WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable rural systems

  1. Workshop in a Box: Sustainable Management of Rural and Small Water and Wastewater Systems Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A resource to help rural and small systems and communities to conduct workshops, either for an individual system or for a group of systems, based on the Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management.

  2. Assessing the Financial Sustainability of China’s Rural Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rapid growth of China’s elderly rural population, establishing both an adequate and a financially sustainable rural pension system is a major challenge. Focusing on financial sustainability, this article defines this concept of financial sustainability before constructing sound actuarial models for China’s rural pension system. Based on these models and statistical data, the analysis finds that the rural pension funding gap should rise from 97.80 billion Yuan in 2014 to 3062.31 billion Yuan in 2049, which represents an annual growth rate of 10.34%. This implies that, as it stands, the rural pension system in China is not financially sustainable. Finally, the article explains how this problem could be fixed through policy recommendations based on recent international experiences.

  3. Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to Myanmar's rural poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newcombe, Alex; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar's rural population has very low access to electricity, mainly due to low disposal income and the remoteness of communities. This paper attempts to test the potential applicability of Grameen Shakti-Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), which is a Bangladeshi public private...... partnership microfinance model, to rural Myanmar towards enhanced solar home systems (SHS) deployment. Rural poor are enabled by this microfinancing scheme to own SHSs in a few years for as low as US$6.40 per month. The objectives of this paper are to assess the experience of Grameen Shakti-IDCOL and other...... similar projects for invaluable lessons, identify barriers to sustainable electrification for Myanmar's rural poor and to apply these lessons learned to overcome barriers by developing policy recommendations for sustainable electrification for rural poor in Myanmar. Recommendations are provided suggesting...

  4. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  5. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.

  6. The role of land use planning in sustainable rural systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The creation of a more sustainable countryside has become a very important item across the world. Several methods, approaches and policies can be applied and agencies, interests groups etc. can become active in this regard. Land-use planning, as one of these activities, is challenged to play an

  7. A sustainable and affordable support system for rural healthcare delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barjis, J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available . The proposed system is decision support driven in that it supports medical staff (nurses, doctors) to decide on the course of intervention or further treatment based on the vital signs of the patients that are tele-monitored on a regular basis. This patient...

  8. Energy for sustainable rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, W.S.; Hulscher, W.S.; Hommes, E.W.; Hommes, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    Rural energy in developing countries is discussed with a view to sustainable development. The project-oriented approach in rural energy which has often dominated in the past, is contrasted with an overall strategy for sustainable rural energy demand and supply. An outline for a demand-oriented

  9. Can solar -biogas hybrid systems be the solution to sustainable energy supply in rural areas?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to modern energy services is a fundamental prerequisite for property reduction and sustainable human development. Many remote rural South African communities are characterized by low energy demand and low population densities, making...

  10. Development of Sustainable Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kantar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sociological view of possibilities for the development of sustainable rural tourism in Koprivnica-Krizevci county, which is located in the north-western part of Croatia. The possibilities for developing rural tourism within the concept of sustainable development have been researched through qualitative empirical research interview method. Research subjects were the owners of tourist farms, decision makers, experts and other stakeholders in the tourism development. Rural tourism represents an alternative to maritime tourism and is relatively undeveloped but important in terms of development of rural areas and family farms. This paper enables an insight into an integrated sustainability of rural tourism which consists of four dimensions: biologicalecological, economic, socio-cultural and political sustainability. In conclusion, integral sustainability in rural tourism is not achieved in all dimensions. Therefore, rural tourism could be a strategy for sustainable development for rural areas and also could be a tool for product differentiation for area that are at stagnation stage.

  11. Dynamics of sustained use and abandonment of clean cooking systems: lessons from rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Nishesh; Kumar, Praveen; Priyadarshini, Pratiti; Yadama, Gautam N.

    2018-03-01

    Clean cooking technologies—ranging from efficient cookstoves to clean fuels—are widely deployed to reduce household air pollution and alleviate adverse health and climate consequences. Although much progress has been made on the technical aspects, sustained and proper use of clean cooking technologies by populations with the most need has been problematic. Only by understanding how clean cooking as an intervention is embedded within complex community processes can we ensure its sustained implementation. Using a community-based system dynamics approach, we engaged two rural communities in co-creating a dynamic model to explain the processes influencing the uptake and transition to sustained use of biogas (an anaerobic methane digester), a clean fuel and cooking technology. The two communities provided contrasting cases: one abandoned biogas while the other continues to use it. We present a system dynamics simulation model, associated analyses, and experiments to understand what factors drive transition and sustained use. A central insight of the model is community processes influencing the capacity to solve technical issues. Model analysis shows that families begin to abandon the technology when it takes longer to solve problems. The momentum in the community then shifts from a determination to address issues with the cooking technology toward caution in further adhering to it. We also conducted experiments using the simulation model to understand the impact of interventions aimed at renewing the use of biogas. A combination of theoretical interventions, including repair of non-functioning biogas units and provision of embedded technical support in communities, resulted in a scenario where the community can continue using the technology even after support is retracted. Our study also demonstrates the utility of a systems approach for engaging local stakeholders in delineating complex community processes to derive significant insights into the dynamic feedback

  12. A Life-cycle Approach to Improve the Sustainability of Rural Water Systems in Resource-Limited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Stacey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A WHO and UNICEF joint report states that in 2008, 884 million people lacked access to potable drinking water. A life-cycle approach to develop potable water systems may improve the sustainability for such systems, however, a review of the literature shows that such an approach has primarily been used for urban systems located in resourced countries. Although urbanization is increasing globally, over 40 percent of the world’s population is currently rural with many considered poor. In this paper, we present a first step towards using life-cycle assessment to develop sustainable rural water systems in resource-limited countries while pointing out the needs. For example, while there are few differences in costs and environmental impacts for many improved rural water system options, a system that uses groundwater with community standpipes is substantially lower in cost that other alternatives with a somewhat lower environmental inventory. However, a LCA approach shows that from institutional as well as community and managerial perspectives, sustainability includes many other factors besides cost and environment that are a function of the interdependent decision process used across the life cycle of a water system by aid organizations, water user committees, and household users. These factors often present the biggest challenge to designing sustainable rural water systems for resource-limited countries.

  13. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.

    2016-01-01

    within the CAP because they help to protect and manage environmental heritage, promote economic activities and enhance the social assets of rural areas; furthermore, given their natural ability to simultaneously connect these resources, greenways promote Rural Sustainable Development (RSD......Policy makers have recently begun to agree on environmental, economic and social aspects of rural areas that are enhanced according to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in particular in the national Rural Development Programmes (RDPs).Greenways are an acknowledged tool...... Aiding (MCDA) technique "Group Analytic Hierarchy Process" (GAHP). The validity of this MC-SDSS was tested on three rural municipalities of Apulia Region (Southern Italy). In particular, a GIS was used to detect the rural resources and existing linear elements, which were used to perform overlay mapping...

  14. Multi-Generation Concentrating Solar-Hydrogen Power System for Sustainable Rural Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krothapalli, A.; Greska, B.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes an energy system that is designed to meet the demands of rural populations that currently have no access to grid-connected electricity. Besides electricity, it is well recognized that rural populations need at least a centralized refrigeration system for storage of medicines and other emergency supplies, as well as safe drinking water. Here we propose a district system that will employ a multi-generation concentrated solar power (CSP) system that will generate electricity and supply the heat needed for both absorption refrigeration and membrane distillation (MD) water purification. The electricity will be used to generate hydrogen through highly efficient water electrolysis and individual households can use the hydrogen for generating electricity, via affordable proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and as a fuel for cooking. The multi-generation system is being developed such that its components will be easy to manufacture and maintain. As a result, these components will be less efficient than their typical counterparts but their low cost-to-efficiency ratio will allow for us to meet our installation cost goal of $1/Watt for the entire system. The objective of this paper is to introduce the system concept and discuss the system components that are currently under development. (auth)

  15. The Quest for Rural Sustainability in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Wegren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural depopulation and the disappearance of villages in rural Russia occurred as part of the historical process of urbanization and industrialization. Rural depopulation also occurred for structural reasons having to do with village location, and for behavioral reasons whereby villagers react to primitive living conditions and poor economic prospects. Three possible strategies for addressing the problem of sustainable villages are considered. The government is attempting to improve rural living conditions, but rural depopulation is likely to continue. Characteristics of sustainable villages are outlined. Agro-tourism is analyzed for its potential to support sustainable villages.

  16. Rural Electrification Efforts Based on Off-Grid Photovoltaic Systems in the Andean Region: Comparative Assessment of Their Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we comparatively assess the sustainability of rural electrification efforts based on off-grid solutions in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural. We found that Ecuador and Chile have consistently failed to ensure mechanisms for the operation and maintenance of the deployed off-grid systems, which has made these solutions in poor Chilean and Ecuadorian communities inevitably unsustainable. Although Peru has adopted a cross-tariff scheme, the Peruvian case shows that ensuring the funding of off-grid PV solutions is not enough. Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation (local values and lifestyles are constantly disregarded and most of the projects have been designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has often led to project failures and payment defaults. However, although each country has its particular challenges, we found that the three Andean countries have consistently neglected the importance of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure, which in turn significantly compromised the rural electrification effort in these countries.

  17. Sustainable water for rural security - A transdisciplinary approach [Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maherry, A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -research through effective transfer of knowledge and technologies; and to identify the critical design criteria that ensure sustainability of rural water supply systems in South Africa....

  18. Sustaining the Entrepreneurship in Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiza Md Sharif

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs play an important role in sustaining rural tourism and formulation of sustainable strategies being the initiators of the tourism business and the engine of the local development. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate the development of entrepreneurial activities for the recovery of rural tourism potential and regional traditions, maintaining local employment growth and increase living standards in line with identifies needs and priorities of regional human resources development. This article aims to discuss the involvement of local communities in development of rural tourism entrepreneurship as well as addressing the issue of entrepreneurship in rural tourism.

  19. Sustainable rural development and communicative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Langvad, Anne-Mette

    2006-01-01

    Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach that is ......Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach...

  20. Examining Success Factors for Sustainable Rural Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This collaborative project will examine the role the Integrated Co-operative Model can play in reducing poverty and promoting development in rural African communities. Specifically, it aims to add to the knowledge of how to improve livelihoods and reduce poverty in a sustainable way in rural communities. It will strive to: ...

  1. Multi criteria analysis for sustainability assessments of electricity generation systems in a rural community in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigun, B.; Mehlwana, M. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Sustainable Energy Futures, Natural Resources and the Environment; Musango, J.K. [Department of Energy (DoE), Pretoria (South Africa); Brent, A.C. [Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies

    2011-07-01

    One of the key challenges of the energy policy in South Africa is to ensure that rural areas have access to electricity. This is reflected in the key energy policy documents (the 1998 Energy White Paper and the 2002 Renewable Energy White Paper). Both these documents identified renewable energy resources as immediate alternatives to grid electricity in especially remote rural communities that are characterised by low population densities. Centralised energy generation and transmission is very costly and inefficient in these areas due to greater transmission and distribution losses. While the cost of electricity in South Africa is relatively cheaper, it is not accessible for many rural households. There are still over two million households in rural areas without access to electricity. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to compare various electricity technologies (mainly renewables) in a specific rural community of South Africa using social, economic, environment and technical indicators. These technologies were than ranked against each indicator assuming that the high-level criteria have equal importance for sustainable development. It is demonstrated that energy from wind is the most sustainable, followed by photovoltaic, anaerobic digestion (biogas) and then gasification. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to verify the stability of the priority ranking. The outcome of this study will specifically assist energy planners and decision-makers to choose the best alternative from a range of technology alternatives in a milieu of conflicting and competing criteria. (orig.)

  2. Energy, environment and sustainable rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, G [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1992-12-01

    This paper addresses the energy needs of the three quarters of the World's population living in the rural populations of many developing countries whose daily struggle to obtain the energy needed for survival is unaffected by international energy politics. It aims to identify energy-related actions in certain policy and technical areas which may contribute to ending rural poverty. The mutual benefits of a transition to modern technologies is stressed both for rural and urban groups, especially in terms of a more efficient use of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources such as biomass or solar power. Recommendations for sustainable rural and agricultural development are made. (UK)

  3. How do small rural primary health care services sustain themselves in a constantly changing health system environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to sustain comprehensive primary health care (PHC services in the face of change is crucial to the health of rural communities. This paper illustrates how one service has proactively managed change to remain sustainable. Methods A 6-year longitudinal evaluation of the Elmore Primary Health Service (EPHS located in rural Victoria, Australia, is currently underway, examining the performance, quality and sustainability of the service. Threats to, and enablers of, sustainability have been identified from evaluation data (audit of service indicators, community surveys, key stakeholder interviews and focus groups and our own observations. These are mapped against an overarching framework of service sustainability requirements: workforce organisation and supply; funding; governance, management and leadership; service linkages; and infrastructure. Results Four years into the evaluation, the evidence indicates EPHS has responded effectively to external and internal changes to ensure viability. The specific steps taken by the service to address risks and capitalise on opportunities are identified. Conclusions This evaluation highlights lessons for health service providers, policymakers, consumers and researchers about the importance of ongoing monitoring of sentinel service indicators; being attentive to changes that have an impact on sustainability; maintaining community involvement; and succession planning.

  4. Premises of Sustainable Development on Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors want to highlight the opportunity on rural areas and development in termsof durability. The content of sustainable development offers to local communities real and lasting solutions.In this sense for a community to be truly sustainable, it must adopt a holistic approach, taking into accountshort-term environmental and economic sustainability of natural and cultural resources. The authors believethat a sustainable community among its objectives to include their major environmental issues, povertyeradication, improvement of quality of life, developing and maintaining an effective and viable localeconomies, leading to a global vision of sustainable development of all sectors of the community.

  5. Sustainable Development of New Rural Finance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rural finance is the weakest link in China’s financial system. There are still many problems in the traditional rural finance, such as poor business conditions, imperfectly competitive financial markets, and credit information asymmetry; the phenomenon of farmers’ loans difficulty has not been fundamentally changed. In order to improve the current situation of rural finance, the state proposes to develop new rural finance and innovate upon rural financial system. The new rural finance has many good development advantages, such as adequate information, flexible operation, and good potential quality of the assets. It is necessary to innovate upon financial products and services, establish the purpose of serving agriculture, countryside and farmers, strengthen the supervision of credit, and improve the financial infrastructure construction, so as to achieve sustainable developments.

  6. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  7. Rural Tourism: Development, Management and Sustainability in Rural Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Villanueva-Álvaro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the economic driving forces of Spain: the consolidation of existing tourist destinations and new market niches encourage an upward trend of tourism. The economic impacts produced by tourism are one of the major concerns of the authorities; the question is whether it is possible to continue growing without compromising our environment. This work attempts to answer this issue by analysing one of the tourism segments with higher growth in recent years: rural tourism. Using a model of partial least squares (PLS, we will analyse the environmental impacts from the point of view of the supply and its relationships with the environmental management conducted. We will also analyse the rural establishments from a global point of view and, depending on their category, explain the factors which determine the sustainable behaviour of providers, and identify that the establishments of low categories have a more sustainable conduct.

  8. Bioenergy: a sustainable resource for rural population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlawat, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Bio energy is a renewable resource. It is a product of the abundant solar energy. The plant kingdom collects solar energy by photosynthesis and stores it as biomass. This is a big source of energy that sustains the mankind in many ways-food, fuel, fibre and several others. The non-food biomass like agro-waste and forest residues already constitute a large component of the traditional energy sources of most rural population the world over. A scientific study and proper planning are required for an optimum use of this abundant renewable bio energy (biomass). This paper discusses various options to evolve workable technologies for an efficient use of biomass as a sustainable energy resource for rural areas where it is mostly produced. An integrated strategy is proposed. (author)

  9. Spatial planning for sustainable rural municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Thellbro, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Local natural resources (LNRs) are essential for the socioeconomy of rural societies. The United Nations (UN) Agenda 21 and “Our Common Future” state that local spatial planning is central for the prospect of balancing ecological, social and economic sustainable development (SuD). Stakeholder participation in spatial planning enhances acceptance and improves preconditions for successful planning outcomes. Consequently, it is important to increase knowledge about LNRs and the use of them and t...

  10. Quality of life of the population as an indicator of sustainable development of rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Alexandrovna Tretiakova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is theoretical justification of socio-economic foundations of sustainable livelihoods in rural areas and development of practical recommendations for evaluating and improving quality of life in rural areas. The subject of this study is a system of socio-economic relations that defines processes and patterns of sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. Methodological basis is a systematic approach and method of dialectical cognition, which examine processes of development of rural territories in relationship and complementarity. The results described in this paper are: the degree of differentiation of rural population under qualitative levels of well-being was studied; the authors’ system of indicators of regional socio-economic development on a basis of detailed hierarchical structure was presented; priority areas for improving standards and quality of life of the rural population were identified. A scope of results was developed and science-based recommendations and suggestions for sustainable development of rural territories based on authors’ methodology for evaluating quality life in rural areas may be subject to legislative and executive authorities in development socio-economic projects and programmes aimed at enhancing rural employment and income were made. The conclusions are: sustainable development of rural territories involves not only increase of efficiency of rural economy, but, above all, increasing and improving the quality of life of the rural population; on a system of complementarities, the evaluation of sustainability of livelihood strategies should take into account the economic, environmental, social and institutional factors

  11. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  12. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension ... privatization of the public sector of national economies of developing nations has ... include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, ...

  13. Is Peru Prepared for Large-Scale Sustainable Rural Electrification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feron

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Peru has historically been among the Latin-American countries with a low rural electrification rate. Aiming to improve this situation, the country conducted several electrification efforts in the last few decades that included off-grid photovoltaic (PV solutions for remote areas (where the grid expansion was unviable. More recently, the government has also sponsored a ‘massive program’ that aims to deploy a minimum of 150,000 off-grid PV solutions in the upcoming years. In this paper, we assess the sustainability of rural electrification programs in Peru, paying special attention to the ongoing “massive program”. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural and is based on an exhaustive qualitative document analysis complemented by semi-structured expert interviews. We found that the lack of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure seriously compromises the sustainability of rural electrification efforts in Peru. Staff rotation and overlapping competences have caused disturbing changes and inhibited following a strategic line, while widespread outsourcing combined with weak controls have often affected the reliability of the deployed systems. Although cross subsidies have made off-grid PV systems affordable for users, systems often fell short of energy demand. Notably, we found that Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation, and there is a significant mistrust between the government and the rural population (especially in areas where mining is extensive. As a consequence, most of the projects are still designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has frequently led to project failures, payment defaults, and inhibited seizing opportunities regarding productive uses of off-grid PV systems. We expect that our findings may help Peruvian institutions to address the most

  14. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVANOVIC Verka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

  15. Challenges of sustainable rural tourism development in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of sustainable rural tourism development in KwaZulu-Natal. ... for promoting tourism as a sustainable economic driver in their municipalities. ... the nature of tourism, evaluating community's sensitivity and associated impacts should ...

  16. A Framework for Revitalisation of Rural Education and Training Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: Strengthening the Human Resource Base for Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies of the current state of rural education and training (RET) systems in sub-Saharan Africa have assessed their ability to provide for the learning needs essential for more knowledgeable and productive small-scale rural households. These are most necessary if the endemic causes of rural poverty (poor nutrition, lack of sustainable…

  17. Adaptation measures to sustain indigenous practices and the use of indigenous knowledge systems to adapt to climate change in Mutoko rural district of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines adaptation measures used to sustain indigenous practices and the use of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS to adapt to climate change in Mutoko rural district of Zimbabwe. Community-based adaptation is able to reduce the vulnerability as well as improve the resilience of the local people to climatic variability and change. Subsistence farmers have always adopted adaptive strategies to some of these changes over the years. As such, the adoption of indigenous practices will significantly help rural community members to adapt to climate change. This study employed a qualitative method and an exploratory design, and the results are derived from 30 purposively selected in-depth interviews. The study discovered that there are numerous measures used to adapt to climate change and subsequently to sustain indigenous practices. The study also found that the community no longer grows maize in large quantities, having shifted to millet and sorghum in order to adapt to climate change. The community also provided various strategies to adapt to climate change. These strategies include mulching, creating large storage houses for produce and creating temporary walls on riverbanks in order to store water when the rivers dry up. This study concludes that climate change adaptation measures employed by the community have significantly helped them to sustain their indigenous practices in many ways. Also, the use of IKS, through activities such as crop type change from maize to traditional millet and sorghum (which facilitates traditional lifestyle and activities, re-establishes the community’s indigenous practices since they are made to observe the practices of yesteryear.

  18. Are micro-benefits negligible? The implications of the rapid expansion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in rural Bangladesh for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Satoru, E-mail: skomatsu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji, E-mail: kshinji@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Ghosh, Partha Pratim, E-mail: partha1975@gmail.com [Arc Bangladesh (Bangladesh)

    2011-07-15

    This paper examines the multiple benefits of the adoption of Solar Home Systems (SHS) and discusses the dissemination potential for sustainable rural livelihoods in developing countries. Based on a household survey conducted in rural Bangladesh, we first identify the impact of SHS on the reduction in energy costs and compare purchasing costs. We then examine household lifestyle changes following the adoption of SHS. Finally, we consider several price-reduction scenarios to examine the potential demand for SHS and to evaluate its future dissemination potential. The results of the analysis indicate that households with SHS successfully reduce their consumption of kerosene and dependency on rechargeable batteries, with the cost reductions accounting for some 20-30% of monthly expenditures on SHS. Moreover, most households with SHS can enjoy its benefits, including electric lighting, watching television, and the ease of mobile phone recharging at home. Further, the price reduction can make possible potential demand in more than 60% of households without SHS, while additional price reductions promote the purchase of even larger SHS packages. This study concludes that even though the scale of single SHS is small, the micro-benefits for each household and the dissemination potential are substantial. - Research Highlights: > Price reductions on Solar Home Systems potentially generate demand. > Solar Home Systems enable a reduction in energy costs and improvements in lifestyle. > The micro-benefits for households and the dissemination potential are substantial.

