. The average number of ablation points of one tumour was 4.5 ± 0.9. The mean output power of ablation was 50.50 ± 2.2 W. The mean time of ablation for one tumour was 1374.4 ± 391.1 s. Artificial ascites was used in 12 (60%) tumours adjacent to the intestinal tract, and thermal monitoring system was used in all tumours (100%). Technical effectiveness and metastasis-free status were achieved in all tumours. The 1- and 2-year local tumour progression rates were both 5%. The cancer-specific survival rate and 2-year overall survival rates were both 100%. No severe major complications occurred. There was no significant difference in creatinine or urea nitrogen before or 3 days after ablation. Combination therapy of 3D visualisation operative treatment planning system and US-guided PMWA appeared to be a safe and effective technique for the management of larger RCCs, which could improve clinical efficacy.

  13. Simulation and experimental studies of three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data based on compressed-sensing theory for potential applications to dental cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je, U.K.; Lee, M.S.; Cho, H.S., E-mail: hscho1@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, D.K.; Park, Y.O.; Park, C.K.; Cho, H.M.; Choi, S.I.; Woo, T.H.

    2015-06-01

    In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging, there are often challenges for image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data. In computed tomography (CT), for example, image reconstruction from sparse views and/or limited-angle (<360°) views would enable fast scanning with reduced imaging doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented a reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed-sensing (CS) theory, which exploits the sparseness of the gradient image with substantially high accuracy, for potential applications to low-dose, high-accurate dental cone-beam CT (CBCT). We performed systematic simulation works to investigate the image characteristics and also performed experimental works by applying the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system to demonstrate its effectiveness for image reconstruction in insufficient sampling problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images of superior accuracy from insufficient sampling data and evaluated the reconstruction quality quantitatively. Both simulation and experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction from insufficient data indicate that the CS-based algorithm can be applied directly to current dental CBCT systems for reducing the imaging doses and further improving the image quality.

  14. Synthesis of carbon-doped nanosheets m-BiVO{sub 4} with three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure by one-step hydrothermal method and evaluation of their high visible-light photocatalytic property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Deqiang; Zong, Wenjuan [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment Ministry of Education and National Centre for International Research of Low-carbon and Green Buildings (China); Fan, Zihong [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering Chongqing Technology and Business University (China); Fang, Yue-Wen [East China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering (China); Xiong, Shimin; Du, Mao; Wu, Tianhui; Ji, Fangying, E-mail: jfy@cqu.edu.cn; Xu, Xuan, E-mail: xuxuan@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment Ministry of Education and National Centre for International Research of Low-carbon and Green Buildings (China)

    2017-04-15

    To achieve an efficient visible-light absorption and degradation of bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}), in this paper, a carbon-doped (C-doped) nanosheets monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} (m-BiVO{sub 4}), with thicknesses within 19.86 ± 8.48 nm, was synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) as a template and l-carbonic as the carbon source by one-step hydrothermal synthesis method. This C-doped BiVO{sub 4} in three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure enjoys high visible-light photocatalytic property. The samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Raman spectra, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area, electron spin resonance, and transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectra, and incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency, respectively. What is more, we studied the C-doping effect on the band-gap energy of BiVO{sub 4} based on First-principles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all photocatalysts were in the same single monoclinic scheelite structure. According to the other characterization results, the element C was successfully doped in BiVO{sub 4}, resulting in the 3D hierarchical structure of C-doped BiVO{sub 4} (P-L-BiVO{sub 4}). We speculated that it could be the directional coalescence mechanism by which the l-cysteine promoted the two-dimensional growth and C-doping process of BiVO{sub 4}, thus leading to the formation of nanosheets which were then promoted into 3D self-assembly by PVP and the shortening of the band gap. Among all samples, P-L-BiVO{sub 4} can make the highest removal ratio of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The stability of P-L-BiVO{sub 4} was verified by recycle experiments. It showed that P-L-BiVO{sub 4} had strong visible-light absorption behavior and high electron–hole separation efficiency and stability, making a significant

  15. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) BiOI/BiOCl composites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xin [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Lab of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Nano Science Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hao, Rong; Liang, Min; Zuo, Xiaoxi [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Lab of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Nan, Junmin, E-mail: jmnan@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Lab of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Laisheng [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Lab of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Weide [Nano Science Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of 3D BiOI/BiOCl microspheres by a one-pot template-free solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalyst is BiOI/BiOCl composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiOI/BiOCl composites have enhanced visible-light photocatalytic ability to bisphenol-A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and direct photodegradation pathway of bisphenol-A is proposed. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) BiOI/BiOCl composite microspheres with enhanced visible-light photodegradation activity of bisphenol-A (BPA) are synthesized by a simple, one-pot, template-free, solvothermal method using BiI{sub 3} and BiCl{sub 3} as precursors. These 3D hierarchical microspheres with heterojunction structures are composed of 2D nanosheets and have composition-dependent absorption properties in the ultraviolet and visible light regions. The photocatalytic oxidation of BPA over BiOI/BiOCl composites followed pseudo first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The highest photodegradation efficiency of BPA, i.e., nearly 100%, was observed with the BiOI/BiOCl composite (containing 90% BiOI) using a catalyst dosage of 1 g L{sup -1} in the BPA solution (C{sub 0} = 20 mg L{sup -1}, pH = 7.0) under visible light irradiation for 60 min. Under these conditions, the reaction rate constant was more than 4 and 20 times greater than that of pure BiOI and the commercially available Degussa P25, respectively. The superior photocatalytic activity of this composite catalyst is attributed to the suitable band gap energies and the low recombination rate of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs due to the presence of BiOI/BiOCl heterostructures. Only one intermediate at m/z 151 was observed in the photodegradation process of BPA by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, and a simple and hole-predominated photodegradation pathway of BPA was subsequently proposed. Furthermore, this photocatalyst

  16. Synthesis of carbon-doped nanosheets m-BiVO4 with three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure by one-step hydrothermal method and evaluation of their high visible-light photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deqiang; Zong, Wenjuan; Fan, Zihong; Fang, Yue-Wen; Xiong, Shimin; Du, Mao; Wu, Tianhui; Ji, Fangying; Xu, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    To achieve an efficient visible-light absorption and degradation of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), in this paper, a carbon-doped (C-doped) nanosheets monoclinic BiVO4 (m-BiVO4), with thicknesses within 19.86 ± 8.48 nm, was synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) as a template and l-carbonic as the carbon source by one-step hydrothermal synthesis method. This C-doped BiVO4 in three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure enjoys high visible-light photocatalytic property. The samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Raman spectra, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area, electron spin resonance, and transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectra, and incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency, respectively. What is more, we studied the C-doping effect on the band-gap energy of BiVO4 based on First-principles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all photocatalysts were in the same single monoclinic scheelite structure. According to the other characterization results, the element C was successfully doped in BiVO4, resulting in the 3D hierarchical structure of C-doped BiVO4 (P-L-BiVO4). We speculated that it could be the directional coalescence mechanism by which the l-cysteine promoted the two-dimensional growth and C-doping process of BiVO4, thus leading to the formation of nanosheets which were then promoted into 3D self-assembly by PVP and the shortening of the band gap. Among all samples, P-L-BiVO4 can make the highest removal ratio of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The stability of P-L-BiVO4 was verified by recycle experiments. It showed that P-L-BiVO4 had strong visible-light absorption behavior and high electron-hole separation efficiency and stability, making a significant advantage in actual situation.

  17. Fabrication of a three-dimensional β-tricalcium-phosphate/gelatin containing chitosan-based nanoparticles for sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2: Implication for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Farshid; Paknejad, Zahrasadat; Jafari, Maissa; Salehi, Majid; Rezai Rad, Maryam; Khojasteh, Arash

    2017-03-01

    Fabrication of an ideal scaffold having proper composition, physical structure and able to have sustained release of growth factors still is challenging for bone tissue engineering. Current study aimed to design an appropriate three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold with suitable physical characteristics, including proper compressive strength, degradation rate, porosity, and able to sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), for bone tissue engineering. A highly porous 3-D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds, inside of which two perpendicular canals were created, was fabricated using foam-casting technique. Then, scaffolds were coated with gelatin layer. Next, BMP2-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were dispersed into collagen hydrogel and filled into the scaffold canals. Physical characteristics of fabricated constructs were evaluated. Moreover, the capability of given construct for bone regeneration has been evaluated in vitro in interaction with human buccal fat pad-derived stem cells (hBFPSCs). The results showed that gelatin-coated TCP scaffold with rhBMP2 delivery system not only could act as a mechanically and biologically compatible framework, but also act as an osteoinductive graft by sustained delivering of rhBMP2 in a therapeutic window for differentiation of hBFPSCs towards the osteoblast lineage. The proposed scaffold model can be suggested for delivering of cells and other growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alone or in combination, for future investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Iron deposition in the gray matter in patients with relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study using three-dimensional (3D)-enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Silin, E-mail: 182389558@qq.com; Sah, Shambhu K., E-mail: mrsks2007@hotmail.com; Zeng, Chun, E-mail: zengchun19840305@163.com; Wang, Jingjie, E-mail: 345151097@qq.com; Liu, Yi, E-mail: 993537544@qq.com; Xiong, Hua, E-mail: rjdfxyh@163.com; Li, Yongmei, E-mail: lymzhang70@aliyun.com

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the iron content by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinic correlation in patients with relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) over a two-year period. Methods: Thirty RRMS patients and 30 healthy control subjects were examined twice, two years apart, by undergoing brain conventional MRI and three-dimensional (3D)-enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN) sequences at 3.0 T. Quantitative differences in iron content in deep gray matter (GM) nuclei and precentral gyrus GM between patients and control subjects with repeated-measures the mean phase values (MPVs) for ESWAN-filtered phase images. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis was used to evaluate correlations of the MPVs, both 2-year-difference and single-time measurements, to disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and times of recurrence. Results: The RRMS patients had higher GM iron concentration than that of the healthy control subjects in both single-time measurements, but only the substantia nigra (SN), and the precentral gyrus GM (PGM) showed a significant statistical difference (p < 0.05). Using the paired samples t test, we found that there were significant differences in two-year-difference measurements of the MPVs in the putamen (PUT), the globus pallidus (GP), the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN), the thalamus (THA), SN, the red nucleus (RN), the dentate nucleus (DN) and PGM, especially in SN (t = 2.92, p = 0.007) in RRMS patients. The MPVs of the PUT, GP, HCN, THA, SN, RN, DN and PGM for the subgroup with RRMS patients in times of recurrence less than twice were similar to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in all regions of interests (ROIs). However, there were significant differences in all ROIs except THA and GP for the other subgroup with RRMS patients in times of recurrence more than and equal to twice. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis showed there were

  19. Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Kebin; Strikwerda, Andrew; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We present optically tunable magnetic three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials at terahertz (THz) frequencies which exhibit a tuning range of ~30% of the resonance frequency. This is accomplished by fabricating 3D array structures consisting of double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs) on silicon on sapph......We present optically tunable magnetic three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials at terahertz (THz) frequencies which exhibit a tuning range of ~30% of the resonance frequency. This is accomplished by fabricating 3D array structures consisting of double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs) on silicon...

  20. Three-dimensional display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  1. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  2. High-Efficiency Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of the open source 3-D printer known as the RepRap (a self-Replicating Rapid prototyper resulted in the potential for distributed manufacturing of products for significantly lower costs than conventional manufacturing. This development, coupled with open source-appropriate technology (OSAT, has enabled the opportunity for 3-D printers to be used for sustainable development. In this context, OSAT provides the opportunity to modify and improve the physical designs of their printers and desired digitally-shared objects. However, these 3-D printers require electricity while more than a billion people still lack electricity. To enable the utilization of RepRaps in off-grid communities, solar photovoltaic (PV-powered mobile systems have been developed, but recent improvements in novel delta-style 3-D printer designs allows for reduced costs and improved performance. This study builds on these innovations to develop and experimentally validate a mobile solar-PV-powered delta 3-D printer system. It is designed to run the RepRap 3-D printer regardless of solar flux. The electrical system design is tested outdoors for operating conditions: (1 PV charging battery and running 3-D printer; (2 printing under low insolation; (3 battery powering the 3-D printer alone; (4 PV charging the battery only; and (5 battery fully charged with PV-powered 3-D printing. The results show the system performed as required under all conditions providing feasibility for adoption in off-grid rural communities. 3-D printers powered by affordable mobile PV solar systems have a great potential to reduce poverty through employment creation, as well as ensuring a constant supply of scarce products for isolated communities.

  3. 90°-Flip-angle three-dimensional double-echo steady-state (3D-DESS) magnetic resonance imaging of the knee: Isovoxel cartilage imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Susumu, E-mail: smoyari@yahoo.co.jp [Ishikawa Clinic, 46-1 Shimokamo-Umenoki-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-0851 (Japan); Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80, Kodatsuno, Kanazawa 920-0942 (Japan); Miki, Yukio, E-mail: yukio.miki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Kanagaki, Mitsunori, E-mail: mitsuk@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Matsuno, Yukako, E-mail: ynoma2000jp@yahoo.co.jp [Oike Clinic, 11 Nishinokyo-Shimoai-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 604-8436 (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki, E-mail: ramiyati@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80, Kodatsuno, Kanazawa 920-0942 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 3D-double echo steady state (3D-DESS) with improved contrast by setting the FA (Flip angle) at 90° is useful in 3D isotropic cartilage imaging of the knee at 3 T. Materials and methods: Imaging was performed in 10 healthy volunteers using 3 methods: with 3D-DESS using FA of 25° and 90°, and with true fast imaging with steady-state precession (True-FISP). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the synovial fluid and cartilage, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured, and mean values were compared. Visual assessment of artifacts was performed with the cartilage divided into 6 regions. Results: There were no significant differences in synovial fluid SNR in the comparison between FA-90° 3D-DESS and True-FISP (P = 0.364). A significantly higher cartilage SNR was observed with FA-90° 3D-DESS than with True-FISP (P = 0.031). There were no significant differences in synovial fluid-cartilage CNR between FA-90° 3D-DESS and True-FISP (P = 0.892). In the evaluation of artifacts, FA-90° 3D-DESS imaging showed a significantly higher score than True-FISP imaging in the patella and trochlea cartilage (P < 0.001, P < 0.002). Conclusions: FA-90° 3D-DESS is useful in 3D isotropic cartilage imaging of the knee at 3 T.

  4. Three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture correlations with 2D projection image gray-level variations assessed by trabecular bone score using high-resolution computed tomographic acquisitions: effects of resolution and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzenrieth, Renaud; Michelet, Franck; Hans, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the level of correlation between the 3-dimensional (3D) characteristics of trabecular bone microarchitecture, as evaluated using microcomputed tomography (μCT) reconstruction, and trabecular bone score (TBS), as evaluated using 2D projection images directly derived from 3D μCT reconstruction (TBSμCT). Moreover, we have evaluated the effects of image degradation (resolution and noise) and X-ray energy of projection on these correlations. Thirty human cadaveric vertebrae were acquired on a microscanner at an isotropic resolution of 93 μm. The 3D microarchitecture parameters were obtained using MicroView (GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, MI). The 2D projections of these 3D models were generated using the Beer-Lambert law at different X-ray energies. Degradation of image resolution was simulated (from 93 to 1488 μm). Relationships between 3D microarchitecture parameters and TBSμCT at different resolutions were evaluated using linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were observed between TBSμCT and 3D microarchitecture parameters, regardless of the resolution. Correlations were detected that were strongly to intermediately positive for connectivity density (0.711 ≤ r² ≤ 0.752) and trabecular number (0.584 ≤ r² ≤ 0.648) and negative for trabecular space (-0.407 ≤ r² ≤ -0.491), up to a pixel size of 1023 μm. In addition, TBSμCT values were strongly correlated between each other (0.77 ≤ r² ≤ 0.96). Study results show that the correlations between TBSμCT at 93 μm and 3D microarchitecture parameters are weakly impacted by the degradation of image resolution and the presence of noise. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mandibular asymmetry: a three-dimensional quantification of bilateral condyles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Han; Zhu, Ping; Lin, Yi; Wan, Shuangquan; Shu, Xin; Xu, Yue; Zheng, Youhua

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry...

  6. Three-dimensional printing of biological matters

    OpenAIRE

    Munaz, Ahmed; Raja K. Vadivelu; St John, James; Barton, Matthew; Kamble, Harshad; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing of human tissues and organ has been an exciting research topic in the past three decades. However, existing technological and biological challenges still require a significant amount of research. The present review highlights these challenges and discusses their potential solutions such as mapping and converting a human organ onto a 3D virtual design, synchronizing the virtual design with the printing hardware. Moreover, the paper discusses in details recent ad...

  7. Three-dimensional spheromak merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Y.; Sato, T.

    1983-04-01

    Spheromak is an attractive object both technically and physically to nuclear fusion plasma research. Because of the compactness and versatility coming from its intrinsic nature that the confinement magnetic fields are topologically separated from the external circuit, there are several technical advantages in designing a fusion reactor. Spheromak provides several physically interesting subjects, particularly as an object for revealing global plasma dynamics. For example, it is interesting to know how such a self-confined plasma is created starting from a realistic condition. It is interesting also to know whether such a self-confined plasma is configurationally stable or unstable and, if unstable, by what dynamics the evolution is governed. Three-dimensional simulations have disclosed that the plasma suffers a tilting disruption through reconnection and recent more extensive 3-D simulations have examined in detail the global dynamics of tilting instability and the remedies of the instability.

  8. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy: Three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three-dimensional imaging of the director. O D LAVRENTOVICH. Chemical Physics ... cholesteric LCs. Keywords. 3D imaging; confocal microscopy; liquid crystals; dislocations. PACS Nos 07.60. ... magnetic resonance, x-ray diffraction, optical phase retardation, etc., suffer from the same deficiency: they produce only an ...

  9. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  10. An Integrated Web-Based 3d Modeling and Visualization Platform to Support Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirebrahimi, S.; Rajabifard, A.

    2012-07-01

    Sustainable Development is found as the key solution to preserve the sustainability of cities in oppose to ongoing population growth and its negative impacts. This is complex and requires a holistic and multidisciplinary decision making. Variety of stakeholders with different backgrounds also needs to be considered and involved. Numerous web-based modeling and visualization tools have been designed and developed to support this process. There have been some success stories; however, majority failed to bring a comprehensive platform to support different aspects of sustainable development. In this work, in the context of SDI and Land Administration, CSDILA Platform - a 3D visualization and modeling platform -was proposed which can be used to model and visualize different dimensions to facilitate the achievement of sustainability, in particular, in urban context. The methodology involved the design of a generic framework for development of an analytical and visualization tool over the web. CSDILA Platform was then implemented via number of technologies based on the guidelines provided by the framework. The platform has a modular structure and uses Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). It is capable of managing spatial objects in a 4D data store and can flexibly incorporate a variety of developed models using the platform's API. Development scenarios can be modeled and tested using the analysis and modeling component in the platform and the results are visualized in seamless 3D environment. The platform was further tested using number of scenarios and showed promising results and potentials to serve a wider need. In this paper, the design process of the generic framework, the implementation of CSDILA Platform and technologies used, and also findings and future research directions will be presented and discussed.

  11. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  12. Three-Dimensional Laser Microvision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotahira, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Keigo; Chu, Sun-Chun; Wah, Christopher; Costen, Furnie; Yoshikuni, Yuzo

    2001-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 m; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 m.

  13. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    13-1-0026 entitled "Three- Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics ," Principal Investigator Dr. Ying-Tsong Lin. Sincerely, ;l1,J-Ju1𔃻 ~{hjM1...30/03/2016 01/01/2013-12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBERS Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics 5b, GRANT NUMBER N0001 4-13-1...effects. The long-term goals of this project are targeted on understanding the 3-D acoustic effects, and their temporal and spatial variability, caused

  15. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-22

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  16. Three dimensional Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent

  17. Three-dimensional camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Thorsten; Gesierich, Achim; Legarda-Saenz, Ricardo; Jueptner, Werner P. O.

    2003-05-01

    Industrial- and multimedia applications need cost effective, compact and flexible 3D profiling instruments. In the talk we will show the principle of, applications for and results from a new miniaturized 3-D profiling system for macroscopic scenes. The system uses a compact housing and is usable like a camera with minimum stabilization like a tripod. The system is based on common fringe projection technique. Camera and projector are assembled with parallel optical axes having coplanar projection and imaging plane. Their axes distance is comparable to the human eyes distance altogether giving a complete system of 21x20x11 cm size and allowing to measure high gradient objects like the interior of tubes. The fringe projector uses a LCD which enables fast and flexible pattern projection. Camera and projector have a short focal length and a high system aperture as well as a large depth of focus. Thus, objects can be measured from a shorter distance compared to common systems (e.g. 1 m sized objects in 80 cm distance). Actually, objects with diameters up to 4 m can be profiled because the set-up allows working with completely opened aperture combined with bright lamps giving a big amount of available light and a high Signal to Noise Ratio. Normally a small basis has the disadvantage of reduced sensitivity. We investigated in methods to compensate the reduced sensitivity via setup and enhanced evaluation methods. For measurement we use synthetic wavelengths. The developed algorithms are completely adaptable concerning the users needs of speed and accuracy. The 3D camera is built from low cost components, robust, nearly handheld and delivers insights also into difficult technical objects like tubes and inside volumes. Besides the realized high resolution phase measurement the system calibration is an important task for usability. While calibrating with common photogrammetric models (which are typically used for actual fringe projection systems) problems were found that

  18. Three-dimensional computer graphics for surgical procedure learning: Web three-dimensional application for cleft lip repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Mori, Ayako; Tanaka, Daigo; Fujino, Toyomi; Chiyokura, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    .... They must understand the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the lips. However, they may have difficulty learning the surgical procedures precisely from normal textbooks with two-dimensional illustrations...

  19. Three Dimensional (3 D) Printed Sierpinski Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    the expertise in this field is also rapidly expanding . The 4-year hiring trends in the field of additive manufacturing are shown in Figure 1. The...Testing of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Plastics: A Comparative Study Between

  20. Full three-dimensional isotropic transformation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Meca, C.; Ortuño, R.; Martí, J.; Martínez, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present a method that enables the implementation of full three-dimensional (3D) transformation media with minimized anisotropy. It is based on a special kind of shape-preserving mapping and a subsequent optimization process. For sufficiently smooth transformations, the resulting anisotropy can be neglected, paving the way for practically realizable 3D devices. The method is independent of the considered wave phenomenon and can thus be applied to any field for which a transformational technique exists, such as acoustics or thermodynamics. Full 3D isotropy has an additional important implication for optical transformation media, as it eliminates the need for magnetic materials in many situations. To illustrate the potential of the method, we design 3D counterparts of transformation-based electromagnetic squeezers and bends.

  1. Fabrication of malleable three-dimensional-printed customized bolus using three-dimensional scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Park

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D-printed customized bolus (3D bolus can be used for radiotherapy application to irregular surfaces. However, bolus fabrication based on computed tomography (CT scans is complicated and also delivers unwanted irradiation. Consequently, we fabricated a bolus using a 3D scanner and evaluated its efficacy. The head of an Alderson Rando phantom was scanned with a 3D scanner. The 3D surface data were exported and reconstructed with Geomagic Design X software. A 3D bolus of 5-mm thickness designed to fit onto the nose was printed with the use of rubber-like printing material, and a radiotherapy plan was developed. We successfully fabricated the customized 3D bolus, and further, a CT simulation indicated an acceptable fit of the 3D bolus to the nose. There was no air gap between the bolus and the phantom surface. The percent depth dose (PDD curve of the phantom with the 3D bolus showed an enhanced surface dose when compared with that of the phantom without the bolus. The PDD of the 3D bolus was comparable with that of a commercial superflab bolus. The radiotherapy plan considering the 3D bolus showed improved target coverage when compared with that without the bolus. Thus, we successfully fabricated a customized 3D bolus for an irregular surface using a 3D scanner instead of a CT scanner.

  2. Capacitance matrix methods for the Helmholtz equation on general three-dimensional regions. [DPOLE, driver program for HELM3D, which solves Dirichlet problem of bounded 3D region imbedded in unit cube, in CDC ANSI FORTRAN for CDC 6600, CDC 7600, Amdahl 470V/6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, D.P.; Widlund, O.

    1978-10-01

    The highly structured systems of linear algebraic equations that arise when Helmholtz's equation, -..delta..u + cu = f, is discretized by finite difference or finite element methods can be solved by capacitance matrix, or imbedding, methods. This paper extends the method to three-dimensional problems. After a review of classical potential theory, the capacitance matrix methods are derived. Then the algorithmic aspects of importance for developing fast, reliable computer codes are examined; conjugate gradient methods and the use of spectral information and approximate inverses of the capacitance matrices are considered. Next, the fast Poisson solver used is described. Finally, the computer code developed is discussed and a listing is given. 3 tables. (RWR)

  3. The thermoelectric performance of bulk three-dimensional graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yangzhi@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lan, Guoqiang; Ouyang, Bin [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada); Xu, Li-Chun; Liu, Ruiping [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Song, Jun [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    The electronic and thermoelectric properties of a new carbon bulk material, three-dimensional (3D) graphene, are investigated in this study. Our results show that 3D graphene has unique electronic structure, i.e., near the Fermi level there exist Dirac cones. More importantly, the thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent, at room temperature the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) is 0.21, an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene. By introducing line defects, the ZT of 3D graphene could be enhanced to 1.52, indicating 3D graphene is a powerful candidate for constructing novel thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • There exist Dirac cones in three-dimensional (3D) graphene. • The thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent. • The defective 3D graphene has better thermoelectric performance.

  4. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiorentini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic and quantitative advantages of this technique. (Heart International 2007; 3: 35-41

  5. Three-dimensional simulation of laser–plasma-based electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A sequential three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulation code PICPSI-3D with a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and used to study the interaction of plasma with ultrahigh intensity laser radiation. A case study of laser–plasma-based electron acceleration has been carried out ...

  6. Three-dimensional simulation of laser–plasma-based electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sequential three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulation code PICPSI-3D with a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and used to study the interaction of plasma with ultrahigh intensity laser radiation. A case study of laser–plasma-based electron acceleration has been carried out to assess ...

  7. Three-dimensional computer modeling of slag cement hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos; Shui, Z.H.

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed version of a three-dimensional computer model for simulating the hydration and microstructure development of slag cement pastes is presented in this study. It is based on a 3-D computer model for Portland cement hydration (CEMHYD3D) which was originally developed at NIST, taken

  8. Sweeping of three-dimensional objects

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Ralph Robert; Stephenson, P. C.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluating the volume swept out by a three-dimensional (3D) object as it moves along an arbitrary path is of interest to many areas of CAD and CAM, such as mechanism design and robot path planning. This paper shows how envelope theory from differential geometry can be used to find the volumes swept out by the individual surfaces of a solid body, and how computer algebra methods may be of use to perform the computations involved. Finally, a new algorithm is presented which shows how the result...

  9. Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.

  10. Imaging Cells in Three-Dimensional Collagen Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Artym, Vira V.; Matsumoto, Kazue

    2010-01-01

    The use of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices to mimic an in vivo cellular environment has become increasingly popular and is broadening our understanding of cellular processes and cell - ECM interactions. To study cells in in vitro 3D collagen matrices, both cellular proteins and the collagen matrix must be visualized. In this unit, the authors describe the protocol and provide troubleshooting for immuno-labeling of cells in 3D collagen gels to localize and visualize cellular ...

  11. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-22

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  12. Three-dimensional laparoscopy: Principles and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Y Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest challenge for laparoscopic surgeons is the eye–hand coordination within a three-dimensional (3D scene observed on a 2D display. The 2D view on flat screen laparoscopy is cerebrally intensive. The loss of binocular vision on a 2D display causes visual misperceptions, mainly loss of depth perception and adds to the surgeon's fatigue. This compromises the safety of laparoscopy. The 3D high-definition view with great depth perception and tactile feedback makes laparoscopic surgery more acceptable, safe and cost-effective. It improves surgical precision and hand–eye coordination, conventional and all straight stick instruments can be used, capital expenditure is less and recurring cost and annual maintenance cost are less. In this article, we have discussed the physics of 3D laparoscopy, principles of depth perception, and the different kinds of 3D systems available for laparoscopy. We have also discussed our experience of using 3D laparoscopy in over 2000 surgeries in the last 4 years.

  13. Cylindrical Three-Dimensional Porous Anodic Alumina Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Resende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a conformal three-dimensional nanostructure based on porous anodic alumina with transversal nanopores on wires is herein presented. The resulting three-dimensional network exhibits the same nanostructure as that obtained on planar geometries, but with a macroscopic cylindrical geometry. The morphological analysis of the nanostructure revealed the effects of the initial defects on the aluminum surface and the mechanical strains on the integrity of the three-dimensional network. The results evidence the feasibility of obtaining 3D porous anodic alumina on non-planar aluminum substrates.

  14. Three-dimensional printing of biological matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Munaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing of human tissues and organ has been an exciting research topic in the past three decades. However, existing technological and biological challenges still require a significant amount of research. The present review highlights these challenges and discusses their potential solutions such as mapping and converting a human organ onto a 3D virtual design, synchronizing the virtual design with the printing hardware. Moreover, the paper discusses in details recent advances in formulating bio-inks and challenges in tissue construction with or without scaffold. Next, the paper reviews fusion processes effecting vascular cells and tissues. Finally, the paper deliberates the feasibility of organ printing with state-of-the-art technologies.

  15. 3D Printing with Biomaterials : Towards a Sustainable and Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Van Wijk, I.

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing, manufacturing a product layer by layer, offers large design freedom and faster product development cycles, as well as low startup cost of production, on-demand production and local production. In principle, any product could be made by additive manufacturing.

  16. Three-dimensional television: a broadcaster's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.

  17. Complement C3d conjugation to anthrax protective antigen promotes a rapid, sustained, and protective antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi V Kolla

    Full Text Available B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Pathogenesis is primarily mediated through the exotoxins lethal factor and edema factor, which bind protective antigen (PA to gain entry into the host cell. The current anthrax vaccine (AVA, Biothrax consists of aluminum-adsorbed cell-free filtrates of unencapsulated B. anthracis, wherein PA is thought to be the principle target of neutralization. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the natural adjuvant, C3d, versus alum in eliciting an anti-PA humoral response and found that C3d conjugation to PA and emulsion in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA imparted superior protection from anthrax challenge relative to PA in IFA or PA adsorbed to alum. Relative to alum-PA, immunization of mice with C3d-PA/IFA augmented both the onset and sustained production of PA-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding portion (domain 4 of PA. C3d-PA/IFA was efficacious when administered either i.p. or s.c., and in adolescent mice lacking a fully mature B cell compartment. Induction of PA-specific antibodies by C3d-PA/IFA correlated with increased efficiency of germinal center formation and plasma cell generation. Importantly, C3d-PA immunization effectively protected mice from intranasal challenge with B. anthracis spores, and was approximately 10-fold more effective than alum-PA immunization or PA/IFA based on dose challenge. These data suggest that incorporation of C3d as an adjuvant may overcome shortcomings of the currently licensed aluminum-based vaccine, and may confer protection in the early days following acute anthrax exposure.

  18. Lung nodule detection performance in five observers on computed tomography (CT) with adaptive iterative dose reduction using three-dimensional processing (AIDR 3D) in a Japanese multicenter study: Comparison between ultra-low-dose CT and low-dose CT by receiver-operating characteristic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Yukihiro, E-mail: yatsushi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Shiga (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Shiga (Japan); Ikeda, Mitsuru [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Science, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 461-8673, Aichi (Japan); Yamashiro, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara 903-0215, Okinawa (Japan); Miyara, Tetsuhiro [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara 903-0215, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, Okinawa Prefectural Yaeyama Hospital, Ishigaki 907-0022, Okinawa (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Koyama, Mitsuhiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki 569-8686, Osaka (Japan); Sato, Yukihisa [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical Center of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka 537-8511, Osaka (Japan); Moriya, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, Fukushima 960-8611 (Japan); Noma, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Tenri Hospital, Tenri 632-8552, Nara (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara 903-0215, Okinawa (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Using AIDR 3D, ULDCT showed comparable LND of solid nodules to LDCT. • Using AIDR 3D, LND of smaller GGN in ULDCT was inferior to that in LDCT. • Effective dose in ULDCT was about only twice of that in chest X-ray. • BMI values in study population were mostly in the normal range body habitus. - Abstract: Purpose: To compare lung nodule detection performance (LNDP) in computed tomography (CT) with adaptive iterative dose reduction using three dimensional processing (AIDR3D) between ultra-low dose CT (ULDCT) and low dose CT (LDCT). Materials and methods: This was part of the Area-detector Computed Tomography for the Investigation of Thoracic Diseases (ACTIve) Study, a multicenter research project being conducted in Japan. Institutional Review Board approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-three subjects (body mass index, 23.3 ± 3.2) underwent chest CT at 6 institutions using identical scanners and protocols. In a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120 and 20 mA (3.52, 1.74 and 0.29 mSv, respectively). Axial CT images with 2-mm thickness/increment were reconstructed using AIDR3D. Standard of reference (SOR) was determined based on CT images at 240 mA by consensus reading of 2 board-certificated radiologists as to the presence of lung nodules with the longest diameter (LD) of more than 3 mm. Another 5 radiologists independently assessed and recorded presence/absence of lung nodules and their locations by continuously-distributed rating in CT images at 20 mA (ULDCT) and 120 mA (LDCT). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate LNDP of both methods in total and also in subgroups classified by LD (>4, 6 and 8 mm) and nodular characteristics (solid and ground glass nodules). Results: For SOR, 161 solid and 60 ground glass nodules were identified. No significant difference in LNDP for entire solid nodules was demonstrated between both methods, as area under ROC

  19. Three-dimensional image display in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovich, N J; Robertson, D R; Cheeseman, A M

    1990-05-01

    This article is a tutorial on the methods used to create three-dimensional (3-D) images for use in displaying patient anatomy. This new view into anatomy has developed over the last 10 years from the need of surgeons, radiation therapists, and radiologists to integrate the many images resulting from the recent growth in tomographic imaging including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT and MRI studies result in 30 to 100 images. 3-D imaging processes and integrates this image data volume and extracts more meaningful, derivative images via multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), shaded surface processing, or volumetric processing. MPR reslices the image volume to produce novel views of patient anatomy while retaining the image voxel intensities. Realistic shaded surface display of 3-D objects can involve extensive processing of the images to create computer representations of objects rendered into a displayable 3-D scene. Volumetric imaging combines the voxel processing of MPR with the techniques of tissue classification and surface shading to produce novel projections of the image data volume that allow automated creation of 3-D scenes without recourse to the complexities of object delineation. As the ultimate 3-D display, recent advances in computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) allow the fabrication of physical models of anatomy using computer-controlled milling machines. New technology that actually builds the model layer by layer from a liquid plastic offers the possibility of complete models with intact internal anatomy. The growth in 3-D is certain as hardware and software costs decrease and medical professionals find further applications for this technology.

  20. Three-dimensional stellarator codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, P R

    2002-08-06

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory.

  1. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  2. Magnetophotonic response of three-dimensional opals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, José Manuel; Pascu, Oana; López-García, Martín; Canalejas, Víctor; Blanco, Alvaro; López, Cefe; Fontcuberta, Josep; Roig, Anna; Herranz, Gervasi

    2011-04-26

    Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D-MPCs) are being postulated as appropriate platforms to tailor the magneto-optical spectral response of magnetic materials and to incorporate this functionality in a new generation of optical devices. By infiltrating self-assembled inverse opal structures with monodisperse nickel nanoparticles we have fabricated 3D-MPCs that show a sizable enhancement of the magneto-optical signal at frequencies around the stop-band edges of the photonic crystals. We have established a proper methodology to disentangle the intrinsic magneto-optical spectra from the nonmagnetic optical activity of the 3D-MPCs. The results of the optical and magneto-optical characterization are consistent with a homogeneous magnetic infiltration of the opal structure that gives rise to both a red-shift of the optical bandgap and a modification of the magneto-optical spectral response due to photonic bandgap effects. The results of our investigation demonstrate the potential of 3D-MPCs fabricated following the approach outlined here and offer opportunities to adapt the magneto-optical spectral response at optical frequencies by appropriate design of the opal structure or magnetic field strength.

  3. FRET Imaging in Three-dimensional Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donius, Amalie E; Bougoin, Sylvain V; Taboas, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for examining cell biology in real-time. Studies utilizing FRET commonly employ two-dimensional (2D) culture, which does not mimic the three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment. A method to perform quenched emission FRET imaging using conventional widefield epifluorescence microscopy of cells within a 3D hydrogel environment is presented. Here an analysis method for ratiometric FRET probes that yields linear ratios over the probe activation range is described. Measurement of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels is demonstrated in chondrocytes under forskolin stimulation using a probe for EPAC1 activation (ICUE1) and the ability to detect differences in cAMP signaling dependent on hydrogel material type, herein a photocrosslinking hydrogel (PC-gel, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and a thermoresponsive hydrogel (TR-gel). Compared with 2D FRET methods, this method requires little additional work. Laboratories already utilizing FRET imaging in 2D can easily adopt this method to perform cellular studies in a 3D microenvironment. It can further be applied to high throughput drug screening in engineered 3D microtissues. Additionally, it is compatible with other forms of FRET imaging, such as anisotropy measurement and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), and with advanced microscopy platforms using confocal, pulsed, or modulated illumination.

  4. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  5. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  6. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami [Asahi Univ., Hozumi, Gifu (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1998-09-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ``still image warping`` special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  7. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  8. An Interactive Preprocessor Program with Graphics for a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Claude Hayden, III

    The development and capabilities of an interactive preprocessor program with graphics for an existing three-dimensional finite element code is presented. This preprocessor program, EDGAP3D, is designed to be used in conjunction with the Texas Three Dimensional Grain Analysis Program (TXCAP3D). The code presented in this research is capable of the…

  9. Three-Month-Olds' Sensitivity to Orientation Cues in the Three-Dimensional Depth Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Evelin; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2006-01-01

    Three-month-olds are sensitive to orientation changes of line drawings when they have a three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and when the changes are defined by both 3-D depth and two-dimensional (2-D) picture plane cues [Bhatt, R. S., & Bertin, E. (2001). Pictorial cues and three-dimensional information processing in early infancy. Journal of…

  10. Three-dimensional particle cloud simulation based on illumination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yumeihui; Duan, Jin; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    The simulation of 3D clouds has been a challenging research question in the field of computer graphics. Aiming at the problem that the existing three-dimensional cloud is not realistic, a three-dimensional particle cloud simulation method based on the illumination model is proposed, which randomly generate the particles according to the principle of the particle system and give the particles the initial color, size and shape. And then add the lighting effects and render them to achieve the three-dimensional cloud simulation. Comparing with the previous three-dimensional cloud modeling method, this method has the advantages of rapid rendering of cloud, because of the effect of adding light, the real feeling more intense.

  11. Three-Dimensional Cell Cultures in Drug Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ye; Eglen, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed significant efforts toward the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures as systems that better mimic in vivo physiology. Today, 3D cell cultures are emerging, not only as a new tool in early drug discovery but also as potential therapeutics to treat disease. In this review, we assess leading 3D cell culture technologies and their impact on drug discovery, including spheroids, organoids, scaffolds, hydrogels, organs-on-chips, and 3D bioprinting. We also discuss the implementation of these technologies in compound identification, screening, and development, ranging from disease modeling to assessment of efficacy and safety profiles. PMID:28520521

  12. Three-dimensional tissue culture models in cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Bin

    2005-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture models have an invaluable role in tumour biology today providing some very important insights into cancer biology. As well as increasing our understanding of homeostasis, cellular differentiation and tissue organization they provide a well defined environment for cancer research in contrast to the complex host environment of an in vivo model. Due to their enormous potential 3D tumour cultures are currently being exploited by many branches of biomedical science with therapeutically orientated studies becoming the major focus of research. Recent advances in 3D culture and tissue engineering techniques have enabled the development of more complex heterologous 3D tumour models.

  13. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsing-Cheng Yu; Xie-Hong Tsai; An-Chun Luo; Ming Wu; Sei-Wang Chen

    2015-01-01

    When viewing three-dimensional (3D) images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the ph...

  14. Architecture and Applications of Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    building blocksfor the bottom-up architecture of various graphene based nanomaterials. Th eassembly of functionalized GNS into three-dimensional (3D) porous graphenenetworks represents a novel approach. Resulting 3D porous graphene materialsposses unique physicochemical properties such as large surface...... based on the accomplishmentsrecently reported. Th e chapter will include: (1) a brief introduction to grapheneand its nanocomposites, (2) the major methods to assemble 3D porous graphenenetworks, (3) structural characteristics of 3D porous graphene, (4) some typicalexamples of their applications...

  15. Using interactive 3D visualisation to educate stakeholders in urban sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ruth; Isaacs, John; Blackwood, David

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable decision making in urban design is a complex and non-linear process, which requires the education and interaction of wide variety of stakeholders. A number of sustainable decision support tools have been developed but previous research by the authors has demonstrated that a major barrier to the implementation of tools is the complexity of the environment in which decision are made. In particular, engagement with the general public throughout the decision making process presents challenges in communicating the complex and interdependent facets of sustainability in decisions and also in providing an understanding to stakeholders of the short and long term implications of alternative courses of action. S-City VT, a prototype simulation and visualisation tool, demonstrates the underlying concepts that allow a wider range of stakeholders to understand, interact with and influence decisions regarding sustainability of urban design. Using the Dundee Waterfront Development Project as a case study, S-City VT takes the unique approach of combining computer game technology with computer modelling to present the stakeholder with an interactive virtual development. The virtual development is completely interactive allowing users to change the underlying models as well as the external appearance and location of buildings and other structures within the development. This provides a more interactive experience by allowing the user a one to one relationship with the environment they are interacting with, as opposed to existing off the shelf solutions, such as CAD or BIM, that lack in real time interactivity. S-City VT utilises existing games technology research to allow the rendering of virtual environment on consumer hardware opening up its use to a wider range of participants and venues by not relying on specialist hardware. The visualisation tool employs a number of different methods to display the multivariate sustainability data to the stakeholders. These methods

  16. Moyamoya disease: diagnosis with three-dimensional CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K. (Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical Coll., Saitama (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Makita, K. (Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical Coll., Saitama (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Social Health Insurance Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)); Furui, S. (Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical Coll., Saitama (Japan) Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Toranomon Kyosai Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    Our purpose was to assess the value of three-dimensional (3D) CT angiography in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease. We studied seven patients with moyamoya disease proved by conventional angiography. Three-dimensional (3D) CT angiography was performed using rapid sequence or helical (spiral) scanning in conjunction with a bolus injection of intravenous contrast medium. All seven patients could be diagnosed as having moyamoya disease on the basis of the following 3D CT angiographic findings: poor visualisation of the main trunks and/or major branches of anterior and middle cerebral arteries (7 patients); dilated leptomeningeal anastomotic channels from the posterior cerebral arteries (4); and demonstration of ''moyamoya vessels'' in the basal ganglia (2). Although conventional angiography remains the principal imaging technique for demonstrating anatomical changes in detail, less invasive 3D CT angiography provides a solid means of diagnosing moyamoya disease when it is suspected on CT, MRI, or clinical grounds. (orig.)

  17. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surface to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled by Coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The ICAS fills the need for high speed automated organic analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry sensors, and also by radionuclide sensors which combines alpha, beta, and gamma counting.

  18. Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Aurélie; Lamb, Don C

    2011-11-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) in biological systems is a quickly growing field. Many new technologies are being developed providing new tracking capabilities, which also lead to higher demands and expectations for SPT. Following a single biomolecule as it performs its function provides quantitative mechanistic information that cannot be obtained in classical ensemble methods. From the 3D trajectory, information is available over the diffusional behavior of the particle and precise position information can also be used to elucidate interactions of the tracked particle with its surroundings. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) SPT is a very valuable tool for investigating cellular processes. This review presents recent progress in 3D SPT, from image-based techniques toward more sophisticated feedback approaches. We focus mainly on the feedback technique known as orbital tracking. We present here a modified version of the original orbital tracking in which the intensities from two z-planes are simultaneously measured allowing a concomitant wide-field imaging. The system can track single particles with a precision down to 5 nm in the x-y plane and 7 nm in the axial direction. The capabilities of the system are demonstrated using single virus tracing to follow the infection pathway of Prototype Foamy Virus in living cells.

  19. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel [Pochon Cha University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  20. 3D Visualization Tools to Support Soil Management In Relation to Sustainable Agriculture and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Visualization tools [1][2][6] have been used increasingly as part of information, consultation, and collaboration in relation to issues of global significance. Visualization techniques can be used in a variety of different settings, depending on their association with specific types of decision. Initially, they can be used to improve awareness of the local community and landscape, either individually or in groups [5]. They can also be used to communicate different aspects of change, such as digital soil mapping, ecosystem services and climate change [7][8]. A prototype 3D model was developed to present Tarland Catchment on the North East Scotland which includes 1:25000 soil map data and 1:50000 land capability for agriculture (LCA) data [4]. The model was used to identify issues arising between the growing interest soil monitoring and management, and the potential effects on existing soil characteristics. The online model was also created which can capture user/stakeholder comments they associate with soil features. In addition, people are located physically within the real-world bounds of the current soil management scenario, they can use Augmented Reality to see the scenario overlaid on their immediate surroundings. Models representing alternative soil use and management were used in the virtual landscape theatre (VLT) [3]with electronic voting designed to elicit public aspirations and concerns regarding future soil uses, and to develop scenarios driven by local input. Preliminary findings suggest positive audience responses to the relevance of the inclusion of soil data within a scene when considering questions regarding the impact of land-use change, such as woodland, agricultural land and open spaces. A future development is the use of the prototype virtual environment in a preference survey of scenarios of changes in land use, and in stakeholder consultations on such changes.END Rua, H. and Alvito, P. (2011) Living the past: 3D models, virtual reality and

  1. Ion beam polishing for three-dimensional electron backscattered diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Ubhi, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Serial sectioning by focused ion beam milling for three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction (3D-EBSD) can create surface damage and amorphization in certain materials and consequently reduce the EBSD signal quality. Poor EBSD signal causes longer data acquisition time due to signal avera.......3% of normal 3D-EBSD mapping compared to a significant increase of indexing percentage and pattern quality. The polishing performance in this investigation is discussed, and two potential methods for further improvement are presented....

  2. Three-dimensional residual strain in midanterior canine left ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Kevin D; MAY-NEWMAN, KAREN; FARR, DYAN; O’Dell, Walter G.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Omens, Jeffrey H.

    1997-01-01

    All previous studies of residual strain in the ventricular wall have been based on one- or two-dimensional measurements. Transmural distributions of three-dimensional (3-D) residual strains were measured by biplane radiography of columns of lead beads implanted in the midanterior free wall of the canine left ventricle (LV). 3-D bead coordinates were reconstructed with the isolated arrested LV in the zero-pressure state and again after local residual stress had been relieved by excising a tran...

  3. Three-dimensional geostatistical modeling of soil organic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Yang, Ren Min; Zhang, Gan Lin

    2016-01-01

    For mapping soil properties in three dimensions the simplest option is to choose a series of depth intervals, and to calibrate a two-dimensional (2-D) model for each interval. The alternative is to calibrate a full three dimensional (3-D) model that describes the variation in lateral and vertical

  4. Toward a comparative analysis of three-dimensional shape measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Gregory J.; Gregga, Jason B.

    2002-02-01

    Measuring a system's capability to acquire accurate three- dimensional shape is important for validating the system for a particular application. Various system factors are reviewed that contribute to inaccurate shape. As shown in this paper, different shape measures do not do a complete evaluation but provide different information depending on the type of error. A partial-directed hausdorf (PDH) and complex inner product (CIP) measure that were previously introduced to measure two-dimensional shapes are now extended to measure three-dimensional shapes. PDH measures how close the 3D surface is to the ideal 3D surface within a predefined acceptable error margin, while the CIP measures how well the 3D surface correlates to the ideal 3D surface. Two variants of the CIP measure are used in this paper including a pure phase only filter and a normalized matched filter. The CIP measure is compared to the Procrustes metric for comparing shapes. Using a test case shape, the measures are compared and shown to provide varying information. Alone, any one measure cannot provide complete shape information. Combining measures provides a more robust three-dimensional shape measurement system. The shape measures are demonstrated first on three-dimensional data with controlled variation and then on laser ranging data.

  5. Three-dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann models in the framework of coupled double-distribution function approach for compressible flows, in which specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number can be adjustable, aredeveloped in this paper. The main differences between the two models are discrete equilibrium density and ...

  6. Three dimensional simulated modelling of diffusion capacitance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three dimensional (3-D) simulated modelling was developed to analyse the excess minority carrier density in the base of a polycrystalline bifacial silicon solar cell. The concept of junction recombination velocity was ado-pted to quantify carrier flow through the junction, and to examine the solar cell diffusion capacitance for ...

  7. Three-dimensional topology optimized electrically-small conformal antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) conductor-based conformal electrically small antenna is obtained using a topology optimization method. The optimization method distributes a certain amount of conductive material to a designated design domain such that the material layout defines an electrically small...

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of abnormal ultrastructural alteration in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The deterioration of subcellular organelles, including the mitochondria, is another major ultrastructural characteristic of AD pathogenesis, in addition to amyloid plaque deposition. However, the three-dimensional (3-D) study of mitochondrial structural alteration in AD remains poorly understood. Therefore, ultrastructural ...

  9. Three-Dimensional Densitometric Reconstruction and Visualization of Stenosed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.G.M.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Storm, C.J.; van Benthem, A.C.; Buis, B.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we report results from an ongoing study about the diagnostic benefits of three-dimensional (3D) visualization and quantification of stenosed coronary artery segments. Biplane angiographic images do not provide enough information for the exact reconstruction of the coronary arteries.

  10. A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface Diagnostic Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, 2010 1 A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface... Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. An ROC curve provides a...receiver operator characteristic (3D ROC) surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the

  11. Three-dimensional musculoskeletal modelling of the seated row ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate whether three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal modelling could be effective in assessing the safety and efficacy of exercising on a seated row resistance-training machine. The focus of the evaluation was on biomechanical and anthropometric considerations of the end user. Methods. Three ...