  19. Are micro-benefits negligible? The implications of the rapid expansion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in rural Bangladesh for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Satoru; Kaneko, Shinji; Ghosh, Partha Pratim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the multiple benefits of the adoption of Solar Home Systems (SHS) and discusses the dissemination potential for sustainable rural livelihoods in developing countries. Based on a household survey conducted in rural Bangladesh, we first identify the impact of SHS on the reduction in energy costs and compare purchasing costs. We then examine household lifestyle changes following the adoption of SHS. Finally, we consider several price-reduction scenarios to examine the potential demand for SHS and to evaluate its future dissemination potential. The results of the analysis indicate that households with SHS successfully reduce their consumption of kerosene and dependency on rechargeable batteries, with the cost reductions accounting for some 20-30% of monthly expenditures on SHS. Moreover, most households with SHS can enjoy its benefits, including electric lighting, watching television, and the ease of mobile phone recharging at home. Further, the price reduction can make possible potential demand in more than 60% of households without SHS, while additional price reductions promote the purchase of even larger SHS packages. This study concludes that even though the scale of single SHS is small, the micro-benefits for each household and the dissemination potential are substantial. - Research Highlights: → Price reductions on Solar Home Systems potentially generate demand. → Solar Home Systems enable a reduction in energy costs and improvements in lifestyle. → The micro-benefits for households and the dissemination potential are substantial.

  20. SUSTAINABLE TILAPIA PRODUCTION IN A BACKYARD SYSTEM FOR RURAL AREAS USING FISH BY-PRODUCTS IN FORMULATED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando Rueda Lopez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of producing Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticuss, L. with formulated diets containing acid fish silage made with Hancock (Pterigoplichthys multiradiatus by-products in substitution of fishmeal. Thus four treatments containing increasing levels (0, 5, 10 and 15% of acid fish silage to substitute fishmeal were used to feed tilapia juveniles in triplicate groups (average 1.5±0.7 g and 4.3±1.0 cm.  Fish silage was prepared by adding citric and phosphoric acids at 2.6% each resulting in a liquefaction of the chop by-product mixture. After two weeks, the diets were prepared to contain 32-35% protein content. After 50 days of experimental period a total growth increase up to 827% was observed without significant differences among treatments. A specific growth rate from 3.70 to 4.10 and a survival rate from 96 to 99% was observed.  The cost analysis shows a saving on production cost up to 23.87% using the highest incorporation level of fish silage. The use of Aquaculture Recirculation System made with components normally found in a hardware store in rural or semi urban areas is discussed. It is concluded that fish offal shows a promising activity that favors the increase in fish protein production to resolve the demand of cheap protein.

  1. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... and a Weakness factors and decision alternatives, as well as impossibility of ranking the decision alternatives. Thus, this research aims to overcome the drawbacks of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to support Local Action Group partnerships in the sustainability evaluation...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...

  2. Can photovoltaic technologies help attain sustainable rural development in Bangladesh?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Diesendorf, Mark; Bryce, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores a model of sustainable rural development and poverty alleviation in Bangladesh, based on the creation of village businesses that sell solar electricity generated from the photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The model shows that the solar electricity business model is in principle economically viable up to the maximum investment available from a micro-credit organisation. Furthermore, the transfer of the existing subsidy from the centralised power system to these businesses would create significant additional income for one-third of the total landless and marginal farmers (LMFs) to meet their income deficits for basic needs. It would also electrify all rural wealthier households. From this additional income, the LMF households employed by the scheme would be able to conserve their environmental resources of animals, land and trees that otherwise are being lost. Appropriate government policies are proposed to disseminate PV technologies

  3. Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural Nigeria: II food security issues and their determinants among cassava-based farming households in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria.

  4. Smart sustainable energy for the rural built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available robust methodology to adapt innovative and renewable smart grid technologies to deliver real and sustainable decentralised energy solutions for remote and rural communities, thereby improving livelihoods and opportunities for inclusive growth...

  5. Australia's Sustainability: A New Policy Front for Rural Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John

    2009-01-01

    Rural education and its policy agenda has for many decades primarily focussed upon responding to decline to "keep things going; keep things open". While this has been understandable and much has been achieved, it is now opportune--essential?--that rural education and its leaders embrace a new challenge, sustainability, and use it to…

  6. Application of geoinformation techniques in sustainable development of marginal rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynska, G.

    2009-04-01

    The basic objective of the studies is to create a geographic information system that would assure integration of activities aimed at protecting biological diversity with sustainable development of marginal rural areas through defining the conditions for development of tourism and recreation in the identified areas. The choice of that solution is a consequence of the fact that numerous phenomena and processes presented in maps are linked to functional relations or they can be viewed as functions of space, time and attributes. The paper presents the system development stage aimed at elaborating the template for the system serving solution of the above-presented problem. In case of this issue the geographic information system will be developed to support development of marginal rural areas through selection of appropriate forms of tourism for the endangered areas including indication of locations for development of appropriate tourist infrastructure. Selection of the appropriate form of tourism will depend on natural, tourist and infrastructure values present in a given area and conditioned by the need to present the biodiversity component present in those areas together with elements of traditional agricultural landscape. The most important problem is to reconcile two seemingly contradictory aims: 1. Preventing social and economic marginalization of the restructured rural areas. 2. Preserving biological diversity in the restructured areas.Agriculture influences many aspects of the natural environment such as water resources, biodiversity and status of natural habitats, status of soils, landscape and, in a wider context, the climate. Project implementation will involve application of technologies allowing analysis of the systems for managing marginal rural areas as spatial models based on geographic information systems. Modelling of marginal rural areas management using the GIS technologies will involve creating spatial models of actual objects. On the basis of data

  7. Implications of rural tourism and agritourism in sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia-Lorena Cut-Lupulescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania shows: a variety of historical cultural values ​​- folk art, ethnography, folklore, traditions, historical artifacts - a natural harmoniously combined with a varied and picturesque landscape background. All these are facets of Romanian rural tourism in particular. Occurred and developed by the various forms of relief since the time of the Thracian-Dacian, Romanian rural settlements kept and still keeps in good measure ancient customs and traditions, a rich and varied folklore, ethnography and folk original elements that can be travel exploited in a strategy for the organization and development of rural tourism. Rural tourism in our country always practical, but spontaneous, sporadic, random, and mostly unorganized form of manifestation is the beginning of the '20s and '30s, the casual visitor accommodation citizens of rural settlements.

  8. Sustaining the rural workforce: nursing perspectives on worklife challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Mabel; Baumann, Andrea; Blythe, Jennifer; Crea, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the sustainability of health care workforces in rural settings. According to the literature, rural nurses' work satisfaction varies with the resources and supports available to respond to specific challenges. Given the probable effects of stressors on retention, it is essential to understand the unique requirements of nurses in rural practice environments. To investigate whether nurses receive the resources and supports necessary to meet the challenges of rural practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 managers and 44 staff nurses in 19 selected rural hospitals in Ontario, Canada. The interviews were taped and transcripts interpreted through a thematic analysis. Major worklife themes were identified and analyzed within a healthy work environment model based on the work of Kristensen. Three interrelated dimensions of the model were relevant to workforce sustainability: the balance between demands and the resources of the person, the level of social support, and the degree of influence. The availability of resources and supports affected whether the nurses perceived challenges as stimulating or overwhelming. Deficits interfered with practice and the well-being of the nurses and patients. The nurses felt frustrated and powerless when they lacked resources, support, and influence to manage negative situations. Strategies to achieve workforce sustainability include resources to reduce stress in the workplace, education to meet the needs of new and experienced nurses, and offering of employment preferences to the workforce. Addressing resources, support, and influence of rural nurses is essential to alleviate workplace challenges and sustain the rural nursing workforce.

  9. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  10. Renewable rural electrification: sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available and system designers, and the lack of resilience of the technological system to demands from the socio-economic and institutional sub-systems. Policy-related recommendations are made accordingly....

  11. Renewable rural electrification: sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available and system designers, and the lack of resilience of the technological system to demands from the socio-economic and institutional sub-systems. Policy-related recommendations are made accordingly...

  12. Innovative factors and conditions of sustainable development of rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main features of sustainable development of rural territories, identifies the factors of innovative entrepreneurship, and assesses their influence on the condition of rural economy. Special attention is paid to the analysis of concepts, programmes, and projects in the field of rural territory development. The authors summarise conceptual and strategic approaches and actions of the Baltic region states in the field of sustainable development of rural territories. The article identifies objectives, common for the Baltic region, relating to sustainability of rural territories, including sustainable use of natural resource potential, diversification of production through support for non-agricultural activities and employment, application of innovations and efficient technologies, and manufacturing of environmentally friendly products. The analysis of the development of agricultural and innovations in the Baltic Sea regions serves as a basis for identifying the factors and conditions of supporting innovative entrepreneurship. Of special importance are the research, technological, and innovative potential of the territory, the availability of adequate innovative infrastructure, and the formation of innovative culture. The authors corroborate the idea of innovative entrepreneurship development in rural territories through the transformation of organizational and economic mechanism of management relating to the creation of institutional, infrastructure, and spatial conditions. Research and technological cooperation in the Baltic region is emphasised as a priority area.

  13. Prerequisites of Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in Continental Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoluci Mato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to analyze the current status of rural tourism in Croatia and to identify possibilities, guidelines and methods of its sustainable development. The research has shown that rural tourism in Croatia falls behind the sun-and-beach holiday tourism in coastal Croatia and that numerous and diverse natural and social resources in Continental Croatia are insufficiently employed, especially in the Continental part of the country Past research of rural tourism in continental Croatia relied on individual entrepreneurial initiative and scarce funding resources, so that consequently a heterogeneous and fragmented rural tourism offer, based on various tourism forms and special interest tourism types, has developed in an unorganized way. However, rural tourism can become a driving force for the development of rural areas, taking into account the concept of sustainable development, based on the balance of economic, ecological and social responsibility. In the future, it should encourage development projects that ensure integrated tourist offer and thereby enable long-term sustainable development of rural tourism in continental Croatia.

  14. Balancing Rural and Urban Development: Applying Coordinated Urban–Rural Development (CURD Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land in rural China has been under a separate and closed management system for decades even after the urban land reform that started in the late 1980s. The blurred property rights over rural land have been hindering the rural welfare as surplus rural land in sub-urban areas cannot be circulated into more economic use without first being requisitioned by the state. This traditional conversion process creates a lot of problems, among them are the compensation standard as well as displacement of rural residents to the city, where they cannot find adequate welfare protection. The prolonged disparity in economic outcomes for rural and urban residents in China in the process of urbanisation has made the authority realise that land-based local finance is no longer an option. Coordinated Urban and Rural Development (CURD ideology arises to set a level playing field by giving the rural residents comparable welfare status as their urban counterparts’ one. The CURD ideology is basically linked to the strategic development of the three main issues in the rural area of China, or in the Chinese terminology: San Nong. These three issues are rural villages, rural enterprises and rural farmers (nong cun, nong ye, nong min. CURD ideology is to preserve the livelihood of rural villages, facilitate and promote rural enterprises and increase the living standard of rural farmers. Most importantly, however, CURD policy package bestows rural residents with property rights over their farmland so that they could sub-co1ntract the user-rights to other urban commercial entities for higher benefits. While CURD policies are applied in a lot of different regions in China including Chongqing in the West, Qingdao in the North, Zhongshan in the South and Wuhan in the middle, we focus our examination in Chengdu as the Chengdu model has been widely documented and highly regarded as the most successful model in implementing the CURD strategies. From our case study, we find that

  15. Community-Based Rural Tourism: A Proposed Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayat Kalsom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tourism projects run by community in the rural areas are labelled as Community-based Rural Tourism (CBRT, a type of a more ‘responsible’ tourism that contributes to sustainable development. However, a framework is needed to enable planners and managers to understand its criteria thus ensuring that the CBRTs fulfil the sustainability requirement. This paper presents findings from a literature review on previous writings in this topic. Findings from an analysis on the criteria of a sustainable CBRT product are discussed. It is found that in order for it to play a role in sustainable development, a CBRT product must focus on competitive management, resource conservation, and benefit creation to the community. The three elements need to be supported, in turn, by community involvement and commitment. As the proposed conceptual framework of sustainable CBRT product can be a basis for further research in CBRT, it offers producing theoretical and practical implications.

  16. Integrated farm sustainability assessment for the environmental management of rural activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachetii Rodrigues, Geraldo; Aparecida Rodrigues, Izilda; Almeida Buschinelli, Claudio Cesar de; Barros, Inacio de

    2010-01-01

    Farmers have been increasingly called upon to respond to an ongoing redefinition in consumers' demands, having as a converging theme the search for sustainable production practices. In order to satisfy this objective, instruments for the environmental management of agricultural activities have been sought out. Environmental impact assessment methods are appropriate tools to address the choice of technologies and management practices to minimize negative effects of agricultural development, while maximizing productive efficiency, sound usage of natural resources, conservation of ecological assets and equitable access to wealth generation means. The 'system for weighted environmental impact assessment of rural activities' (APOIA-NovoRural) presented in this paper is organized to provide integrated farm sustainability assessment according to quantitative environmental standards and defined socio-economic benchmarks. The system integrates sixty-two objective indicators in five sustainability dimensions - (i) Landscape ecology, (ii) Environmental quality (atmosphere, water and soil), (iii) Sociocultural values, (iv) Economic values, and (v) Management and administration. Impact indices are expressed in three integration levels: (i) specific indicators, that offer a diagnostic and managerial tool for farmers and rural administrators, by pointing out particular attributes of the rural activities that may be failing to comply with defined environmental performance objectives; (ii) integrated sustainability dimensions, that show decision-makers the major contributions of the rural activities toward local sustainable development, facilitating the definition of control actions and promotion measures; and (iii) aggregated sustainability index, that can be considered a yardstick for eco-certification purposes. Nine fully documented case studies carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, focusing on different scales, diverse rural activities/farming systems, and contrasting

  17. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  18. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  19. System Innovation for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... of these problem areas. Among the cases discussed are: Norway’s carbon compensation scheme for air travel; Madrid’s high-occupancy vehicle lanes; London’s congestion charge scheme; market-based instruments such as eco-labelling for cars; and taxation. The book identifies opportunities for actors...

  20. Policy Priorities In Rural Women Empowerment Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The female gender can not be sidelined while discussing issues of poverty and food security. In like manner, equitability can not be divorced from sustainability as it is one major issue in sustainability. History has revealed that Nigerian women are not always allowed by men to exert themselves fully. Some encumbrances ...

  1. Sustainable development of rural areas: Case studies Vojvodina - Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcan Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic aims of Serbian economic development is supporting of the villages sustainable development through rural economy diversification where rural tourism development has an important place. In spite of this model of tourism importance recognition as a possible way of rural areas development, Serbia is in an opening phase of. Although there are several positive examples, it is significant that recent projects haven't been established according to national and European development programs, but according to private initiatives of individuals and groups. Rural tourism is an important component of integrated and sustainable development and revitalization of villages, as well an an important factor in encouraging the development of local agricultural and non-farmer activities in rural areas and villages, and also a special incentive to employment. This work highlights the importance of rural tourism in the function of the revitalization of the village, focusing on the challenges of the environment and the possible directions of development in the context of creating a recognizable tourist product and brand of rural tourism in Vojvodina.

  2. Local commitment for sustainable rural landscape development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Dutch rural planning, constraints concerning the accessibility and other physical characteristics of an area are no longer a major problem. More important is the policy-making process at higher levels of society and processes of economic and social restructuring, over which local people do not

  3. Smart sustainable energy for rural community development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable access to electricity is a basic precondition for improving people’s lives in rural areas, for enhanced healthcare and education, and for growth within local economies. Currently more than 1.5 billion people worldwide do not have access...

  4. Development of Rural Communities by Diversification of Rural Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dora Orboi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development is a process taking place at the same time with the complex and sustainable agricultural development; agriculture and the rural area being interdependent sides specific to rural communities. When analysing economic activity in the rural area we should pay a particular attention to the identification of such alternative activities that have a real chance for development and create new jobs that compensate the diminution of labour occupancy degree in agriculture. Opportunities of rural economy represent a source of having alternative income for the population from rural communities in order to escape from poverty and in order to accelerate the social progress in the rural area. Alternative activities with economic, social and cultural impact, providers of jobs and incomes are: the development of agro tourism and rural tourism, processing and promoting foodstuff, local traditional drinks, ecological foodstuff, handicraft and silviculture. Improving the conditions for business in the rural area is a main condition for the generation of economic activities generating jobs in the rural area.

  5. Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... from Sustainable Aquaculture through Social Learning in Sri Lanka (CIFSRF) ... And, they will explore the role of women as community conduits for applying and ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC ...

  6. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  7. The sustainability and efficient use of renewable energy sources in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Kayode E.; Akinlabi, Akindeji O.; Joseph, Meera K.

    2018-04-01

    The energy system in African countries is mostly dependent on coal, gas, and oil, which in turns leads to environmental challenges and an imbalance of energy usage in some area of the countries. Given that, a mostly rural area in Africa suffers from the unsustainable energy system, thus it necessary to integrate renewable energy into the rural area for social and economic development. A sustainable energy system built on a clean energy such as renewable energy based on the availability of the natural resource is the main focus of this paper. Renewable energy is a solution for service delivery and when deployed everyone would be able to access electricity power, particularly in the remote area (which can be a suburb or rural environment) where the absence of national power grids. Renewable energy opens new opportunities for an economic development and sustainable solution to employ for energy efficiency, energy delivery, and energy management by the people and upon that a platform to promote environmental friendliness. In this paper, we explored the reasons for switching to renewable energy, saving energy and the awareness of potential and use of renewable energy in the rural area. IBM's SPSS is used for the quantitative data analysis. The results showed that sustainability of the National utility grid to the rural area is low, with over 80 percent of participants agreeing to disruption of power supply. The Positivity of the rural peoples' awareness of renewable also brought about the conclusion and recommendations from this paper.

  8. The Issues Facing the Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism and the Path Selection

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Jianhong

    2013-01-01

    There is a long way to go for sustainable development of rural tourism. It is necessary to strengthen the planning for training rural tourism talents, and establish sustainable reserve tourism service personnel; innovate upon the promotion mode of rural tourism and open the tourist source market; strengthen the building of characteristic brand of rural tourism, and create sustainable development core of tourism; give play to the role of government in guiding rural tourism, strengthen the opti...

  9. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  10. Sustaining rural livelihoods: On-farm climate-smart adaptation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural livelihoods, incidence of poverty and climate change are intricately connected in the Offinso Municipality in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Conscious of the vagaries of climate change, smallholder farmers have developed adaptation measures to sustain their subsistent livelihoods. This paper examines the various ...

  11. Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment; governance, policy and multifunctionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from food and raw materials, agriculture can also provide ancillary benefits such as landscapes, biodiversity, cultural heritage and thriving rural communities. This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of strategies for sustainable management practices and their implementation through the

  12. Community management and sustainability of rural water facilities in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, C.G.; Butijn, C.A.A.; Niehof, Anke

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether community management in water service delivery affects the sustainability of rural water facilities (RWFs) at village level, in terms of their technical and managerial aspects, and what role capacity building of users and providers plays in this process.

  13. The Road Towards Sustainable Rural Development : Issues of Theory, Policy and Research Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsden, T.; Banks, J.; Renting, H.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Developing a more widespread diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices as part of progressing rural sustainable development is being hampered by different modes of environmental social thought. This introduction to this special issue on Reconstituting of nature through rural development

  14. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  15. Energy services and energy poverty for sustainable rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2011-01-01

    In many rural areas, poor people still depend on wood and other biomass fuels for most of their household and income-generating activities. The difficult, time-consuming work of collecting and managing traditional fuels is widely viewed as women's responsibility, which is a factor in women's disproportionate lack of access to education and income, and inability to escape from poverty. Therefore, it is important for energy access programs to have a special focus on women. New options for energy access and sustainable livelihoods, like small-scale biofuels production, can have dramatic benefits for rural women, and their families and communities. Energy development, as both a driving force and a consequence of such tremendous changes, has had profound impact on economic, social, and environmental development. Rural energy has always been a critical issue due to years of energy shortage for both households and industries. Biomass, for long time, has been the only available fuel in many rural areas. The situation in rural areas is even more critical as local demand for energy outstrips availability and the vast majority of people depend on non-commercial energy supplies. Energy is needed for household uses, such as cooking, lighting, heating; for agricultural uses, such as tilling, irrigation and post-harvest processing; and for rural industry uses, such as milling and mechanical energy and process heat. Energy is also an input to water supply, communication, commerce, health, education and transportation in rural areas. (author)

  16. Sustainability of Rural Nonprofit Organizations: Czech Republic and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Valentinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of nonprofit organizations is a key concern for today’s nonprofit scholars and practitioners. Building upon the nonprofit economics literature, the present paper introduces the distinction between the demand-side and supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability and makes the case for the discrepancy between them. This discrepancy presents not only a generic conceptual explanation of the nonprofit sustainability problems but is also applicable to the context of the European rural nonprofit sector. Three arguments are advanced. First, the notorious implementation problems of LEADER partnerships can be explained as a manifestation of the above discrepancy. Second, and related, the rural context implies the tendency of the supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability to undermine the demand-side ones. Third, recent empirical findings from the Czech Republic show that this tendency does not necessarily imply the possibility of a clear classification of the demand-side and supply-side sustainability determinants. Rather, those features of rural areas and communities that significantly affect the size of the local nonprofit sector exhibit a controversial entanglement of demand-side and supply-side identities.

  17. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  18. Locally manufactured wind power technology for sustainable rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, J.; While, A.; Howell, R.