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Grann, Birgitte; Kristoffersen, Inger B.

    2014-01-01

    This study gives a three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of rat nephrons and their connections to collecting ducts. Approximately 4,500 2.5-μm-thick serial sections from the renal surface to the papillary tip were obtained from each of 3 kidneys of Wistar rats. Digital images were recorded...

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the otosclerotic focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2010-01-01

    The location and three-dimensional (3D) shapes of the otosclerotic foci suggest a general centripetal distribution of otosclerotic bone remodeling around the inner ear space, whereas the normal bone remodeling is distributed centrifugally. The existence of an inverse spatial relation between norm...

  14. Hydrogel microfabrication technology toward three dimensional tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiki Yanagawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D tissue constructs is essential for the alternative methods of organ transplantation in regenerative medicine, as well as the development of improved drug discovery assays. Recent technological advances in hydrogel microfabrication, such as micromolding, 3D bioprinting, photolithography, and stereolithography, have led to the production of 3D tissue constructs that exhibit biological functions with precise 3D microstructures. Furthermore, microfluidics technology has enabled the development of the perfusion culture of 3D tissue constructs with vascular networks. In this review, we present these hydrogel microfabrication technologies for the in vitro reconstruction and cultivation of 3D tissues. Additionally, we discuss current challenges and future perspectives of 3D tissue engineering.

  15. Three-dimensional polarization algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Sheppard, Colin J; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    If light is focused or collected with a high numerical aperture lens, as may occur in imaging and optical encryption applications, polarization should be considered in three dimensions (3D). The matrix algebra of polarization behavior in 3D is discussed. It is useful to convert between the Mueller matrix and two different Hermitian matrices, representing an optical material or system, which are in the literature. Explicit transformation matrices for converting the column vector form of these different matrices are extended to the 3D case, where they are large (81×81) but can be generated using simple rules. It is found that there is some advantage in using a generalization of the Chandrasekhar phase matrix treatment, rather than that based on Gell-Mann matrices, as the resultant matrices are of simpler form and reduce to the two-dimensional case more easily. Explicit expressions are given for 3D complex field components in terms of Chandrasekhar-Stokes parameters.

  16. Method for the three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the paddling cycle in the flat watter kayaking Validación metodológica del análisis cinemático 3d del ciclo de palada en el piragüismo de velocidad. Un estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Espinosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The technique in kayaking is a movement system that is analyzed on the basis of the four corporal positions that the body adopts during a paddling cycle. A case of study is presented in order of establishing the methodology that could be used periodically in the analysis of the paddling cycle to improve the effectiveness in the propulsion of the kayak. The used methods are based on photogrammetric principles of the simultaneous registry of three sequences in video of which are captured the anatomical points that represent the axes of rotation of shoulders, elbows and wrists. The kinematic values in 3D compared left and right: the time, the paddling length, the angles and angular velocities of shoulders and elbows, and the inclination of the arms, in addition the paddling frequency and the boat velocity are calculated. The results are within the reported ranks in Literature, indicating the characteristics of the paddling cycle of the athlete, and if so, indicating the failures in the synchrony and symmetry of the movements. The proposal make possible to evaluate the individual technique within a global process of training.
    Key Words:three-dimensional analysis, photogrammetry, kayak, paddling cycle

    La técnica de paleo en el piragüismo es un sistema de movimiento que se analiza sobre la base de cuatro posiciones corporales que el cuerpo adopta durante un ciclo de palada. Se presenta un caso de estudio con el propósito de establecer la metodología que pudiera utilizarse periódicamente en el análisis de la palada y con el fin de mejorar la eficacia en la propulsión del kayak. Los métodos utilizados son basados en los principios fotogramétricos del registro simultáneo de tres secuencias en vídeo de las cuales se capturan los puntos anatómicos que representan los ejes de rotación de hombros, codos y muñecas. Se comparan los valores de la cinemática en 3D izquierdos y derechos: tiempo

  17. Three-dimensional localization of implanted biomaterials in anatomical and histological specimens using combined X-ray computed tomography and three-dimensional surface reconstruction: a technical note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    For adequate histological processing of implanted biomaterials or tissue-engineered constructs, it is sometimes essential to obtain insight into the localization of structures inside the tissue samples. Observation of three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction, including basic photorealistic

  18. Three-dimensional FRET microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Adam D.; Swanson, Joel A.; Shorte, Spencer L.

    2006-02-01

    A complete understanding of cellular behavior will require precise temporal and spatial measurement of protein-protein interactions inside living cells. FRET Stoichiometry (Hoppe, A.D. et al., 2002 Biophys. J. 83:3652) has been used to measure the timing and spatial organization of protein-protein interactions in cells expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-labeled proteins and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-labeled proteins. However, all FRET data collected in a single plane of a widefield microscope is a distorted 2D representation of a 3D object. Here we show that image blurring in the widefield microscope dramatically reduces sensitivity and spatial discrimination of FRET-based measurements of protein interactions. We present an algorithm for 3D restoration and calculation of FRET data that greatly increases signal-to-noise ratio and accuracy. The approach uses maximum likelihood deconvolution to quantitatively reassign out-of-focus light in 3D-FRET data sets. FRET Stoichiometry calculations performed on test constructs of linked YFP-CFP produced images that displayed uniform apparent FRET efficiencies (both EA and ED) and molar ratio of 1. 3D images of cells expressing free YFP and free CFP indicated apparent FRET efficiencies of 0%. Furthermore, 3D-FRET Stoichiometry imaging of the interaction of activated YFP-Rac1 with CFP-PBD in living cells produced superior detail with maximal apparent FRET efficiencies that were consistent with in vitro data. Together, these data demonstrated 3D-FRET Stoichiometry could accurately measure the fractions of interacting molecules and their molar ratios with high 3D spatial resolution.

  19. Antibiotic and chemotherapeutic enhanced three-dimensional printer filaments and constructs for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Jeffery A; Nicholson, James C; Tappa, Karthik; Jammalamadaka, UdayaBhanu; Wilson, Chester G; Mills, David K

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing and additive manufacturing holds potential for highly personalized medicine, and its introduction into clinical medicine will have many implications for patient care. This paper demonstrates the first application of 3D printing as a method for the potential sustained delivery of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs from constructs for patient treatment. Our design is focused on the on-demand production of anti-infective and chemotherapeutic filaments that can be used to create discs, beads, catheters, or any medical construct using a 3D printing system. The design parameters for this project were to create a system that could be modularly loaded with bioactive agents. All 3D-printed constructs were loaded with either gentamicin or methotrexate and were optimized for efficient and extended antibacterial and cancer growth-inhibiting cytostatic activity. Preliminary results demonstrate that combining gentamicin and methotrexate with polylactic acid forms a composite possessing a superior combination of strength, versatility, and enhanced drug delivery. Antibacterial effects and a reduction in proliferation of osteosarcoma cells were observed with all constructs, attesting to the technical and clinical viability of our composites. In this study, 3D constructs were loaded with gentamicin and methotrexate, but the method can be extended to many other drugs. This method could permit clinicians to provide customized and tailored treatment that allows patient-specific treatment of disease and has significant potential for use as a tunable drug delivery system with sustained-release capacity for an array of biomedical applications.

  20. Logistics of Three-dimensional Printing: Primer for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgdon, Taryn; Danrad, Raman; Patel, Midhir J; Smith, Stacy E; Richardson, Michael L; Ballard, David H; Ali, Sayed; Trace, Anthony Paul; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Zygmont, Matthew E; Lenchik, Leon; Decker, Summer J

    2018-01-01

    The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a review of the logistic considerations for establishing a clinical service using this new technology, specifically focused on implications for radiology. Specific topics include printer selection for 3D printing, software selection, creating a 3D model for printing, providing a 3D printing service, research directions, and opportunities for radiologists to be involved in 3D printing. A thorough understanding of the technology and its capabilities is necessary as the field of 3D printing continues to grow. Radiologists are in the unique position to guide this emerging technology and its use in the clinical arena. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Three dimensional analysis of natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioua Kolsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A computational study has been performed to make a computational analysis of natural convection and entropy generation in a sharp edged finned cavity. Three dimensional analysis has been done by solving governing equations with a written computational code in Fortran. The study is performed for fin inclination angles from −60° to 60°, Ra = 105, Pr = 0.7, Rc (conductivities ratio changes from 0.01 to 100 and irreversibility coefficient is taken as φ=10-5. It is observed that higher values of thermal conductivity ratio (Rc ⩾ 1 do not affect entropy generation due to heat transfer and Bejan number.

  2. Three-Dimensional Printed Thermal Regulation Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Fu, Kun; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily M; Xie, Hua; Liu, Boyang; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-11-01

    Space cooling is a predominant part of energy consumption in people's daily life. Although cooling the whole building is an effective way to provide personal comfort in hot weather, it is energy-consuming and high-cost. Personal cooling technology, being able to provide personal thermal comfort by directing local heat to the thermally regulated environment, has been regarded as one of the most promising technologies for cooling energy and cost savings. Here, we demonstrate a personal thermal regulated textile using thermally conductive and highly aligned boron nitride (BN)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite (denoted as a-BN/PVA) fibers to improve the thermal transport properties of textiles for personal cooling. The a-BN/PVA composite fibers are fabricated through a fast and scalable three-dimensional (3D) printing method. Uniform dispersion and high alignment of BN nanosheets (BNNSs) can be achieved during the processing of fiber fabrication, leading to a combination of high mechanical strength (355 MPa) and favorable heat dispersion. Due to the improved thermal transport property imparted by the thermally conductive and highly aligned BNNSs, better cooling effect (55% improvement over the commercial cotton fiber) can be realized in the a-BN/PVA textile. The wearable a-BN/PVA textiles containing the 3D-printed a-BN/PVA fibers offer a promising selection for meeting the personal cooling requirement, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption and cost for cooling the whole building.

  3. Two and three dimensional magnetotelluric inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical conductivity depends on properties such as the presence of ionic fluids in interconnected pores that are difficult to sense with other remote sensing techniques. Thus improved imaging of underground electrical structure has wide practical importance in exploring for groundwater, mineral and geothermal resources, and in assessing the diffusion of fluids in oil fields and waste sites. Because the electromagnetic inverse problem is fundamentally multi-dimensional, most imaging algorithms saturate available computer power long before they can deal with the complete data set. We have developed an algorithm to directly invert large multi-dimensional data sets that is orders of magnitude faster than competing methods. We have proven that a two-dimensional (2D) version of the algorithm is highly effective for real data and have made substantial progress towards a three-dimensional (3D) version. We are proposing to cure identified shortcomings and substantially expand the utility of the existing 2D program, overcome identified difficulties with extending our method to three-dimensions (3D) and embark on an investigation of related EM imaging techniques which may have the potential for even further increasing resolution.

  4. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations.

  5. A three dimensional probe positioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, T; Sun, X; Dorf, L; Furno, I; Lapenta, G

    2008-10-01

    In order to sort out the physics that is important in many plasma experiments, data in three dimensions (3D) are becoming necessary. Access to the usual cylindrical vacuum vessel is typically restricted to radially or axially insertable probes that can pivot. The space that can be explored usually has significant restrictions either because probe travel must be along a travel path, or a "wobbly" probe positioner requires one to map between a moveable coordinate system and a preferred laboratory coordinate system. This could for example introduce errors in measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field or flow. We describe the design and implementation of a 3D probe positioner that slides in two dimensions on a double O-ring seal and radially inserts along the third dimension. The net result is that a 3D space can be explored in a laboratory Cartesian reference frame.

  6. A three dimensional probe positionera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Dorf, L.; Furno, I.; Lapenta, G.

    2008-10-01

    In order to sort out the physics that is important in many plasma experiments, data in three dimensions (3D) are becoming necessary. Access to the usual cylindrical vacuum vessel is typically restricted to radially or axially insertable probes that can pivot. The space that can be explored usually has significant restrictions either because probe travel must be along a travel path, or a "wobbly" probe positioner requires one to map between a moveable coordinate system and a preferred laboratory coordinate system. This could for example introduce errors in measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field or flow. We describe the design and implementation of a 3D probe positioner that slides in two dimensions on a double O-ring seal and radially inserts along the third dimension. The net result is that a 3D space can be explored in a laboratory Cartesian reference frame.

  7. Three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization of supersonic delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay

    1994-01-01

    A recently developed three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization procedure AeSOP(sub 3D) is described. This procedure incorporates some of the most promising concepts from the area of computational aerodynamic analysis and design, specifically, discrete sensitivity analysis, a fully implicit 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology, and 3D Bezier-Bernstein surface parameterizations. The new procedure is demonstrated in the preliminary design of supersonic delta wings. Starting from a symmetric clipped delta wing geometry, a Mach 1.62 asymmetric delta wing and two Mach 1. 5 cranked delta wings were designed subject to various aerodynamic and geometric constraints.

  8. A Three-Dimensional GUI for Windows Explorer

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, David; Capretz, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimension will be a characteristic of future user interfaces, although we are just starting to gain an understanding of how users can navigate and share information within a virtual 3D environment. Three-dimensional graphical user interfaces (3D-GUI) raise many issues of design, metaphor and usability. This research is devoted to designing a 3D-GUI as a front-end tool for a file management system, in this case, for Microsoft Windows\\c{opyright} Explorer; as well as evaluating the effici...

  9. Light-folded projection three-dimensional display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaehyuk; Hong, Jongwoo; Kim, Hwi; Hahn, Joonku

    2013-04-01

    A light-folded projection three-dimensional (3D) display system with a single projection lens and a rectangular light tunnel which is composed of four folding mirrors on its inside walls is proposed. It is theoretically shown through the Wigner distribution function analysis that the proposed system can generate the same light field effectively as that of the conventional projection-type multiview 3D display system with plural projection lenses. Multiview 3D imaging of the proposed system configuration is experimentally demonstrated.

  10. Optical Forging of Graphene into Three-Dimensional Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Andreas; Myllyperkiö, Pasi; Koskinen, Pekka; Aumanen, Jukka; Koivistoinen, Juha; Tsai, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Hao; Chang, Lo-Yueh; Hiltunen, Vesa-Matti; Manninen, Jyrki J; Woon, Wei Yen; Pettersson, Mika

    2017-10-11

    Atomically thin materials, such as graphene, are the ultimate building blocks for nanoscale devices. But although their synthesis and handling today are routine, all efforts thus far have been restricted to flat natural geometries, since the means to control their three-dimensional (3D) morphology has remained elusive. Here we show that, just as a blacksmith uses a hammer to forge a metal sheet into 3D shapes, a pulsed laser beam can forge a graphene sheet into controlled 3D shapes in the nanoscale. The forging mechanism is based on laser-induced local expansion of graphene, as confirmed by computer simulations using thin sheet elasticity theory.

  11. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Reychler, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Liu, Y.; Xu, T.M. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Orthodontics, Beijing (China); Duprez, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field. (orig.)

  12. Making three-dimensional echocardiography more tangible: a workflow for three-dimensional printing with echocardiographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashari, Azad; Knio, Ziyad; Yeh, Lu; Jeganathan, Jelliffe; Matyal, Robina; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly evolving technology with several potential applications in the diagnosis and management of cardiac disease. Recently, 3D printing (i.e. rapid prototyping) derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become possible. Due to the multiple steps involved and the specific equipment required for each step, it might be difficult to start implementing echocardiography-derived 3D printing in a clinical setting. In this review, we provide an overview of this process, including its logistics and organization of tools and materials, 3D TEE image acquisition strategies, data export, format conversion, segmentation, and printing. Generation of patient-specific models of cardiac anatomy from echocardiographic data is a feasible, practical application of 3D printing technology. PMID:27974356

  13. Making three-dimensional echocardiography more tangible: a workflow for three-dimensional printing with echocardiographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Mashari MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is a rapidly evolving technology with several potential applications in the diagnosis and management of cardiac disease. Recently, 3D printing (i.e. rapid prototyping derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE has become possible. Due to the multiple steps involved and the specific equipment required for each step, it might be difficult to start implementing echocardiography-derived 3D printing in a clinical setting. In this review, we provide an overview of this process, including its logistics and organization of tools and materials, 3D TEE image acquisition strategies, data export, format conversion, segmentation, and printing. Generation of patient-specific models of cardiac anatomy from echocardiographic data is a feasible, practical application of 3D printing technology.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Kau, Chung How; Talbert, Leslie; Pan, Feng

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate sexual dimorphism for facial features within Chinese and African American populations and to compare the facial morphology by sex between these 2 populations. Three-dimensional facial images were acquired by using the portable 3dMDface System, which captured 189 subjects from 2 population groups of Chinese (n = 72) and African American (n = 117). Each population was categorized into male and female groups for evaluation. All subjects in the groups were aged between 18 and 30 years and had no apparent facial anomalies. A total of 23 anthropometric landmarks were identified on the three-dimensional faces of each subject. Twenty-one measurements in 4 regions, including 19 distances and 2 angles, were not only calculated but also compared within and between the Chinese and African American populations. The Student's t-test was used to analyze each data set obtained within each subgroup. Distinct facial differences were presented between the examined subgroups. When comparing the sex differences of facial morphology in the Chinese population, significant differences were noted in 71.43% of the parameters calculated, and the same proportion was found in the African American group. The facial morphologic differences between the Chinese and African American populations were evaluated by sex. The proportion of significant differences in the parameters calculated was 90.48% for females and 95.24% for males between the 2 populations. The African American population had a more convex profile and greater face width than those of the Chinese population. Sexual dimorphism for facial features was presented in both the Chinese and African American populations. In addition, there were significant differences in facial morphology between these 2 populations.

  15. Appearance of three dimensionality in wall-bounded MHD flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Pothérat, A

    2010-01-22

    We characterize experimentally how three dimensionality appears in wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic flows. Our analysis of the breakdown of a square array of vortices in a cubic container singles out two mechanisms: first, a form of three dimensionality we call weak appears through differential rotation in individual 2D vortices. Second, strong three dimensionality characterized by vortex disruption leads on the one hand to a remarkable vortex array that is both steady and 3D, and, on the other hand, to scale-selective breakdown of two dimensionality in chaotic flows. Most importantly, these phenomena are entirely driven by inertia, so they are relevant to other flows with a tendency to two dimensionality, such as rotating, or stratified flows in geophysics and astrophysics.

  16. Computational methods for three-dimensional microscopy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology.   Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.

  17. Three-dimensional, three-component wall-PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthe, Andre; Christensen, Carolyn; Goubergrits, Leonid; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Biofluid Mechanics Laboratory, Berlin (Germany); Kondermann, Daniel; Garbe, Christoph [University of Heidelberg, Digital Image Processing Research Group, Heidelberg Collaboratory for Image Processing, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes a new time-resolved three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurement technique called wall-PIV. It was developed to assess near wall flow fields and shear rates near non-planar surfaces. The method is based on light absorption according to Beer-Lambert's law. The fluid containing a molecular dye and seeded with buoyant particles is illuminated by a monochromatic, diffuse light. Due to the dye, the depth of view is limited to the near wall layer. The three-dimensional particle positions can be reconstructed by the intensities of the particle's projection on an image sensor. The flow estimation is performed by a new algorithm, based on learned particle trajectories. Possible sources of measurement errors related to the wall-PIV technique are analyzed. The accuracy analysis was based on single particle experiments and a three-dimensional artificial data set simulating a rotating sphere. (orig.)

  18. Three-dimensional fetal cephalometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettega, G; Chenin, M; Sadek, H; Cinquin, P; Lebeau, J; Coulomb, M; Raphaël, B

    1996-11-01

    Craniofacial growth has been the subject of numerous studies in which different techniques have been elaborated aiming to model this dynamic phenomenon in a rational manner. One of the methods employed is cephalometric analysis applied to the fetus. Generally, however, these studies are confined to the exploration of a single spatial plane (sagittal plane), whose orientation is never defined in a rigorous and perfectly reproducible manner. Thus, none of these analyses offers a formal growth model. This has led us to propose a new method of fetal cephalometric study taking into account criteria for proper reproducible analysis: spatial exploration of the head performed through three-dimensional tomodensitometric images and precise location of landmarks and reproducibility of the orientation of each image, which is assured by reference to the vestibular orientation (based on the external semicircular canals), as has been described by Girard and Perez and further developed by Fenart. When the labyrinth is developed, this orientation does not change during the growth stages of the head, even with craniofacial deformities. This permits application of this orientation on fetuses and the superposition of images of different subjects. The methodology is presented using two normal human fetuses, and the advantages of this computerized tool are discussed.

  19. Comparison of three-dimensional surface-imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Artner, Nicole M; Pona, Igor; Hold, Alina; Placheta, Eva; Kropatsch, Walter G; Frey, Manfred

    2014-04-01

    In recent decades, three-dimensional (3D) surface-imaging technologies have gained popularity worldwide, but because most published articles that mention them are technical, clinicians often have difficulties gaining a proper understanding of them. This article aims to provide the reader with relevant information on 3D surface-imaging systems. In it, we compare the most recent technologies to reveal their differences. We have accessed five international companies with the latest technologies in 3D surface-imaging systems: 3dMD, Axisthree, Canfield, Crisalix and Dimensional Imaging (Di3D; in alphabetical order). We evaluated their technical equipment, independent validation studies and corporate backgrounds. The fastest capturing devices are the 3dMD and Di3D systems, capable of capturing images within 1.5 and 1 ms, respectively. All companies provide software for tissue modifications. Additionally, 3dMD, Canfield and Di3D can fuse computed tomography (CT)/cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images into their 3D surface-imaging data. 3dMD and Di3D provide 4D capture systems, which allow capturing the movement of a 3D surface over time. Crisalix greatly differs from the other four systems as it is purely web based and realised via cloud computing. 3D surface-imaging systems are becoming important in today's plastic surgical set-ups, taking surgeons to a new level of communication with patients, surgical planning and outcome evaluation. Technologies used in 3D surface-imaging systems and their intended field of application vary within the companies evaluated. Potential users should define their requirements and assignment of 3D surface-imaging systems in their clinical as research environment before making the final decision for purchase. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary and Secondary Three Dimensional Microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Nicolas

    Today's MEMS devices are limited more so by the batteries that supply their power than the fabrication methods used to build them. Thick battery electrodes are capable of providing adequate energy, but long and tortuous diffusion pathways lead to low power capabilities. On the other hand, thin film batteries can operate at significant current densities but require large surface areas to supply practical energy. This dilemma can be solved by either developing new high capacity materials or by engineering new battery designs that decouple power and energy. Three dimensional batteries redesign traditional configurations to create nonplanar interfaces between battery components. This can be done by introducing hierarchical structures into the electrode shape. Designs such as these provide a maximum surface area over which chemical reactions can occur. Furthermore, by maintaining small feature sizes, ion diffusion and electronic transport distances can remain minimal. Manipulating these properties ensures fast kinetics that are required for high power situations. Energy density is maximized by layering material in the vertical direction, thus ensuring a minimal footprint area. Three dimensional carbon electrodes are fabricated using basic MEMS techniques. A silicon mold is anisotropically etched to produce channels of a predetermined diameter. The channels are then filled using an infiltration technique with electrode slurry. Once dried, the mold is attached to a current collector and etched using a XeF2 process. Electrodes of varying feature sizes have been fabricated using this method with aspect ratios ranging from 3.5:1 to 7:1. 3D carbon electrodes are shown to obtain capacities over 8 mAh/cm2 at 0.1 mA/cm2, or nearly 700% higher than planar carbon electrodes. When assembled with a planar cathode, the battery cell produced an average discharge capacity of 40 J/cm 2 at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. This places the energy density values slightly less than thick

  1. [A three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound imaging system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yimin; Qi, Jian; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2014-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging system is presented in this paper. The 3D imaging system is used for diagnosing diseases of prostate. The 3D image is reconstructed by a series of two-dimensional image data which is obtained through rectum. It can be a guide to prostate needle biopsies. The system is built by two parts: hardware and software. In the hardware, the mechanical device, stepper motor, control circuit, B Mode TRUS and personal computer (PC) workshop are presented. The software includes the firmware of micro control unit and software of the PC workshop. In order to evaluate the performance of the 3D imaging system, we did experiments with water and agar phantoms, and the results demonstrated the system's ability of 3D imaging with high-precision.

  2. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Perez, S., E-mail: sergio.lozano-perez@materials.ox.ac.u [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Rodrigo, P. [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Dpto. de Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, c/ Tulipan s.n., 28933 Mostoles (Madrid) (Spain); Gontard, Lionel C. [Danish Technical University, Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Matematiktorvet Building 307, Room 115, 2800 Kogens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-01-31

    Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome this problem, different approaches to extract 3D information have been used in the recent years. In this work we will present the benefits of using 3D focused ion beam (FIB) slicing and electron tomography. 3D FIB slicing offers a fast and high throughput characterization while electron tomography offers the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect to the strain direction and grain boundary plane accurately measured.