    2012-01-01

    To date, the use of wind power for rural electrification has been limited. However the fact that micro-wind turbines can be manufactured using only basic workshop tools, techniques and materials, and therefore can be produced locally is often overlooked. Local manufacture has the potential to boost the local economy, build local capacity, reduce costs and produce resilient and flexible energy systems. However, locally manufactured technology must be seen as socially embedded due to the variety of local knowledge, skills, equipment and materials needed to construct and maintain such systems, as well as the organisational structures needed to ensure their long term sustainability. Evidence from successful initiatives suggests that stable institutional support from intermediaries such as the local/national government or NGOs is necessary to foster the development of a wind power industry based on local manufacture. The roles of these intermediaries include identifying and targeting windy areas with favourable environmental conditions, conducting research and development, collecting feedback from end users, creating supply chains for new parts and materials and developing relevant knowledge and skills. In this paper, three case studies of specific initiatives are analysed to draw out the social, economic and technical factors that could facilitate wider adoption of the technology. - Highlights: ► Local manufacture of wind turbines often overlooked for rural electrification. ► Flexible to adapt to local context and benefits local economy, capacity and supply chain. ► Development of technology discussed and 3 case studies of dissemination analysed. ► Critical factors: institutional support, system level planning, continuity of supply. ► Dissemination successful in Inner Mongolia; work continues elsewhere.

  19. Youth retention in rural areas, a prerequisite for sustainable rural entrepreneurship and employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi Ardahaee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and sustainable rural employment are the main concerns of rural planners. One of the most basic requirements for this is that young people remain in the rural areas. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to identify individual and structural factors that are effective in keeping young people in rural areas. Statistical results of the bivariate and multilevel modeling (HLM shows that rural youth are not willing to stay in rural regions. One may cite the following individual factors contributing to this lack of interest in staying in rural areas: age, marital status, education, communication with relatives in the city, as well as employment status and job skills. People with higher human capital who have technical skills and building related non-agricultural skills are not interested in staying in rural areas. Moreover, the increased population in the villages and lack of social welfare facilities in village are highly effective in reducing the tendency of young people to stay in the villages.

  20. Photovoltaic battery charging stations for sustainable off-grid rural electrification in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, C.M.; Acebedo, I.P.; Gudoy, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Mariano Marcos State University-Affiliated Non Conventional Energy Center (MMSU-ANEC) in partnership with the Energy Management Bureau-Renewable Energy Management Division, Department of Energy implemented the Barangay Electrification Program (BEP) of the government in the off-grid rural areas at the northern Philippines from 1995-2004 with a common vision of promoting the use of new and renewable energy systems for rural electrification in order to spur development in the far-flung, off-grid rural areas. Such activity of the MMSU-ANEC on BEP used modified and improved Photovoltaic battery charging stations (PVBCS) to energize households and augment their livelihood in collaboration with the local government units and the beneficiaries. Socioeconomic and environmental impacts using long-range energy alternative planning or LEAP software showed that PVBCS are indispensable, feasible, economical, environmental-friendly and sustainable renewable energy resources systems in off-grid areas. Improvement of a locally-made battery charging unit (patent applied at IPO, Manila) which is cheaper and comparable than the imported unit, enabling project implementation strategies in community organizing and lessons learned during the implementation of BEP are also presented. Such improvement of the PVBCS is considered an innovative advancement in renewable energy that can be commercialized towards a sustainable agro-industrial development in far-flung, off-grid rural areas, among other applications for rural electrification and power generation using clean and environment-friendly sustainable technologies. (author)

  1. Clusters as a factor for sustainable development in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Socińska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is one of the determinants of strategic thinking and current operation of modern companies. Sustainable development is a factor in other words, in which companies come to work. It is an important factor, and having far-reaching repercussions, but it is not the only one. Enterprises should therefore take in its action it into account, adapt to it and benefit from its existence, but that does not mean that this fact can and should be the only determinant of their performance. The determinant of its action should reflect the clusters, especially those operating in rural areas.

  2. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  3. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  4. Renewable energy rural electrification. Sustainability aspects of the Mexican programme in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huacuz, J.M.; Martinez, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 20 years Mexico has been fertile ground for rural projects using renewable energy technologies. In many cases, however, sustainability aspects were either improperly handled or essentially ignored. Such was the case, for instance, with solar thermal water pumping projects, solar water desalination, and even complete 'solar towns'. Painful but important lessons were learned from such failed projects. Now, sustainability is the focal point of a current rural electrification programme with renewable energy. As of this writing, over 24,000 individual home photovoltaic lighting systems have already been installed in different regions of Mexico; another 12,000 systems are estimated to have been installed in rural areas as a result of private commercial activities; seven village-size hybrid systems (photovoltaic-wind and photovoltaic-wind-diesel) have also been implemented. With this, the Mexican renewable energy rural electrification programme stands among the largest programmes of its kind in the world today. The question of the programme's sustainability has been a major concern at the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), where activities have been under way since the start to lend it technical support. The lessons learned in the process will be discussed in this article. (author). 8 refs

  5. Social-economic and environmental sustainability of short supply chains: opportunities for development rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Babych

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the expediency of developing short supply chains at the local level. The focus of this paper is to determine opportunities for developing rural territories in Ukraine on the basis of the development of short supply chains in terms of ensuring social, economic and environmental sustainability. It is established that such an approach provides stability of development of rural territory, in particular, it promotes: social interaction (trust, justice, solidarity and common values between consumers and producers, community development (just relationships, pride, social cohesion and community affiliation, strengthening local culture and identity, health and well-being of the population (healthy diet; access to healthy food, health improvement, which ensures social sustainability of the system; rural development and economic recovery (increase of workplaces, tourism development, increase of local incomes, development of small and medium-sized farms, achievement of economic benefits to farms (reduction of overheads, fixed margin and premium for quality, increase of competitiveness and economic viability, sustainable use resources, which ensures economic stability of the system; reducing energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions (reducing transport and storage time; using alternative technologies; maximizing manual labor; reducing the use of plastic packaging; reducing food losses; sustainability of agro-systems (promoting agro-biodiversity; using local varieties; highlighting ecological and organic production, which ensures the ecological stability of the system.

  6. SUSTAINABLE FARMS: INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Muñoz-Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of agrochemicals and technologies in farming systems can cause an accelerated deterioration of agricultural and soil pollution. Thus, agriculture and livestock are becoming an environmental problem in the world, which implies the need to assess the efficiency of agricultural production systems related to sustainability. The traditional peasant system is apparently unsustainable, while farm with an integral production approach have better opportunities for development over time as they tend to sustainability. This type of farms incorporate productive alternatives that improve as a whole, the system and the livelihood of the peasants. The trends towards sustainability of farms are mainly due to a better land use. As well as, implementing systems adapted to each soil and production type to ensure profitability and persistence, achieving the highest possible agricultural productivity. The urgency to produce food for a growing population is almost a paradigm that reinforces the imperative for maximum yield per unit area, and creates a vision of the rural world aimed at increasing profit at the expense of the attributes and core values of livelihood in rural areas. It can be concluded that the integrated farming articulate various subsystems, which working together could allow higher sustainability of agricultural production practices, environmentally friendly, safeguarding the food sovereignty of the population and improving the quality of life of farmers

  7. How to use sustainability indicators for tourism planning: the case of rural tourism in Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas, F J; Lozano-Oyola, M; González, M; Guerrero, F M; Caballero, R

    2011-12-15

    This paper proposes an indicators system to analyse the sustainability of tourist activity at rural destinations in countries with a consolidated tourism sector. The proposed system aims at providing tourist managers and policy-makers with information to better understand the transition to sustainability at specific destinations and to encourage them to carry out corresponding policy and management responses. To illustrate how indicators can be quantified, we create a practical guideline on how to use the statistical information available. Likewise, we suggest a method for obtaining sustainability indexes by aggregation that reduces the subjectivity associated with the composite indicator. This procedure is based on the combination of principal component analysis and distance to a reference point. Together with the definition of sustainable tourism indicators, we explain how to use these systems and sustainability indexes to fulfil three practical uses in tourism sector planning: the comparison and characterisation of destinations, the definition of benchmarking practices, and the quantification of sustainable tourism objectives. Each practical use is illustrated using the case of rural zones in a consolidated destination such as Andalusia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  9. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    , identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...... of transport, land use and open space planning; (ii) urban containment and densification – development a green compact city; (iii) preservation of blue and green infrastructure; and (iv) preservation of agricultural land and the promotion of local production. The need also remains to strengthen governance...... at the regional level while at the pan-European level there is clearly a need for more policy attention to be given to urban-rural linkages....

  10. How to develop sustainable tourism in rural destinations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štetić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical distinction between countries of tourist offer and countries of tourist demand has already been surpassed considering that many countries of tourist demand (USA, Germany, Great Britain … earn much more from tourism than the countries of tourist offer (Italy, Greece, Portugal …. The changes in customers' behaviour are reflected through restructuring of tourist movements towards new destinations. What is essential in creating, promoting and marketing tourist destinations for the specific tourism forms development is the identification of all the positive and negative factors that influence the development of these destinations. Converting a potential into a tourist destination depends on many factors both in qualitative and in quantitative sense. Discovering an area of preserved environment that also possesses attractive motifs presents the beginning of the possible tourist destination creating. Further 'destiny' of a tourist destination depends on its planning and development intensity. Rural tourism is a significant component of integral and sustainable development and revitalization of the village, as well as a component that is missing in stimulating the local market development for agricultural and non-agricultural activities in the country, along with a special stimulation to employment. Serbia possesses remarkable natural resources and other potentials for the development of all forms of rural tourism. However, rural tourism in Serbia is an insufficiently organized field that is not being developed adequately to the possibilities available to it. That is why this paper wants to point out the potential opportunities for the development of rural tourism in Serbia through sustainable development and correct performance policy on both national and international tourist market.

  11. Nigeria: Positioning Rural Economy for Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Michael Okunola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as nation has over the years engaged in lots of developmental activities without actions which makes achievements to elude the people. Development of societies doesn’t happen in the vacuum. Thus, the adoption of Structural Adjustment Program, SAP, by Nigeria leading to the neglect of the custom periodic National Plan at a time when Nigeria had no structure for development was the beginning of journey to widened inequality and large poverty incidence, depth and severity. To close the gap between the rich and the poor, the Nigeria government had designed and implemented some programs and policies whose implementation has not solved the inherent problems. In year 2000, the world leaders subscribed to the Millennium Development Goals to ensure synergized global approach to solving the poverty menace. Programs designed in Nigeria to achieve the MDGs focused on the urban centers thereby relegating the rural areas which are responsible for the feeding of the teeming population of the urban dwellers. Farming households and the general rural communities do not have access to clean water, quality education and health facilities, good feeder roads, affordable and safe energy as well as other socioeconomic and socio-infrastructural facilities that would ensure sustainable living for the people whose contribution to the national economy cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore looks at the structural actions the Nigeria government should embarked upon to ensure that the rural dweller have access to life. As the government would be developing programs and policies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals whose priority is the end poverty in all forms and everywhere by 2030, this study reveals how to position the rural economy for developmental attention from the policy makers.

  12. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  13. “Rejecting the inevitability of poverty”: Empower women for sustainable rural livelihoods through community-based employment intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the extent to which employment-intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects can be used as a tool to empower women to achieve sustainable rural livelihoods using Siyatentela rural road maintenance program in Mpumalanga...

  14. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Bluemling, Bettina; Beckers, Theo A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels. - Highlights: ► Household biogas alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by policy. ► Biogas users consume less biomass fuels, much less LPG, but similar amounts of coal. ► Strongest sustainability effects are reduced workload and forest degradation. ► Household budget effects are slight as commercial cooking fuel use is limited. ► Low quality fuel use remains abundant and further policy efforts are needed

  15. Factors influencing sustainability of communally-managed water facilities in rural areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kativhu, T.; Mazvimavi, D.; Tevera, D.; Nhapi, I.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability of point water facilities is a major development challenge in many rural settings of developing countries not sparing those in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. This study was done in Zimbabwe to investigate the factors influencing sustainability of rural water supply systems. A total of 399 water points were studied in Nyanga, Chivi and Gwanda districts. Data was collected using a questionnaire, observation checklist and key informant interview guide. Multi-Criteria analysis was used to assess the sustainability of water points and inferential statistical analysis such as Chi square tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine if there were significant differences on selected variables across districts and types of lifting devices used in the study area. The thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results show that most water points were not functional and only 17% across the districts were found to be sustainable. A fusion of social, technical, financial, environmental and institutional factors was found to be influencing sustainability. On technical factors the ANOVA results show that the type of lifting device fitted at a water point significantly influences sustainability (F = 37.4, p planning stage of water projects was also found to be critical for sustainability although field results showed passive participation by communities at this critical project stage. Financial factors of adequacy of financial contributions and establishment of operation and maintenance funds were also found to be of great importance in sustaining water supply systems. It is recommended that all factors should be considered when assessing sustainability since they are interrelated.

  16. AGROECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION OF PARAÍBA RURAL AREA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BIOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenildo Pedro da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture modernization resulting from green revolution occurred through means of diverse technological innovations as soluble fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery and genetically modified seeds, aimed at increasing food production. However, the indiscriminate use of these innovations by farmers has been highlighted numerous environmental problems, affecting the productive agricultural system. This technological innovations reality and environmental obstacles, is also been experienced by cassava production in Paraíba rural area. Therefore, this study tried to assess the agroecosystems sustainability of cassava production (Manihot esculenta Crantz of Paraíba Rural Mesoregion, using Sustainable Development Index (S³ method, and its graphical representation, the Biogram. The results showed sustainability differences between the agroecosystems of investigated municipalities, of which Araçagi showed stable levels of sustainability, Araruna and Bananeiras demonstrated unstable levels, and Puxinanã showed the most critical sustainably level. It was concluded that, even the agroecosystems of Araçagi municipality showing better levels of sustainability, when compared with other municipalities assessed, cassava production showed unsustainability situations regarding its technological innovation levels, average yield of cassava production, land in erosion process, water scarcity and lack of social participation.

  17. Evaluating waterpoint sustainability and access implications of revenue collection approaches in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Hope, R.

    2017-02-01

    Water policies in many sub-Saharan African countries stipulate that rural communities are responsible for self-financing their waterpoint's operation and maintenance. In the absence of policy consensus or evidence on optimal payment models, rural communities adopt a diversity of approaches to revenue collection. This study empirically assesses waterpoint sustainability and access outcomes associated with different revenue collection approaches on the south coast of Kenya. The analysis draws on a unique data set comprising financial records spanning 27 years and 100 communities, operational performance indicators for 200 waterpoints, and water source choices for more than 2000 households. Results suggest communities collecting pay-as-you-fetch fees on a volumetric basis generate higher levels of revenue and experience better operational performance than communities charging flat fees. In both cases, financial flows mirror seasonal rainfall peaks and troughs. These outcomes are tempered by evidence that households are more likely to opt for an unimproved drinking water source when a pay-as-you-fetch system is in place. The findings illuminate a possible tension between financial sustainability and universal access. If the Sustainable Development Goal of "safe water for all" is to become a reality, policymakers and practitioners will need to address this issue and ensure rural water services are both sustainable and inclusive.

  18. Assessing Sustainable Rural Community Tourism Using the AHP and TOPSIS Approaches under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiya Ulkhaq M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is currently a sector that is growing into an important and significant world activity. The development of an area where the tourist destination located in affects the growth of the tourism. In addition, the success of tourist destinations are influenced by their relative competitiveness; hence, they do compete each other to offer the best service to satisfy their customers. Rural tourism in Indonesia is believed as emerging business since there are abundant sites located in rural area that offers fascinating attractions to the visitors. This study aims to evaluate the rural tourism using sustainable indicators, namely, service quality, facilities, management system, and outcome. A combination of fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS are employed to select five rural tourism in Central Java Province. Result shows that service quality is considered as the most important attribute with weight of 28.6%, while Dieng is named for the excellent rural tourism. This finding might offer the service providers with valuable insights into the attribute that reflects customers’ perceptions about rural tourism; also to position their services based on their competitors.

  19. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1 there are seven key factors affecting the satisfaction of the tourists, including: spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage, natural environment, service prices and tourism infrastructure; and (2 revisit intention of tourists is affected by six factors, including: satisfaction, spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage and service prices. Among them, spirituality is a new factor to be thoughtfully considered due to its significant influence on both the tourist satisfaction and revisit intention. From these findings, we proposed some managerial implications for the sustainable development of rural tourism in An Giang Province by enhancing the satisfaction and revisit intention of the tourists after they visit the province.

  20. [Letter to the] Environment & Rural Development Committee meeting on sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Scotland

    2006-01-01

    On December 13th 2006, the Sustainable Development Commission gave evidence as part of the Environment & Rural Development Committee's enquiry into sustainable development. This letter was sent as a written submission before the meeting. Publisher PDF

  1. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Bačka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average rural household in Bačka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Bačka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Bačka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  2. Sustainability and the Rural Education Course: is such approach possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Araújo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Licentiate Course in Rural Education with a degree in Nature Sciences from the Federal University of Goiás - Region Catalão was created in 2014 and since then has been facing challenges for its consolidation. Besides the implementation of a new curriculum design and the training of teacher trainers who also approach field issues, we notice from our daily practice the need to establish anchorage in concepts and theories that actually act for the benefit of the project itself in training for the field. It is in this context, from the absence of anchorages, that we carry out a reflexive study about the concept of sustainability, seeking both the understanding about it and the evaluation of the possibilities of its use as a guide to the practice or theoretical-methodological inspiration. The result of this study indicates that the concept of sustainability is more complex than it seems and requires greater understanding, however, we consider that it derives from it possibilities that should be admitted as the assumption of another role for education in the dimension of sustainable development.

  3. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  4. Rural electrification in isolated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solorzano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Otto

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the plan of the rural electrification in Guatemala considering the factors that affect costs of installation of power systems such as topography, energy consumption and homes density. Also advantages and limitations of hydro power, solar energy and wind energy are discussed with analyses of costs of production of wind energy. The geothermal energy in Guatemala is also described with analyses of feasibility

  5. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  6. Socioeconomic Collapse of Rural Areas, Atlantic Forest Transition and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R. F. B. D.; Batistella, M.; Moran, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Centuries of human pressure over the Atlantic Forest has led the biome to encompass only 11.7 percent of forest remnants. On the other hand, natural regeneration has explained forest cover increase in specific regions since the 1960s as an outcome of land use policies, environmental legislation, agricultural modernization, economic development, and landscape biophysical conditions. We analyze Forest Transition (FT) pathways for the Paraíba Valley region, São Paulo State, Brazil looking for more sustainable relationships between land use and natural land cover. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Valley's farms were responsible for providing the largest portion of the state's wealth. Nowadays, the Valley contributes with only 6% to the state's gross product and the share of rural activities is now insignificant. Between 1962 and 2011, forest cover area increased from 225 to 446 thousand hectares. Rural household survey was conducted in three municipalities (n=90, thirty in each municipality). To select the municipalities among the thirty-four present in the Paraíba Valley, we applied the modified Thompson Tau technique to detect outlier values for three selected variables: natural forest cover, eucalyptus plantation cover, and municipal revenue. The outliers were discharged and the municipality with the best performance (maximum value) for each variable was selected. Based on the rural household surveys and GIS analysis of satellite imagery classifications, topography and hydrology variables, we conclude that the diminished land use pressure in the Paraíba Valley is allowing the regeneration of forest cover. Over the observed period, the FT was strongly influenced by the unsuitable topography for agriculture (steep slopes) and the economic urban development since the 1960s. However, more recently (2000s), FT is more affected by the vicinity of eucalyptus plantations, the active role of local communities denouncing illegal environmental threats (e

  7. Solarising tropical Africa’s rural homes to sustainably overcome energy poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyarusoke, K. E.

    2017-11-01

    At less than 30% electrification, Tropical Africa is the most energy-poor electrified region of the world. At home level, the annual per-capita electric energy consumption ranges between 0 and 150 kWh in rural areas, where 83% of the population reside. This is well below the 250 kWh recommended by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as the threshold for exiting rural ‘Energy Poverty’. Some governments have tried to extend the grid to such areas but these efforts have not yielded much. The approaches of rural electrification - as is being done now have therefore failed - and they may not be able to electrify every home in the countries concerned. An alternative approach promoting stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) and other solar powered heat and mass transfer systems at home level is proposed. An example of the approach in a village home in rural Uganda, East Africa is given. It is estimated that the combined unit energy cost over the systems’ lifespan would be just about US 3 cents. Health, Education, and Sustainability in all its forms would be greatly improved. The main recommendation is for policy makers to adopt this approach for rural homes while sparing grid supply only for commercial and industrial activities.

  8. Managing Sustainable Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable information systems development (ISD) in the context of this paper is not about products that support sustainability at large with its environmental, economic and social dimensions and little about the development of sustainable products, which are both without doubt important topics....... This paper is about a prerequisite for such products, namely, a sustainable ISD process, a process which exhibits reasonable and responsible stewardship and utilisation of the existing resources for ISD—people and information in the context of scope, time/schedule, budget/cost, quality and risk....

  9. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  10. Tourscape: A systematic approach towards a sustainable rural tourism management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, M C; Wang, Y C; Yeo, A W; Songan, P

    2014-01-01

    Tourism plays an important role in the Malaysian economy as it is considered to be one of the corner stones of the country's economy. The purpose of this research is to conduct an analysis based on the existing tourism industry in rural tourism destinations in Malaysia by examining the impact of economics, environmental, social and cultural factors of the tourism industry on the local communities in Malaysia. 516 respondents comprising of tourism stakeholders from 34 rural tourism sites in Malaysia took part voluntarily in this study. To assess the developed model, SmartPLS 2.0 (M3) was applied based on path modeling and then bootstrapping with 200 re-samples was applied to generate the standard error of the estimate and t-values. Subsequently, a system named Tourscape was designed to manage the information. This system can be considered as a benchmark for tourism industry stakeholders as it is able to display the current situational analysis and the tourism health of selected tourism destination sites by capturing data and information, not only from local communities but industry players and tourists as well. The findings from this study revealed that the cooperation from various stakeholders has created significant impact on the development of rural tourism

  11. Tourscape: A systematic approach towards a sustainable rural tourism management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. C.; Wang, Y. C.; Songan, P.; Yeo, A. W.