  3. Engineering three-dimensional cell mechanical microenvironment with hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyou; Wang, Lin; Wang, Shuqi; Han, Yulong; Wu, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiancheng; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2012-12-01

    Cell mechanical microenvironment (CMM) significantly affects cell behaviors such as spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, most studies on cell response to mechanical stimulation are based on two-dimensional (2D) planar substrates, which cannot mimic native three-dimensional (3D) CMM. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a significant difference in cell behavior in 2D and 3D microenvironments. Among the materials used for engineering 3D CMM, hydrogels have gained increasing attention due to their tunable properties (e.g. chemical and mechanical properties). In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in engineering hydrogel-based 3D CMM. Effects of mechanical cues (e.g. hydrogel stiffness and externally induced stress/strain in hydrogels) on cell behaviors are described. A variety of approaches to load mechanical stimuli in 3D hydrogel-based constructs are also discussed.

  4. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-12-09

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m-1·K-1, which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties.

  5. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m−1·K−1, which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties. PMID:27934930

  6. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the repaired mitral valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  8. Experimental Evidence for Improved Neuroimaging Interpretation Using Three-Dimensional Graphic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisoto, Pablo; Juanes, Juan Antonio; Contador, Israel; Mayoral, Paula; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) or volumetric visualization is a useful resource for learning about the anatomy of the human brain. However, the effectiveness of 3D spatial visualization has not yet been assessed systematically. This report analyzes whether 3D volumetric visualization helps learners to identify and locate subcortical structures more…

  9. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, Sze-Wing; Nizak, Razmara; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Ho, Ki-Wai Kevin; Qin, Ling; Saris, Daniel B. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241604443; Chan, Kai-Ming; Malda, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413995828

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to

  10. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, S.; Nizak, R.; Fu, S.C.; Ho, K.K.; Qin, L.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Chan, K.; Malda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to

  11. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and Its Potential in the Field of Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Levato, Riccardo; Bonassar, Lawrence J; D'Lima, Darryl D; Grande, Daniel A; Klein, Travis J; Saris, Daniel B F; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques can be used for the fabrication of personalized, regenerative constructs for tissue repair. The current article provides insight into the potential and opportunities of 3D bioprinting for the fabrication of cartilage regenerative constructs. Although 3D

  12. [Application of three-dimensional digital technology in the diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y X

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional(3D)digital technology has been widely used in the field of orthodontics in clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment and curative effect evaluation. 3D digital technology greatly improves the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment, and provides effective means for personalized orthodontic treatment. This review focuses on the application of 3D digital technology in the field of orthodontics.

  13. Three-Dimensional Soil Landscape Modeling: A Potential Earth Science Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Brian M.; Manu, Andrew; Norton, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional visualization is helpful in understanding soils, and three dimensional (3-D) tools are gaining popularity in teaching earth sciences. Those tools are still somewhat underused in soil science, yet soil properties such as texture, color, and organic carbon content vary both vertically and horizontally across the landscape. These…

  14. Three dimensional living neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenberger, Anna; McLeod, Robert R.; Basta, Tamara; Stowell, Michael H. B.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate holographic optical tweezing combined with step-and-repeat maskless projection micro-stereolithography for fine control of 3D positioning of living cells within a 3D microstructured hydrogel grid. Samples were fabricated using three different cell lines; PC12, NT2/D1 and iPSC. PC12 cells are a rat cell line capable of differentiation into neuron-like cells NT2/D1 cells are a human cell line that exhibit biochemical and developmental properties similar to that of an early embryo and when exposed to retinoic acid the cells differentiate into human neurons useful for studies of human neurological disease. Finally induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) were utilized with the goal of future studies of neural networks fabricated from human iPSC derived neurons. Cells are positioned in the monomer solution with holographic optical tweezers at 1064 nm and then are encapsulated by photopolymerization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photo-click chemistry via projection of a 512x512 spatial light modulator (SLM) illuminated at 405 nm. Fabricated samples are incubated in differentiation media such that cells cease to divide and begin to form axons or axon-like structures. By controlling the position of the cells within the encapsulating hydrogel structure the formation of the neural circuits is controlled. The samples fabricated with this system are a useful model for future studies of neural circuit formation, neurological disease, cellular communication, plasticity, and repair mechanisms.

  15. Measurements using three-dimensional product imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sioma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a method of creating a three-dimensional cast model using vision systems and how that model can be used in thequality assessment process carried out directly on the assembly line. The technology of active vision, consisting in illumination of theobject with a laser beam, was used to create the model. Appropriate configuration of camera position geometry and laser light allows thecollection of height profiles and construction of a 3D model of the product on their basis. The article discusses problems connected with the resolution of the vision system, resolution of the laser beam analysis, and resolution connected with the application of the successive height profiles on sample cast planes. On the basis of the model, measurements allowing assessment of dimension parameters and surface defects of a given cast are presented. On the basis of tests and analyses of such a threedimensional cast model, a range of checks which are possible to conduct using 3D vision systems is indicated.Testing casts using that technology allows rapid assessment of selected parameters. Construction of the product’s model and dimensional assessment take a few seconds, which significantly reduces the duration of checks in the technological process. Depending on the product, a few checks may be carried out simultaneously on the product’s model.The possibility of controlling all outgoing products, and creating and modifying the product parameter control program, makes the solutionhighly flexible, which is confirmed by pilot industrial implementations. The technology will be developed in terms of detection andidentification of surface defects. It is important due to the possibility of using such information for the purposes of selecting technologicalprocess parameters and observing the effect of changes in selected parameters on the cast parameter controlled in a vision system.

  16. Phase Diagrams of Three-Dimensional Anderson and Quantum Percolation Models Using Deep Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Tomohiro; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2017-11-01

    The three-dimensional Anderson model is a well-studied model of disordered electron systems that shows the delocalization-localization transition. As in our previous papers on two- and three-dimensional (2D, 3D) quantum phase transitions [https://doi.org/10.7566/JPSJ.85.123706" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 123706 (2016), https://doi.org/10.7566/JPSJ.86.044708" xlink:type="simple">86, 044708 (2017)], we used an image recognition algorithm based on a multilayered convolutional neural network. However, in contrast to previous papers in which 2D image recognition was used, we applied 3D image recognition to analyze entire 3D wave functions. We show that a full phase diagram of the disorder-energy plane is obtained once the 3D convolutional neural network has been trained at the band center. We further demonstrate that the full phase diagram for 3D quantum bond and site percolations can be drawn by training the 3D Anderson model at the band center.

  17. Convection Effects in Three-dimensional Dendritic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yili; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.

    2003-01-01

    A phase-field model is developed to simulate free dendritic growth coupled with fluid flow for a pure material in three dimensions. The preliminary results presented here illustrate the strong influence of convection on the three-dimensional (3D) dendrite growth morphology. The detailed knowledge of the flow and temperature fields in the melt around the dendrite from the simulations allows for a detailed understanding of the convection effects on dendritic growth.

  18. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTER MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) XX-09-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2016 – Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Materials...three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a disruptive technology in areas of both durable and consumable plastics . Varieties of plastics to serve...interest because of the high volume of plastics used in research laboratories. A significant portion of laboratory consumables is made up of plastic

  19. Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo Huang; Wenqin Wang; Mark Bates; Xiaowei Zhuang

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in far-field fluorescence microscopy have led to substantial improvements in image resolution, achieving a near-molecular resolution of 20 to 30 nanometers in the two lateral dimensions. Three-dimensional (3D...

  20. Three-dimensional simulation studies of 10 MeV, 352.2 MHz drift ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional ... The three-dimensional (3D) design of the DTL is done using CST microwave studio (CST MWS) incorporating the various nonaxisymmetric components such as tuners, post-couplers and vacuum ports. The frequency shifts due to ...

  1. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Perez, S.; Rodrigo, P.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2011-01-01

    Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome...... the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect...

  2. Three-Dimensional Structure of CeO2 Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Joyce Pei Ying; Tan, Hui Ru; Boothroyd, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures of materials at the nanometer scale can shed important information on the performance of their applications and provide insight into the growth mechanism of shape-controlled nanomaterials. In this paper, the 3D structures and growth pathway of CeO2...... in samples synthesized under different conditions. The homogeneous growth environment in solution with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules led to the formation of regular octahedral CeO2 nanocrystals with small {001} facet truncations. When the PVP surfactant was removed, the aggregation of regular...

  3. Fabrication of three-dimensional nanofibrous macrostructures by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning has been widely used in fabricating nanofibers and nanofibrous membranes. Recently, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D nanofibrous macrostructures has become a hot subject in the development of electrospinning technology. In this paper, the 3D nanofibrous macrostructure was constructed by using electrospinning apparatus with both dynamic and static 3D collecting templates. The effect of the governing parameters on the formation process of 3D macrostructure is studied, such as the applied voltage, the flow rate, the needle-tip-to-collector distance, and the rotating speed. It was found that laying the collecting device either in parallel or perpendicularly with some gap in between, would lead to orderly deposition of nanofibers. In this study, a “dumbbell” dynamic collector was used to fabricate special 3D macrostructures consisting of multilayers of fibrous membranes. By adjusting the rotating speed of the collector, the formation process of multilayer 3D macrostructure can be controlled. An umbrella-shaped static structure collector was used to fabricate 3D framework structures. It is feasible to fabricate various 3D nanofibrous structures via electrospinning with 3D collecting templates, which has great potential in tissue engineering.

  4. Symposium P: Three-Dimensional Architectures for Energy Generation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    those found in traditional two dimensional electrodes. The high valence of vanadium (+5) offers the possibility of charge storage at low potentials...an aspect ratio 125 on the surface of high purity aluminum sheets. The surface area enhancement achieved due to the 3D pore structures is around...materials and structures into three-dimensional (3D) architectures. Three-dimensional battery architectures, for example, enable one to achieve high energy

  5. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  6. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  7. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain and d...

  8. Three-Dimensional Printing of Drug-Eluting Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Water, Jorrit Jeroen; Bohr, Adam; Bøtker, Johan Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of three-dimensional (3D) printing as a manufacturing method for products intended for personalized treatments by exploring the production of novel polylactide-based feedstock materials for 3D printing purposes. Nitrofurantoin (NF......) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully mixed and extruded with up to 30% drug load with and without addition of 5% HA in polylactide strands, which were subsequently 3D-printed into model disc geometries (10 × 2 mm). X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that NF maintained its anhydrate solid form during...... of custom-made, drug-loaded feedstock materials for 3D printing of pharmaceutical products for controlled release....

  9. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce treatment costs and technique-sensitivity of the placement of restorative material. The Hypothesis: Here, the hypothesis that a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach could be an alternative to traditional approaches to treatment of decayed teeth is proposed. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The actual implementation of the 3-D-printed tooth filling technique in the practice of restorative dentistry was discussed in this manuscript.

  10. Three-dimensional equilibria in axially symmetric tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The NSTAB and TRAN computer codes have been developed to study equilibrium, stability, and transport in fusion plasmas with three-dimensional (3D) geometry. The numerical method that is applied calculates islands in tokamaks like the Doublet III-D at General Atomic and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. When bifurcated 3D solutions are used in Monte Carlo computations of the energy confinement time, a realistic simulation of transport is obtained. The significance of finding many 3D magnetohydrodynamic equilibria in axially symmetric tokamaks needs attention because their cumulative effect may contribute to the prompt loss of α particles or to crashes and disruptions that are observed. The 3D theory predicts good performance for stellarators. PMID:17159158

  11. Understanding three-dimensional damage envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Harland, Sophie; Meredith, Philip; Healy, David; Mitchell, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Microcrack damage leading to failure in rocks evolves in response to differential loading. This loading is often visualized in a two-dimensional stress space through the use of Mohr-Coulomb diagrams. The vast majority of experimental studies investigate damage evolution and rock failure using conventional triaxial stress states (σ1 > σ2 = σ3) in which the results can be easily represented in a Mohr-Coulomb plot. However, in nature the stress state is in general truly triaxial (σ1 > σ2 > σ3) and as such comprises a 3D stress state potentially leading to more complexity. By monitoring acoustic wave velocities and acoustic emissions we have shown that damage is generated in multiple orientations depending on the loading directions and hence principal stress directions. Furthermore, crack growth is shown to be a function of differential stress regardless of the mean stress. As such, new cracks can form due to a decrease in the minimum principal stress, which reduces mean stress but increases the differential stress. Although the size of individual cracks is not affected by the intermediate principal stress it has been shown that the σ2 plays a key role in suppressing the total amount of crack growth and concentrates this damage in a single plane. Hence, the differential stress at which rocks fail (i.e. the rock strength) will be significantly increased under true triaxial stress conditions than under the much more commonly applied condition of conventional triaxial stress. Through a series of cyclic loading tests we investigated the Kaiser effect, we show that while individual stress states are important, the stress path by which this stress state is reached is equally important. Whether or not a stress state has been 'visited' before is also vitally important in determining and understanding damage envelopes. Finally, we show that damage evolution can be anisotropic and must be considered as a three-dimensional problem. It is unclear how damage envelopes

  12. Three-dimensional fingerprint recognition by using convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qianyu; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-01-01

    With the development of science and technology and the improvement of social information, fingerprint recognition technology has become a hot research direction and been widely applied in many actual fields because of its feasibility and reliability. The traditional two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint recognition method relies on matching feature points. This method is not only time-consuming, but also lost three-dimensional (3D) information of fingerprint, with the fingerprint rotation, scaling, damage and other issues, a serious decline in robustness. To solve these problems, 3D fingerprint has been used to recognize human being. Because it is a new research field, there are still lots of challenging problems in 3D fingerprint recognition. This paper presents a new 3D fingerprint recognition method by using a convolution neural network (CNN). By combining 2D fingerprint and fingerprint depth map into CNN, and then through another CNN feature fusion, the characteristics of the fusion complete 3D fingerprint recognition after classification. This method not only can preserve 3D information of fingerprints, but also solves the problem of CNN input. Moreover, the recognition process is simpler than traditional feature point matching algorithm. 3D fingerprint recognition rate by using CNN is compared with other fingerprint recognition algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed 3D fingerprint recognition method has good recognition rate and robustness.

  13. Efficacy of three-dimensional endoscopy in endonasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino-Nishimura, Eriko; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2015-06-01

    To examine the efficacy of a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. The study design was a retrospective case series and qualitative research. The clinical efficacy of 3D endoscopes was examined on five cadavers. We performed conventional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in five cases and hypophysectomy in two cases using a 3D endoscope. The educational advantages of the 3D endoscope were assessed using questionnaires given to the participants of cadaver dissection courses. In the posterior portion of the nasal cavity, images captured via 3D endoscopy provided a superior perception of depth of information than those via two-dimensional (2D) endoscopy. All endonasal surgeries were completed in clinical settings using a 3D endoscope without perioperative complications. In terms of the operative time and amount of bleeding, the results of 3D endoscopic surgeries were not inferior to those of 2D endoscopic surgeries. Fatigue from 3D viewing through polarized glasses did not adversely affect performance of the surgery. Moreover, questionnaires for the evaluation of educational efficacy were completed by 73 surgeons. Of the respondents, 89% agreed that 3D endoscopy provided a better understanding of the surgical anatomy than did 2D endoscopy. As for the site where 3D endoscopy would be the most useful for understanding surgical anatomy, 40% of the respondents named the skull base; 29%, the posterior ethmoid sinuses; and 26%, the sphenoid sinus; and 9%, the ethmoid bulla and middle turbinate. The 3D endoscope contributes to a more precise anatomical understanding of the posterior structures of the sinuses and skull base and ensures a more precise operation of the instruments. Thus, 3D endoscopes will likely become a standard device for endonasal surgery in the near future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since

  15. Profiling stem cell states in three-dimensional biomaterial niches using high content image informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Anandika; Brenner, Matthew; Wolujewicz, Paul; Zhang, Zheng; Mao, Yong; Batish, Mona; Kohn, Joachim; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2016-11-01

    materials relies on technologies that can sensitively discern cell response dynamics to biomaterials, while capturing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and preserving cellular native phenotypes. In this study, we illustrate the application of a novel high content image informatics platform to classify emergent human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) phenotypes in a diverse range of 3-D biomaterial scaffolds with high sensitivity and precision, and track cell responses to varied external stimuli. A major in silico innovation is the proposed image profiling technology based on unique three dimensional textural signatures of a mechanoreporter protein within the nuclei of stem cells cultured in 3-D scaffolds. This technology will accelerate the pace of high-fidelity biomaterial screening. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  17. Tissue Engineering Applications of Three-Dimensional Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yangde

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in tissue engineering have adapted the additive manufacturing technology, also known as three-dimensional printing, which is used in several industrial applications, for the fabrication of bioscaffolds and viable tissue and/or organs to overcome the limitations of other in vitro conventional methods. 3D bioprinting technology has gained enormous attention as it enabled 3D printing of a multitude of biocompatible materials, different types of cells and other supporting growth factors into complex functional living tissues in a 3D format. A major advantage of this technology is its ability for simultaneously 3D printing various cell types in defined spatial locations, which makes this technology applicable to regenerative medicine to meet the need for suitable for transplantation suitable organs and tissues. 3D bioprinting is yet to successfully overcome the many challenges related to building 3D structures that closely resemble native organs and tissues, which are complex structures with defined microarchitecture and a variety of cell types in a confined area. An integrated approach with a combination of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics, and medicine is required to address these complexities. Meeting this challenge is being made possible by directing the 3D bioprinting to manufacture biomimetic-shaped 3D structures, using organ/tissue images, obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography, and employing computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies. Applications of 3D bioprinting include the generation of multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, heart valves, etc. The current 3D bioprinting technologies need to be improved with respect to the mechanical strength and integrity in the manufactured constructs as the presently used biomaterials are not of optimal viscosity. A better understanding of the tissue/organ microenvironment, which consists of multiple types of

  18. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  19. Three-dimensional inkjet biofabrication based on designed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Kenichi; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toda, Hideki; Genci, Capi; Nakamura, Makoto [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yuichi, E-mail: maknaka@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp [Bioprinting Project of Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Tissue engineering has been developed with the ultimate aim of manufacturing human organs, but success has been limited to only thin tissues and tissues with no significant structures. In order to construct more complicated tissues, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) fabrication technology in which 3D structures are directly built up by layer-by-layer printing with living cells and several tissue components. We developed a custom-made inkjet printer specially designed for this purpose. Recently, this printer was improved, and the on-demand printing mode was developed and installed to fabricate further complicated structures. As a result of this version, 3D layer-by-layer printing based on complicated image data has become possible, and several 2D and 3D structures with more complexity than before were successfully fabricated. The effectiveness of the on-demand printing mode in the fabrication of complicated 3D tissue structures was confirmed. As complicated 3D structures are essential for biofunctional tissues, inkjet 3D biofabrication has great potential for engineering complicated bio-functional tissues.

  20. Applicability of three-dimensional imaging techniques in fetal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Junior, Heron; Daltro, Pedro; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro, E-mail: heronwerner@hotmail.com [Clinica de Diagnostico Por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Jorge Lopes dos; Belmonte, Simone; Ribeiro, Gerson [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To generate physical models of fetuses from images obtained with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, occasionally, computed tomography (CT), in order to guide additive manufacturing technology. Materials and Methods: We used 3D-US images of 31 pregnant women, including 5 who were carrying twins. If abnormalities were detected by 3D-US, both MRI and in some cases CT scans were then immediately performed. The images were then exported to a workstation in DICOM format. A single observer performed slice-by-slice manual segmentation using a digital high resolution screen. Virtual 3D models were obtained from software that converts medical images into numerical models. Those models were then generated in physical form through the use of additive manufacturing techniques. Results: Physical models based upon 3D-US, MRI, and CT images were successfully generated. The postnatal appearance of either the aborted fetus or the neonate closely resembled the physical models, particularly in cases of malformations. Conclusion: The combined use of 3D-US, MRI, and CT could help improve our understanding of fetal anatomy. These three screening modalities can be used for educational purposes and as tools to enable parents to visualize their unborn baby. The images can be segmented and then applied, separately or jointly, in order to construct virtual and physical 3D models. (author)

  1. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When viewing three-dimensional (3D images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the photographic principle is used in this study to measure metering values by capturing 2D and 3D images on television screens. By analyzing these images with statistical product and service solutions (SPSS software, the image brightness values can be estimated using the statistical regression model, which can also indicate the impact of various environmental factors or hardware on the image brightness. In analysis of the experimental results, comparison of the image brightness between 2D and 3D images indicates 60.8% degradation in the 3D image brightness amplitude. The experimental values, from 52.4% to 69.2%, are within the 95% confidence interval

  2. Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Kevin S; Salha, Sara; Sandberg, Richard L; Jiang, Huaidong; Rodríguez, Jose A; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Kapteyn, Henry C; Du, Jincheng; Miao, Jianwei

    2010-01-14

    The ability to determine the structure of matter in three dimensions has profoundly advanced our understanding of nature. Traditionally, the most widely used schemes for three-dimensional (3D) structure determination of an object are implemented by acquiring multiple measurements over various sample orientations, as in the case of crystallography and tomography, or by scanning a series of thin sections through the sample, as in confocal microscopy. Here we present a 3D imaging modality, termed ankylography (derived from the Greek words ankylos meaning 'curved' and graphein meaning 'writing'), which under certain circumstances enables complete 3D structure determination from a single exposure using a monochromatic incident beam. We demonstrate that when the diffraction pattern of a finite object is sampled at a sufficiently fine scale on the Ewald sphere, the 3D structure of the object is in principle determined by the 2D spherical pattern. We confirm the theoretical analysis by performing 3D numerical reconstructions of a sodium silicate glass structure at 2 A resolution, and a single poliovirus at 2-3 nm resolution, from 2D spherical diffraction patterns alone. Using diffraction data from a soft X-ray laser, we also provide a preliminary demonstration that ankylography is experimentally feasible by obtaining a 3D image of a test object from a single 2D diffraction pattern. With further development, this approach of obtaining complete 3D structure information from a single view could find broad applications in the physical and life sciences.

  3. Three-dimensional printing: technologies, applications, and limitations in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Josephine U; Christophe, Brandon R; Sisti, Jonathan A; Connolly, Edward S

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers are a developing technology penetrating a variety of markets, including the medical sector. Since its introduction to the medical field in the late 1980s, 3D printers have constructed a range of devices, such as dentures, hearing aids, and prosthetics. With the ultimate goals of decreasing healthcare costs and improving patient care and outcomes, neurosurgeons are utilizing this dynamic technology, as well. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) can be translated into Stereolithography (STL) files, which are then read and methodically built by 3D Printers. Vessels, tumors, and skulls are just a few of the anatomical structures created in a variety of materials, which enable surgeons to conduct research, educate surgeons in training, and improve pre-operative planning without risk to patients. Due to the infancy of the field and a wide range of technologies with varying advantages and disadvantages, there is currently no standard 3D printing process for patient care and medical research. In an effort to enable clinicians to optimize the use of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, we outline the most suitable 3D printing models and computer-aided design (CAD) software for 3D printing in neurosurgery, their applications, and the limitations that need to be overcome if 3D printers are to become common practice in the neurosurgical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of three-dimensional islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sovirith; Lam, Pui-Man

    1999-09-01

    The usual kinetic Monte Carlo method is adapted, to treat off-lattice problems of multilayer growth (coverage θ>1) by molecular-beam epitaxy. This method takes into account the Schwoebel barrier, which comes out as a result of the choice of the potential interaction between the atoms. This method allows a free choice of the lattice mismatch, temperature, deposition flux rate, and interfacial energies. A particular choice of these parameters leads to the three-dimensional (3D) (Volmer-Weber) growth mode, whereas another choice of these parameters leads to the 2D-3D growth mode (Stranski-Krastanov). The 3D islands seem to obey scaling only approximately. Using this method, the surface stress inside a substrate and a (pyramidal) coherent 3D island is computed. Strong relaxations appear, not only at the edges of the 3D island (which is expected), but also in the proximity of the edges, and inside the 3D island. These particular sites inside the 3D island are located just beneath a step site of the upper layer. Moreover, these particular sites develop strong corrugations, which later are propagating along the layer. Strain-induced modulation of layers is thermally activated, so the steps could act as defects and nucleation sites for propagating roughness, in agreement with some theories and experimental facts.

  5. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  6. Three-dimensional image reconstruction in capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Karargyris, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    To date, limited research has been carried out in developing methods and materials that offer three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the digestive tract. In the field of capsule endoscopy (CE), hardware approaches have been developed that provide real time both 3-D information and texture using an infrared projector and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. The major drawbacks of this system are its size, power consumption and packaging issues. A software approach to approximate a 3-D representation of digestive tract surface utilising current CE technology has been proposed. The algorithm utilizes the Shape from Shading technique and seem to provide promising results for polypoid structures and angioectasias. Further clinical evaluation is currently under way. PMID:22919239

  7. Three-dimensional dynamic functional mapping of cardiac mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratorin, Alexander M.; Sideman, Samuel; Beyar, R.

    1993-07-01

    The heart is an organ which functions by a periodic change of the three dimensional (3D) spatially distributed parameters; malfunctions of the heart's operating systems are manifested by changes of the spatio-temporal heart shape dynamics. This paper attempts to present a set of image analysis tools aimed at a thorough study of the left ventricular (LV) shape-function relationship based on Cine-CT data. Data processing methodologies aimed at analysis and interpretation of the dynamic 3D LV shape, thickening and motion are described. These include the computerized detection of the LV boundaries, dynamic reconstruction of 3D LV shape, the LV shape parameters and their spatio-temporal evolution. The procedures are demonstrated using Cine-CT images of the human LV is normal and pathological cases.