    2014-02-01

    Tourism plays an important role in the Malaysian economy as it is considered to be one of the corner stones of the country's economy. The purpose of this research is to conduct an analysis based on the existing tourism industry in rural tourism destinations in Malaysia by examining the impact of economics, environmental, social and cultural factors of the tourism industry on the local communities in Malaysia. 516 respondents comprising of tourism stakeholders from 34 rural tourism sites in Malaysia took part voluntarily in this study. To assess the developed model, SmartPLS 2.0 (M3) was applied based on path modeling and then bootstrapping with 200 re-samples was applied to generate the standard error of the estimate and t-values. Subsequently, a system named Tourscape was designed to manage the information. This system can be considered as a benchmark for tourism industry stakeholders as it is able to display the current situational analysis and the tourism health of selected tourism destination sites by capturing data and information, not only from local communities but industry players and tourists as well. The findings from this study revealed that the cooperation from various stakeholders has created significant impact on the development of rural tourism.

  12. Short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention to improve mortality trends for paediatric severe malnutrition in rural South African hospitals: An interrupted time series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Muzigaba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Case fatality rates for childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM remain high in some resource-limited facilities in South Africa (SA, despite the widespread availability of the World Health Organization treatment guidelines. There is a need to develop reproducible interventions that reinforce the implementation of these guidelines and assess their effect and sustainability. Objectives. To assess the short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention on mortality attributable to SAM in two hospitals located in the Eastern Cape Province of SA. Methods. This was a theory-driven evaluation conducted in two rural hospitals in SA over a 69-month period (2009 - 2014. In both facilities, a health system strengthening intervention was implemented within the first 32 months, and thereafter discontinued. Sixty-nine monthly data series were collected on: (i monthly total SAM case fatality rate (CFR; (ii monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission; and (iii monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases, to determine the intervention’s effect within the first 32 months and sustainability over the remaining 37 months. The data were analysed using Linden’s method for analysing interrupted time series data. Results. The study revealed that the intervention was associated with a statistically significant decrease of up to 0.4% in monthly total SAM CFR, a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.09% in monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission and a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.11% in monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases. The decrease in mortality trends for both outcomes was only slightly reversed upon the discontinuation of the intervention. No autocorrelation was detected in the regression models generated during data analyses. Conclusion. The study findings suggest that although the intervention was designed to be self-sustaining, this may not have been the case. A qualitative enquiry

  13. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  14. Sustainable rural learning ecologies- a prolegomenon traversing transcendence of discursive notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes, through traversing contested notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty, to discourses around creation of sustainable rural learning ecologies. There has always been at least in the realm of scientific discourse, an attempt to dissociate the natural or physical environment from the social and human environment. This trend did not only affect the two spheres of existence only. It is further imbued and spawned fragmented and pervasive terminology, practices and human thought. Drawing from the ‘creating sustainable rural learning ecologies’ research project that commenced in 2011, I challenge and contest the use of such discourses and argue for the transcendence of such. This would, in my opinion, create space for harmonious and fluid co-existence between nature and humanity, such that the contribution of learning practices exudes and expedites sustainability in rural ecologies.

  15. Improving rice-based rainfed production systems in Southeast Asia for contributing towards food security and rural development through sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Mishra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuing degradation of the environment and the cumulating food, energy, water and financial crises have led to a situation where many people’s access to sufficient, nutritious food is affected as well as their livelihoods, income, and ultimate food and nutrition security. In the wake of these stresses and crises, there is an emerging interest to find efficient, easily accessible and sustainable approaches that can address these crises. One candidate for this is the System of Rice Intensification (SRI with its “less can produce more” prescription. A regional collaborative project currently underway is being implemented in rainfed areas of the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMB countries. This involves smallholder rice farmers, researchers, extension personnel, and development professionals, together with staff of relevant government ministries (http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/. The project objective is to produce healthier and profitable rice crops under rainfed conditions using SRI methods, evaluated and refined through farmers’ participatory action research (FPAR. As part of the action-research, more than 120 sets of field experiments have been carried out at 60 FPAR sites in Cambodia and Thailand, directly involving 3600 farmers. The experiments have ranged from the integration of many SRI principles with farmers’ current local practices or improved practices which was termed as “SRI-transition” to full demonstrations and assessments of SRI methodology, i.e., SRI demonstration. The initial calculation of yields has showed an average paddy yield of 5.03 t/ha with SRI-transition, whereas with SRI-demonstration the average yield was 6.41 t/ha. These yields were 60 and 100% higher than the average baseline yield in the region, 3.14 t/ha, for the same farmers and same locales. Productivity gains (dollars gained/dollars spent per ha were calculated for both rainfed and irrigated production areas. In comparative terms, the economic gains for

  16. Analysis of Sustainability of New Rural Housing (Case of ole Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyran Chamcham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of rural housing based on the principles of sustainability is one of the most important prerequisites for achieving sustainable development in rural areas. This can only be achieved by knowing the exact status of rural housing and its range of stability. And rural planning is not possible without it. On the other hand, survey of the stability of the different aspects of rural housing will have a decisive role in decisions related to how to promote this project aimed at sustainable rural development. Therefore, this study we have investigated and compared the economic, Social, environmental, technical and physical aspects of new rural housing with sustainability approach, quantitative paradigm and the case study method. The statistical population in the study were all the people of Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village from which a number were selected who had reconstructed their homes. The results are shown in 4 dimensions of new housing's economic, social, environmental, technical and physical aspects in the Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village although they have very little inclination towards sustainability. Despite this, the hybrid economic index for reconstruction of rural housing turned out to be more stable than other metrics.

  17. Sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects in Mbire district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwangware, Johnson; Mayo, Aloyce; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    The sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects was assessed in Mbire district, Zimbabwe in terms of level of community participation, quality of implementation and reliability of the systems. The study was carried out through questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews and field observations. The results show that the quality of implementation of the projects was deemed to be good and participation of the communities in project ideas initiation and choice of technology was found to be very low. Reliability of the systems was found to be very high with 97% of the boreholes in all the three wards studied being functional. Financial management mechanisms were very poor because water consumers were not willing to pay for operation and maintenance. The projects were classified as potentially sustainable with sustainability index between 5.00 and 6.67. Poor financial management mechanisms for effective borehole maintenance, poor quality of construction and lack of community participation in project planning were found to be potential threats to the sustainability of the projects. Future projects should establish the need for the service and should thus be demand driven to ensure effective participation of the water consumers and enhance project's potential for sustainability.

  18. Extended exergy-based sustainability accounting of a household biogas project in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Chen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Biogas has been earmarked as one of the leading renewable energy sources capable of mitigating environmental emissions in rural areas. Thus, developing an accounting technique is of particular importance in coping with increasing problems related to renewable agriculture and rural energy supply. In this study, extended exergy was generalised for the sustainability evaluation of biogas projects. Furthermore, a series of extended exergy-based indicators was presented as benchmarking from the perspectives of resources, economics and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The sustainability of a “Three-in-One” biogas production system in southern China was thereby evaluated based on the proposed framework. The results show that economic costs concentrate in the construction phase. GHG emissions are mainly derived from bricks and cement, with proportions of 36.23% and 34.91%, respectively. The largest resource depletion occurs during the consumption of feedstock (87.06%) in the operation phase. Compared with other renewable energy conversion systems, the biogas project has a higher renewability (0.925) and economic return on investment ratio (6.82) and a lower GHG emission intensity (0.012). With the merit of bridging thermodynamics and externality, the extended exergy-based approach presented in this study may effectively appraise the energy and environmental performance of biogas projects. - Highlights: • Extended exergy is used to describe the sustainability level of biogas projects. • A set of extended exergy based sustainability indicator is established. • Biogas project has high renewability and greenhouse gas emission abatement potential. • Multiple utilization of biogas digestate is a promising way to improve sustainability

  19. Sustainable supply of fuel-wood for the rural areas of Pakistan: farm-forestry s a renewable-energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    It costs as much to heat the pot as to fill it. This old African proverb illustrates the energy-problems faced by majority of the world, who live in the villages and urban slums of developing countries, such as Pakistan. For a majority of them, the real energy-crisis is a daily scramble to find wood to cook meals and nearly 90% of their domestic energy demands are derived from wood. This essential resource, however, is threatened. The developing world is facing crisis of a critical shortage of firewood as serious as the petroleum-crisis. The shortage of firewood is resulting its soaring prices; a growing economic burden on rural poor; the wasteful burning of animal dung; and an ecologically disastrous and potentially irreversible spread of treeless landscapes. (author)

  20. Design for sustainability: rural connectivity with village operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has approximately 26500 primary and secondary schools, of which at least 17000 are in remote rural villages. None of these rural schools have any form of Internet connectivity. The same rural villages may have one health facility...

  1. Sustainable drainage system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available where it is discharged. This has a number of negative consequences namely:  The construction, operation and management of a significantly large storm water collection and disposal system  Risk of flash flooding if the system is blocked... or is inadequately designed  Potential for malfunctioning under extreme rainfall events  Potential downstream flooding  Potential pollution dispersal  Potential contamination of groundwater sources  Groundwater reservoirs are not replenished  Waste...

  2. Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference of Information Science and Computer Applications (ICISCA), Bali, Indonesia, 19-20 November 2012 Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa Nomusa Dlodlo and Mofolo Mofolo CSIR...

  3. Sustainable Rural Development in Russia Through Diversification: The Case of the Stavropol Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary relevance of ensuring sustainable rural development is stipulated, on the one hand, by the growing economic and social backwardness of rural territories, and on the other hand by their ultimate importance for the nation in such issues as food security, preservation of soil and

  4. Sustainable development of rural regions; Insights on land use and policy from the Shetlands Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Kanemasu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    To address rural diversity, a place-based approach to sustainable development becomes more relevant. Place-based approaches to development are said to strengthen the resilience of rural areas against global pressures by decreasing state dependencies and increasing the economic competitiveness of

  5. Figuring rural development : concepts and cases of land use, sustainability and integrative indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbes, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable economic development is essential for hundreds of millions of poor households in rural areas. This book represents a merger of environmental science and rural development economics. It elucidates the linkage between rational choice theory and theories on land use change. It builds a

  6. Planning for rural energy system: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the central importance of energy inputs in development, and presents the complex interactions within subsystems that contribute a Rural Energy System. This paper also brings about the importance of the primary data for realistic renewable energy planning at the micro level in a given rural system. Factors that render secondary data somewhat inadequate for such applications are discussed. The differences between energy related data from secondary and primary sources in respect of representative villages in Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu, India, are detailed. A rural system model for computing the output from various components of a rural system is also presented. This projection is made by making use of a set of technical coefficients, which relate the inputs to the outputs from individual segments of the rural production system. While some of the technical coefficients are developed based on previously published data, a large number have been quantified on the basis of careful survey. The usefulness of the model is discussed. The paper also presents a Linear Programming Model for optimum resource allocation in a rural system. The objective function of the Linear Programming Model is maximizing the revenue of the rural system where in optimum resource allocation is made subject to a number of energy and non-energy related relevant constraints. The model also quantifies the major yields as well as the byproducts of different sectors of the rural economic system. (Author)

  7. A new systems paradigm for the rural electrification program, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas, Fernando; Santiago, Andrea

    2010-09-15

    The Philippines has pushed rural electrification for two decades. Recently, the government achieved 100% electrification at the village level. Despite the significant recent economic growth, poverty has increased in some areas. These are usually agricultural and have many un-electrified areas. The multilaterals have launched programs that couple electricity with livelihood projects. The authors argue this is insufficient to guarantee sustainability. A systems view of rural poverty suggests that several components must be designed to work together. In addition to the electricity and livelihood, skills, attitudes, management and markets must be incorporated to make a lasting impact on poverty.

  8. Making Space for Water: A review of SUstainable Drainage systems (SUDs) in a rural/urban area of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Tellier, Sebastien; Wilkinson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of the city of Newcastle included a new development of over 3000 houses and an associated commercial area on agricultural land. The development firmly signed up to the notion that the new estate should adhere to full SUDs design and implementation. In essence there should be no loss of floodplain capacity, the total runoff from the new housing should not increase flood risk downstream and benefits to ecology, recreation and amenity should be fully maximised. Credit must be given to Newcastle City Council, the Environment Agency, the local water company and the developers themselves as a full set of large scale SUDs now exist and they are clearly an asset to the city. However, such a large scale landscape engineering endeavour has not been without direct and indirect problems. This paper reviews some of the experiences, problems and lessons learnt from SUDs implementation, the function of SUDs during flood events and the perception of SUDs by the public. During the life of the project several older estates close to the new development suffered from two major flood events; including foul water inundation, the drowning out of sewer overflows and intense flash flooding. These floods at first gave rise to the public perception that the new development had caused the flooding. During a research project entitled 'making space for water', the instrumentation of the river in the area and the SUDs took place. The hydrological data this produced has given rise to a mixture of positive and negative aspects of SUDs implementation. The cause of one flood was due to the drowning out of key sewer overflows by locally generated by urban flood flow arising from an upstream estate. The second flood was caused by a 48 hour storm event giving rise to high runoff from the rural area again drowning out key sewer overflows. The SUDs were found to perform well during storm events and do not increase runoff from the new estates. The main fundamental complaint is that despite such

  9. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  10. Electric power and sustainable rural development: a way for the citizenship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the rural electrification usage. Rural production requires efficient energy sources, and the State must encourage landowners to make use of market forces to modernize their activities. Important authors have claimed that rural electrification should be viewed as an investment in the energy structure of a region, an investment to achieve economic returns. In this paper, this opinion is criticized in light for the need of sustainable rural development. More than just a macroeconomic policy, electrification should be viewed through a social lens, as indispensable component of citizenship. (author)

  11. Virtual Rural Community Development: Human Links That Sustain Web Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Larry K.; Evans, Wayne H.; Marmet, Kathy

    Outmigration in the rural Upper Midwest prompted a group of citizens and University of South Dakota faculty to form the Center for the Advancement of Rural Communities (ARC). ARC considers how to stimulate traditionally competitive and isolated South Dakota peoples to collaborate for economic, social, educational, political, and cultural gains. As…

  12. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  13. Systemic levers for change towards sustainable institutionalisation of ICT in schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, I

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available pressure on the school environment, since schools are unable to sustain the change introduced without support from their formal support systems. Although the ICT for Rural Education Development (ICT4RED) initiative was successful in integrating technology...

  14. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.

    2015-01-01

    Land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment. Understanding the drivers, state, trends and impacts of different land systems on social and natural processes helps to reveal how changes in the land system affect the functioning of the socio-ecological system...... as a whole and the tradeoff these changes may represent. The Global Land Project has led advances by synthesizing land systems research across different scales and providing concepts to further understand the feedbacks between social-and environmental systems, between urban and rural environments and between...... distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can...

  15. Integrated water resources management for sustainable development of in western rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-bao; HUANG Gao-bao

    2010-01-01

    Management in water resources development of Jinghe watershed of western rural China is examined with Participatory Rural Appraisal method--a rare applied method in China and questionnaire survey of stakeholders.Combination of these two survey methods derives good results as it could avoid personal bias in identifying and ranking the issues on a concrete basis in following up households'survey.Statistic Package for Social Sciences(SPSS)was used for data analysis.Results indicate that since the early 1980s.issues of water scarcity,river pollution,soil erosion,insufficient participation of stakeholders in water resources use and management,as well as centrahzed water planning and management system have created difficulties for sustainable development of the watershed.The stakeholders and local governments are fully aware of the challenges and are committed to achieving a solution through integrated water resource management(IWRD).The concept and the application of IWRD for rural China are reviewed and analyzed,and a framework for implementation of IWRD in China is developed.It is conchided that the keys to successful implementation of the approach will depend on optimal arrangement of institutions,policy reforms,community involvement and capacity building in water sector,which need to fully integrate various management functions within the watershed.

  16. Problems and social policy priorities sustainable development of rural territories (on the Republic Komi example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of term «sustainable development» of rural areas. Social problems of rural development of the republic of Komi are identified. An intra-rural typology creation is performed. An increasing differentiation in the development of rural areas is concluded. Rural settlements in the republic are characterized by low population density and a rare network of settlements. Low level and quality of rural life (low rural incomes, poor living conditions and high unemployment and better living conditions in urban areas adversely affect migration processes of the village. Characteristic features of modern rural labour market are: inconsistency of supply and demand of labour in vocational and qualification angle, seasonality of production and temporary nature of the proposed work, low wages, low competitiveness of the youth labour market, high level of registered unemployment and even higher — of unregistered. Analytical material allowed the authors to determine the direction of social policy for sustainable development of rural areas according to the conditions of the North.

  17. PROBLEMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES OF THE REGION: ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Tikhij

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic situation in rural territories is characterized by many challenges to their sustainable development. The level and quality of life in rural areas, underdevelopment of social infrastructure, the environmental situation significantly contributes to the depopulation of the rural territories. In this regard, it is very important to research and discuss the possible decision of problems of development of rural settlements.The actions of the state on formation of the complex of normative-legal documents regulating state policy in the field of rural development are aimed at ensuring the management of these areas by federal authorities which leads to some extent to resource dependence on it, and reduces the motivation of regional and municipal management to the formation of effective policy of rural development.The management of the regions chooses its directions of developing rural areas, without taking into account the prevailing socio-economic situation at the municipal level and features of development of rural settlements, which reduces the effectiveness of the management of the territory.As an example the authors have evaluated the level of rural areas development in Orel Region and proposed a classification of areas at regional level. The results of the research show that there could be three levels of rural territories development: highly stable, moderately stable and unstable areas. The main indicators of development of rural territories were selected as follows: incomes and expenses of budgets of rural areas, the volume of investments in fixed capital, average monthly nominal accrued wages of employees of enterprises and organizations, agricultural production in farms of all categories of the rural population. The authors have made some proposals as to how to solve the problems of instability in rural areas. The implementation of these decisions should happen on the background of permanent monitoring of the status and

  18. Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brisa; Vetter, Matthias [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany); Bourg, Catherine [Fondation Energies pour le Monde (France); Crehay, Romain [Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The project ''Renewable Energy Sustainable Programs for Intelligent Rural Electrifrication'' RESIREA has been looking for the creation of conditions that make possible the establishment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) markets in targeted provinces to Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. As a main result of the project, in three different selected provinces (one in each country) have been proposed villages as ''ready to implement''. The ''ready to implement'' villages are specific RET projects resulted from applying developed methodologies. One methodology is a deeply well structured cross-analysis of technical and economic parameters and the results have been integrated in a Geographical Information System GIS. Based on the least-cost methodology, off-grid biomass and photovoltaic PV power supply systems have been designed and asset for the proposed villages. In the case of PV system designs, a detailed study has been carried out by means of simulations tools and extensive field data. The PV system design looks to contribute to an ''easy scale-up'' concept for off-grid power supply systems, especially when rural communities are too diverse. Further expected benefits besides the supply of electricity services are the improvement of the living and health conditions of the populations, the stimulation of local markets for RET and economic activities. (orig.)

  19. Perspectives on Cultural and Sustainable Rural Tourism in a Smart Region: The Case Study of Marmilla in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Garau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is being inserted into the current debate on the topic of sustainability, as it applies to rural tourism. In particular, it addresses the need to identify strategic actions that will enhance the dissemination of cultural resources to facilitate cultural planning. Balancing the dynamic tension that characterizes the relationship between tourism development and protection of the landscape is key to finalizing appropriate planning strategies and actions, especially in the context of marginal rural areas. In support of theoretical and methodological reflections pertinent to this relationship, this paper presents a case study of the region of Marmilla on Italy’s island of Sardinia. The absence of both a “cultural planning” philosophy and a strategic approach to systemic and sustainable rural tourism in this country has been acknowledged. This paper concludes by discussing the results that emerged during the preparation of this case study, with respect to smart, sustainable, rural tourism development, while accepting the need for compromises between the force of globalization, nature, tourism, places, and people.

  20. Assessing the Sustainability of the Built Environment in Mountainous Rural Villages in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous rural areas such as those in southwest China are developing rapidly. This requires scientific understanding and a framework for assessing the sustainability of the built environment that is suitable to such areas. At present, no such framework exists. This lack of assessment options has contributed to the unsustainable development of these areas, which has caused a series of environmental, social, and economic problems. This article analyzes existing assessment frameworks, reviews the theory on sustainable rural development as it applies to rural southwest China, and proposes a new assessment framework that is more suitable to this region and others like it. This framework is based on a sustainable development model for rural areas that emphasizes endogenous development; addresses the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability; and takes the natural and social conditions of mountainous rural areas into account. Our study tested its applicability to rural southwest China and its sensitivity to local conditions and found them to be better than those of existing assessment frameworks.

  1. Rural community sustainable development portal - towards sustainable knowledge management and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available prime rural and development knowledge and solutions resource site for Africa and the developing world. This should ultimately facilitate the development of projects and programmes that transform rural spaces, cultures and people from poverty...

  2. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  4. Rural Electricity and Isolated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Otto; Solorzano, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of the cost of investment, operation and trading of rural electricity and discuss cost-benefit analysis. This evaluation covers a three different periods: before 1990, the period 1990-1996 and 1997-1999. Also the trends of demand and supply of energy are presented

  5. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  6. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  7. The Conceptual Model of Sustainable Development of the Rural Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Sukhinina, Veronika V.; Starikova, Lyudmila D.; Pecherskaya, Evelina P.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of the studied issue is determined by growing lag of rural territorial units in socioeconomic development, and one the other by their significance in such important aspects of the country, as ensuring food supply security, preservation of the available land, production, ecological, demographic and human potential.…

  8. Appraising the combustion of biogas for sustainable rural energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows the combustion of biogas in rural households' appliances. Biogas has been known since 1800s as an odourless and colourless gas with high combustion rate. Its use is beginning to gain ground in most developing countries like Nigeria due to its availability, ease of generation and environmental ...