  8. Three-dimensional virtual environments for blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Information technologies are increasingly helping to integrate and socially include people with visual disabilities. Computing technologies have contributed grandly to attain this goal through innovative techniques and applications. Virtual environments, I/O interfaces, and sound based applications altogether with usability and cognitive impact studies are some of the most used research designs for children with visual disabilities. This study presents the design and usability evaluation of three-dimensional (3D) interactive environments for children with visual disabilities. We introduce AudioChile and AudioVida, interactive virtual environments that can be navigated through 3D sound to enhance spatiality and immersion throughout the environments 3D sound is used to orientate, to avoid obstacles, and to identify the position of diverse personages and objects within the environment. Usability evaluation results indicated that sound can be fundamental for attention and motivation purposes during interaction.

  9. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  10. Three-dimensional isotropic metamaterial consisting of domain-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Boyi; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2012-03-01

    Whether an artificially designed negative-index structure could be regarded as a homogeneous medium or not rests with the ratio of its structural unit (man-made atom) over the operation wavelength. However, this definition is ambiguous, and usually the ratio is too large to rigorously meet the effective medium theory. In this paper a three-dimensional (3D) isotropic structure is presented which is obtained from a two-dimensional (2D) isotropic structure rotating on its axis for a circle, and the material is silver. Numerical studies confirm that both the 2D and 3D structures can realize a negative refractive index at microwave wavelengths. Observing the monitored surface current distributions and analogizing the molecular current and the magnetic domain, we suggest a new concept of domain-structure to explain the interior structure of this metamaterial, and finally conclude that the 3D structure is a kind of domain-structured and isotropic metamaterial.

  11. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the acetabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Mucelli, R.S.; Muner, G.; Pozzi Mucelli, F.; Pozzi Mucelli, M.; Marotti, F.; Dalla Palma, L.

    1986-08-01

    Acetabular fractures represent a complex variety that are classified in different types. Conventional radiology is often inadequate to demonstrate and classify the fractures. Computed tomography (CT) has already been shown to be superior in this field. A further advantage of CT is represented by the recent availability of three-dimensional (3D) images that are realized from axial CT scans by means of a new software. The Authors report the applications of this new software to the study of the normal acetabulum and in patients with fractures. 3D images allows an effective demonstration of the fracture, its irradiation and the dislocation of bone fragments. The information is contained in one or few images rather than many axial images. Therefore the role of 3D images may be considered complementary to axial CT scans.

  12. Three-dimensional ultrasonic Nakagami imaging for tissue characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Chien-Cheng [Division of Mechanics, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ho, Ming-Chih [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yung-Sheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Jen [Department of Applied Statistics and Information Science, Ming Chuan University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chin-Chou, E-mail: mechang@iam.ntu.edu.t [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-07

    The two-dimensional (2D) Nakagami image complements the ultrasound B-scan image when attempting to visualize the scatterer properties of tissues. The resolution of the Nakagami image is lower than that of the B-scan image, since the former is produced by processing the raw envelope data using a 2D sliding window with side lengths typically corresponding to three times the pulse length of the incident ultrasound. This paper proposes using three-dimensional (3D) Nakagami imaging for improving the resolution of the obtained Nakagami image and providing more complete information of scatterers for a better tissue characterization. The 3D Nakagami image is based on a voxel array composed of the Nakagami parameters constructed using a 3D sliding cube to process the 3D backscattered raw data. Experiments on phantoms with different scatterer concentrations were carried out to determine the optimal size of the sliding cube for a stable estimation of the Nakagami parameter. Tissue measurements on rat livers without and with fibrosis formation were further used to explore the practical feasibility of 3D Nakagami imaging. The results indicated that the side length of the cube used to construct the 3D Nakagami image must be at least two times the pulse length, which improved the resolution for each Nakagami image frame in the 3D Nakagami image. The results further demonstrated that the 3D Nakagami image is better than the conventional 2D Nakagami image for complementing the B-scan in detecting spatial variations in the scatterer concentration and classifying normal and fibrotic livers. This study suggests that 3D Nakagami imaging has the potential to become a new 3D quantitative imaging approach.

  13. [Three dimensional bioprinting technology of human dental pulp cells mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-hua; Lv, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Ting

    2013-02-18

    To explore the three dimensional(3D)bioprinting technology, using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) mixture as bioink and to lay initial foundations for the application of the 3D bioprinting technology in tooth regeneration. Imageware 11.0 computer software was used to aid the design of the 3D biological printing blueprint. Sodium alginate-gelatin hydrosol was prepared and mixed with in vitro isolated hDPCs. The mixture contained 20 g/L sodium alginate and 80 g/L gelatin with cell density of 1×10(6)/mL. The bioprinting of hDPCs mixture was carried out according to certain parameters; the 3D constructs obtained by printing were examined; the viability of hDPCs after printing by staining the constructs with calcein-AM and propidium iodide dye and scanning of laser scanning confocal microscope was evaluated. The in vitro constructs obtained by the bioprinting were cultured, and the proliferation of hDPCs in the constructs detected. By using Imageware 11.0 software, the 3D constructs with the grid structure composed of the accumulation of staggered cylindrical microfilament layers were obtained. According to certain parameters, the hDPCs-sodium alginate-gelatin blends were printed by the 3D bioprinting technology. The self-defined shape and dimension of 3D constructs with the cell survival rate of 87%± 2% were constructed. The hDPCs could proliferate in 3D constructs after printing. In this study, the 3D bioprinting of hDPCs mixtures was realized, thus laying initial foundations for the application of the 3D bioprinting technology in tooth regeneration.

  14. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflizar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop. Using a kriging method in Surfer tool program, have been developed data base from topographic map, Landsat TM image, climatic data and soil psychochemical properties. Using these data, the Universal Soil Loss Equation was used for spatial map of soil erosion 3D and proposed a 3D agro-ecological land use planning for sustainable land management in Sumani watershed. A 3D Agro-ecological land use planning was planned under which the land use type would not cause more than tolerable soil erosion (TER and would be economically feasible. The study revealed that the annual average soil erosion from Sumani watershed was approximately 76.70 Mg ha-1yr-1 in 2011 where more than 100 Mg ha-1yr-1 was found on the cultivated sloping lands at agricultural field, which constitutes large portion of soil erosion in the watershed. Modification of land use with high CP values to one with lower CP values such as erosion control practices by reforestation, combination of mixed garden+beef+chicken (MBC, terrace (TBC or contour cropping+beef+chicken (CBC and sawah+buffalo+chicken (SBC could reduce soil erosion rate by 83.2%, from 76.70 to 12.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with an increase in total profit from agricultural production of about 9.2% in whole Sumani watershed.

  15. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  16. Numerical simulation of gas bubbles behaviour using a three-dimensional volume of fluid method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a three-dimensional (3D) volume of fluid (VOF) method is presented featuring (i) an interface reconstruction technique based on piecewise linear interface representation, (ii) a 3D version of the CSF model of Brackbill et al. [1992, Journal of Computational Physics 100, 335]. Our model

  17. Three-dimensional ultrasound and maternal bonding, a third trimester study and a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Pleij, E. A. P.; Ribbert, L. S. M.; Pistorius, L. R.; Tromp, E.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Bilardo, C. M.

    Objective To compare the effect of third trimester three-dimensional and four-dimensional (3D/4D) versus two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) of the fetal face on maternal bonding. Studies quantifying the psychological effect of 3D/4D US on mothers, pregnant of a fetus with no detectable

  18. A three-dimensional optimal sawing system for small sawmills in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenshu Lin; Jingxin Wang; R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) log sawing optimization system was developed to perform 3D log generation, opening face determination, sawing simulation, and lumber grading. Superficial characteristics of logs such as length, large-end and small-end diameters, and external defects were collected from local sawmills. Internal log defect positions and shapes were predicted...

  19. A simplified hardwood log-sawing program for three-dimensional profile data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Current laser scanning systems in sawmills collect low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) profiles of logs. However, these scanners are capable of much more. As a demonstration, the U.S. Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Princeton, WV, constructed a 3D laser log scanner using off -the-shelf industrial scanning components.

  20. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Velocity Vector Imaging and Volumetric Flow Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2013-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) Transverse Oscillation (TO) method is used to obtain 3-D velocity vector estimates in two orthogonal planes. The method is suitable for a real-time implementation. Data are acquired using a Vermon 3.0 MHz 32x32 element 2-D phased array and the experimental ultrasound s...

  1. Three-dimensional sonographic measurement of normal fetal brain volume during the second half of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Roelfsema; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); S.M. Boito; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This study was undertaken to develop a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound method of measuring fetal brain volume. Study design: Serial 3D sonographic measurements of fetal brain volume were made in 68 normal singleton pregnancies at 18 to 34 weeks of gestation. A comparison

  2. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  3. Young Infants' Perception of the Trajectories of Two- and Three-Dimensional Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott P.; Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Shuwairi, Sarah M.; Mason, Uschi; Spring, Jo; Usherwood, Barrie

    2012-01-01

    We investigated oculomotor anticipations in 4-month-old infants as they viewed center-occluded object trajectories. In two experiments, we examined performance in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) dynamic occlusion displays and in an additional 3D condition with a smiley face as the moving target stimulus. Rates of anticipatory eye…

  4. 3T MR neurography using three-dimensional diffusion-weighted PSIF: technical issues and advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Subhawong, Ty K.; Bizzell, Cary; Soldatos, Theodoros [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Flammang, Aaron [Siemens Medical Solutions, USA Inc, Malvern, PA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-weighted reversed fast imaging with steady state precession (3D DW-PSIF) MR sequence has the potential to create nerve-specific images. The authors describe the technical issues and their initial experience with this imaging technique employed for peripheral MR neurography. (orig.)

  5. Optical microscope for three-dimensional surface displacement and shape measurements at the microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuman; Pan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jingwen

    2014-07-15

    We report a novel optical microscope for full-field, noncontact measurements of three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation and topography at the microscale. The microscope system is based on a seamless integration of the diffraction-assisted image correlation (DAIC) method with fluorescent microscopy. We experimentally demonstrate the microscope's capability for 3D measurements with submicrometer spatial resolution and subpixel measurement accuracy.

  6. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display…

  7. Manufacturing of an injection moulding mould insert with three-dimensional micro features by micromilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Fugl, Jimmy; Tang, Peter Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the realisation of mould inserts for injection moulding purposes with three-dimensional (3D) micro features using micromilling. The case under consideration was a microfluidic system with regular 2½D patterns as well as true 3D geometries of minimum size 200 µm....

  8. Reflectivity calculated for a three-dimensional silicon photonic band gap crystal with finite support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devashish, D.; Hasan, Shakeeb B.; Van Der Vegt, J. J.W.; Vos, Willem L.

    2017-01-01

    We study numerically the reflectivity of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a complete 3D photonic band gap. We employ the finite element method to study crystals with the cubic diamondlike inverse woodpile structure. The high-index backbone has a dielectric function similar to silicon.

  9. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...

  10. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualize...

  11. Three-dimensional cardiac computational modelling: methods, features and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, Alejandro; Sebastian, Rafael; Ferrero, Jose M

    2015-04-17

    The combination of computational models and biophysical simulations can help to interpret an array of experimental data and contribute to the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias. For this reason, three-dimensional (3D) cardiac computational modelling is currently a rising field of research. The advance of medical imaging technology over the last decades has allowed the evolution from generic to patient-specific 3D cardiac models that faithfully represent the anatomy and different cardiac features of a given alive subject. Here we analyse sixty representative 3D cardiac computational models developed and published during the last fifty years, describing their information sources, features, development methods and online availability. This paper also reviews the necessary components to build a 3D computational model of the heart aimed at biophysical simulation, paying especial attention to cardiac electrophysiology (EP), and the existing approaches to incorporate those components. We assess the challenges associated to the different steps of the building process, from the processing of raw clinical or biological data to the final application, including image segmentation, inclusion of substructures and meshing among others. We briefly outline the personalisation approaches that are currently available in 3D cardiac computational modelling. Finally, we present examples of several specific applications, mainly related to cardiac EP simulation and model-based image analysis, showing the potential usefulness of 3D cardiac computational modelling into clinical environments as a tool to aid in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiac diseases.

  12. Longitudinal Bioluminescent Quantification of Three Dimensional Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Michael K; Schiemann, William P

    2013-12-05

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems is widely accepted as representing a more physiologically relevant means to propagate mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. However, 3D cultures systems are plagued by several experimental and technical limitations as compared to their traditional 2D counterparts. For instance, quantifying the growth of mammary epithelial or breast cancer organoids longitudinally is particularly troublesome using standard [3H]thymidine or MTT assay systems, or using computer-assisted area calculations. Likewise, the nature of the multicellular aggregates and organoids formed by breast cancer cells under 3D conditions precludes efficient recovery of the cells from 3D matrices, an event that is time consuming and leads to spurious results. The assay described here utilizes stable expression of firefly luciferase as means to quantify the longitudinal outgrowth of cells propagated within a 3D matrices. The major advantages of this technique include its high-throughput nature and ability to longitudinally track single wells over a defined period of time, thereby decreasing the costs associated with assay performance. Finally, this technique can be readily combined with drug treatments and/or genetic manipulations to assay their effects on the growth of 3D organoids.

  13. Optical image recognition of three-dimensional objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, T C; Kim, T

    1999-01-10

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical image-recognition technique is proposed and studied. The proposed technique is based on two-pupil optical heterodyne scanning and is capable of performing 3-D image recognition. A hologram of the 3-D reference object is first created and then is used to modulate spatially one of the pupils of the optical system; the other pupil is a point source. A 3-D target object to be recognized is then scanned in two dimensions by optical beams modulated by the two pupils. The result of the two-dimensional scan pattern effectively displays the correlation of the holographic information of the 3-D reference object and that of the 3-D target object. A strong correlation peak results if the two pieces of the holographic information are matched. We analyze the proposed technique and thereby lay a theoretical foundation for optical implementations of the idea. Finally, computer simulations are performed to verify the proposed idea.

  14. Interpretation of optical three-dimensional coherent spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Michael; Li, Hebin

    2017-09-01

    As an extension to powerful two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy, optical three-dimensional (3D) coherent spectroscopy has been experimentally implemented and found beneficial in studying various systems in physics and chemistry. A critical challenge is how to interpret 3D spectra and extract useful quantitative information, given the richness and complexity of 3D data. Here, we demonstrate how the information of a system's optical response is manifested in 3D spectra by theoretical simulations of a few representative examples including a homogeneous three-level V system, an inhomogeneous three-level V system, and an inhomogeneous three-level ladder system. These examples show that important parameters of the system can be extracted from the spectral pattern, peak positions, amplitudes, and line shapes. The method developed here can be used to analyze 3D spectra of more sophisticated systems which might be a generalization or combination of the three examples, contributing to develop a general approach for the interpretation of 3D spectra.

  15. Imaging cells in three-dimensional collagen matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Vira V; Matsumoto, Kazue

    2010-09-01

    The use of in vitro three-dimensional (3-D) collagen matrices to mimic an in vivo cellular environment has become increasingly popular and is broadening our understanding of cellular processes and cell-ECM interactions. To study cells in in vitro 3-D collagen matrices, both cellular proteins and the collagen matrix must be visualized. In this unit, the authors describe the protocol and provide troubleshooting for immunolabeling of cells in 3-D collagen gels to localize and visualize cellular proteins with high-resolution fluorescence confocal microscopy. The authors then describe confocal reflection microscopy as a technique for direct imaging of 3-D fibrillar collagen matrices by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the technique. They also provide instrument settings required for simultaneous imaging of cellular proteins with fluorescence confocal imaging and 3-D collagen fibrils with confocal reflection microscopy. Additionally, the authors provide protocols for a "cell sandwiching" technique to prepare cell cultures in 3-D collagen matrices required for high-resolution confocal imaging. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. A therapeutic delivery system for chronic osteomyelitis via a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weigang; Ye, Chenyi; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Gui; Cheng, Zhaohui

    2016-08-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to be cured and often relapses, which presents to be a great challenge to clinicians. We conducted this original study to explore the efficiency of therapeutic alliance for chronic osteomyelitis by a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology. We designed and fabricated preciously a multi-drug implant with a multi-layered concentric cylinder construction by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Levofloxacin and tobramycin were incorporated into the drug implant in a specific sequence. The drug release property of the drug implant was assayed in vitro We also developed an animal model of chronic osteomyelitis to estimate the effect of the 3D printed multi-drug implant. The results showed that the multi-drug implant had a sustained and programmed drug release property. Levofloxacin and tobramycin which were released from the multi-drug implant worked in tandem to enhance pharmacodynamic action which was similar to a tumor chemotherapy program and were sufficient to treat chronic osteomyelitis. These findings imply that the administration of 3D printed multi-drug implant would be a potential therapeutic method for chronic osteomyelitis. Further studies are required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyung-Sup; Hong, Soo-Min

    2017-01-01

    Mapping three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR) and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI). In this paper, we retrieve the 3D surface deformation field of the 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on January 12, 2010 by a magnitude 7.0 Mw by using the advanced interferometric technique that integrates InSAR and MAI data. The surface deformation has been observed by previous researchers using the InSAR and GPS method, but 3D deformation has not been measured yet due to low interferometric coherence. The combination of InSAR and MAI were applied to the ALOS PALSAR ascending and descending pairs, and were validated with the GPS in-situ measurements. The archived measurement accuracy was as little as 1.85, 5.49 and 3.08 cm in the east, north and up directions, respectively. This result indicates that the InSAR/MAI-derived 3D deformations are well matched with the GPS deformations. The 3D deformations are expected to allow us to improve estimation of the area affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake. PMID:29145475

  18. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sup Jung

    Full Text Available Mapping three-dimensional (3D surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI. In this paper, we retrieve the 3D surface deformation field of the 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on January 12, 2010 by a magnitude 7.0 Mw by using the advanced interferometric technique that integrates InSAR and MAI data. The surface deformation has been observed by previous researchers using the InSAR and GPS method, but 3D deformation has not been measured yet due to low interferometric coherence. The combination of InSAR and MAI were applied to the ALOS PALSAR ascending and descending pairs, and were validated with the GPS in-situ measurements. The archived measurement accuracy was as little as 1.85, 5.49 and 3.08 cm in the east, north and up directions, respectively. This result indicates that the InSAR/MAI-derived 3D deformations are well matched with the GPS deformations. The 3D deformations are expected to allow us to improve estimation of the area affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  19. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyung-Sup; Hong, Soo-Min

    2017-01-01

    Mapping three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR) and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI). In this paper, we retrieve the 3D surface deformation field of the 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on January 12, 2010 by a magnitude 7.0 Mw by using the advanced interferometric technique that integrates InSAR and MAI data. The surface deformation has been observed by previous researchers using the InSAR and GPS method, but 3D deformation has not been measured yet due to low interferometric coherence. The combination of InSAR and MAI were applied to the ALOS PALSAR ascending and descending pairs, and were validated with the GPS in-situ measurements. The archived measurement accuracy was as little as 1.85, 5.49 and 3.08 cm in the east, north and up directions, respectively. This result indicates that the InSAR/MAI-derived 3D deformations are well matched with the GPS deformations. The 3D deformations are expected to allow us to improve estimation of the area affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  20. Exceptional points in three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodigala, Ashok; Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar

    2016-11-01

    Exceptional points (EPs) are degeneracies in open wave systems where at least two energy levels and their corresponding eigenstates coalesce. We report evidence of the existence of EPs in three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures. The systems are composed of coupled plasmonic nanoresonators and can be judiciously and systematically driven to EPs by controlling symmetry-compatible modes via their near-field and far-field interactions. The proposed platform opens the way to the investigation of EPs for enhanced light-matter interactions and applications in communication, sensing, and imaging.

  1. Modified Three-Dimensional Multicarrier Optical Prime Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mathematical model for novel three-dimensional multicarrier optical codes in terms of wavelength/time/space based on the prime sequence algorithm. The proposed model has been extensively simulated on MATLAB for prime numbers (P to analyze the performance of code in terms of autocorrelation and cross-correlation. The simulated outcome resembles the mathematical model and gives better results over other methods available in the literature as far as autocorrelation and cross-correlation are concerned. The proposed 3D optical codes are more efficient in terms of cardinality, improved security, and providing quality of services.

  2. In vitro measurement accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, R J; Trabold, T; Bock, A; Kollmann, C

    2001-02-01

    We sought to validate distance and volume measurements in three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound images. Even with the latest equipment, it is not known how accurate 3-D echocardiographic measurements are. Six models were imaged in ethanol solution and two within a tissue phantom using a mechanical rotation device rotating in 1 degrees intervals and a real-time 3-D scanner. Distance and volume measurements (n = 60) were performed in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D images using TomTec and InViVo software. Distance measurements had a mean total error between 1.12% and 2.31% for Acuson (2.5 MHZ, 3 MHZ, and 4 MHZ) and Hewlett Parkard (HP) fusion frequencies h and m, HP fusion harmonic B in the axial, and between 3.5% and 4.9% in the lateral dimension. HP Harmonic A and B, Volumetrics (2.5 MHZ), and HP fusion Harmonic A exhibited significantly higher differences to reality with a mean difference between 5.1% and 8.9% in the axial and between 6.2% and 7.9% in the lateral direction. Axial 2-D measurements were not different from real dimensions except Volumetrics model 1. In the lateral axis, all imaging modalities were different from reality except the fusion harmonic modus B. Using the HP fusion frequency h and HP fusion Harmonic B-mode, volume measurements in 3-D images significantly underestimated reality, while Acuson's fundamental frequency 3.5 MHZ was not different from real volumes. Three-dimensional visualization using different ultrasound settings results in different accuracy.

  3. [Three-dimensional sonoembryology--myth or reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, D; Markov, D; Pavlova, E; Markov, P; Ivanov, St

    2010-01-01

    To describe the normal development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) using three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal (TV) ultrasound (US) between 7 and 10 w.g. and to compare the embryonic development visualized by 3D TV US with that of the classical embryology. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted over a period of 10 months with high-end ultrasound equipment (Voluson 730 Expert, GE Healthcare, U.S.). Thirty six pregnant women between 7 and 10 weeks of gestation (w.g.) were examined. In all cases a high-frequency 30 TV probe was used to acquire a 3D volume of the embryo, including the cranial pole. Subsequently, the acquired volume information was post-processed and analyzed with specialized software 4D View ver. 9.1 (GE Healthcare, U.S.). The duration of the examinations was about 15 minutes. Three-dimensional TV US allows adequate visualization of the embryonic CNS in accordance with the Carnegie stages from the classical embryology. In 7 w.g. it is possible to identify the diencephalon (future third ventricle), mesencephalon (future aqueductus Sylvii), rhombencephalon (future fourth ventricle), and the two hemispheres. In 8 w.g. the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles, the fourth ventricle and the cerebellum can also be recognized. The developmental changes in the size, shape and relationship of the described structures can be progressively assessed in 9 and 10 w.g. Implementation of high-frequency 3D TV probes allows good visualization of the developing embryo, detailed anatomical description of all main cerebral structures, as well as adequate reconstruction of the brain ventricular system between 7 and 10 w.g. There is a good correlation between the embryonic development visualized by 3D TV U.S. and that of the classical embryology.

  4. Three-dimensional culture of human mesenchymal stem cells in a polyethylene terephthalate matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yanfen; Li Ding; Shang Chunhua; Wang Jufang; Wang Xiaoning [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Yang Shangtian, E-mail: jufwang@scut.edu.c [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was used as the scaffold material to support the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The cells were cultured either statically in multi-wells or in a spinner flask agitated at 80 rpm for up to 20 days. To optimize the cell expansion condition, effects of the initial cell density and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined. During culture, cell growth and metabolism were tested. After 20 days, cells were harvested and surface markers were identified and quantified with flow cytometry. The results showed that hMSCs seeded at the lowest density gave the highest expansion fold. hMSCs grown in porous three-dimensional (3D) matrices displayed significantly different characteristics in terms of their proliferation and metabolism. PET matrices with 3D space could sustain cell proliferation for a long time. In addition, a low concentration (5 ng mL{sup -1}) of bFGF significantly enhanced the expansion of hMSCs in PET. Cell attachment and distribution in PET matrices were studied with confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which also confirmed cell proliferation. Furthermore, most of the cells in PET matrices were CD29, CD44 and CD105 positive, and CD34, CD45 and CD14 negative, confirming that hMSCs cultured in 3D PET matrices can be expanded and maintained in their undifferentiated state for at least 20 days without subculturing.

  5. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M

    2009-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (V(out)) versus input (V(in)) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately 45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits.