  9. The internet of things in agriculture for sustainable rural development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available these issues. The intention of this research is to investigate the potential contributions of internet of things technologies (IoT) towards poverty reduction in these rural areas, in line with the needs identified in these communities and with emphasis...

  10. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  11. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  12. The WHS Designation—A Factor of Sustainable Tourism Growth for Romanian Rural Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Iațu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of World Heritage Sites has been frequently used as a mean of tourism promotion and increased attractiveness. However, previous studies showed contradictory results regarding the territorial impact of World Heritage Sites, and very few researchers discussed their impact in Eastern Europe. This paper examines how the presence of World Heritage Sites in rural localities influenced the tourism growth and sustainable development in Romania after 2000. Independent Sample t-test was used to analyse the evolution of tourism and sustainable development indicators between 2001 and 2016. The results suggest an absence of a positive effect induced by World Heritage Sites in rural areas. It seems that, by itself, the brand has not enough power to sustain tourist attractiveness if it is not endorsed by national, regional, and local initiatives. These findings lead a discussion about how certain sites managed to induce a sustained tourism growth while others failed to do so.

  13. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  14. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  15. Towards a sustainable knowledge management and development perspective approach: The sustainable rural community development portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available development. The philosophy and thinking behind the rural community planning portal is that it will act as a seed for the generation of an inclusive and dynamic rural development agenda that is sensitive and relevant to contemporary issues and challenges...

  16. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  17. The role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of rural communities: The case of rural cooperatives in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Mhembwe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research was to analyse the role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of local rural communities in Shurugwi District in Zimbabwe. Descriptive survey design was used in this mixed method approach to the study. A questionnaire, interviews and observation methods were employed as the main research instruments. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and data were collected from government officials and from members of the six cooperatives in Shurugwi District. A total of 50 research participants were involved in the study. It was found that cooperatives were established as a strategy to sustain livelihoods of rural communities. With the adoption of cooperatives, people in the rural communities managed to generate employment, boost food production, empower the marginalised, especially women, and promote social cohesion and integration, thereby improving their livelihoods and reducing poverty. Most cooperatives face a number of challenges that include lack of financial support, poor management and lack of management skills, and lack of competitive markets to sell their produce. The study recommends that the government and the banking sector render financial support to cooperatives in rural communities to allow them to expand and diversify their business operations; constant training on leadership and management skills is provided to cooperatives’ members. There is also a need for cooperatives, especially those in the agricultural sector, to form some producer associations so as to easily market their produce. Lastly, the study recommends that future research should focus on investigating issues that hinder the growth of the cooperative movement in rural communities of Zimbabwe. It is hoped that policy-makers, the academia and communities would benefit from the study.

  18. Rural Development Policies and Sustainable Land Use in the Hillside Areas of Honduras: a Quantitave Livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.; Pender, J.; Damon, A.; Schipper, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The survey was a research collaboration between International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Wageningen University and Research Center (WUR), and the National Program for Sustainable Rural Development (PRONADERS) of the Honduran Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (SAG).The data were

  19. Dragons with Clay Feet? : Transition, sustainable land use and rural environment in China and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, M.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.

    2007-01-01

    Dragons with Clay Feet? presents state-of-the-art research on the impact of ongoing and anticipated economic policy and institutional reforms on agricultural development and sustainable rural resource in two East-Asian transition (and developing) economies--China and Vietnam.

  20. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  1. LOCAL INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL HOKKAIDO: A CASE STUDY OF SAMANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Dublin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field investigation about sustainable development of Samani town—a rural area in Hidaka region, Hokkaido, Japan. Local activities, business, environmental, social and economic challenges that affect the town as well as the advantages were investigated. The research was done by means of field visits, questionnaires and interviews involving the local people and government. The main economic sectors: olivine industry, fishery, agriculture and tourism were targeted as well as the government sector and the local high school with a particular focus on rural-urban migration. Samani has quite unique natural features on hand but a few strong comprehensive challenges on the other hand. The authors focused on the citizens opinions and positions which were based on the uniqueness of Samani and their own local activities and initiatives for the sustainable development of the town in the future which can be replicated in other rural communities around the world.

  2. promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-08-27

    Aug 27, 1991 ... among the cassava-based farming households was aggregated at 49% percent, but ... promoting sustainable production and protecting and ... business of the Millennium Development Goals, and ... This study was conducted in ten selected communities ... institutions, cassava-farm hectarage, costs of.

  3. Sustainable fuelwood use in rural Mexico. Volume 1: Current patterns of resource use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.

    1993-04-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the first phase of a project of cooperation between the Mexican National Commission for Energy Conservation (CONAE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) on sustainable biofuel use in rural Mexico. This first phase has been devoted to (i) conducting an in-depth review of the status of fuelwood use in rural and peri-urban areas of Mexico, (ii) providing improved estimates of biomass energy use, (iii) assessing the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of fuelwood use, and (iv) identifying preliminary potential lines of action to improve the patterns of biomass energy use in Mexico; in particular, identifying those interventions that, by improving living conditions for rural inhabitants, can result in global benefits (such as the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions). A comprehensive review of the existing documentation of biofuel use in rural and peri-urban Mexico was conducted. Reports from official, academic, and non-governmental organizations were gathered and analyzed. A computerized rural energy database was created by re-processing a national rural energy survey. Because of the paucity of information about biofuel use in small rural industries, most of the analysis is devoted to the household sector.

  4. Sustaining Rural Afghanistan under Limited Central Government Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Groninger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Land and water access insecurity, land grabbing, and unstable common property status of critical local resources continue to drive conflicts, rural landlessness and environmental problems throughout many areas of Afghanistan where formal government is weak or entirely absent.  In contrast to traditional development strategies that favor infrastructure enhancement and backed by enforced national policies, we offer Afghan-specific strategies based on resource conservation and increased capacity of local resource management institutions that can function when and where central government cannot be relied upon to assume or maintain a supportive role. Resource conservation and building local capacity are key components of existing and proposed future efforts to increase stability. However, support for these efforts, whether government or community-based, has been limited in portions of rural Afghanistan , apparently due to low stakeholder confidence in retaining access to improved land, water and other critical resources when international forces withdraw. Powerful individuals and groups, operating outside local community structures, are increasingly impacting land use practices. We suggest a thorough assessment of the present and likely future social environment, including awareness of likely conflicts resulting from agricultural or natural resource improvements, before any tangible actions are taken.

  5. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity of Sustainable Transportation Offer Values: A Comparative Analysis of Nantes Urban and Periurban/Rural Areas (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bulteau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovative solutions have been implemented to promote sustainable mobility in urban areas. In the Nantes area (northwestern part of France, alternatives to single-occupant car use have increased in the past few years. In the urban area, there is an efficient public transport supply, including tramways and a “busway” (Bus Rapid Transit, as well as bike-sharing services. In periurban and rural areas, there are carpool areas, regional buses and the new “tram-train” lines. In this article, we focus on the impact on house prices of these “sustainable” transportation infrastructures and policies, in order to evaluate their values. The implicit price of these sustainable transport offers was estimated through hedonic price functions describing the Nantes urban and periurban/rural housing markets. Spatial regression models (SAR, SEM, SDM and GWR were carried out to capture the effect of both spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. The results show patterns of spatial heterogeneity of transportation offer implicit prices at two scales: (i between urban and periurban/rural areas, as well as (ii within each territory. In the urban area, the distance to such offers was significantly associated with house prices. These associations varied by type of transportation system (positive for tramway and railway stations and negative for bike-sharing stations. In periurban and rural areas, having a carpool area in a 1500-m buffer around the home was negatively associated with house prices, while having a regional bus station in a 500-m buffer was non-significant. Distance to the nearest railway station was negatively associated with house prices. These findings provide research avenues to help public policy-makers promote sustainable mobility and pave the way for more locally targeted interventions.

  7. Evaluation of Sustainable Development in Rural Territories in Latgale Region (Latvia) by Using the Conception of Smart Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipilova, Viktorija; Ostrovska, Inta; Jermolajeva, Elita; Aleksejeva, Ludmila; Olehnovics, Dmitrijs

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to achieve sustainable development is based on smart specialization. Rural areas are of particular importance in ensuring sustainable development, the smart development of which largely determines the balanced sustainable development of a state as a whole. The present study reflects the quantitative and the qualitative…

  8. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...

  9. What Can Rural Communities Do to Be Sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC was founded in 1965, various reports have been presented to summarize the progress in terms of economic development, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats among studied communities in the Appalachian region. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1 the condition and usage of facilities and services in the studied communities; (2 what factors contribute to local growth in improving areas; and (3 what barriers deter growth in the studied communities based on the perceptions of study participants. Ten studied counties were categorized based on their topography, demographics, and economics. Each sub-region has two selected counties (non-distressed and distressed to represent and compare their similar topography and various stages of demographic opportunities and economic development and challenges. Location is recognized as one of the significant factors that affect communities’ development. Counties perform better when they are adjacent to urban areas, own major transportation corridors, and have more supplies of natural resources than those located in more rural areas with fewer resources. This study noted the need to improve communication infrastructure (such as Internet access, broadband, and mobile communications that impact local development opportunities and public safety.

  10. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  11. Satisfaction and sustainability: a realist review of decentralized models of perinatal surgery for rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelsen, Jude; McCartney, Kevin; Williams, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article was developed as part of a larger realist review investigating the viability and efficacy of decentralized models of perinatal surgical services for rural women in the context of recent and ongoing service centralization witnessed in many developed nations. The larger realist review was commissioned by the British Columbia Ministry of Health and Perinatal Services of British Columbia, Canada. Findings from that review are addressed in this article specific to the sustainability of rural perinatal surgical sites and the satisfaction of providers that underpins their recruitment to and retention at such sites. A realist method was used in the selection and analysis of literature with the intention to iteratively develop a sophisticated understanding of how perinatal surgical services can best meet the needs of women who live in rural and remote environments. The goal of a realist review is to examine what works for whom under what circumstances and why. The high sensitivity search used language (English) and year (since 1990) limiters in keeping with both a realist and rapid review tradition of using reasoned contextual boundaries. No exclusions were made based on methodology or methodological approach in keeping with a realist review. Databases searched included MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and PAIS International for literature in December 2013. Database searching produced 103 included academic articles. A further 59 resources were added through pearling and 13 grey literature reports were added on recommendation from the commissioner. A total of 42 of these 175 articles were included in this article as specific to provider satisfaction and service sustainability. Operative perinatal practice was found to be a lynchpin of sustainable primary and surgical services in rural communities. Rural shortages of providers, including challenges with recruitment and retention, were found to be a complex issue, with

  12. Assessment of SIP Buildings for Sustainable Development in Rural China Using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Libiao; Wang, Hailing; Shi, Chunming; Du, Qiang; Li, Yi

    2017-10-25

    Traditional rural residential construction has the problems of high energy consumption and severe pollution. In general, with sustainable development in the construction industry, rural residential construction should be aimed towards low energy consumption and low carbon emissions. To help achieve this objective, in this paper, we evaluated four different possible building structures using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis, which consists of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Grey Correlation Analysis. The four structures included the traditional and currently widely used brick and concrete structure, as well as structure insulated panels (SIPs). Comparing the performances of economic benefit and carbon emission, the conclusion that SIPs have the best overall performance can be obtained, providing a reference to help builders choose the most appropriate building structure in rural China.

  13. Territorial Rural Development: Biosphere Reserves as an opportunity for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Benete Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategy to strengthen the field of rural development planning aims the search for social cohesion, regional competitiveness and environmental sustainability of the territories. In this sense, the current uncertain context characterized by the globalization of the economy, increasing demand for energy, erosion and pressure on natural resources demand for innovative models that promote rural development territorial strategies that give priority to local resources and that support local development models  In this stage, the model of territorial planning is established as a preferred option on models of local development settled under the concept of the municipality, since mobilizes resources and capabilities between regions that have common strengths and opportunities for promoting development and exceeding the vision and concept of the local as political-administrative unit. It is in this supra-municipal and territorial approach where Biosphere Reserves are an opportunity for sustainable territorial development.

  14. ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh--Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan E.A.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Kostecki, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Today, 35-77 million Bangladeshis drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater from shallow tube wells. Arsenic remediation efforts have focused on the development and dissemination of household filters that frequently fall into disuse due to the amount of attention and maintenance that they require. A community scale clean water center has many advantages over household filters and allows for both chemical and electricity-based technologies to be beneficial to rural areas. Full cost recovery would enable the treatment center to be sustainable over time. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) is compatible with community scale water treatment for rural Bangladesh. We demonstrate the ability of ECAR to reduce arsenic levels> 500 ppb to less than 10 ppb in synthetic and real Bangladesh groundwater samples and examine the influence of several operating parameters on arsenic removal effectiveness. Operating cost and waste estimates are provided. Policy implication recommendations that encourage sustainable community treatment centers are discussed.

  15. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE, VARIABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ZIMBABWE'S RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gukurume Simbarashe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural productivity in the communal area of Bikita. The article further examines the adaptation and mitigation strategies devised by farmers to deal with the vagaries of climate change and variability. The sustainability of these is also interrogated in this article. This study juxtaposed qualitative and quantitative methodologies albeit with more bias on the former. A total of 40 farmers were sampled for unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. This article argues that the adverse impacts of climate change and variability are felt heavily by the poor communal farmers who are directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood. From the study, some of the widely reported signs of climate variability in Bikita included late and unpredictable rains, high temperatures (heat waves, successive drought, shortening rainfall seasons and seasonal changes in the timing of rainfall. The paper argues that climate change has compounded the vulnerability of peasant farmers in the drought - prone district of Bikita plunging them into food insecurity and abject poverty. It emerged in the study that some of effects of climate variability felt by communal farmers in Bikita included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields, all of which have led to declining agricultural productivity. Findings in this study however established that communal farmers have not been passive victims of the vagaries of climate change and variability. They have rationally responded to it through various adaptation and mitigation strategies both individually and collectively.

  17. Establishing Priorities for Sustainable Environmental Design in the Rural Villages of Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pitts

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses sustainable rural village development in China. Rural development is unlike the process of urbanization in Chinese cities and reflects different land ownership rules and different organizational structures. Even though there are an increasing number of Chinese residents in cities, there are still more than 600 million people living in the countryside. The attention lavished on city development has been, in part, now refocused to rural villages. Since 2006, the support for large-scale investment in the countryside has created much change; however, not all of this change is well organized, with potential for less than optimum impacts on the environment and sustainability. The paper identifies the key influences and drivers from historic and contemporary points of view. The sustainability of the villages will derive from long-term self-sufficiency, and this must include the understanding of environmental design principles, which enable suitable dwelling design. Two villages are taken as contrasting examples, and information derived from other sources is discussed. Technologies and techniques that can help determine environmental design priorities are evaluated and directions for future development suggested. This includes development of a design support aid with key drivers of: orientation and site location, window design and key construction features.

  18. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  19. The role of green energy systems and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the buildup of small-scale rural based industry. This communication comprises a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development. It includes the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This study gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas. (author)

  20. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  1. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1996-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  2. Rail travel: Conceptualizing a study on slow tourism approaches in sustaining rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Noor Farah Atiqah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transportation in Peninsular Malaysia is a popular transportation mode for locals to return to their hometown but is not frequently used as the mode of transport when travelling for holidays. Rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia have immense opportunity to be promoted as a popular tourism destination without the need of intense modern development. Using train rather than taking a car or a bus would endorse the concept of slowness during travel enabling tourists to enjoy the time taken to travel rather than rushing to travel to a destination. Encouragement of travelling by rail to the rural towns will enable improved utilization of the existing rail network and further uplift the travel appeal to rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia. In order to promote the concept of slow tourism that would benefit the rural towns’ sustainability, the perception of tourists on travelling slowly by train should first be understood and taken for consideration. A qualitative methodology of in depth interviews with domestic and international tourists whom have travel on trains to the rural towns will be conducted.

  3. Is Sustainable Intensification Pro-Poor? Evidence from Small-Scale Farmers in Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Brüssow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of farming systems to higher levels of productivity without overusing natural resources is of rising interest especially in African countries, where population growth has often been larger than past productivity increases. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on whether environmentally friendly agricultural practices are compatible with economic interests. In the context of small-scale farm households in Tanzania, the analysis focuses on Conservation Agriculture (CA at different levels of agricultural output, as CA is a promising toolbox for sustainable intensification. The results are based on a household survey conducted in 2014 with 900 randomly selected small-scale farmers in rural Tanzania, i.e., in semi-arid Dodoma and in semi-humid Morogoro region. We find that mulching is most frequently applied, followed by crop rotation, fallowing, intercropping and tree planting. Logit regressions show that CA adoption is influenced by socio-economic factors, farm characteristics and the regional context. Quantile regressions explain different levels of agricultural output through variables related to the extent of using CA. They indicate that marginalized farmers have the strongest crop income effect from an increased use of mulching. With increasing levels of agricultural output, the use of mulching remains beneficial for farmers, but the effect appears less pronounced.

  4. Development of an integrated and sustainable rural service for people with diabetes in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Geoffrey J

    2006-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes is increasing leading to a greater burden on health care services. The impact of the growing prevalence is accentuated by remote and rural demographic and geographic characteristics. Highland is a sparsely populated remote and rural area in the north of Scotland, characterised by poor access to health-care services and pockets of marked deprivation. Centralised policy developments demanding local implementation compounded the pressures on a system that already had waiting times of over 90 weeks for some people with diabetes. A regional review of services, engaging stakeholders from all disciplines and geographical locations was required to develop acceptable and sustainable solutions. This article describes the extensive mapping process involved, how solutions were derived, and suggests a new service structure to encompass remote health-care issues. Health-care professionals with an interest in diabetes were identified and workshops were organised to include the remote areas of Highland. Patient and carers views were ascertained through workshops and supplemented by written submissions. Using the redesign methodology the patient pathway was mapped, noting service deficiencies and good practice. The information gathered was constructed into a service-level map representing the patient journey. A conference was organised to develop solutions to the issues raised during the mapping process. From these solutions a new service configuration was constructed. Over 300 health-care professionals patients and carers contributed. Fourteen workshops were held across the region including the remote areas, providing 15 local maps of the patient pathways subsequently amalgamated into a service-level map. The current patient pathway in Highland follows a traditional and dichotomous cycle of care in the primary and secondary care setting, partly reflecting the rural nature of healthcare in the Highlands. Four main areas for service improvement

  5. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanović Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  6. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN RURAL REGION: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE ALTAI TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Redkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravation of global environmental problems in the second half of XX century set the task of search of new options for modern world evolution. Thus in one of the first reports – «World Conversation Strategy», published in 1980 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the concept of sustainable development was just being discussed, in 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development in the renowned report «Our Common Future» recognized sustainable development as the central guiding principle for civilization (Our Common Future 1989. By the middle of the 1990s all fields of economic activity including tourism were incorporated with a view to the long-term development. First appeared in the materials of the World Conference on Sustainable Tourism (Lanzarote in 1995 the concepts of sustainable tourism development and sustainable tourism have gained increasing importance and were inscribed into many UNWTO documents and initiatives (Seselkin 2014. There’ so no well-established definition of sustainable tourism for now, while there’s distinct vision and framework approach to how it should be. Sustainable tourism is tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future development, capable to adapt to specific ethnic and cultural environment, meeting the requirements of social justice, ecologically compatible and retaining the economic advantages (Arsenyeva and others. Various types of tourism can be the basis for sustainable tourism industry in various regions. It must be the type most appealing for local community which by integrating other types of tourism will form tourist destinations due to the principles of sustainable development. Rural tourism serves as the basis for sustainable tourism in Altai krai.

  7. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  8. Fostering sustainable urban-rural linkages through local food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas Preiss, Potira; Charão-Marques, Flávia; Wiskerke, Johannes S.C.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream system of food supply has been heavily criticized in the last years due to its social and environmental impacts. Direct food purchasing schemes have emerged in recent decades as a form of supply that may be more ecologically sound and socially just, while allowing for a closer

  9. Field Testing of a Small Water Purification System for Non-PRASA Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...

  10. Potential of hybrid PV systems for rural South Africa: addressing income activities and water supply

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortiz, B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available " player to develop sustainable solutions and to scale-up hybrid PV systems for supplying energy and water to rural areas and to other African countries. The challenge to scale-up new renewable energy technologies in the next years is that they have...

  11. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  12. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  13. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  14. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  15. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURIST PRODUCT IN ROMANIACASE STUDY GORJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMȚU Liviu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of rural tourism as a tourism branch meets all requirements of sustainable development considering that can be touched all three pillars of this type of development: economic development, social development, environmental protection. In recent years rural tourism has benefited of sustainable development approaches, like other tourist product, unfortunately more in economically developed countries than in less developed countries such as Romania. A balanced development can be ensured through planning and zoning land to allow adapted development for tourism to the capacity of ecosystems. Any equipment or infrastructure item that is done at community level is a potential incentive for local development. Natural and human environment will become more active, stimulating local people to conserve natural monuments, archaeological sites, historical buildings and remains as important resources for economic growth and social welfare of local communities. The setting up of the tourist village typology is based on the highlighting of the specific of the rural localities, their classification within the tourist area of Romania, on a few fundamental types. From the theoretical point of view, the issue of the tourist villages typology could be optionally approached, but its application represents a necessary solution for the determination of the tourist features to be applied.