  6. MO-B-BRB-00: Three Dimensional Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. The potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced considerably in the last decade by the development of improved 3D dosimeters (e.g., radiochromic plastics, radiochromic gel dosimeters and normoxic polymer gel systems) and by improved readout protocols using optical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In this session, established users of some current 3D chemical dosimeters will briefly review the current status of 3D dosimetry, describe several dosimeters and their appropriate imaging for dose readout, present workflow procedures required for good dosimetry, and analyze some limitations for applications in select settings. We will review the application of 3D dosimetry to various clinical situations describing how 3D approaches can complement other dose delivery validation approaches already available in the clinic. The applications presented will be selected to inform attendees of the unique features provided by full 3D techniques. Learning Objectives: L. John Schreiner: Background and Motivation Understand recent developments enabling clinically practical 3D dosimetry, Appreciate 3D dosimetry workflow and dosimetry procedures, and Observe select examples from the clinic. Sofie Ceberg: Application to dynamic radiotherapy Observe full dosimetry under dynamic radiotherapy during respiratory motion, and Understand how the measurement of high resolution dose data in an

  7. High-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted imaging of middle ear cholesteatoma at 3.0 T MRI: usefulness of 3D turbo field-echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation (TFE-DSDE) compared to single-shot echo-planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koji; Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Obara, Makoto; Togao, Osamu; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    To prospectively evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed high-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted imaging method, turbo field-echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (TFE-DSDE) in diagnosing middle-ear cholesteatoma by comparing it to conventional single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (SS-EP DWI). Institutional review board approval and informed consent from all participants were obtained. We studied 30 patients with preoperatively suspected acquired cholesteatoma. Each patient underwent an MR examination including both SS-EP DWI and DSDE-TFE using a 3.0 T MR scanner. Images of the 30 patients (60 temporal bones including 30 with and 30 without cholesteatoma) were reviewed by two independent neuroradiologists. The confidence level for the presence of cholesteatoma was graded on a scale of 0-2 (0=definite absence, 1=equivocal, 2=definite presence). Interobserver agreement as well as sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detection were assessed for the two reviewers. Excellent interobserver agreement was shown for TFE-DSDE (κ=0.821) whereas fair agreement was obtained for SS-EP DWI (κ=0.416). TFE-DSDE was associated with significantly higher sensitivity (83.3%) and accuracy (90.0%) compared to SS-EP DWI (sensitivity=35.0%, accuracy=66.7%; p<0.05). No significant difference was found in specificity (96.7% for TFE-DSDE, 98.3% for SS-EP DWI) CONCLUSION: With increased spatial resolution and reduced susceptibility artifacts, TFE-DSDE improves the accuracy in diagnosing acquired middle ear cholesteatomas compared to SS-EP DWI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Directional light scanning 3-D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoji; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lim, Pang Boey; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a new Three-Dimensional display method, so called Directional Light Scanning 3D display. By using holographic screen as a beam scanner and high frame rate Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), this method requires only one SLM but can display high resolution 3D images, solving the usual problem of lack of resolution.

  9. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  10. Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.

  11. Three-dimensional functional unit analysis of hemifacial microsomia mandible—a preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ji Wook; Kim, Byung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo; Yu, Tae Hoon; Kim, Bong Chul; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to present three-dimensional (3D) structural characteristics of the mandible in the hemifacial microsomia. The mandible has six distinct functional units, and its architecture is the sum of balanced growth of each functional unit and surrounding matrix. Methods In order to characterize the mandibular 3D architecture of hemifacial microsomia, we analyzed the mandibular functional units of four hemifacial microsomia patients using the 3D reconstructed comput...

  12. The Application of Three-Dimensional Visualization Technology in Village Information Service Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Liang, Yong; Jia, Song

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Recently Three-Dimensional (3D) Visualization Technology has been widely used in several industries. This is about the application of 3D visualization technology into the construction of village information service platform. Because village has small scope of management, the existing large-scale 3D visualization technology can’t be used in the construction of village information service platform. By the use of high-resolution remote sensing image and high precision DEM...

  13. The possible usability of three-dimensional cone beam computed dental tomography in dental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, I.; Rizal, M. F.; Kiswanjaya, B.

    2017-08-01

    The innovations and advantages of three-dimensional cone beam computed dental tomography (3D CBCT) are continually growing for its potential use in dental research. Imaging techniques are important for planning research in dentistry. Newly improved 3D CBCT imaging systems and accessory computer programs have recently been proven effective for use in dental research. The aim of this study is to introduce 3D CBCT and open a window for future research possibilities that should be given attention in dental research.

  14. The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Yolandi; Louw, Quinette; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychometric properties include validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Establishing the psychometric properties of an instrument which measures three-dimensional human posture are essential prior to applying it in clinical practice or research. Methods This paper reports the findings of a systematic literature review which aimed to 1) identify non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) human posture-measuring instruments; and 2) assess the quality of reporting of the me...

  15. Three-dimensional characterization of root morphology for maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrecht, Carly A; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Paniagua, Beatriz; Schilling, Juan A; McNamara, James A; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) surface models of maxillary incisors and to propose a characterization of root morphology. The sample was comprised of pre-treatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of fifty-five patients. The CBCTs were used to construct 3D surface models of the maxillary incisors. The reproducibility of surface models was tested by repeated construction of them by two observers. A 3D surface model that corresponded to the average of all lateral and all central incisors was generated. 3D surface distances and vector differences were calculated for each individual tooth and the average of the teeth considered. The corresponding points on the 3D surface mesh for each subgroup were compared statistically to those of the neutral subgroup using shape analysis MANCOVA and Hotelling's t-statistic (p < 0.05). Repeated construction of surface models demonstrated adequate inter-rater reproducibility. The distribution of 3D models into root morphology subgroups was: blunt (11% and 26% of the central and lateral incisors, respectively), conical (15% of the central incisors), long (27% and 20% of the central and lateral incisors, respectively), and short (15% and 4% of the central and lateral incisors, respectively). Compared to the neutral average, statistically significant differences in root morphology were found for blunt, long, conical, and short central incisors and for blunt, long, and short lateral incisors. We can conclude that 3D surface models construction for upper incisors is reproducible. 3D shape analysis using CBCT images allows a phenotypic characterization of incisor root morphology.

  16. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  17. Quantitative evaluation of performance of three-dimensional printed lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawedzinski, John; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of the shape, surface quality, and imaging capabilities of custom three-dimensional (3-D) printed lenses. 3-D printing technology enables lens prototypes to be fabricated without restrictions on surface geometry. Thus, spherical, aspherical, and rotationally nonsymmetric lenses can be manufactured in an integrated production process. This technique serves as a noteworthy alternative to multistage, labor-intensive, abrasive processes, such as grinding, polishing, and diamond turning. Here, we evaluate the quality of lenses fabricated by Luxexcel using patented Printoptical©; technology that is based on an inkjet printing technique by comparing them to lenses made with traditional glass processing technologies (grinding, polishing, etc.). The surface geometry and roughness of the lenses were evaluated using white-light and Fizeau interferometers. We have compared peak-to-valley wavefront deviation, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error, radii of curvature, and the arithmetic roughness average (Ra) profile of plastic and glass lenses. In addition, the imaging performance of selected pairs of lenses was tested using 1951 USAF resolution target. The results indicate performance of 3-D printed optics that could be manufactured with surface roughness comparable to that of injection molded lenses (Ra<20 nm). The RMS wavefront error of 3-D printed prototypes was at a minimum 18.8 times larger than equivalent glass prototypes for a lens with a 12.7 mm clear aperture, but, when measured within 63% of its clear aperture, the 3-D printed components' RMS wavefront error was comparable to glass lenses.

  18. Three-dimensional spiral CT of craniofacial malformations in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binaghi, S. [Payerne Hopital, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Service de Radiodiagnostic et Radiologie Interventionnelle, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gudinchet, F. [Payerne Hopital, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Rilliet, B. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To assess the value of three-dimensional CT (3D CT) in the diagnosis and management of suspected paediatric craniofacial malformations. Materials and methods. Twenty-eight children (12 girls, 16 boys) with a mean age of 4 years, suffering from craniofacial or cervical malformations, underwent craniofacial spiral CT. 3D reformatting was performed using an independent workstation. Results. 3D CT allowed the preoperative evaluation of 16 patients with craniosynostosis and the post-surgical management of 2 patients. 3D CT clearly depicted malformations of the skull base involving the petrous bone in seven patients (four cases of Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome, one case of Treacher-Collins syndrome and two cases of Crouzon's disease). Four patients with craniofacial clefts were also evaluated. Radiological findings were confirmed by the clinical and intraoperative findings in all patients that underwent surgical treatment. Movement artefacts and ''Lego effect'' related to abrupt change of cranial vault border were encountered and are discussed. Conclusions. 3D CT of the skull can safely and reliably identify paediatric craniofacial malformations involving bone, and it should be used as morphological mapping to help the surgeon in planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  19. Three-dimensional spiral CT for neurosurgical planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Technical Univ., Aachen (Germany)); Bertalanffy, H. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Technical Univ., Aachen (Germany)); Mayfrank, L. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Technical Univ., Aachen (Germany)); Thron, A. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Technical Univ., Aachen (Germany)); Guenther, R.W. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical Univ., Aachen (Germany)); Gilsbach, J.M. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Technical Univ., Aachen (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    We carried out 22 examinations to determine the value of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric CT (spiral CT) for planning neurosurgical procedures. All examinations were carried out on a of the first generation spiral CT. A tube model was used to investigate the influence of different parameter settings. Bolus injection of nonionic contrast medium was used when vessels or strongly enhancing tumours were to be delineated. 3D reconstructions were carried out using the integrated 3D software of the scanner. We found a table feed of 3 mm/s with a slice thickness of 2 mm and an increment of 1 mm to be suitable for most purposes. For larger regions of interest a table feed of 5 mm was the maximum which could be used without blurring of the 3D images. Particular advantages of 3D reconstructed spiral scanning were seen in the planning of approaches to the lower clivus, acquired or congenital bony abnormalities and when the relationship between vessels, tumour and bone was important. (orig.)

  20. Modeling Three-Dimensional Chromosome Structures Using Gene Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guanghua; Wang, Xinlei; Khodursky, Arkady B

    2011-03-01

    Recent genomic studies have shown that significant chromosomal spatial correlation exists in gene expression of many organisms. Interestingly, coexpression has been observed among genes separated by a fixed interval in specific regions of a chromosome chain, which is likely caused by three-dimensional (3D) chromosome folding structures. Modeling such spatial correlation explicitly may lead to essential understandings of 3D chromosome structures and their roles in transcriptional regulation. In this paper, we explore chromosomal spatial correlation induced by 3D chromosome structures, and propose a hierarchical Bayesian method based on helical structures to formally model and incorporate the correlation into the analysis of gene expression microarray data. It is the first study to quantify and infer 3D chromosome structures in vivo using expression microarrays. Simulation studies show computing feasibility of the proposed method and that, under the assumption of helical chromosome structures, it can lead to precise estimation of structural parameters and gene expression levels. Real data applications demonstrate an intriguing biological phenomenon that functionally associated genes, which are far apart along the chromosome chain, are brought into physical proximity by chromosomal folding in 3D space to facilitate their coexpression. It leads to important biological insight into relationship between chromosome structure and function.

  1. Mapping three-dimensional temperature in microfluidic chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-11-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) temperature mapping method with high spatial resolution and acquisition rate is of vital importance in evaluating thermal processes in micro-environment. We have synthesized a new temperature-sensitive functional material (Rhodamine B functionalized Polydimethylsiloxane). By performing optical sectioning of this material, we established an advanced method for visualizing the micro-scale 3D thermal distribution inside microfluidic chip with down to 10 ms temporal resolution and 2 ~ 6 °C temperature resolution depending the capture parameters. This method is successfully applied to monitor the local temperature variation throughout micro-droplet heat transfer process and further reveal exothermic nanoliter droplet reactions to be unique and milder than bench-top experiment.

  2. A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S. L.; Hutson, R. B.; Marti, G. E.; Goban, A.; Darkwah Oppong, N.; McNally, R. L.; Sonderhouse, L.; Robinson, J. M.; Zhang, W.; Bloom, B. J.; Ye, J.

    2017-10-01

    Strontium optical lattice clocks have the potential to simultaneously interrogate millions of atoms with a high spectroscopic quality factor of 4 × 1017. Previously, atomic interactions have forced a compromise between clock stability, which benefits from a large number of atoms, and accuracy, which suffers from density-dependent frequency shifts. Here we demonstrate a scalable solution that takes advantage of the high, correlated density of a degenerate Fermi gas in a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice to guard against on-site interaction shifts. We show that contact interactions are resolved so that their contribution to clock shifts is orders of magnitude lower than in previous experiments. A synchronous clock comparison between two regions of the 3D lattice yields a measurement precision of 5 × 10-19 in 1 hour of averaging time.

  3. Rapid three dimensional two photon neural population scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Renaud; Quicke, Peter; Copeland, Caroline; Garasto, Stefania; Annecchino, Luca A; Hwang, June Kyu; Schultz, Simon R

    2015-08-01

    Recording the activity of neural populations at high sampling rates is a fundamental requirement for understanding computation in neural circuits. Two photon microscopy provides one promising approach towards this. However, neural circuits are three dimensional, and functional imaging in two dimensions fails to capture the 3D nature of neural dynamics. Electrically tunable lenses (ETLs) provide a simple and cheap method to extend laser scanning microscopy into the relatively unexploited third dimension. We have therefore incorporated them into our Adaptive Spiral Scanning (SSA) algorithm, which calculates kinematically efficient scanning strategies using radially modulated spiral paths. We characterised the response of the ETL, incorporated its dynamics using MATLAB models of the SSA algorithm and tested the models on populations of Izhikevich neurons of varying size and density. From this, we show that our algorithms can theoretically at least achieve sampling rates of 36.2Hz compared to 21.6Hz previously reported for 3D scanning techniques.

  4. Three-dimensional printing of tissue phantoms for biophotonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Coburn, James; Liang, Chia-Pin; Woolsey, Nicholas; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T Joshua

    2014-05-15

    We have investigated the potential of tissue phantoms fabricated with thermosoftening- and photopolymerization-based three-dimensional (3D) printers for use in evaluation of biophotonic imaging systems. The optical properties of printed polymer samples were measured and compared to biological tissues. Phantoms with subsurface channels as small as 0.2 mm in diameter were fabricated and imaged with microscopy, x-ray microtomography, and optical coherence tomography to characterize morphology. These phantoms were then implemented to evaluate the penetration depth of a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system used in conjunction with a near-infrared contrast agent. Results indicated that 3D printing may provide a suitable platform for performance testing in biophotonics, although subsurface imaging is critical to mitigate printer-to-printer variability in matrix homogeneity and feature microstructure.

  5. DNA Origami with Complex Curvatures in Three-Dimensional Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongran; Pal, Suchetan; Nangreave, Jeanette; Deng, Zhengtao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2011-04-14

    We present a strategy to design and construct self-assembling DNA nanostructures that define intricate curved surfaces in three-dimensional (3D) space using the DNA origami folding technique. Double-helical DNA is bent to follow the rounded contours of the target object, and potential strand crossovers are subsequently identified. Concentric rings of DNA are used to generate in-plane curvature, constrained to 2D by rationally designed geometries and crossover networks. Out-of-plane curvature is introduced by adjusting the particular position and pattern of crossovers between adjacent DNA double helices, whose conformation often deviates from the natural, B-form twist density. A series of DNA nanostructures with high curvature—such as 2D arrangements of concentric rings and 3D spherical shells, ellipsoidal shells, and a nanoflask—were assembled.

  6. Three-dimensional structures self-assembled from DNA bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L; Shih, William M; Yin, Peng

    2012-11-30

    We describe a simple and robust method to construct complex three-dimensional (3D) structures by using short synthetic DNA strands that we call "DNA bricks." In one-step annealing reactions, bricks with hundreds of distinct sequences self-assemble into prescribed 3D shapes. Each 32-nucleotide brick is a modular component; it binds to four local neighbors and can be removed or added independently. Each 8-base pair interaction between bricks defines a voxel with dimensions of 2.5 by 2.5 by 2.7 nanometers, and a master brick collection defines a "molecular canvas" with dimensions of 10 by 10 by 10 voxels. By selecting subsets of bricks from this canvas, we constructed a panel of 102 distinct shapes exhibiting sophisticated surface features, as well as intricate interior cavities and tunnels.

  7. Three-dimensional structural characterization of nonwoven fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Lalith B Suragani; Shim, Eunkyoung; Anantharamaiah, Nagendra; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2012-12-01

    Nonwoven materials are found in a gamut of critical applications. This is partly due to the fact that these structures can be produced at high speed and engineered to deliver unique functionality at low cost. The behavior of these materials is highly dependent on alignment of fibers within the structure. The ability to characterize and also to control the structure is important, but very challenging due to the complex nature of the structures. Thus, to date, focus has been placed mainly on two-dimensional analysis techniques for describing the behavior of nonwovens. This article demonstrates the utility of three-dimensional (3D) digital volumetric imaging technique for visualizing and characterizing a complex 3D class of nonwoven structures produced by hydroentanglement.

  8. Investigating the potential of three-dimensional treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraass, B A

    3-D treatment planning has received a great deal of attention in the radiation therapy community over the last several years. This new technology makes use of the continuous improvements in computer hardware and graphics capabilities, along with major improvements in treatment planning software, to provide a fully three dimensional simulation of the patient, radiation beams, and dose distributions which are used for radiation therapy of various cancers. With these capabilities, the physician and treatment planner may now optimize the radiation beams used to treat the patient much more effectively than in the past, when only a limited description of the patient, beams, and doses was available. This paper describes several of the new capabilities of these 3-D planning systems, some research studies which are currently being performed to evaluate the usefulness of the new technology, and finally some of the costs associated with its implementation.

  9. Three-dimensional displays and stereo vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2011-08-07

    Procedures for three-dimensional image reconstruction that are based on the optical and neural apparatus of human stereoscopic vision have to be designed to work in conjunction with it. The principal methods of implementing stereo displays are described. Properties of the human visual system are outlined as they relate to depth discrimination capabilities and achieving optimal performance in stereo tasks. The concept of depth rendition is introduced to define the change in the parameters of three-dimensional configurations for cases in which the physical disposition of the stereo camera with respect to the viewed object differs from that of the observer's eyes.

  10. Improved depth perception with three-dimensional auxiliary display and computer generated three-dimensional panoramic overviews in robot-assisted laparoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Basten, J.P.A. van; Beerlage, H.P.; Smits, G.A.H.J.; Bos, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to open surgery, endoscopic surgery offers impaired depth perception and narrower field-of-view. To improve depth perception, the Da Vinci robot offers three-dimensional (3-D) video on the console for the surgeon but not for assistants, although both must collaborate. We improved the

  11. Three-dimensional Si/Ge quantum dot crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmacher, Detlev; Fromherz, Thomas; Dais, Christian; Stangl, Julian; Müller, Elisabeth; Ekinci, Yasin; Solak, Harun H; Sigg, Hans; Lechner, Rainer T; Wintersberger, Eugen; Birner, Stefan; Holý, Vaclav; Bauer, Günther

    2007-10-01

    Modern nanotechnology offers routes to create new artificial materials, widening the functionality of devices in physics, chemistry, and biology. Templated self-organization has been recognized as a possible route to achieve exact positioning of quantum dots to create quantum dot arrays, molecules, and crystals. Here we employ extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL) at a wavelength of lambda = 13.5 nm for fast, large-area exposure of templates with perfect periodicity. Si(001) substrates have been patterned with two-dimensional hole arrays using EUV-IL and reactive ion etching. On these substrates, three-dimensionally ordered SiGe quantum dot crystals with the so far smallest quantum dot sizes and periods both in lateral and vertical directions have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffractometry from a sample volume corresponding to about 3.6 x 10(7) dots and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal an up to now unmatched structural perfection of the quantum dot crystal and a narrow quantum dot size distribution. Intense interband photoluminescence has been observed up to room temperature, indicating a low defect density in the three-dimensional (3D) SiGe quantum dot crystals. Using the Ge concentration and dot shapes determined by X-ray and AFM measurements as input parameters for 3D band structure calculations, an excellent quantitative agreement between measured and calculated PL energies is obtained. The calculations show that the band structure of the 3D ordered quantum dot crystal is significantly modified by the artificial periodicity. A calculation of the variation of the eigenenergies based on the statistical variation in the dot dimensions as determined experimentally (+/-10% in linear dimensions) shows that the calculated electronic coupling between neighboring dots is not destroyed due to the quantum dot size variations. Thus, not only from a structural point of view but also with respect to the band structure, the 3D ordered

  12. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  13. Three-dimensional integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan; Sapatnekar, Sachin S

    2009-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the field of 3D IC design, with an emphasis on electronic design automation (EDA) tools and algorithms that can enable the adoption of 3D ICs, and the architectural implementation and potential for future 3D system design. The aim of this book is to provide the reader with a complete understanding of: the promise of 3D ICs in building novel systems that enable the chip industry to continue along the path of performance scaling, the state of the art in fabrication technologies for 3D integration, the most prominent 3D-specific EDA challenges, along with solutio

  14. Three-dimensional recurring patterns in excitable media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biton, Y. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Rabinovitch, A., E-mail: avinoam@bgu.ac.il [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Braunstein, D. [Physics Department, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Friedman, M. [Department of Information Systems Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Aviram, I. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-06-13

    A new method to create three-dimensional periodic patterns in excitable media is presented. The method is demonstrated and the patterns are obtained with the help of two types of 3D 'spiral pairs' generators, which are respectively based on a 'corner effect' and a 'unidirectional propagation' processes. The results portray time-repeating patterns resembling fruits or potteries. The method is easy to implement and can be used to form other types of 3D patterns in excitable media. The question of periodicity of the patterns thus obtained is resolved by calculating the singular lines (filaments) around which they evolve and showing their unique reattachment property. Actual realizations could be conceived e.g. in chemical reactions such as Belousov-Zhabotinsky. Possible severe cardiac arrhythmias following the appearance of such patterns in the action potential of the heart are considered. -- Highlights: → New method to create three-dimensional periodic patterns in excitable media. → Singular lines (filaments) for the corner effect are presented. → Filaments are shown to exhibit periodic behavior.

  15. Three-dimensional volumetric quantification of fat loss following cryolipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibyan, Lilit; Sipprell, William H; Jalian, H Ray; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew; Anderson, R Rox

    2014-02-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive and well-tolerated treatment for reduction of localized subcutaneous fat. Although several studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this procedure, volumetric fat reduction from this treatment has not been quantified. This prospective study investigated the change in volume of fat after cryolipolysis treatment using three-dimensional (3D) photography. A prospective study of subjects treated with cryolipolysis on the flank (love handle) was performed at Massachusetts General Hospital. Volume measurements were performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra three-dimensional camera and software to evaluate the amount of post procedure volume change. Clinical outcomes were assessed with caliper measurements, subject surveys, and blinded physician assessment of photographs. Eleven subjects were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to one flank. The untreated flank served as an internal control. The follow-up time after treatment was 2 months. The mean amount of calculated absolute fat volume loss using 3D photography from baseline to 2 months follow-up visit was 56.2 ± 25.6 from the treatment site and 16.6 ± 17.6 cc from the control (P fat removal methodology that on average leads to 39.6 cc of fat loss of the treated flank at 2 months after a single treatment cycle. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Three-dimensional interconnect technology for ultra-compact MMICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Makoto; Nishikawa, Kenjiro; Toyoda, Ichihiko; Aoyama, Shinji; Sugitani, Suehiro; Yamasaki, Kimiyoshi

    1997-10-01

    A novel interconnect technology was reviewed, which was developed for three-dimensional (3-D) ultra-compact MMICs. Using O 2/He RIE for the through hole and trench formation of a thick polyimide insulator layer, low-current electroplating for gold sidewall formation in the through-holes and the trenches, and ion-milling with WSiN metal stopper for gold patterning, a complete three-dimensional metal interconnection structure was built. We call this fabrication method as folded metal interconnection technology with thick insulator(FMIT). The 3-D interconnection structure involves vertical interconnection elements such as a wall-like microwire for shielding or coupling, and a pillar-like via-connection with multi-leveled planar interconnections in a 10-μm-thick polyimide matrix on an IC chip. The structure provides many passive functional elements and circuits in an extremely small area. This technology stages the next-generation of ultra-compact MMICs by offering the circuit designers great design flexibility and higher integration of circuits.

  17. 3D Virtual Reality Check: Learner Engagement and Constructivist Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools has created a need to communicate the engagement of 3D tools and specify learning gains that educators and the institutions, which are funding 3D tools, can expect. A review of literature demonstrates that specific models and theories for 3D Virtual Reality (VR) learning do not exist "per…

  18. Real stereopsis test using a three-dimensional display with Tridef software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinu; Han, So Young; Lee, Seung Koo; Lee, Jong Bok; Han, Sueng-Han

    2014-11-01

    To investigate horizontal image disparity in three-dimensional (3-D) perception using 3-D animations in normal control patients and patients with intermittent exotropia, anisometropic amblyopia, and partially accommodative esotropia. A total of 133 subjects were included. Stereopsis was measured using the Titmus Stereo test (Stereo Optical Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and a 3-D stereopsis test with a 15 inch 3-D display laptop, adjusting 3-D parameters of 0 mm horizontal disparity to 15 mm horizontal disparity. When compared with normal controls, the average threshold of the 3-D stereopsis test was significantly reduced for esotropia patients (pstereopsis test was correlated with the Titmus Stereo test (Spearman's rho=0.690, pstereopsis test with animation is highly correlated with the Titmus Stereo test; nevertheless, 3-D stereopsis with animations generates more image disparities than the conventional Titmus Stereo test. The 3-D stereopsis test is highly predictive for estimating real stereopsis in a 3-D movie theater.

  19. The accuracy of matching three-dimensional photographs with skin surfaces derived from cone-beam computed tomography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maal, T.J.J.; Plooij, J.M.; Rangel, F.A.; Mollemans, W.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Berge, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art diagnostic tools in oral and maxillofacial surgery and preoperative orthodontic treatment are mainly two-dimensional, and consequently reveal limitations in describing the three-dimensional (3D) structures of a patient's face. New 3D imaging techniques, such as 3D

  20. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  1. Three-Dimensional Printing of a Scalable Molecular Model and Orbital Kit for Organic Chemistry Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew R.; Cao, Zi Jing; Patel, Bhaven; dos Santos, Bruno Sil; Asquith, Christopher R. M.; Szulc, Blanka R.; Rao, Zenobia X.; Muwaffak, Zaid; Malkinson, John P.; Hilton, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) chemical models are a well-established learning tool used to enhance the understanding of chemical structures by converting two-dimensional paper or screen outputs into realistic three-dimensional objects. While commercial atom model kits are readily available, there is a surprising lack of large molecular and orbital models…

  2. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-08-11

    The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our

  3. Three-dimensional digital projection in neurosurgical education: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina; Ribas, Eduardo Carvalhal; Rhoton, Albert L; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional images have become an important tool in teaching surgical anatomy, and its didactic power is enhanced when combined with 3D surgical images and videos. This paper describes the method used by the last author (G.C.R.) since 2002 to project 3D anatomical and surgical images using a computer source. Projecting 3D images requires the superposition of 2 similar but slightly different images of the same object. The set of images, one mimicking the view of the left eye and the other mimicking the view of the right eye, constitute the stereoscopic pair and can be processed using anaglyphic or horizontal-vertical polarization of light for individual use or presentation to larger audiences. Classically, 3D projection could be obtained by using a double set of slides, projected through 2 slide projectors, each of them equipped with complementary filters, shooting over a medium that keeps light polarized (a silver screen) and having the audience wear appropriate glasses. More recently, a digital method of 3D projection has been perfected. In this method, a personal computer is used as the source of the images, which are arranged in a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. A beam splitter device is used to connect the computer source to 2 digital, portable projectors. Filters, a silver screen, and glasses are used, similar to the classic method. Among other advantages, this method brings flexibility to 3D presentations by allowing the combination of 3D anatomical and surgical still images and videos. It eliminates the need for using film and film developing, lowering the costs of the process. In using small, powerful digital projectors, this method substitutes for the previous technology, without incurring a loss of quality, and enhances portability.

  4. Three dimensional electrochemical system for neurobiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report a novel three dimensional electrode array for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The main advantage of working with these out-of-plane structures is the enhanced sensitivity of the system in terms of measuring electrochemical changes in the environment of a c...

  5. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  6. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  7. Electron crystallography of three dimensional protein crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Dilyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of the potential of electron diffraction for studying three dimensional sub-micro-crystals of proteins and pharmaceuticals. A prerequisite for using electron diffraction for structural studies is the predictable availability of tiny crystals. A method for

  8. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... interferometry, schlieren imaging, and shadowgraph. Images recorded in these configurations can be analysed to yield time sequences of three-dimensional distributions of the transported variables. Optical methods are non-intrusive, inertia-free and can image cross-sections of the experimental apparatus.

  9. Three dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azza Helal

    2013-06-17

    Jun 17, 2013 ... Abbreviations: 3DCRT, three dimensional conformal radiotherapy;. OARs, organs at risk; DVPs, dose volume parameters; PTV, planning target volume; RT, radiation therapy; ACOD, Alexandria Clinical. Oncology Department; CT, computed tomography; ICRU, Interna- tional Commission on Radiation Units; ...

  10. Three-dimensional dispersion analysis of homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of wave propagation in an infinite, homogeneous, transversely isotropic thermo elastic polygonal cross-sectional bar immersed in fluid is studied using Fourier expansion collocation method, with in the framework of linearized, three dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Three displacement potential functions ...

  11. Three-dimensional dispersion analysis of homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    bar immersed in fluid is studied using Fourier expansion collocation method, with in the framework of linearized, three dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. ...... Performing the Fourier series expansion as discussed in the previous sections to Eq. (31) along the boundary, the boundary conditions along the surfaces are ...

  12. Three-dimensional carpal kinematics in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moojen, T. M.; Snel, J. G.; Ritt, M. J. P. F.; Kauer, J. M. G.; Venema, H. W.; Bos, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify three-dimensional in vivo kinematics of all carpal bones in flexion and extension and radial and ulnar deviation. Design and methods. The right wrists of 11 healthy volunteers were imaged by spiral CT with rotational increments of

  13. Uncalibrated Three-Dimensional Microrobot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    R. Nelson, "Experimental evaluation of uncalibrated visual servoing for precision manipulation ," in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 1997...distribution is UNLIMITED. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The emerging field of microrobotics facilitates precise manipulation of...magnetic actuation and visual sensor system for a microrobot in a three-dimensional fluidic environment, and then on the development of an

  14. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0...

  15. Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Shiba, Kensuke; Sotsuka, Koji; Matsushita, Kenji

    2006-12-25

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3D) scanning of an inclined image is reported. An optical image of a two-dimensional (2D) display, which is a vector-scan display monitor placed obliquely in an optical imaging system, is moved laterally by a galvanometric mirror scanner. Inclined cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed on the 2D display in accordance with the position of the image plane to form a 3D image. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision because they are real images formed in a 3D space. Experimental results of volumetric imaging from computed-tomography images and 3D animated images are presented.

  16. Supercapacitor electrode based on three-dimensional graphene-polyaniline hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xiaochen; Wang Jingxia [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications NUPT, 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210046 (China); Wang Jing; Chan-Park, Mary B. [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Li Xingao; Wang Lianhui; Huang Wei [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications NUPT, 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210046 (China); Chen Peng, E-mail: chenpeng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene was synthesized by chemical vapour deposition with nickel foam as a substrate. Based on the 3D graphene foams, free-standing graphene-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids were produced by in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer under acid condition, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, we show that supercapacitor electrodes based on the 3D graphene-PANI hybrid exhibit high specific capacitances (346 Fg{sup -1} at a discharge current density of 4 Ag{sup -1}), suggesting that the light and inexpensive 3D graphene foams are a promising candidate for energy storage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional (3D) graphene was synthesized by chemical vapour deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids were produced by in-situ polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene-PANI hybrid exhibits high specific capacitances.

  17. An Anatomical Study of Maxillary-Zygomatic Complex Using Three-Dimensional Computerized Tomography-Based Zygomatic Implantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To obtain anatomical data of maxillary-zygomatic complex based on simulating the zygomatic implantation using cadaver heads and three-dimensional computerized tomography (3D-CT). Methods...

  18. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon by Combining Kriging Method with Profile Depth Function

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Li, Hong; Yun, Anping; Li, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in three-dimensional direction is helpful for land use management. Due to the effect of profile depths and soil texture on vertical distribution of SOC, the stationary assumption for SOC cannot be met in the vertical direction. Therefore the three-dimensional (3D) ordinary kriging technique cannot be directly used to map the distribution of SOC at a regional scale. The objectives of this study were to map the 3D distribution of SOC ...

  19. Studying the Recent Improvements in Holograms for Three-Dimensional Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displayers tend to become three-dimensional. The most advantage of holographic 3D displays is the possibility to observe 3D images without using glasses. The quality of created images by this method has surprised everyone. In this paper, the experimental steps of making a transmission hologram have been mentioned. In what follows, current advances of this science-art will be discussed. The aim of this paper is to study the recent improvements in creating three-dimensional images and videos by means of holographic techniques. In the last section we discuss the potentials of holography to be applied in future.

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound assessment of endometrial receptivity: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcázar Juan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US is a new imaging modality, which is being introduced into clinical practice. Although this technique will not probably replace two-dimensional ultrasound, it is being increasingly used. It has been reported that 3D US is a very high reproducible technique. The endometrium has been paid special attention when using this technique. The aim of this paper is to address some technical aspects of 3D US and to review critically its current status in evaluating endometrial function with special focus in its role in predicting pregnancy in assisted reproductive techniques. In spontaneous cycles endometrial volume grows during follicular phase remaining constant through the luteal phase. Endometrial vascularization increases during follicular phase peaking 2–3 days before ovulation, decreasing thereafter and increasing again during mid and late luteal phase. Data from studies analysing the role of 3D US for predicting IVF outcome are controversial. An explanation for these controversial findings might be different design of reported studies, specially the timing of ultrasound evaluation.

  1. Three-dimensional neurophenotyping of adult zebrafish behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Cachat

    Full Text Available The use of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio in neurobehavioral research is rapidly expanding. The present large-scale study applied the newest video-tracking and data-mining technologies to further examine zebrafish anxiety-like phenotypes. Here, we generated temporal and spatial three-dimensional (3D reconstructions of zebrafish locomotion, globally assessed behavioral profiles evoked by several anxiogenic and anxiolytic manipulations, mapped individual endpoints to 3D reconstructions, and performed cluster analysis to reconfirm behavioral correlates of high- and low-anxiety states. The application of 3D swim path reconstructions consolidates behavioral data (while increasing data density and provides a novel way to examine and represent zebrafish behavior. It also enables rapid optimization of video tracking settings to improve quantification of automated parameters, and suggests that spatiotemporal organization of zebrafish swimming activity can be affected by various experimental manipulations in a manner predicted by their anxiolytic or anxiogenic nature. Our approach markedly enhances the power of zebrafish behavioral analyses, providing innovative framework for high-throughput 3D phenotyping of adult zebrafish behavior.

  2. Light-field and holographic three-dimensional displays [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-12-01

    A perfect three-dimensional (3D) display that satisfies all depth cues in human vision is possible if a light field can be reproduced exactly as it appeared when it emerged from a real object. The light field can be generated based on either light ray or wavefront reconstruction, with the latter known as holography. This paper first provides an overview of the advances of ray-based and wavefront-based 3D display technologies, including integral photography and holography, and the integration of those technologies with digital information systems. Hardcopy displays have already been used in some applications, whereas the electronic display of a light field is under active investigation. Next, a fundamental question in this technology field is addressed: what is the difference between ray-based and wavefront-based methods for light-field 3D displays? In considering this question, it is of particular interest to look at the technology of holographic stereograms. The phase information in holography contributes to the resolution of a reconstructed image, especially for deep 3D images. Moreover, issues facing the electronic display system of light fields are discussed, including the resolution of the spatial light modulator, the computational techniques of holography, and the speckle in holographic images.

  3. Exact rebinning methods for three-dimensional PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Defrise, M; Michel, C; Sibomana, M; Comtat, C; Kinahan, P; Townsend, D

    1999-08-01

    The high computational cost of data processing in volume PET imaging is still hindering the routine application of this successful technique, especially in the case of dynamic studies. This paper describes two new algorithms based on an exact rebinning equation, which can be applied to accelerate the processing of three-dimensional (3-D) PET data. The first algorithm, FOREPROJ, is a fast-forward projection algorithm that allows calculation of the 3-D attenuation correction factors (ACF's) directly from a two-dimensional (2-D) transmission scan, without first reconstructing the attenuation map and then performing a 3-D forward projection. The use of FOREPROJ speeds up the estimation of the 3-D ACF's by more than a factor five. The second algorithm, FOREX, is a rebinning algorithm that is also more than five times faster, compared to the standard reprojection algorithm (3DRP) and does not suffer from the image distortions generated by the even faster approximate Fourier rebinning (FORE) method at large axial apertures. However, FOREX is probably not required by most existing scanners, as the axial apertures are not large enough to show improvements over FORE with clinical data. Both algorithms have been implemented and applied to data simulated for a scanner with a large axial aperture (30 degrees), and also to data acquired with the ECAT HR and the ECAT HR+ scanners. Results demonstrate the excellent accuracy achieved by these algorithms and the important speedup when the sinogram sizes are powers of two.

  4. Figure-ground organization based on three-dimensional symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, Aaron; Jayadevan, Vijai; Delp, Edward; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach to figure/ground organization using mirror symmetry as a general purpose and biologically motivated prior. Psychophysical evidence suggests that the human visual system makes use of symmetry in producing three-dimensional (3-D) percepts of objects. 3-D symmetry aids in scene organization because (i) almost all objects exhibit symmetry, and (ii) configurations of objects are not likely to be symmetric unless they share some additional relationship. No general purpose approach is known for solving 3-D symmetry correspondence in two-dimensional (2-D) camera images, because few invariants exist. Therefore, we present a general purpose method for finding 3-D symmetry correspondence by pairing the problem with the two-view geometry of the binocular correspondence problem. Mirror symmetry is a spatially global property that is not likely to be lost in the spatially local noise of binocular depth maps. We tested our approach on a corpus of 180 images collected indoors with a stereo camera system. K-means clustering was used as a baseline for comparison. The informative nature of the symmetry prior makes it possible to cluster data without a priori knowledge of which objects may appear in the scene, and without knowing how many objects there are in the scene.

  5. Three-Dimensional Facial Adaptation for MPEG-4 Talking Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Grammalidis

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a new method for three-dimensional (3D facial model adaptation and its integration into a text-to-speech (TTS system. The 3D facial adaptation requires a set of two orthogonal views of the user′s face with a number of feature points located on both views. Based on the correspondences of the feature points′ positions, a generic face model is deformed nonrigidly treating every facial part as a separate entity. A cylindrical texture map is then built from the two image views. The generated head models are compared to corresponding models obtained by the commonly used adaptation method that utilizes 3D radial bases functions. The generated 3D models are integrated into a talking head system, which consists of two distinct parts: a multilingual text to speech sub-system and an MPEG-4 compliant facial animation sub-system. Support for the Greek language has been added, while preserving lip and speech synchronization.

  6. Analysis of secondary coxarthrosis by three dimensional computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmi, Osamu [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-11-01

    The majority of coxarthrosis in Japan is due to congenital dislocation of the hip and acetabular dysplasia. Until now coxarthrosis has been chiefly analyzed on the basis of anterior-posterior radiographs. By using three-dimensional (3D) CT, it was possible to analyze the morphological features of secondary coxarthrosis more accurately, and by using new computer graphics software, it was possible to display the contact area in the hip joint and observe changes associated with progression of the stages of the disease. There were 34 subjects (68 joints), and all of who were women. The CT data were read into a work station, and 3D reconstruction was achieved with hip surgery simulation software (SurgiPlan). Pelvic inclination, acetabular anteversion, seven parameters indicating the investment of the femoral head and two indicating the position of the hip joint in the pelvis were measured. The results showed that secondary coxarthrosis is characterized not only by lateral malposition of the hip joint according to the pelvic coordinates, but by anterior malposition as well. Many other measurements provided 3D information on the acetabular dysplasia. Many of them were correlated with the CE angle on plain radiographs. Furthermore, a strong correlation was not found between anterior and posterior acetabular coverage of the femoral head. In addition, SurgiPlan`s distance mapping function enabled 3D observation of the pattern of progression of arthrosis based on the pattern of progression of joint space narrowing. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Frederik; Arnold, Karl; Bauer, Werner; Schild, Dieter; Keller, Nico; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Nargang, Tobias M.; Richter, Christiane; Helmer, Dorothea; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-04-01

    Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties. However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features. These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing (3D printing). Using a casting nanocomposite, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres. The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment. The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. By doping with metal salts, coloured glasses can be created. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia.

  8. MATHEMATICAL BASIS FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION ON CNC MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Lubbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The control units of numerically controlled manufacturing machines allow the programmer only a limited number of mathematical functions with which programmes can be written. Despite these limitations it is now possible to write programmes with which three dimensional (3D circular interpolation can be performed directly on the .machines. The necessary mathematical techniques to perform 3D circular interpolation directly on the machines are deduced, although somewhat roundabout to overcome the programming limitations. The main programming limitations as well as cutter speed limitations are indicated.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die beheereenhede van numeriesbeheerde vervaardigingsmasjiene beskik:oor 'n beperkte aantal wiskundige funksies wat tot die beskikking van die programmeerder gestel word om programme mee te skryf. Selfs met .hierdie beperkings is dit nou moontlik om programme te skryf waarmee driedimensionele (3D sirkelinterpolasie direk op die masjiene uitgevoer kan word. Die nodige wiskundige tegnieke waarmee 3D sirkelinterpolasie gedoen kan word, al is dit 'n effens omslagtige manier om die beperkings te oorkom, word afgelei. Die belangrikste programmeringsbeperkings asook snyspoedbeperkings word aangetoon.

  9. A three-dimensional pelvic model made with a three-dimensional printer: applications for laparoscopic surgery to treat rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamabe, A; Ito, M

    2017-05-01

    To help understand the three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships among the highly complex structures of the pelvis, we made a novel 3D pelvic model with a 3D printing system. We created two pelvic models including the muscles, vessels, nerves, and urogenital organs; the first based on the pelvic anatomy of a healthy male volunteer and the second on the pelvic anatomy of a female volunteer with rectal cancer. The models clearly demonstrated the complicated spatial relationships between anatomical structures in the pelvis. Surgeons could use these models to improve their spatial understanding of pelvic anatomy, which could consequently improve the safety and efficiency of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

  10. Three-dimensional localization of implanted biomaterials in anatomical and histological specimens using combined X-ray computed tomography and three-dimensional surface reconstruction: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Vincent M J I; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A

    2010-02-01

    For adequate histological processing of implanted biomaterials or tissue-engineered constructs, it is sometimes essential to obtain insight into the localization of structures inside the tissue samples. Observation of three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction, including basic photorealistic texture characteristics as surface pattern and color combined with X-ray computed tomography 3D reconstruction at different levels, is a useful approach to localize anatomical or implanted structures within experimental tissue samples. Because of the possible observation of structures of interest in a 3D environment, fusion of these techniques can greatly facilitate histological processing.

  11. Three-Dimensional Graphene Networks with Abundant Sharp Edge Sites for Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui; Wang, Huping; Li, Xu-Bing; Gao, Lei; Wu, Hao-Lin; Yang, Jie; Cai, Le; Ma, Tian-Bao; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2017-11-11

    To achieve sustainable production of hydrogen (H2) through water splitting, establishing efficient and earth-abundant electrocatalysts is of great necessity. Here, we firstly reveal that morphology engineering of graphene can modulate the electronic structure of carbon skeleton and in turn endow it with excellent ability of proton reduction. Three-dimensional (3D) graphene networks with the high density of sharp edge sites are synthesized. Electrocatalytic measurements indicate that the obtained 3D graphene networks can electrocatalyze H2 evolution with an extremely low onset potential of ~18 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution, together with good stability. A combination of control experiments and density functional theory (DFT) investigations indicates that the exceptional H2 evolution performance is attributed to the abundant sharp-edge sites of the advanced frameworks, which are responsible for promoting the adsorption and reduction of protons. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Creating Three-dimensional Printed Models of Acetabular Fractures for Use as Educational Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganaro, Matthew S; Morag, Yoav; Weadock, William J; Yablon, Corrie M; Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Stein, Erica B

    2017-01-01

    Acetabular fractures are frequently encountered in some clinical practices, and the precise classification of these fractures greatly influences treatments and outcomes. The authors identified the need for an educational aid when teaching acetabular fracture classifications, given the complex spatial anatomy and the nonintuitive classification system that is commonly used. Three-dimensional ( 3D three-dimensional ) printing is an evolving technique that has applications as an educational aid, providing the student with a tangible object to interact with and learn from. In this article, the authors review their experience creating 3D three-dimensional printed models of the hip for educational purposes. Their goal was to create 3D three-dimensional printed models for use as educational aids when teaching acetabular fracture classifications. Complex cases involving a combination of fracture types, subtle nondisplaced fractures, and/or fractures with associated osteopenia or artifacts were excluded. The selected computed tomographic (CT) scans were loaded into a medical 3D three-dimensional volume-rendering program, and a 3D three-dimensional volumetric model was created. Standard Tessellation Language ( STL Standard Tessellation Language ) files were then exported to STL Standard Tessellation Language model-editing software and edited to retain only the involved hemipelvis. In some cases, the proximal femur and ipsilateral hemisacrum may be included to emphasize hip alignment or disruption of the force transfer. Displaced fracture fragments can be printed as separate segments or a single unit after the addition of struts. Printing was performed by using an additive manufacturing principle, with approximately 36-48 hours needed for printing, postprocessing, and drying. The cost to print a 1:1 scale model was approximately $100-$200, depending on the amount of plastic material used. These models can then be painted according to the two-column theory regarding acetabular

  13. [Three dimensional stereotactic functional neurosurgical planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Taku; Regis, Jean; Hayashi, Motohiro; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2004-04-01

    In order to arrive the small area in the deep brain with minimum invasion, stereotactic technique is useful. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation with this technique has been common for Parkinson disease. Recently some papers reported the cognitive performance change after implantation and there were some discussion about the electrode trajectory. Though we didn't have the answer until now, three-dimensional target included the trajectory seems to be important. Another way, stereotactic technique was used the epilepsy evaluation. The point of this procedure was based on the clinical aspect, the well-known neural network and the anatomical understanding for each patient. Three-dimensional anatomical target provides us the best treatment for stereotactic neurosurgery.

  14. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás

    2017-06-01

    Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  15. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  16. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-09-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  17. Three-dimensional accelerating electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Alonso, Miguel A; Kaminer, Ido; Segev, Mordechai

    2013-06-17

    We present a general theory of three-dimensional non-paraxial spatially-accelerating waves of the Maxwell equations. These waves constitute a two-dimensional structure exhibiting shape-invariant propagation along semicircular trajectories. We provide classification and characterization of possible shapes of such beams, expressed through the angular spectra of parabolic, oblate and prolate spheroidal fields. Our results facilitate the design of accelerating beams with novel structures, broadening scope and potential applications of accelerating beams.

  18. Flexible three-dimensional printed antenna substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sheheryar Bukhari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexible heterogeneous substrates have been constructed, using three-dimensional printing in a single process, by introducing air-filled slots. These substrates have been used to substantially reduce the substrate losses for a flexible microstrip patch antenna causing an increase in its radiation efficiency. By combining transverse magnetic (TM10 and TM01 modes the bandwidth of this antenna has also been increased.

  19. Visualization of three-dimensional CFD solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, David L.; Giles, Michael B.; Murman, Earll M.

    1989-01-01

    The implementation is described of the FLOWVIS flow visualization package on a graphics supercomputer that provides real-time interactive investigation of three-dimensional CFD solutions on structured and unstructured meshes. The data structures are briefly described and the methods of visualizing flow fields are examined, including surface plots, particle paths, and planar displays in the flow field. Preliminary results using the package and work in progress are discussed.

  20. Visualization of three-dimensional CFD solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modiano, D.L.; Giles, M.B.; Murman, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The implementation is described of the FLOWVIS flow visualization package on a graphics supercomputer that provides real-time interactive investigation of three-dimensional CFD solutions on structured and unstructured meshes. The data structures are briefly described and the methods of visualizing flow fields are examined, including surface plots, particle paths, and planar displays in the flow field. Preliminary results using the package and work in progress are discussed. 9 references.

  1. FI3D : Direct-Touch Interaction for the Exploration of 3D Scientific Visualization Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Lingyun; Svetachov, Pjotr; Isenberg, Petra; Everts, Maarten H.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of FI3D, a direct-touch data exploration technique for 3D visualization spaces. The exploration of three-dimensional data is core to many tasks and domains involving scientific visualizations. Thus, effective data navigation techniques are essential to enable

  2. Three-dimensional, flexible graphene bioelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, SungGyu; Choi, Jonghyun; Ashraf, Ali; Nam, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    We report 3-dimensional (3D) graphene-based biosensors fabricated via 3D transfer of monolithic graphene-graphite structures. This mechanically flexible all-carbon structure is a prospective candidate for intimate 3D interfacing with biological systems. Monolithic graphene-graphite structures were synthesized using low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process relying on the heterostructured metal catalyst layers. Nonplanar substrates and wet-transfer method were used with a thin Au film as a transfer layer to achieve the 3D graphene structure. Instead of the typical wet-etching method, vapor-phase etching was performed to minimize the delamination of the graphene while removing the transfer layer. We believe that the monolithic graphene-graphite synthesis combined with the conformal 3D transfer will pave the way for the 3D conformal sensing capability as well as the intracellular recording of living cells in the future.

  3. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  4. Research on 3D reconstruction of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Pan-fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to associate with using acoustic emission, ultrasonic or other means to locate damage of concrete, based on the concrete CT image information, the research of 3D reconstruction of concrete crack structure was completed by using Amira 5.2.1 3D reconstruction software. Experiments showed that: three dimensional reconstruction of concrete can reflect the real crack structure, and distribution of aggregate concrete of three dimensional model established was basically in accordance with the original CT image, which laid the good foundation to simulate and analysis by using ANSYS finite element software in the future.

  5. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  6. Characterizing College Science Assessments: The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Laverty, James T; Matz, Rebecca L; Posey, Lynmarie A; Carmel, Justin H; Caballero, Marcos D; Fata-Hartley, Cori L; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E; Cooper, Melanie M

    2016-01-01

    Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of "three-dimensional learning" is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, calls have been made to bring similar changes to higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper, we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology...

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  8. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  9. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Woo Choi; Namkug Kim

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to m...