  16. THE HOUSING SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN THE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stolarska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The basic research material comprised empirical data on household budgets conducted by CSO (The Central Statistical Offi ce. The analysed housing conditions of 15 742 rural households in 2012 in Poland. Attention is paid to some households in poor housing situation. Diversity of housing situation and factors affecting this state of affairs is presented. We observe not only the diversity of household wealth, but there are also disparities in housing situation. Disturbing and contrary to the principles of sustainable development and sustainable consumption is the fact that there are signifi cant differences in the size (10–900 m2 and quality of fl ats. Some have more than one house, others are not able to meet their basic needs. Until 13% fl ats of rural households had leaky roofs, damp walls or rotting windows and fl oors. Nearly 1.3% of them also was too tight and located in an area with a low level of infrastructure. It was associated with poor revenue situation, but also the type of the main source of income, family situation and who was the owner of the apartment. Approx. 1.4% of the fl ats had no running water, and almost 18% were heated using heating furnaces, which are not only a nuisance in operation, but also emit carbon dioxide harmful to the environment. Some rural households (5% had credit, but they have better fi nancial situation than others.

  17. Rural Sanctuaries as ‘Smart Destinations’ – Sustainability Concerns (Mazovia Region, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlikowska-Piechotka Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this paper is to present and discuss the factors that need to be taken into account to ensure that the development and management of religious tourism at rural sites was sustainable from an economic, environmental and socio-cultural point of view. Among other issues, sustainable religious tourism means accessibility to the sanctuaries, protection of cultural and heritage values of the local community, benefits for the local residents and meaningful experience for visitors. Authors were especially interested in the less popular, more remotely located holy sites in Mazovia Region (Poland and two concerns: readiness to respond the needs of persons with different disabilities and local community opinion on tourists. As was documented by our research outcomes despite the recent numerous improvements, the most popular rural sanctuaries in Mazovia Region, remain only partially accessible for persons with disabilities. As masses of pilgrims have a significant effect on wellbeing and everyday life quality of residents (contributing both to positive and to negative effects, those who accept that tourists are important for economic development, benefit from it, creating ‘smart host area’. These rural communities which are not knowledgeable about positive impacts – see only negative consequences.

  18. Feasibility and Sustainability of Community Based Health Insurance in Rural Areas Case Study of Musana, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus MUCHABAIWA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zimbabwe Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS 2010-11 showed that only 6 percent of the population is covered by health insurance in Zimbabwe. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability and sustainability of Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI as an alternative to pooling risk and financing social protection in Zimbabwe. Willingness to Pay (WTP for health insurance and socioeconomic data were collected through interviews with 121 household heads selected using a 2-stage sampling procedure on 14 villages in Musana and Domboshava rural areas, a population which is largely unemployed and reliant on subsistence agriculture. A CBHI scheme was established and followed up for 3 years documenting data on visits made, financial contributions from recruited households and their actual health expenditures. Findings indicate that CBHI is generally accepted as a means of health insurance in rural communities. The median willingness to pay for health insurance was $5.43 against monthly expenditures ranging of up to $180. The low WTP is attributable to low incomes as only 3.4 percent of the respondents relied on formal employment. Trust issues, adverse selection, moral hazard, and administration costs were challenges threatening sustainability of CBHI. A financial gap averaging 42% was generally on a downward trend and was closed by the end of the follow-up study as contributions were equivalent to medical expenses. We conclude that CBHI is feasible, has potential for sustainability and should be considered as a springboard for the planned Zimbabwean National Health Insurance.

  19. PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development - is a part of the Baltic Sea Region's INTERREG II C program. The current report describes some theories, methods and tools developed under the PSSD project. First, the theoretical foundation of the project is described. Secondly, the role...... of indicators in sustainable development is discussed and a Web-based indicator generator is described. Thirdly, we describe a number of methods and tools, which support planning for sustainable development. Finally, some technical interface tools - especially a Web-based interface to the methods and tools...

  20. Assessing the impacts of the changes in farming systems on food security and environmental sustainability of a Chinese rural region under different policy scenarios: an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Qi, Xiaoxing; Fu, Yonghu; Ye, Jinwei

    2017-07-01

    Since China has undergone a series of economic reforms and implemented opening up policies, its farming systems have significantly changed and have dramatically influenced the society, economy, and environment of China. To assess the comprehensive impacts of these changes on food security and environmental sustainability, and establish effective and environment-friendly subsidy policies, this research constructed an agent-based model (ABM). Daligang Town, which is located in the two-season rice region of Southern China, was selected as the case study site. Four different policy scenarios, i.e., "sharply increasing" (SI), "no-increase" (NI), "adjusted-method" (AM), and "trend" (TD) scenarios were investigated from 2015 to 2029. The validation result shows that the relative prediction errors between the simulated and actual values annually ranged from -20 to 20%, indicating the reliability of the proposed model. The scenario analysis revealed that the four scenarios generated different variations in cropping systems, rice yield, and fertilizer and pesticide inputs when the purchase price of rice and the non-agricultural income were assumed to increase annually by 0.1 RMB per kg and 10% per person, respectively. Among the four different policy scenarios in Daligang, the TD scenario was considered the best, because it had a relatively high rice yield, fairly minimal use of fertilizers and pesticides, and a lower level of subsidy. Despite its limitations, ABM could be considered a useful tool in analyzing, exploring, and discussing the comprehensive effects of the changes in farming system on food security and environmental sustainability.

  1. Energy in rural Ethiopia: consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugetta, Y.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of ''real'' energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed. (author)

  2. Dynamics and forecast in a simple model of sustainable development for rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, David; Angulo, Fabiola; Olivar, Gerard

    2015-02-01

    Society is becoming more conscious on the need to preserve the environment. Sustainable development schemes have grown rapidly as a tool for managing, predicting and improving the growth path in different regions and economy sectors. We introduce a novel and simple mathematical model of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in order to obtain a dynamical description for each one of the sustainability components (economy, social development and environment conservation), together with their dependence with demographic dynamics. The main part in the modeling task is inspired by the works by Cobb, Douglas, Brander and Taylor. This is completed through some new insights by the authors. A model application is presented for three specific geographical rural regions in Caldas (Colombia).

  3. Health Systems Sustainability and Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrelli, Rita Maria; De Santis, Marta; Egle Gentile, Amalia; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    The paper is addressing aspects of health system sustainability for rare diseases in relation to the current economic crisis and equity concerns. It takes into account the results of the narrative review carried out in the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (Joint RD-Action) "Promoting Implementation of Recommendations on Policy, Information and Data for Rare Diseases", that identified networks as key factors for health systems sustainability for rare diseases. The legal framework of European Reference Networks and their added value is also presented. Networks play a relevant role for health systems sustainability, since they are based upon, pay special attention to and can intervene on health systems knowledge development, partnership, organizational structure, resources, leadership and governance. Moreover, sustainability of health systems can not be separated from the analysis of the context and the action on it, including fiscal equity. As a result of the financial crisis of 2008, cuts of public health-care budgets jeopardized health equity, since the least wealthy suffered from the greatest health effects. Moreover, austerity policies affected economic growth much more adversely than previously believed. Therefore, reducing public health expenditure not only is going to jeopardise citizens' health, but also to hamper fair and sustainable development.

  4. Advancing a sustainable highway system : highlights of FHWA sustainability activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FHWA is undertaking a significant amount of work related to sustainability across a number of program areas throughout the Agency. The purpose of this report is to showcase some of the ways in which FHWA is incorporating and embedding sustainability ...

  5. Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez

    2015-06-01

    The nature of our major global risks calls for sustainable innovations to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gases emission. The development of sustainable technologies has been negatively impacted by several factors including sugar production costs, production scale, economic crises, hydraulic fracking development and the market inability to capture externality costs. However, advances in engineering of biological systems allow bridging the gap between exponential growth of knowledge about biology and the creation of sustainable value chains for a broad range of economic sectors. Additionally, industrial symbiosis of different biobased technologies can increase competitiveness and sustainability, leading to the development of eco-industrial parks. Reliable policies for carbon pricing and revenue reinvestments in disruptive technologies and in the deployment of eco-industrial parks could boost the welfare while addressing our major global risks toward the transition from a fossil to a biobased economy.

  6. Smart Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (SIRES: A Novel Approach for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeel Maheshwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Technical and economic aspects of the viability of SIRES (Smart Integrated Renewable Energy Systems for sustainable development of remote and rural areas of the world are discussed. The hallmark of the proposed SIRES is the smart utilization of several renewable resources in an integrated fashion and matching of resources and needs a priori with the ultimate goal of “energization”, not just “electrification”. Historical background leading to this approach is succinctly presented along with a comprehensive schematic diagram. Modeling of various components and their collective use in optimizing SIRES with the aid of genetic algorithm are presented using a typical hypothetical example. SIRES is also compared with various approaches for rural development based on Annualized Cost of System (ACS and installation costs. Implementation of SIRES will lead to overall sustainable development of rural communities.

  7. Business strategies for transitions to sustainable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk); J.C. Bakel (Janneke); G.M. Whiteman (Gail); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a strategic perspective for business to contribute to the innovation of societal systems. Sustainability issues at the level of societal sectors cannot be addressed by single organizations but need to be thought of as systemic challenges in which business, government

  8. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  9. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    OpenAIRE

    Gary COKINS; Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC) and Activity-Based Management (ABM) system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resul...

  10. Sustainability of thermoplastic vinyl roofing membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graveline, S. P. [Sika Sanarfil, Canton, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB-RILEM) has developed a framework for sustainable roofing based on a series of tenets divided into three key areas: preservation of the environment, conservation of energy, and extended roof life. This paper investigated the sustainability of thermoplastic vinyl roof membranes using these guidelines and the relevant tenets for roof system selection. Several tenets provided alternatives for minimizing the burden on the environment using non-renewable raw materials, conserving energy with thermal insulation, and extending the lifespan of all roof components by using long lasting membranes. A life cycle assessment was carried out to provide a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of roofing materials. It was found that the PVC membrane systems had a lesser impact on the environment than other competing systems.

  11. Methodology for Monitoring Sustainable Development of Isolated Microgrids in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are a rapidly evolving and increasingly common form of local power generation used to serve the needs of both rural and urban communities. In this paper, we present a methodology to evaluate the evolution of the sustainability of stand-alone microgrids projects. The proposed methodology considers a composite sustainability index (CSI that includes both positive and negative impacts of the operation of the microgrid in a given community. The CSI is constructed along environmental, social, economic and technical dimensions of the microgrid. The sub-indexes of each dimension are aggregated into the CSI via a set of adaptive weighting factors, which indicate the relative importance of the corresponding dimension in the sustainability goals. The proposed methodology aims to be a support instrument for policy makers especially when defining sound corrective measures to guarantee the sustainability of small, isolated microgrid projects. To validate the performance of the proposed methodology, a microgrid installed in the northern part of Chile (Huatacondo has been used as a benchmarking project.

  12. Towards a sustainable industrial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Steve; Gregory, Mike; Ryan, Chris

    Our industrial system has been responsible for raising the quality of life of peoples around the world. It is becoming increasingly clear however, that the current system is creating unintended and serious consequences for the environment at a global level. Change on a significant scale is required...... who have not yet experienced them without exceeding the limits of our planet. This paper presents cases where industry is already taking action, and argues that: • dramatic improvements can be made by deploying existing expertise at the level of individual businesses • relying on technology alone...

  13. Placing value on the products and patrimony of rural lands in southern Brazil: contribution to sustainable land development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cerdan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes an analysis of the way in which agents of rural development have elaborated and implemented mechanisms to place value on the local specificities within two states of Brazil’s southern region. Within this context, consideration of biological and cultural diversity from a perspective of sustainable development imposes itself, whether directly or indirectly. We base our argument on two case studies of experiences that promote these mechanisms through placing emphasis on origins: i beef produced in native pastures of Rio Grande do Sul and ii Goethe wine, made in the Urussanga region of Santa Catarina. Both cases are considered illustrative of the current phase of evolution of debates dealing with the interface of geographic origins, protection of national heritage and sustainable rural development. Keywords: rural development, sustainable development, cultural heritage, Southern Brazil.

  14. Towards an integrated analysis of rural systems: the case study of the Alento basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

    2014-05-01

    The role and the functions of rural areas are undergoing considerable change due to economic, social and environmental drivers. The outcome of the transformation is the production of highly heterogeneous landscapes, rural mosaics, which are home to varying degrees of intensity of land-use and processes of deactivation, abandonment and land degradation. The identification of rural mosaics has implications both for determining the impacts on the stock of connected natural resources and for defining measures and policies able to support the resilience of rural territories and the identification of sustainable strategies for development. The study proposes a methodology for the integrated analysis of the rural territory which combines the analysis of land cover dynamics, using GIS, with an assessment of socio-economic dynamics, reconstructed through the combined use of indicators and local history, and which is aware that the differences and peculiarities within rural territories are the result of actions taken over time and of the different adaptive strategies undertaken by communities operating in different fields, under the influence of specific ecologic and environmental conditions. The methodology, applied to a socio-ecological system which is representative of the Mediterranean basin, is proposed as a tool to support the territorialisation of polices, opening the process up to perspectives able to better comprehend the dynamic evolution of rural territories, internalising that evolution in the definition of the instruments and measures to adopt.

  15. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  16. The walk out of the rural kitchen : towards planning energy services for sustainable rural livelihoods in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Nouralla

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is about rural energy services, the problems with accessibility and the consequences of their inaccessibility on rural livelihoods in the traditional rural areas of Sudan. The thesis is organised in six chapters. Chapter 1 starts by providing a background to the political and economic

  17. Strengthening training in rural practice in Germany: new approach for undergraduate medical curriculum towards sustaining rural health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens; Normann, Oliver; Herrmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    After decades of providing a dense network of quality medical care, Germany is facing an increasing shortage of medical doctors in rural areas. Current graduation rates of generalists do not counterbalance the loss due to retirement. Informed by international evidence, different strategies to ensure rural medical care are under debate, including innovative teaching approaches during undergraduate training. The University of Magdeburg in Saxony-Anhalt was the first medical school in Germany to offer a rural elective for graduate students. During the 2014 summer semester, 14 medical students attended a two-weekend program in a small village in Northern Saxony-Anhalt that allowed them to become more familiar with a rural community and rural health issues. The elective course raised a series of relevant topics for setting up rural practice and provided students with helpful insight into living and working conditions in rural practice. Preliminary evaluations indicate that the rural medicine course allowed medical students to reduce pre-existing concerns and had positive impact on their willingness to set up a rural medical office after graduation. Even short-term courses in rural practice can help reduce training-related barriers that prevent young physicians from working in rural areas. Undergraduate medical training is promising to attenuate the emerging undersupply in rural areas.

  18. Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Both China and India are currently attempting to balance rapid economic growth, technological growth and globalization with social equity and sustainable economic growth. This project will analyze inclusive innovations in two subsectors that are prominent in the rural context: agriculture and micro, small and medium ...

  19. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzina, Tatyana; Egorova, Natalia; Zaruba, Natalia; Kosinskij, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism) providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  1. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurzina Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  2. Referral system in rural Iran: improvement proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Naseriasl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of insufficient communication between primary health care providers and specialists, which leads to inefficiencies and ineffectiveness in rural population health outcomes, to implement a well-functioning referral system is one of the most important tasks for some countries. Using purposive and snowballing sampling methods, we included health experts, policy-makers, family physicians, clinical specialists, and experts from health insurance organizations in this study according to pre-determined criteria. We recorded all interviews, transcribed and analyzed their content using qualitative methods. We extracted 1,522 individual codes initially. We also collected supplementary data through document review. From reviews and summarizations, four main themes, ten subthemes, and 24 issues emerged from the data. The solutions developed were: care system reform, education system reform, payment system reform, and improves in culture-building and public education. Given the executive experience, the full familiarity, the occupational and geographical diversity of participants, the solutions proposed in this study could positively affect the implementation and improvement of the referral system in Iran. The suggested solutions are complementary to each other and have less interchangeability.

  3. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form...

  4. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning me...

  5. Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    This text provides an important overview of the contributions of edible insects to ecological sustainability, livelihoods, nutrition and health, food culture and food systems around the world. While insect farming for both food and feed is rapidly increasing in popularity around the world, the ro...

  6. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  7. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  8. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While...

  9. Can you model growth of trust? A study of the sustainability of a rural community health centre in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H. K.; Harper, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the service provided by any health facility is of vital importance to its sustainability, whether it is a community clinic in a rural area of a developing country or an international telemedicine service. Community health centres can be used as a means of delivering highly accessible, low-cost health service in the developing world. A major strategic issue for planners of such centres is the expected level of uptake of services throughout a region and its effect on sustainability of ...

  10. Sustainable electricity generation for rural and peri-urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa: The 'flexy-energy' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Ginies, P.; Coulibaly, Y.; Girard, P.

    2011-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy-energy' concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. - Research highlights: → Design and load management Optimization are big concerns for hybrid systems. → Hybrid solar PV/Diesel is economically viable for remote areas and environmental friendly. → 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas. → 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas.

  11. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Göran; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed

  12. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Göran, E-mail: goran.finnveden@abe.kth.se; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  13. Research on the Evaluation System for Rural Public Safety Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Jianxin; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The indicator evaluation system is introduced to the study of rural public safety planning in this article.By researching the current rural public safety planning and environmental carrying capacity,we select some carrying capacity indicators influencing the rural public safety,such as land,population,ecological environment,water resources,infrastructure,economy and society,to establish the environmental carrying capacity indicator system.We standardize the indicators,use gray correlation analysis method to determine the weight of indicators,and make DEA evaluation of the indicator system,to obtain the evaluation results as the basis for decision making in rural safety planning,and provide scientific and quantified technical support for rural public safety planning.

  14. Systems and practices in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    The financial crisis in 2007-2008 and the subsequent economic crisis served as a wake-up call for sustainable consumption studies. The literature on consumption and environment had little focus on finance, but the crisis made it clear that financial issues are important also from an environmental...... perspective. Credit plays an important role as a driver of unsustainable consumption, and financial mechanisms contribute to the widening inequalities as well as the build-up of macroeconomic instability. Looking ahead, transformation of finance is just as important for sustainability as transformation...... of the provision systems for food, transport, housing, etc. that are the dominant focus of environmental studies. Intertwined with these systems, the economy includes various other systems that are decisive for the overall economic and environmental performance and for the distribution of goods and services...

  15. The sustainability indicators of power production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onat, Nevzat [Vocational School of Technical Studies, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Bayar, Haydar [Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important elements of economical and social development is to provide uninterrupted electric energy to consumers. The increasing world population and technological developments rapidly increase the demand on electric energy. In order to meet the increasing demand for sustainable development, it is necessary to use the consumable resources of the world in the most productive manner and minimum level and to keep its negative effects on human health and environment in the lowest level as much as possible. In this study, alignment of hydrogen fuel cells, hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sourced electric energy systems, in addition to fossil fueled coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants, in respect to sustainability parameters such as CO{sub 2} emission, land use, energy output, fresh water consumption and environmental and social effects is researched. Consequently, it has been determined that the wind and nuclear energy power plants have the highest sustainability indicators. The fuel cells that use hydrogen obtained by using coal and natural gas are determined as the most disadvantageous transformation technologies in respect to sustainability. This study contains an alignment related to today's technologies. Using of renewable energy resources especially in production of hydrogen, output increases to be ensured with nanotechnology applications in photovoltaic systems may change this alignment. (author)

  16. Modelling a sustainability yardstick in modern energisation of rural sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Pillay, P.

    2007-01-01

    The bulk of rural Africa (as well as much of the third world) remains un-electrified and is underserved or poorly served by any other form of modern energy infrastructure. In case of a deep sub-Sahara African country like Kenya it is often dismissively argued that lack of finance and appropriate technology are the obvious causes. This argument would however not hold when applied to the more technologically advanced South Africa where a whopping 50% of rural households still suffer a similar fate. The common perception is that in the presence of modern technology the desired social change process will automatically commence. Unfortunately (and possibly due to pressure from donors) typical post project reports from the third world often contain deliberate commissions or omissions that essentially belie the grim reality on the ground. What seems to lack is a well-defined yardstick or standard check-off list as to the essential attributes of a sustainable energy dissemination project. Problems in modern society are now largely tackled using a wide range of software applications. However even with all the well-tested skills in computer coding endless consumer complaints abound. 'Usability Engineering' is an example a state-of-the-art scientific tool that has been extensively used in recent times by the software design industry to tackle such problems as enhancement of the human/computer interface. This paper proposes that these modern scientific tools could be adopted to create a yardstick and break the intangible technological barrier to African rural modernization to better the lot of our communities

  17. Analysis of the Role of Handicraft Production in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case of Sar Aqa Seyyed, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Divandari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prioritizing the Rural development is one of the fundamental concerns of the Islamic Republic of Iran that is not achieved only through the agriculture development in villages of Iran, since weakness of agricultural foundations affect the unstable ecological conditions including the shortage of agricultural fields and the lack of the increase in number of land plots under cultivation, and cannot provide the proper social and economic indices for rural development. Experiences of successful countries in the rural development show the importance of the village industrialization in creating the job opportunities and preventing the rural migration to the cities. Theory of development and industrialization of rural areas is a factor affecting the economic and social development process and may be considered as the last solution for solving the problem of poverty in the rural areas as we see its success in China through this paper. Therefore, this paper examines the role of the handicraft production in sustainable development in the Sar Aqa Seyyed village. A number of handicrafts including carpet weaving as the main handicrafts of Sar Aqa Seyyed village are still flourishing. Handicraft production and development in this village not only creates employment opportunities and income, but also can play a major role in sustainable development and the village independence.

  18. Tourism as a factor of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Lela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at tourism as an essential component of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory. The aim of the paper is to point to the role of tourism in the integration of rural areas into the national and international economy based on the analysis of the relevant rural development model and in terms of more efficient endogenous development. The main hypothesis is that rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory have significant natural and anthropogenic resources for tourism development. However, what lacks is an integrated strategy that would contribute to sustainability and strengthening of the competitiveness of the rural economy. In accordance with the subject of the paper, its aim and the set hypotheses, qualitative, quantitative and SWOT analysis were applied during the research. A survey was conducted in order to obtain positions and feedback from the key actors involved in tourism development. The paper is organized in eight sections. The main result of the research points to the necessity of giving priority to rural tourism development as an essential component of the revitalization of villages and local communities.

  19. Building Customer Loyalty in Rural Destinations as a Pre-Condition of Sustainable Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Ryglová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the issues of rural tourism with regard to the visitor’s loyalty towards the destination in a sustainable development context. Particularly, the findings of the research focused on exploring mutual relations among quality dimensions of the rural destination, overall satisfaction of the visitor, and his or her loyalty towards the destination are presented. A structural model was used to explore the relations among quality dimensions, overall satisfaction, and loyalty in the specific environment of the Czech Republic (inland European country, EU member, until 1989 a socialist country, nearly 93% municipalities with fewer than 3000 inhabitants. The research results allow deeper understanding of the visitor’s behavior and the factors influencing the loyalty towards the destination. The significance order of the dimensions according to their direct influence on the required loyalty towards the destination, i.e., coming back to the destination and spreading positive references to the destination, is as follows: 1. well-being, 2. image, 3. services. We conclude that overall satisfaction directly influences loyalty towards the destination.

  20. 2012 international year for sustainable energy for all: African Frontrunnership in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahama, Amadu

    2012-01-01

    2012 has been declared the “International Year for Sustainable Energy for All” by the UN. While Africa remains the most ‘underpowered’ continent, the prognosis for a brighter future is looking good, as key stakeholders (governments, private sector, civil society, and the donor community) have mobilized at an unprecedented scale to experiment with new policies, regulatory frameworks, and business models to rapidly upscale access to sustainable energy. The top-down, central grid expansion approach to increasing electricity access is very capital intensive and yet has gained considerable momentum at the expense of lower cost options that utilize decentralized off-grid solutions. A decentralized bottom-up approach could also use indigenous renewable energy sources and foster more significant linkages with livelihood opportunities in the rural un-served territories. This paper evaluates the emerging experiments through the lenses of C.K. Prahalad's “bottom of the pyramid” theory and Clayton Christensen's “disruptive technologies” perspective. Three front-runner initiatives involving new business models, innovative technologies, and institutional capacity building will be analyzed. In addition, the paper examines a regulatory policy initiative designed to stimulate clean energy investments in Ghana. Though the examples are all from Ghana, they illustrate general challenges to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. - Highlights: ► An analysis of innovative electricity access case studies from Ghana. ► Off-grid electrification options are keys to expanding electricity access in Africa. ► Base of the pyramid strategies for rural electrification has a niche in Africa. ► International collaboration will be crucial to achieve universal electricity access.

  1. Use of renewable sources of energy in function of the sustainable development of rural communities: Sierra del Escambray, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olalde Font, Raul; Quintana, Candido; Martinez Yon, Idielin; Cherni, Judilh

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows preliminary results of the result project. Theoretical aspects related to sustainable development of the communities are discussed. The likely success or failure of renewable energy solutions in isolated rural areas is assessed. The methodology is based on interviews with experts and political actors

  2. Use of renewable sources of energy in function of the sustainable development of rural communities: Sierra del Escambray, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olalde Font, Raul; Quintana, Candido; Martinez Yon, Idielin; Cherni, Judith

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows preliminary results of the RESUR Project. Theoretical aspects related to sustainable development of the communities are discussed. The likely success or failure of renewable energy solutions in isolated rural areas is assessed. The methodology is based on interviews with experts and political actors

  3. Study on the “3F-in-1” Sustainable Reconstruction of Rural Architecture from Placeality Perspective--A Case Study of Caiyuan Village in Jingmen City, Hubei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangyu, Fu; Yu, Cao

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes Caiyuan Village in Jingmen City of Hubei Province as the research object, analyzes the production, life and ecological functions of rural buildings and the “3F-in-1” inherent mechanism from the local perspective. Based on the concept analysis of placeality and “3F-in-1”, this paper clarifies the relationship among the value of life function, production function, ecological function so as to analyze the “3F-in-1” mode of rural architecture with placeality. On this basis, this thesis puts forward the strategy of sustainable spatial transformation (1) preserve the traditional overall spatial structure of villages, (2) improve the adaptability and function of rural architecture, (3) extend the rural social culture, (4) pay attention to local perception, with a view to explore an organic system design method for the exhibition of placeality and sustainable development of beautiful countryside.

  4. China's rural energy system and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The issues related to rural energy development and the corresponding escalating economic activities have given rise to a complex, interrelationship among societal, economics, energy, environment and rural policies. With 7% of the world's farm land to produce food for 23% of the world's population, combined with the increasing energy demands for modernised farming has resulted in a dynamic rural energy policy for China. This paper discusses the characteristics of a rural society, outlines the relationship for rural energy supply and demand management, and discusses the interrelationship between energy and the environment utilisation. An illustration of the diffusion of biomass as a success story highlights some of the policies related to self-building, self-managing and self-using. Also discussed in this paper are the results of the integrated rural energy-policy, that is, the social benefits to farmers and the decrease of energy consumption per unit of output. Emerging nations must undertake a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of their respective rural energy developments and the corresponding interrelationships between technology, economics and the environment. (Author)

  5. Is Western Australia's rural surgical workforce going to sustain the future? A quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia. Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel. Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery. Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the

  6. The sustainable IT architecture resilient information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, P

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), the basis of sustainable and more agile IT systems that are able to adapt themselves to new trends and manage processes involving a third party. The discussion is based on the public Praxeme method and features a number of examples taken from large SOA projects which were used to rewrite the information systems of an insurance company; as such, decision-makers, creators of IT systems, programmers and computer scientists, as well as those who will use these new developments, will find this a useful resource

  7. Low-cost engineering techniques in sustainable operation of a rural clean water plant in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengchai, P.; Keawkhun, K.; Suwapaet, N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems of water supply in many rural regions of Thailand result from the lack of awareness and financial limitations. Payanghang Clean Water Plant is an example of the rural water plant that has been suffering from the poor operation since 2003. The objective of this study was to modify the operation processes of this water plant to achieve cleaner water and better financial condition. Low-cost engineering techniques, such as the use of floating switches in filtration ponds, the use of water drip system for alum dosing and the addition of Tamarindus indica Linn seed solution was applied. As a result, 76% of turbidity removal efficiency was derived. Although, the difference was not statistically significant at 95% confidence level, higher removal efficiency in comparison with the one before modification (65%) suggested better operation. In the view of financial aspect, l07 dollars (1 baht = 0.0326 U.S. dollar) benefit was obtained from 7 month-operation period. (author)

  8. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang (ed.) [Tsinghua Univ. Beijing (China). China Automotive Energy Research Center

    2013-06-01

    The latest research available on automotive energy system analysis in China. Thorough introduction on automotive energy system in China. Provides the broad perspective to aid in planning sustainable road transport in China. Sustainable Automotive Energy System in China aims at identifying and addressing the key issues of automotive energy in China in a systematic way, covering demography, economics, technology and policy, based on systematic and in-depth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive studies. Five scenarios of China's automotive energy development are created to analyze the possible contributions in the fields of automotive energy, vehicle fuel economy improvement, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and the 2nd generation biofuel development. Thanks to this book, readers can gain a better understanding of the nature of China's automotive energy development and be informed about: (1) the current status of automotive energy consumption, vehicle technology development, automotive energy technology development and policy; (2) the future of automotive energy development, fuel consumption, propulsion technology penetration and automotive energy technology development, and (3) the pathways of sustainable automotive energy transformation in China, in particular, the technological and the policy-related options. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduates students in the low-carbon transportation and environmental protection field.

  9. Systemic Analysis of Food Supply and Distribution Systems in City-Region Systems—An Examination of FAO’s Policy Guidelines towards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Armendáriz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.

  10. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  11. Social Impacts of Solar Home Systems in Rural Areas: A Case Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative source of off-grid electric power, solar home systems (SHS stand out above all other options (e.g., wind, hydro, geo-thermal, tidal systems because of their wide-scale potential at latitudes less than 45° north or south of the Equator where daily solar irradiance is more constant throughout the year and where the bulk of the Third World’s population live. A questionnaire-based survey study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh to ascertain the impacts of SHSs on the lives of the rural population. The installation of an SHS was found to improve the comfort and living standard of rural dwellers. Easier access to TV, radio, cellphone, and the Internet helped the rural population become part of a more global culture. More attractive down-payment and installment package options will allow poor target groups to adopt this system. The standard of SHS components and after-sales service should be improved to ensure sustainably and popularity among the mass population for at least 10 years at minimal cost to the consumer. Our findings can also help policymakers adopt more SHS-friendly policies to further the interests of inhabitants of rural areas that are not connected to the grid.

  12. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  13. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  14. Toward Knowledge Systems for Sustainability Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P.; Jahn, M.

    2011-12-01

    Managing ecosystems for the outcomes of agricultural productivity and resilience will require fundamentally different knowledge management systems. In the industrial paradigm of the 20th century, land was considered an open, unconstrained system managed for maximum yield. While dramatic increases in yield occurred in some crops and locations, unintended but often foreseeable consequences emerged. While productivity remains a key objective, we must develop analytic systems that can identify better management options for the full range of monetized and non-monetized inputs, outputs and outcomes that are captured in the following framing question: How much valued service (e.g. food, materials, energy) can we draw from a landscape while maintaining adequate levels of other valued or necessary services (e.g. biodiversity, water, climate regulation, cultural services) including the long-term productivity of the land? This question is placed within our contemporary framing of valued services, but structured to illuminate the shifts required to achieve long-term sufficiency and planetary resilience. This framing also highlights the need for fundamentally new knowledge systems including information management infrastructures, which effectively support decision-making on landscapes. The purpose of this initiative by authors from diverse fields across government and academic science is to call attention to the need for a vision and investment in sustainability science for landscape management. Substantially enhanced capabilities are needed to compare and integrate information from diverse sources, collected over time that link choices made to meet our needs from landscapes to both short and long term consequences. To further the goal of an information infrastructure for sustainability science, three distinct but interlocking domains are best distinguished: 1) a domain of data, information and knowledge assets; 2) a domain that houses relevant models and tools in a curated

  15. Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Both China and India are currently attempting to balance rapid economic growth, ... Interrogating innovation systems : challenges of the excluded rural in India ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  16. Tourism as an Approach to Sustainable Rural Development in Post-Socialist Countries: A Comparative Study of Serbia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Petrović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the sustainable development of the Serbian and Slovenian countryside, under the influence of tourism progress. The article identifies the main rural tourism competitiveness in Serbia and Slovenia, as one of the essential factors of rural development in both countries, analyzing the main contributions and making a series of proposals to guide the future research agenda. The aim of the paper is to clarify around one obviously defined objective—to point out the competitiveness of sustainable rural tourism in typical post-socialist settings. The data for this study were collected using the Integrated Model of Destination Competitiveness to observe Serbian and Slovenian competitiveness in tourism. Determinants were assessed using a survey evaluating four demanding factors and 20 supporting factors, based upon a five-point Likert Scale. The results indicated that the friendliness of residents towards visitors, easy communication between them, together with quality of infrastructure and health facilities show the highest level of statistical correlation. These are the main propositions to start an initiative for the authorities in local communities to actively participate in sustainable rural development. The findings provide tourism stakeholders with relevant respondents’ perceptions pertaining to the tourism development in non-urban areas.

  17. Co-innovation of family farm systems: A systems approach to sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; García, M.C.; Peluffo, S.; Dieste, J.P.; Pedemonte, A.J.; Bacigalupe, G.F.; Scarlato, M.; Alliaume, F.; Alvarez, J.; Chiappe, M.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the goals of sustainable growth of food production and reducing rural poverty requires assisting family farmers to develop more productive, profitable, resource efficient and environmentally friendly farms. Faced with decreasing product prices and increasing production costs during the last

  18. Sustainable Development of Rural Areas in the EU and China: A Common Strategy for Architectural Design, Research Practice and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Cattaneo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research project to develop a set of goals and strategies aimed at policymakers, stakeholders, researchers, designers and/or some other groups of citizens’ communities whose development actions are undertaken in a specific rural context. The aim of the project was to move beyond the knowledge of the articulated architectural and social evolution of the rural areas in both the EU and China, looking at the local and global challenges, at the need for continuous adaptation and at the experiences of resilience that the countryside faces today. The paper shows, through two-pronged methods, such as semantic analysis and a meta-project design, that a common strategy can be set to support actions for the development of rural areas both in China and the EU. In doing so, this study has defined a strategy system tool that is a type of interactive and generative key-checklist that can be used by stakeholders in specific contexts, becoming a reading tool, a set of design guidelines or a decision facilitator support system. The results achieved have been tested through design application in two meta-projects that confirm the validity of the whole research framework with the aim of promoting a sustainable development and enhancement of places and rural communities.

  19. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  20. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-07

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  1. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  2. A Participatory Systemic Approach To Rural Community Development In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.

  3. Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2017-02-01

    The globalisation of agrifood systems is a mega-trend with potentially profound nutritional implications. This paper describes various facets of this globalisation process and reviews studies on nutritional effects with a particular focus on developing countries. Results show that global trade and technological change in agriculture have substantially improved food security in recent decades, although intensified production systems have also contributed to environmental problems in some regions. New agricultural technologies and policies need to place more emphasis on promoting dietary diversity and reducing environmental externalities. Globalising agrifood systems also involve changing supply-chain structures, with a rapid rise of modern retailing, new food safety and food quality standards, and higher levels of vertical integration. Studies show that emerging high-value supply chains can contribute to income growth in the small farm sector and improved access to food for rural and urban populations. However, there is also evidence that the retail revolution in developing countries, with its growing role of supermarkets and processed foods, can contribute to overweight and obesity among consumers. The multi-faceted linkages between changing agrifood systems and nutrition are a new field of interdisciplinary research, combining agricultural, nutritional, economics and social sciences perspectives. The number of studies on specific aspects is still limited, so the evidence is not yet conclusive. A review at this early stage can help to better understand important relationships and encourage follow-up work.

  4. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested.

  5. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  6. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Analysis of the role of strategic products in sustainable rural livelihoods (Case study: saffron production in the Roshtkhar rural district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Asghari Lafmejani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive agricultural and pharmaceutical product in the world. It is significant for several reasons such as having high water productivity compared to other crops. It is providing rural employment and preventing their migration, having high medicinal and spice values, ease of maintenance and transportation. Most importantly, it is producing a high revenue compared to other agricultural products. On this basis, due to the suitability of some parts of Iran to saffron production and the role of this product in the livelihood of rural households, assessment of the sustenance impacts of saffron production in the active villages seems absolutely necessary. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the status of saffron production and its role in the livelihood of rural households of the Roshtkhar Rural District. This research was done based on a descriptive-analytic approach. In this regard, the role of saffron cultivation in 355 households living in 13 villages with over 100 households in the study rural district was investigated. To this goal, after conducting documentary studies and initial field visits, a wide range of measures proportional to the circumstances of the study villages were adopted. Then, data collection was performed based on the selected indices and questionnaires were distributed to be filled by villagers and households... To analyze the data, the relevant statistical and spatial analyses were done through the application of Expert choice, SPSS, and ArcGIS software packages. The research findings indicated that the annual revenues derived from saffron production in 43.9% of the households under study were more than they obtained from other sources of income. Through the analysis of the study data, it can be concluded that saffron production has a significant effect on the improvement of the residents’ livelihood in the Roshtkhar Rural District and this fact has reinforced the households

  8. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  9. Emerging issues on the sustainability of the community based rural water resources management approach in Zimbabwe: A case study of Gwanda District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulani Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is considerable on-going debate about the suitability and sustainability of community based water resources management (CBWRM in Africa as a water provision strategy, evidence shows that this approach has gone a long way in promoting access to clean water amongst rural African communities. CBWRM provides an alternative approach to water provision for rural communities. This paper examines how the strategy has been operationalised in Gwanda District in Zimbabwe. The paper examines the experiences of rural communities in using CBWRM. Data was collected using focus group discussions, key informant in-depth interviews and a survey of 685 households in Gwanda district across five wards. The findings of this study are that 67% of the surveyed rural communities in Gwanda depended on community managed water resources mostly in the form of boreholes and protected wells. High rates of nun-functional sources were reported at 60-70% in most wards. Several system weaknesses were noted in the current CBWRM set-up including a depletion of committee memberships, inadequate community resources, limited agency and government support. This paper makes several recommendations on strengthening the capacity of CBWRM in Zimbabwe and Africa.

  10. A review of social sustainability considerations among EU-approved voluntary schemes for biofuels, with implications for rural livelihoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, Laura; Schoneveld, George

    2012-01-01

    The rapid expansion of biofuel production and consumption has raised concerns over the social and environmental sustainability of biofuel feedstock production, processing and trade. The European Union (EU) has thus balanced its commitment to biofuels as one option for meeting its renewable energy targets with sustainability criteria for economic operators supplying biofuels to member states. Seven voluntary “EU sustainability schemes” were approved in July, 2011 as a means to verify compliance. While mandated sustainability criteria have a strong environmental focus, a number of these voluntary schemes have social sustainability as a significant component of the requirements put forward for achieving certification. As several of these voluntary schemes are incipient, thereby limiting evidence on their effectiveness in practice, this analysis is based on a comparative analysis of the substantive content or ‘scope’ of these schemes and the likely procedural effectiveness of the same. Findings show that while some schemes have considerable coverage of social sustainability concerns, poor coverage of some critical issues, the presence of schemes lacking any social sustainability requirements, and gaps in procedural rules are likely to undermine the likelihood that social sustainability is achieved through these schemes or the EU sustainability policies lending credibility to them. - Highlights: ► Among 7 voluntary schemes approved by EC-RED for biofuel, social sustainability is sorely lacking. ► 2 Schemes lacking any social sustainability criteria collectively cover all feedstock/regions. ► The strong climate metric effectively sidelines development aspirations of southern producers. ► Only one of 7 standards will leverage the industry's potential as a stimulus to rural development. ► Policies in consumer markets are critical to give teeth to industry-led sustainability schemes.

  11. Building a sustainable workforce in a rural and remote health service: A comprehensive and innovative Rural Generalist training approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orda, Ulrich; Orda, Sabine; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Knight, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    Historically it has been challenging to recruit and retain an appropriately trained medical workforce to care for rural and remote Australians. This paper describes the Queensland North West Hospital and Health Service (NWHHS) workforce redesign, developing education strategies and pathways to practice, thereby improving service provision, recruitment and retention of staff. The Mount Isa-based Medical Education Unit sought accreditation for a Rural Generalist (RG) training pathway from Internship to Fellowship with the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) and the Regional Training Provider (RTP). This approach enhanced the James Cook University (JCU) undergraduate pathway for rurally committed students while improving recruitment and retention of RMOs/Registrars. Accreditation was achieved through collaboration with training providers, accreditation agencies, ACRRM and a local general practice. The whole pathway from ignore Internship to Fellowship is offered with the RG Intern intake as a primary allocation site beginning in 2016. Comprehensive supervision and excellent clinical exposure provide an interesting and rewarding experience - for staff at all levels. Since 2013 RMO locum rates have been <1%. Registrars on the ACRRM pathway and Interns increased from 0 to 7 positions each in 2015, with similar achievements in SMO staffing. Three RMOs expressed interest in a Registrar position, CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate governance is needed to develop and advertise the program. This includes the NWHHS, the RG Pathway and JCU. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  13. Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  15. Grasslands in India: Problems and perspectives for sustaining livestock and rural livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy K. Roy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, grazing-based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy as around 50% of animals depend on grazing. Pasturelands over an area of 12 Mha constitute the main grazing resources that are available. Temperate/alpine pastures are spread across elevations higher than 2000 m in the Eastern and Western Himalayas including the Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states. Nearly 30 pastoral communities in hilly or arid/semi-arid regions in northern and western parts of India, as well as 20 in temperate/hilly regions, depend on grazing-based livestock production. Due to overgrazing coupled with poor management and care, these grazing lands have deteriorated to a large extent and need amelioration or rehabilitation. Appropriate technologies have been developed, refined and tested in various research and academic institutions. These technologies need to be implemented on a large scale in different parts of the country for augmenting forage resources, enhancing livestock production and sustaining livelihood options in an eco-friendly manner.

  16. Sustainable use of endogenous touristic resources of rural areas: two portuguese case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Vareiro, Laurentina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence shows that tourism can give a real contribution to regional development and, in the case of certain remote and economic lagged territories, it is one of the best sectors to achieve this goal. This role of tourism as to do, namely, with the possibility of taking profit from the endogenous resources endowment of these territories. Meanwhile, the opportunities are not the same for each region and it is easy to understand that, considering the resources available, not every one has the choice to base its development strategy in the tourism sector. On the other hand, sustainable development depends, both, on conservation and valorisation of the resources potential and on diversification of tourism activities and products, no matter the agents or policy options are. Based on empirical research carried out in Caminha and Paredes de Coura portuguese municipalities, and in what Tourism in Rural Areas (TRA is concerned, we present in this paper a preliminary evaluation of the social and economic impacts of the tourism strategies followed. We also aim to extract some policy implications in order to better design future approaches to this issue of taking profit from resources endowment of territories. The starting point is the one of tourism based on quality, which serves the interests of local populations

  17. An Integrated Sustainable Business and Development System: Thoughts and Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Companies understand the importance of monitoring and managing their environmental impacts and aim to integrate, with consistent quality control, effective reduce-reuse-recycle programs and risk preventions. By building an integrated sustainable business and development system to meet certain environmental standards, many companies are eligible to be “green” certified. Companies may consider recognizing global visions on sustainability while implementing local best practices. An integrated sustainable business and development system includes talent management, sustainable supply chain, practicing strategies of leveraging resources effectively, implementing social responsibilities, initiating innovative programs of recycling, reducing, and reusing, advancing leaders’ perceptions towards sustainability, reducing innovation barriers, and engaging sustainable practices strategically.