  10. Three Dimensional Micro and Nano Fabrication of Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan

    The concept of artificially structured metamateials arises as a promising solution to offer broad tunability of material properties. Rather than on its chemical composition, macroscopic properties of metamateirals depend on the hierarchical assembly of the "artificial atoms" of the structure. Many novel designs have been reported to enable exotic properties of metamaterials. However, experimental realization of these designs is facing a great challenge due to stringent requirements on precise fabrication of subwavelength fine features in three dimensional (3D). In this dissertation, we aim to create powerful and reliable 3D fabrication approaches to bridge the gap between design and realization. Three dimensional fabrication of terahertz (THz) metamaterial and optical metamaterial by additive manufacturing approaches are demonstrated. For fabricating THz metamaterials, the design and testing of a scalable projection micro-stereo-lithography system that offers the 3D fabrication capability is presented. By taking advantage of transformation optics theory, a study in design, fabrication, and characterization of the THz invisibility cloak was performed. The cloak successfully concealed both the geometrical and spectroscopic signatures of an alpha-lactose monohydrate absorber, making it undetectable from 0.3 to 0.6 THz. Following this successful demonstration, we further created the broadband 3D flattened Luneburg lens for THz imaging. The lens is transformed from its original spherical shape and can focus THz plane waves from ultra-wide angles at the focal plane without geometrical aberrations, and vice versa. 2D imaging independent of polarizations is demonstrated. For optical metamaterial, we developed nanoimprint lithography and nanotransfer printing process to realize 3D nano-grating structure in an additive fashion. Based on this method, we successfully designed and created the upright U-shaped spit ring resonators (SRRs) showing artificial magnetism beyond the

  11. Three-diemensional materials science: An intersection of three-dimensional reconstructions and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Katsuyo; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties. Comb...... an overview of this emerging field of materials science, as well as brief descriptions of selected methods and their applicability.......The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties....... Combined with three-dimensional (3D) simulations and analyses that are capable of handling the complexity of these microstructures, 3D reconstruction, or tomography, has become a powerful tool that provides clear insights into materials processing and properties. This introductory article provides...

  12. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy: Three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy (FCPM). The technique employs the property of LC to orient the fluorescent dye ...

  13. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Li, Kan; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Jung, Han Na; Yang, Yiyuan; Kwak, Jean Won; Jung, Han Hee; Song, Juwon; Yang, Ce; Wang, Ao; Liu, Zhuangjian; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jungyup; Yu, Yongjoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Jang, Hokyung; Yu, Ki Jun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Song, Young Min; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2017-06-01

    Low modulus, compliant systems of sensors, circuits and radios designed to intimately interface with the soft tissues of the human body are of growing interest, due to their emerging applications in continuous, clinical-quality health monitors and advanced, bioelectronic therapeutics. Although recent research establishes various materials and mechanics concepts for such technologies, all existing approaches involve simple, two-dimensional (2D) layouts in the constituent micro-components and interconnects. Here we introduce concepts in three-dimensional (3D) architectures that bypass important engineering constraints and performance limitations set by traditional, 2D designs. Specifically, open-mesh, 3D interconnect networks of helical microcoils formed by deterministic compressive buckling establish the basis for systems that can offer exceptional low modulus, elastic mechanics, in compact geometries, with active components and sophisticated levels of functionality. Coupled mechanical and electrical design approaches enable layout optimization, assembly processes and encapsulation schemes to yield 3D configurations that satisfy requirements in demanding, complex systems, such as wireless, skin-compatible electronic sensors.

  14. Dynamic properties of three-dimensional piezoelectric Kagome grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jing; Li, Feng-Ming

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectric Kagome grids can be considered as a kind of functional material because they have vibration isolation performance and can transform mechanical energy to electric energy. In this study, the dynamic properties of three-dimensional (3D) piezoelectric Kagome grids without and with material defects are studied based on the frequency-domain responses. The spectral element method (SEM) is adopted to solve a 3D piezoelectric beam which contains bending components in two planes, tensional components, and torsional components. The dynamic stiffness matrix of a spectral piezoelectric beam is derived. Highly accurate solutions in the frequency-domain are obtained by solving the equation of motion of the whole structure. Compared with the results from the FEM and those in the existing literature, it can be seen that the SEM can be effectively used to study the 3D piezoelectric Kagome grids. The band-gap properties of Kagome grid and defect state properties of Kagome grid with material defects are analyzed. The effect of the piezoelectric parameter on the band-gap property is investigated further.

  15. Three-Dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens

    KAUST Repository

    De Jonge, Niels

    2010-01-18

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2-3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset. © 2010 Microscopy Society of America.

  16. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Li, Kan; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Jung, Han Na; Yang, Yiyuan; Kwak, Jean Won; Jung, Han Hee; Song, Juwon; Yang, Ce; Wang, Ao; Liu, Zhuangjian; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jungyup; Yu, Yongjoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Jang, Hokyung; Yu, Ki Jun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Song, Young Min; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Low modulus, compliant systems of sensors, circuits and radios designed to intimately interface with the soft tissues of the human body are of growing interest, due to their emerging applications in continuous, clinical-quality health monitors and advanced, bioelectronic therapeutics. Although recent research establishes various materials and mechanics concepts for such technologies, all existing approaches involve simple, two-dimensional (2D) layouts in the constituent micro-components and interconnects. Here we introduce concepts in three-dimensional (3D) architectures that bypass important engineering constraints and performance limitations set by traditional, 2D designs. Specifically, open-mesh, 3D interconnect networks of helical microcoils formed by deterministic compressive buckling establish the basis for systems that can offer exceptional low modulus, elastic mechanics, in compact geometries, with active components and sophisticated levels of functionality. Coupled mechanical and electrical design approaches enable layout optimization, assembly processes and encapsulation schemes to yield 3D configurations that satisfy requirements in demanding, complex systems, such as wireless, skin-compatible electronic sensors. PMID:28635956

  17. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Li, Kan; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Jung, Han Na; Yang, Yiyuan; Kwak, Jean Won; Jung, Han Hee; Song, Juwon; Yang, Ce; Wang, Ao; Liu, Zhuangjian; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jungyup; Yu, Yongjoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Jang, Hokyung; Yu, Ki Jun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Song, Young Min; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A

    2017-06-21

    Low modulus, compliant systems of sensors, circuits and radios designed to intimately interface with the soft tissues of the human body are of growing interest, due to their emerging applications in continuous, clinical-quality health monitors and advanced, bioelectronic therapeutics. Although recent research establishes various materials and mechanics concepts for such technologies, all existing approaches involve simple, two-dimensional (2D) layouts in the constituent micro-components and interconnects. Here we introduce concepts in three-dimensional (3D) architectures that bypass important engineering constraints and performance limitations set by traditional, 2D designs. Specifically, open-mesh, 3D interconnect networks of helical microcoils formed by deterministic compressive buckling establish the basis for systems that can offer exceptional low modulus, elastic mechanics, in compact geometries, with active components and sophisticated levels of functionality. Coupled mechanical and electrical design approaches enable layout optimization, assembly processes and encapsulation schemes to yield 3D configurations that satisfy requirements in demanding, complex systems, such as wireless, skin-compatible electronic sensors.

  18. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua

    2001-06-01

    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  19. High-definition three-dimensional television disparity map computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammem, Afef; Mitrea, Mihai; Prêteux, Françoise

    2012-10-01

    By reconsidering some two-dimensional video inherited approaches and by adapting them to the stereoscopic video content and to the human visual system peculiarities, a new disparity map is designed. First, the inner relation between the left and the right views is modeled by some weights discriminating between the horizontal and vertical disparities. Second, the block matching operation is achieved by considering a visual related measure (normalized cross correlation) instead of the traditional pixel differences (mean squared error or sum of absolute differences). The advanced three-dimensional (3-D) video-new three step search (3DV-NTSS) disparity map (3-D Video-New Three Step Search) is benchmarked against two state-of-the-art algorithms, namely NTSS and full-search MPEG (FS-MPEG), by successively considering two corpora. The first corpus was organized during the 3DLive French national project and regroups 20 min of stereoscopic video sequences. The second one, with similar size, is provided by the MPEG community. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of 3DV-NTSS in both reconstructed image quality (average gains between 3% and 7% in both PSNR and structural similarity, with a singular exception) and computational cost (search operation number reduced by average factors between 1.3 and 13). The 3DV-NTSS was finally validated by designing a watermarking method for high definition 3-D TV content protection.

  20. Three-dimensional residual strain in midanterior canine left ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSTA, KEVIN D.; MAY-NEWMAN, KAREN; FARR, DYAN; O’DELL, WALTER G.; McCULLOCH, ANDREW D.; OMENS, JEFFREY H.

    2012-01-01

    All previous studies of residual strain in the ventricular wall have been based on one- or two-dimensional measurements. Transmural distributions of three-dimensional (3-D) residual strains were measured by biplane radiography of columns of lead beads implanted in the midanterior free wall of the canine left ventricle (LV). 3-D bead coordinates were reconstructed with the isolated arrested LV in the zero-pressure state and again after local residual stress had been relieved by excising a transmural block of tissue. Nonhomogeneous 3-D residual strains were computed by finite element analysis. Mean ± SD (n = 8) circumferential residual strain indicated that the intact unloaded myocardium was prestretched at the epicardium (0.07 ± 0.06) and compressed in the subendocardium (−0.04 ± 0.05). Small but significant longitudinal shortening and torsional shear residual strains were also measured. Residual fiber strain was tensile at the epicardium (0.05 ± 0.06) and compressive in the subendocardium (−0.01 ± 0.04), with residual extension and shortening, respectively, along structural axes parallel and perpendicular to the laminar myocardial sheets. Relatively small residual shear strains with respect to the myofiber sheets suggest that prestretching in the plane of the myocardial laminae may be a primary mechanism of residual stress in the LV. PMID:9362268

  1. Three-dimensional extracellular matrix-mediated neural stem cell differentiation in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sewoon; Yang, Kisuk; Shin, Yoojin; Lee, Jung Seung; Kamm, Roger D; Chung, Seok; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2012-07-07

    Here, we report a unique method to quantify the effects of in vivo-like extracellular matrix (ECM) for guiding differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We successfully monitored and quantified differentiation of NSCs in small volume ECMs and found that differentiation of NSCs, especially those differentiating towards neuronal and oligodendrocytic lineages, is significantly enhanced by 3D microenvironments reconstituted in the microfluidic channels.

  2. Bridging Neuroanatomy, Neuroradiology and Neurology: Three-Dimensional Interactive Atlas of Neurological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nowinski, W. L.; Chua, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding brain pathology along with the underlying neuroanatomy and the resulting neurological deficits is of vital importance in medical education and clinical practice. To facilitate and expedite this understanding, we created a three-dimensional (3D) interactive atlas of neurological disorders providing the correspondence between a brain lesion and the resulting disorder(s). The atlas contains a 3D highly parcellated atlas of normal neuroanatomy along with a brain pathology database. ...

  3. Applications and a Three-dimensional Desktop Environment for an Immersive Virtual Reality System

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Akira; Masada, Youhei

    2013-01-01

    We developed an application launcher called Multiverse for scientific visualizations in a CAVE-type virtual reality (VR) system. Multiverse can be regarded as a type of three-dimensional (3D) desktop environment. In Multiverse, a user in a CAVE room can browse multiple visualization applications with 3D icons and explore movies that float in the air. Touching one of the movies causes "teleportation" into the application's VR space. After analyzing the simulation data using the application, th...

  4. Speckle-based three-dimensional velocity measurement using spatial filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle...... spatial filters designed to measure the three components of the object’s translational velocity. Furthermore, experimental data are presented that demonstrate full 3D velocity measurement....

  5. High-speed three-dimensional shape measurement using GOBO projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, Stefan; Lutzke, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Dietrich, Patrick; Kühmstedt, Peter; Tünnermann, Andreas; Notni, Gunther

    2016-12-01

    A projector which uses a rotating slide structure to project aperiodic sinusoidal fringe patterns at high frame rates and with high radiant flux is introduced. It is used in an optical three-dimensional (3D) sensor based on coded-light projection, thus allowing the analysis of fast processes. Measurements of an inflating airbag, a rope skipper, and a soccer ball kick at a 3D frame rate of more than 1300 independent point clouds per second are presented.

  6. The occlusal plane in the facial context: inter-operator repeatability of a new three-dimensional method

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rosati; Rossetti, A; Menezes, M.; Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C

    2012-01-01

    The repeatability of a non-invasive digital protocol proposed to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) position of the occlusal plane in the face is assessed. Dental virtual models and soft tissue facial morphology of 20 adult subjects were digitally integrated using a 3D stereophotogrammetric imaging system. The digital 3D coordinates of facial and dental landmarks were obtained by two different operators. Camper's (facial) and occlusal (dental) planes were individuated, and their 3D relations...

  7. Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry using dynamic vision sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, D.; Delbruck, T.; Rösgen, T.

    2017-12-01

    A fast-flow visualization method is presented based on tracking neutrally buoyant soap bubbles with a set of neuromorphic cameras. The "dynamic vision sensors" register only the changes in brightness with very low latency, capturing fast processes at a low data rate. The data consist of a stream of asynchronous events, each encoding the corresponding pixel position, the time instant of the event and the sign of the change in logarithmic intensity. The work uses three such synchronized cameras to perform 3D particle tracking in a medium sized wind tunnel. The data analysis relies on Kalman filters to associate the asynchronous events with individual tracers and to reconstruct the three-dimensional path and velocity based on calibrated sensor information.

  8. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues.

  9. Universal dynamic scaling in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W; Young, A P

    2015-08-01

    We use a nonequilibrium Monte Carlo simulation method and dynamical scaling to study the phase transition in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses. The transition point is repeatedly approached at finite velocity v (temperature change versus time) in Monte Carlo simulations starting at a high temperature. This approach has the advantage that the equilibrium limit does not have to be strictly reached for a scaling analysis to yield critical exponents. For the dynamic exponent we obtain z=5.85(9) for bimodal couplings distribution and z=6.00(10) for the Gaussian case. Assuming universal dynamic scaling, we combine the two results and obtain z=5.93±0.07 for generic 3D Ising spin glasses.

  10. Three Dimensional Display Of Tumors Via Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Ralph L.

    1985-09-01

    Computed tomography is widely utilized for the detection and staging of neoplasm. Typical chest, abdomen or pelvis CT scans may produce 10 to 20 transverse slices for each region. The mental reconstruction of the three dimensional anatomy from these transverse sections can be done by a physician who has had training in the analysis and interpretation of cross sectional anatomy and pathology. This mental reconstruction, however, may take years to develop into an efficient tool. With the 3-D reconstructions used in this study, diagnostic information concerning the location, shape and spread of tumor masses can be presented in a simple, intuitive 3-dimensional display. This technique has been found to be useful for improving communication between diagnostic radiologists and consulting physicians.

  11. Engineering Three-dimensional Epithelial Tissues Embedded within Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski-Daspit, Alexandra S; Nelson, Celeste M

    2016-07-10

    The architecture of branched organs such as the lungs, kidneys, and mammary glands arises through the developmental process of branching morphogenesis, which is regulated by a variety of soluble and physical signals in the microenvironment. Described here is a method created to study the process of branching morphogenesis by forming engineered three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues of defined shape and size that are completely embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). This method enables the formation of arrays of identical tissues and enables the control of a variety of environmental factors, including tissue geometry, spacing, and ECM composition. This method can also be combined with widely used techniques such as traction force microscopy (TFM) to gain more information about the interactions between cells and their surrounding ECM. The protocol can be used to investigate a variety of cell and tissue processes beyond branching morphogenesis, including cancer invasion.

  12. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  13. Artistic expression in the development of new technology for three dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Richardson, Martin; Azevedo, Isabel

    2011-02-01

    The medium of holography offers many new creative possibilities for the development of kinetic art. In the search of new forms of image display we examine new methods of capturing Three Dimensional animated images. Expression in new forms of visualisation leads to new methods for exploration auto-stereoscopic displays, three-dimensional imaging and holography. Artists have long combined cameras together to explore the human body as form and space and this paper sets out the potential of some of these techniques and in particular the technical potential of the use of multicamera capture techniques. Artists such as Tim Macmillan1 (2010) and Dayton Taylor2 (1997) use multi-lens cameras to create the illusion of capturing space and time for different effects, such as frozen moment, live action and slow motion (often seen as a cinemagraphic effect). However, their results are two-dimensional images made with a two-dimensional image capture system. Previous research on the interaction between art and technology has been based on twodimensional video art. This paper outlines a method of three-dimensional video capture to explore three-dimensional space and the human body. The stereoscopic specialist Ray Zone3 has written about the evolution of 3-D technology and 3-D film. Zone examines the development of these 3-D techniques and demonstrates the connection between two fields. This research extends our knowledge of Three Dimensional moving image as an art form. In the new art world, Holography has become a method increasingly used to develop kinetic art. In the search of new forms of display and image capture, we examine new techniques such as 3-D, including auto-stereoscopic display, three-dimensional imaging and holography.

  14. Quasi-three-dimensional modelling of the morphology of longshore bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dronen, N.; Deigaard, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    A morphological quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) area model for bar-red coasts has been developed. The model combines a two-dimensional depth integrated model for wave-driven currents with a model for under-tow circulation currents. The combined model makes a simultaneous simulation of the bar...

  15. Exploring the User Experience of Three-Dimensional Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hee; Biocca, Frank; Choo, Hyunseung

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the users' experiences with three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments to investigate the areas of development as a learning application. For the investigation, the modified technology acceptance model (TAM) is used with constructs from expectation-confirmation theory (ECT). Users' responses to questions about cognitive…

  16. Three-Dimensional Nanobiocomputing Architectures with aleph-Hypercells: Revolutionary Super-High-Performance Computing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    the switching power is not only a function of devices/gates/switches (bipolar junction transistors and field-effect transistors , BJTs and FETs, for...Acronyms 2D - Two-dimensional 3D - Three-dimensional ALU - Arithmetic logic unit BJT - Bipolar junction transistor CAD - Computer...14 3. 4. DNA Derivative Transistor for ℵ-Hypercells

  17. Layout to circuit extraction for three-dimensional thermal-electrical circuit simulation of device structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, B.H.; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Bosma, A.; de Graaff, H.C.; de Graaff, H.C.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed for extraction of coupled networks from layout information for simulation of electrothermal device behavior. The networks represent a three-dimensional (3-D) device structure with circuit elements. The electrical and thermal characteristics of this circuit

  18. Vascular fluorescence casting and imaging cryomicrotomy for computerized three-dimensional renal arterial reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, Brunolf W.; ter Wee, Rene D.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the combined use of a casting technique, cryomicrotomy imaging, and three-dimensional (3D) computer analysis as a method for visualizing and reconstructing the arterial vascular tree in a porcine renal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The arterial branches of two porcine kidneys were

  19. A new method for three dimensional excimer laser micromachining, Hole Area Modulation (HAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuzawa, T.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen; Eindhoven, J.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    A new excimer laser system configuration for three dimensional (3D) micromachining, called Hole Area Modulation (HAM) method, is proposed and the feasibility of the system is experimentally confirmed. In this method, information on the depth of machining is converted to the sizes of small holes in

  20. Influences of three-dimensional printing to product innovation design thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of individuation brings new challenges to traditional product design. This paper studies and analyzes three-dimensional print technology promotes the future development of product innovation design. The advantages of 3D printing equipment can help creative products enterprises shorten product manufacturing period and make them powerful in competition.

  1. A Jones matrix formalism for simulating three-dimensional polarized light imaging of brain tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, M.; Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Reckfort, J.; Amunts, K.; Axer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The neuroimaging technique three-dimensional polarized light imaging (3D-PLI) provides a high-resolution reconstruction of nerve fibres in human post-mortem brains. The orientations of the fibres are derived from birefringence measurements of histological brain sections assuming that the nerve

  2. Three-dimensional closed-loop control of self-propelled microjets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Schmidt, Oliver S.; Sanchez, Samuel; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate precise closed-loop control of microjets under the influence of the magnetic fields in three-dimensional (3D) space. For this purpose, we design a magnetic-based control system that directs the field lines towards reference positions. Microjets align along the controlled field lines

  3. Three-dimensional modelling of an injection experiment in the anaerobic part of a landfill plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Petersen, Michael; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1998-01-01

    Analytical and numerical three-dimensional (3-D) simulations have been conducted and compared to data obtained from a large-scale (50 m), natural gradient field injection experiment. Eighteen different xenobiotic compounds (i.e. benzene, toluene, o-xylene, naphthalene, 1,1,1-TCA, PCE, and TCE...... conductivity compared well to the observed breakthrough curves and snapshots of the injection plumes....

  4. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories and the Human Cell Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractTo study the three-dimensional organization of chromosome territories and the human interphase cell nucleus we developed models, which could be compared to experiments. Despite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its 3D-organization is widely unknown. Using Monte

  5. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories and the Human Interphase Cell Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Münkel (Christian); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTo study the three-dimensional organization of chromosome territories and the human interphase cell nucleus we developed models which could be compared to experiments. Despite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its 3D-organization is widely unknown. Using Monte

  6. Three-dimensional organization of chromosome territories in the human interphase cell nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Münkel (Christian); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    1999-01-01

    markdownabstractTo study the three-dimensional organization of chromosome territories and the human interphase cell nucleus we developed models which could be compared to experiments. Despite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its 3D-organization is widely unknown. Using Monte

  7. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  8. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  9. Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a fast and high-accuracy three-dimensional (3-D) imaging laser radar that can achieve better than 1 mm range accuracy for half a million pixels in less than 1 s. Our technique is based on range-gating segmentation. We combine the advantages of gated viewing with our new fast...

  10. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  11. High spatial resolution three-dimensional mapping of vegetation spectral dynamics using computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan P. Dandois; Erle C. Ellis

    2013-01-01

    High spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) measurements of vegetation by remote sensing are advancing ecological research and environmental management. However, substantial economic and logistical costs limit this application, especially for observing phenological dynamics in ecosystem structure and spectral traits. Here we demonstrate a new aerial remote sensing...

  12. Three-dimensional needle steering towards a localized target in a prostate phantom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Shahriari, Navid; Misra, Sarthak

    2014-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and brachytherapy are commonly used for surgical interventions. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional (3D) pre-operative target localization algorithm and a real-time closed-loop control algorithm to robotically steer flexible needles with an asymmetric tip towards a real

  13. A three-dimensional bucking system for optimal bucking of Central Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Jingang Liu; Chris B. LeDoux

    2009-01-01

    An optimal tree stembucking systemwas developed for central Appalachian hardwood species using three-dimensional (3D) modeling techniques. ActiveX Data Objects were implemented via MS Visual C++/OpenGL to manipulate tree data which were supported by a backend relational data model with five data entity types for stems, grades and prices, logs, defects, and stem shapes...

  14. Three-dimensional simulation studies of 10 MeV, 352.2 MHz drift ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three-dimensional simulation studies of 10 MeV,. 352.2 MHz drift tube Linac. NITA S KULKARNI ... This paper presents the details of the studies and analysis of 3D simulations of post-couplers, .... stabilize the accelerating field in case of local field errors by creating a secondary coupled resonator system which is coupled to ...

  15. A new method for three-dimensional laparoscopic ultrasound model reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, C W; Pless, T; Durup, J

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ultrasound is an important modality in the staging of gastrointestinal tumors. Correct staging depends on good spatial understanding of the regional tumor infiltration. Three-dimensional (3D) models may facilitate the evaluation of tumor infiltration. The aim of the study...

  16. Three-Dimensional Nuclear Chart--Understanding Nuclear Physics and Nucleosynthesis in Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nuclear charts were created using toy blocks, which represent the atomic masses per nucleon number and the total half-lives for each nucleus in the entire region of the nuclear mass. The bulk properties of the nuclei can be easily understood by using these charts. Subsequently, these charts were used in outreach activities…

  17. Scaling up Three-Dimensional Science Learning through Teacher-Led Study Groups across a State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Brian J.; Michaels, Sarah; Moon, Jean; Bell, Tara; Dyer, Elizabeth; Edwards, Kelsey D.; McGill, Tara A. W.; Novak, Michael; Park, Aimee

    2017-01-01

    The vision for science teaching in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards requires a radical departure from traditional science teaching. Science literacy is defined as three-dimensional (3D), in which students engage in science and engineering practices to develop and apply science disciplinary ideas…

  18. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  19. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Choi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.

  20. Three-Dimensional Printing of Tissue/Organ Analogues Containing Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hun; Jang, Jinah; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The technical advances of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the field of tissue engineering have enabled the creation of 3D living tissue/organ analogues. Diverse 3D tissue/organ printing techniques with computer-aided systems have been developed and used to dispose living cells together with biomaterials and supporting biochemicals as pre-designed 3D tissue/organ models. Furthermore, recent advances in bio-inks, which are printable hydrogels with living cell encapsulation, have greatly enhanced the versatility of 3D tissue/organ printing. Here, we introduce 3D tissue/organ printing techniques and biomaterials that have been developed and widely used thus far. We also review a variety of applications in an attempt to repair or replace the damaged or defective tissue/organ, and develop the in vitro tissue/organ models. The potential challenges are finally discussed from the technical perspective of 3D tissue/organ printing.