  18. Controllability of complex networks for sustainable system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often non-linear and non-intuitive relationships among different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the system-wide implications of human actions. This basic un...

  19. WASTE OF LOCAL RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT – AN ATTEMPT OF THE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to explore the real problem of wasting local resources, which is in opposition to the principles of sustainable development, understood as avoiding waste of any resources. The article highlights the key manifestations of this problem and its implication for rural development. Some actions realised in the world are also mentioned – their implementation contributes to the prevention of this phenomenon.

  20. Model-based explorations to support development of sustainable farming systems: case studies from France and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Meynard, J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Sustainable land use requires development of agricultural production systems that, in addition to economic objectives, contribute to objectives in areas such as environment, health and well-being, rural scenery and nature. Since these objectives are at least partially conflicting, development of

  1. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia)]|[GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  2. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia); [GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  3. Habitat Patch Diversity Evaluation for Sustainability: a Case Study of a Rural Area in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mancinelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is regarded as a new tool for monitoring and judging land use patterns in terms of sustainability of human activity systems at local level. A case study of evaluation for sustainability based on habitat patch diversity in an ecoregion of Central Italy is presented. In this region, ongoing land use patterns reflect both historical adaptation to local environmental constraints and positive, social-oriented management. More protective land use patterns are mostly widespread in fragile physiographic conditions like those of the mountain areas, where woodland, shrub, and grassland patches are larger and cover more than 90% of the land. This situation is regarded as a positive outcome of the traditional public ownership regime, because public lands amount to more than 70% in the mountain areas. The hilly areas, where public property drops to 28%, presents landscape metrics showing a well balanced situation between agricultural land use and protective native woods and grasslands, which provides a finegrained and harmonious Mediterranean landscape. In the low-land areas, with anthropic pressure and more favourable conditions for crop productivity, there is much more agricultural land, even if some mitigation in terms of biodiversity maintenance is offered by the presence of hedgerow ecotones. In these areas, landscape analysis is not able to supply meaningful information about cropping system design and practices which can maintain a sustainable level of soil fertility and quality of natural resources and processes, and further analysis at cropping system level should be carried out.

  4. Report of the FAO/NACA Consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development: Chiang Rai, Thailand, 29-31 March 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development jointly organised by FAO and NACA in Chiang Rai, Thailand on 29-31 March 1999 to develop the detailed structure...

  5. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  6. Supplementary physicians' fees: a sustainable system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcoen, Piet; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2018-01-25

    In Belgium and France, physicians can charge a supplementary fee on top of the tariff set by the mandatory basic health insurance scheme. In both countries, the supplementary fee system is under pressure because of financial sustainability concerns and a lack of added value for the patient. Expenditure on supplementary fees is increasing much faster than total health expenditure. So far, measures taken to curb this trend have not been successful. For certain categories of physicians, supplementary fees represent one-third of total income. For patients, however, the added value of supplementary fees is not that clear. Supplementary fees can buy comfort and access to physicians who refuse to treat patients who are not willing to pay supplementary fees. Perceived quality of care plays an important role in patients' willingness to pay supplementary fees. Today, there is no evidence that physicians who charge supplementary fees provide better quality of care than physicians who do not. However, linking supplementary fees to objectively proven quality of care and limiting access to top quality care to patients able and willing to pay supplementary fees might not be socially acceptable in many countries. Our conclusion is that supplementary physicians' fees are not sustainable.

  7. Environmental Management Systems and Sustainability in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in manufacturing sector has been allocated a major consideration in the international literature. Due to growing concerns over the high effect of SMEs on world manufacturing industries and their contribution to pollution; this research attempts to focus on the key parameters that interact in the application of environmental management system, taking into account the main features of SMEs and also the integral role of industrial entrepreneurs in inspiring their firms’ approaches. The paper explores the potential opportunities which enable these enterprises to move towards organizations with high level of responsibility regarding environmental protection in order to provide a healthier life for future generations. Case investigation is carried out on an adhesive manufacturing company, which covers a notable market share within the sector. The research identifies that the company requires developing both internal and external entities within an explicit plan to revolutionize the recruitment patterns. Given the lack of adequate studies in adhesive technology, more researches are recommended in the future to consider the sustainable innovations on a broader sample of adhesive manufacturing companies to perform the life-cycle analysis due to the harmful organic compounds and toxic vapours of the adhesive products.

  8. Social Innovation and Sustainable Rural Development: The Case of a Brazilian Agroecology Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Rover

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food is central to human beings and their social life. The growing industrialization of the food system has led to a greater availability of food, along with an increasing risk perception and awareness in consumers. At the same time, there is an increasing resistance from citizens to the dominant model of production and a growing demand for healthy food. As a consequence, an increasing number of social networks have been formed worldwide involving the collaboration between producers and consumers. One of these networks, the Ecovida Agroecology Network, which operates in Southern Brazil, involves farming families, non-governmental organizations, and consumer organizations, together with other social actors. Using a qualitative approach based on participant observation and an analysis of documents, the article examines this network. The theoretical framework used is social innovation, which is commonly recognized as being fundamental in fostering rural development. Results show that Ecovida has instigated innovations that relate to its horizontal and decentralized structure, its participatory certification of organic food, and its dynamic relationship with the markets based on local exchanges and reciprocal relations. Furthermore, such innovation processes have been proven to impact on public sector policies and on the increasing cooperation between the social actors from rural and urban areas.

  9. Rural environmental planning in a family farm: education, extension and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Developing research, teaching and extension in university programs is fundamental to capacitate professionals for the challenging endeavors. Considering the importance of these three university functions as relevant learning practices, the objective of this study was to analyze qualitatively the development of teaching project proposals associated with extension activities, directed to the rural environmental planning in an Agricultural Production Unit, in order to identify the issues and their degree of applicability. Twenty project proposals were developed in the "Rural Environmental Planning" course to plan an Agricultural Production Unit, which were subsequently evaluated by the farmer. This discipline is part of the Bachelor's degree course in Environmental Management and Analysis of the Universidade Federal de São Carlos. The projects followed qualitative research methods using the systemic and participatory approach. At the end of the process the farmer answered an evaluation matrix of the projects. Development of the projects was particularly important for the students and for their knowledge on the various topics covered, which also resulted in factual improvement perspectives in the Agricultural Production Unit. Construction of knowledge was participatory and integrated between the students and farmer.

  10. The concept of sustainable tourism development in rural areas – A case study of Zbąszyń commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiak Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in rural areas has been defined as all tourist activities conducted in rural areas. The development of tourism in rural areas is dependent on external factors (e.g. landscape attractiveness, as well as internal factors (e.g. involvement of local authorities and society. Hence, it is important to increase the tourism potential for further increase of local tourism, and in turn to intensify the social-economic development according to a sustainable policy and multifunctional rural development. The main aim of the present study was to indicate possibilities to improve tourism management of the Zbąszyń urban-rural commune. For this purpose the following detailed aims were set: to evaluate local society satisfaction with tourism development in Zbąszyń commune, to evaluate the natural-landscape state of the analyzed area, to designate a new tourist trail or to revise the existing trails, and to propose modernization of existing tourism infrastructure. The obtained results revealed that in the opinion of local society there is still not sufficient tourism development despite some natural-landscape values. Hence, activities connected with tourism enrichment should be mainly connected with designation of two new cycling trails and supplementation of tourist information signs and tables. All proposed activities leading to an increase of tourism potential should bear in mind social aspects as well as natural values and would have a positive effect on economic income of the area.

  11. Planning and Management Directed to Urban Sustainability: an analysis of the Italian Circuit of Rural Tourism (CITUR), Colombo, Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda Dias, Eliza Mara; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná; Bollmann, Harry Alberto; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná

    2017-01-01

    This text’s objective is to discuss the importance of urban planning and management directed to sustainability, presenting the rural tourism as an alternative public policy. For the case study, the Italian Circuit of Rural Tourism (CITUR) in Colombo, Parana was considered, analyzing it as a public policy that contributes to a sustainable municipal development. For the research’s development, CITUR entrepreneurs, visitors, and representatives of the municipal government were interviewed. For a...

  12. Smart energy control systems for sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Spataru, Catalina; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the way that smart energy control systems, such as assessment and monitoring techniques for low carbon, nearly-zero energy and net positive buildings can contribute to a Sustainable future, for current and future generations. There is a turning point on the horizon for the supply of energy from finite resources such as natural gas and oil become less reliable in economic terms and extraction become more challenging, and more unacceptable socially, such as adverse public reaction to ‘fracking’. Thus, in 2016 these challenges are having a major influence on the design, optimisation, performance measurements, operation and preservation of: buildings, neighbourhoods, cities, regions, countries and continents. The source and nature of energy, the security of supply and the equity of distribution, the environmental impact of its supply and utilization, are all crucial matters to be addressed by suppliers, consumers, governments, industry, academia, and financial institutions. Thi...

  13. Sustainable food systems for optimal planetary health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Noor, Ramadhani A; Golden, Christopher D; Juma, Calestous; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-06-01

    Sustainable food systems are an important component of a planetary health strategy to reduce the threat of infectious disease, minimize environmental footprint and promote nutrition. Human population trends and dietary transition have led to growing demand for food and increasing production and consumption of meat, amid declining availability of arable land and water. The intensification of livestock production has serious environmental and infectious disease impacts. Land clearing for agriculture alters ecosystems, increases human-wildlife interactions and leads to disease proliferation. Context-specific interventions should be evaluated towards optimizing nutrition resilience, minimizing environmental footprint and reducing animal and human disease risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS CASE STUDY: PAPER MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emiliana Fortună

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for promoting sustainability by using indicators for sustainable production. The concept of sustainable production is described as it is viewed by various organisms actions involved in the analysis of the sustainable industrial systems.The measure of sustainability is approached considering indicators of sustainable production, addressing both their dimensions and qualitative and quantitative features.The proposed framework refines the sustainability dimension for a case study which envisages sustainability in paper manufacturing. The analysis takes into account the life cycle analysis for the considered process since the environmental impact is seen as an essential sustainability indicator. Paper recycling and reuse is associated environmental and social costs, as a preferred alternative in waste minimization hierarchy in the manufacturing of non-trees eco-friendly paper.Proactive initiatives to improve the environmental performances of production process are considered as powerful tools for improving the paper manufacturing environmental footprint.

  15. Managing Decline in Rural School Systems: Program Organization and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackney, L. E.

    Organizational theory offers rural school administrators several ways of thinking about retrenchment made necessary by declining enrollment. Obstacles to innovative responses to retrenchment include a shift in how organizations are perceived: from closed systems in which rational decisions are made about changes, to open systems in which…

  16. Sustained use of biogas fuel and blood pressure among women in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Maniraj; Basnyat, Buddha; Fischer, Rainald; Froeschl, Guenter; Wolbers, Marcel; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    More than two fifths of the world's population cook with solid fuels and are exposed to household air pollution (HAP). As of now, no studies have assessed whether switching to alternative fuels like biogas could impact cardiovascular health among cooks previously exposed to solid fuel use. We conducted a propensity score matched cross-sectional study to explore if the sustained use of biogas fuel for at least ten years impacts blood pressure among adult female cooks of rural Nepal. We recruited one primary cook ≥ 30 years of age from each biogas (219 cooks) and firewood (300 cooks) using household and measured their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Household characteristics, kitchen ventilation and 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide were assessed. We matched cooks by age, body mass index and socio-economic status score using propensity scores and investigated the effect of biogas use through multivariate regression models in two age groups, 30-50 years and >50 years to account for any post-menopausal changes. We found substantially reduced 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide levels among biogas-using households. After matching and adjustment for smoking, kitchen characteristics, ventilation status and additional fuel use, the use of biogas was associated with 9.8 mmHg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), -20.4 to 0.8] and 6.5 mmHg lower DBP (95% CI, -12.2 to -0.8) compared to firewood users among women >50 years of age. In this age group, biogas use was also associated with 68% reduced odds [Odds ratio 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.71)] of developing hypertension. These effects, however, were not identified in younger women aged 30-50 years. Sustained use of biogas for cooking may protect against cardiovascular disease by lowering the risk of high blood pressure, especially DBP, among older female cooks. These findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal or experimental studies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustained use of biogas fuel and blood pressure among women in rural Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Maniraj; Basnyat, Buddha; Fischer, Rainald; Froeschl, Guenter; Wolbers, Marcel; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Background More than two fifths of the world's population cook with solid fuels and are exposed to household air pollution (HAP). As of now, no studies have assessed whether switching to alternative fuels like biogas could impact cardiovascular health among cooks previously exposed to solid fuel use. Methods We conducted a propensity score matched cross-sectional study to explore if the sustained use of biogas fuel for at least ten years impacts blood pressure among adult female cooks of rural Nepal. We recruited one primary cook ≥30 years of age from each biogas (219 cooks) and firewood (300 cooks) using household and measured their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Household characteristics, kitchen ventilation and 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide were assessed. We matched cooks by age, body mass index and socio-economic status score using propensity scores and investigated the effect of biogas use through multivariate regression models in two age groups, 30–50 years and >50 years to account for any post-menopausal changes. Results We found substantially reduced 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide levels among biogas-using households. After matching and adjustment for smoking, kitchen characteristics, ventilation status and additional fuel use, the use of biogas was associated with 9.8 mmHg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), −20.4 to 0.8] and 6.5 mmHg lower DBP (95% CI, −12.2 to −0.8) compared to firewood users among women >50 years of age. In this age group, biogas use was also associated with 68% reduced odds [Odds ratio 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.71)] of developing hypertension. These effects, however, were not identified in younger women aged 30–50 years. Conclusions Sustained use of biogas for cooking may protect against cardiovascular disease by lowering the risk of high blood pressure, especially DBP, among older female cooks. These findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal or experimental studies. PMID:25460655

  18. Incentives and market development to establish sustainable biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson Gary, C.

    2009-01-01

    Business-as-usual is not acceptable when it comes to the future for biomass-to-energy/product conversion industry. Incentives and market development need to be applied to guide the owners and operators towards the sustainable practices. Sustainability for biomass is defined to be future energy fuels and bio products that are secure, renewable, and accessible locally, affordable, and pollution free. Intensives are required to convert biomass-to-energy/product conversion systems that are not sustainable into sustainable formats. (Author)

  19. Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice–Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    The rice-wheat system is a predominant cropping system in Asia providing food, employment and income, ensuring the livelihoods of about 1 billion of resource poor rural and urban people. However, the productivity of the current rice-wheat systems is seriously threatened by increasing land degradation and scarcity of water and labour, inefficient cropping practices and other emerging socio economic and environmental drivers. Responding to the need to develop alternate crop establishment methods and improved cropping practices, this publication summarizes the results from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on optimizing productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems. It provides relevant information on how to modify existing water and nutrient management systems and improve soil management in both traditional and emerging crop establishment methods for sustainable intensification of cereal production in Asia

  20. SUSTAINABILITY OF TAX SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN (CSATLOS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, sustainable development is the key to the development of contemporary society and future generations. Sustainability has become a key point for the debates in the political, economic, and academic environment. Therefore, today wehave reached the point when we speak of a country or company sustainability, of environmentalor agricultural sustainability, while speaking,at the same time, of fiscal policy sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Romanian fiscal policy sustainability in terms of tax revenues. The methodology used in this research is bibliographical analysis of specialist literature and statistical analysis of data. Bibliographical analysis was used to define operating concepts: fiscal sustainability and tax revenues. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between2005and2013, as well as the share of tax revenues in the general consolidated budget of Romania. Statistical data were processed using Microsoft Excel and presented as evolution diagrams. The novelty and originality of the present work consist in the bibliographical study on Romanian fiscal policy sustainability, the statistical study on the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between 2005and2013, and the analysisof fiscal policy sustainability in Romania in terms of tax revenues.

  1. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    OpenAIRE

    Prialé, María Angela; Fuchs, Rosa María; Sáenz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed compani...

  2. Using Causal Loop Diagramming to Explore the Drivers of the Sustained Functionality of Rural Water Services in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Neely

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that international water sector development work has issues with a lack of sustained positive outcomes. A large driver of this outcome is how NGOs work with communities to implement and then manage water services. Many NGOs tend to focus their efforts on improving their reach and organisational growth by continually engaging in new projects. This behaviour is largely driven by short-term donor funding models that reward extended coverage, leaving little focus on sustained outcomes. Similarly, community-based management (CBM schemes often impede sustained services as a result of the community’s limited capacity to operate and maintain the technology. To explore these complicated drivers on water service sustainability, we used causal loop diagramming to analyse the key aspect influencing the combined dynamics between NGOs, donors and CBM. We demonstrate this methodology through a study in Timor-Leste, where we gathered data necessary to develop and apply causal loop diagrams to analyse rural water supply program outcomes. The analysis of these diagrams allowed identification of leverage points used to suggest structural changes for sustained benefits of water services. These structural changes emphasize the importance of increased robustness and reliability of water technology and the associated impact this has on community satisfaction and, conjointly, on water service sustainability.

  3. Accelerating the transition to sustainable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The slow pace of transition to sustainable energy systems is the result of several factors running in parallel. The starting points are very low. Even 30% per annum increases in rated capacity (for wind energy or solar PV, for example) take many years to make a big impact at the global level. Policy initiatives are for the most part ineffectual in relation to the urgency and scale of what is required, and often fail to address the fundamental causes of this slow progress. This reflects a 'top-down' approach-often accompanied by unrealistic targets and simultaneously undermined by a lack of consistency across policies, which reflect a 'utopian social engineering mentality', made worse because: 'The Planner's response to failure of previous interventions (is) to do more intensive and comprehensive interventions' as William Easterly has put it. In short, there is little or no accountability. This approach has failed to harness the sympathy, imagination, self-interest, or sound options of energy users-although it may attract developers, including those not hitherto noted for renewable energy projects or environmental concern. Targets are usually too short term and clearly unrealistic, especially where fossil fuel use is rising very rapidly, and renewable energy use expands modestly. Government subsidies for traditional energy forms continue. Insufficient attention is paid to what individuals might achieve in energy efficiency and renewable energy terms if permitted to have, or retain (in industrialized countries, where the burden of taxation is often inhibiting), the wherewithal to make the necessary investments. Subsidy systems often promote renewable energy schemes that are misdirected and buoyed up by grossly exaggerated claims. One or two mature renewable energy technologies are pushed nationally with insufficient regard for their costs, contribution to electricity generation, transportation fuels' needs, or carbon emission avoidance. Investors are rewarded

  4. PERFORMANCES COMPARISON BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA PROVINCE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desni Triana Ruli Saragih

    2015-10-01

    were no differences in household members, experience, average pig owned, working hours, selling period, litter size and number of farrowing. There are nine point of pig farming improvement that should be done to sustain pig farming systems in Manokwari Papua. Education may be improved by provide informal and skillful education. Pig ownership should be increased. Working hours must be increased. Pig keeping in the pens should be done by farmers. Managing pigs with additional time is important so that pigs will be maintained well. Litter sizes both in urban and rural are low, therefore further improvements are needed. Recording pig productivities must be done by every farmer. (Key words: Arfak pig farmers, Pig performance, Rural pig farming, Urban pig farming

  5. CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability atracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-term solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

  6. Environmental Sustainability of Some Cropping Systems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from most findings reviewed in this paper had shown that there was no one size fits cropping system that can be use for sustainability of the humid environment but the best approach was the diversification of both traditional and modern cropping systems. The transition to systems which are both sustainable and ...

  7. National report for CSD-16 The Netherlands: A review of sustainable development in agriculture, land and rural development, drought and desertification, and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Boone, K.; de Bont, C.; Brouwers, J.; Hack-Ten Broeke, M.; Migchels, G.; Oenema, O.; van de Peet, G.; Pinxterhuis, I.; Smit, A.; Stuiver, M.; Sukkel, W.; Verkerke, W.; Verzandvoort, S.; Visser, A.; Zwart, K.; Damen, M.

    2008-01-01

    This report forms the Netherlands’ contribution to CSD-16 (2008) of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. It comprises an overview of the Netherlands’ policies, priorities and activities with regard to sustainable development in the fields of agriculture, land and rural development, drought

  8. Using overseas registered nurses to fill employment gaps in rural health services: quick fix or sustainable strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne; Doolan, Glenn; Sellick, Ken; Barnett, Tony

    2008-06-01

    This study sought to identify and evaluate approaches used to attract internationally trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional countries and incentives employed to retain them in small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria. An exploratory descriptive design. Small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria. Hospital staff responsible for recruitment of nurses and overseas trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional sources (e.g. England, Scotland, India, Zimbabwe, Holland, Singapore, Malaysia). Recruitment of married overseas trained nurses is more sustainable than that of single registered nurses, however, the process of recruitment for the hospital and potential employees is costly. Rural hospitality diffuses some of these expenses by the employing hospitals providing emergency accommodation and necessary furnishings. Cultural differences and dissonance regarding practice create barriers for some of the overseas trained nurses to move towards a more sanguine position. On the positive side, single overseas registered nurses use the opportunity to work in rural Australian hospitals as an effective working holiday that promotes employment in larger, more specialized hospitals. Overall both the registered nurses and the employees believe the experience to be beneficial rather than detrimental.

  9. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.

  10. Assessing the Sustainability of Decentralized Renewable Energy Systems: A Comprehensive Framework with Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Katre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of models of Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE systems, particularly for rural electrification, is growing globally. Most approaches to assess the sustainability of these solutions beyond simple techno-economic considerations are comparative in nature, and only allow us to evaluate performance within a set of other interventions. This leaves a gap in our understanding of the conditions for a specific model to be sustainable and whether its replication is likely to succeed. The approach suggested develops a framework to evaluate the sustainability of specific models for energy access individually and proposes analytical methods to illustrate its use. It combines the multi-dimensional analysis over five sustainability dimensions and the Multi-Tier Framework (MTF to assess technical sustainability, extending MTF’s rigorous scoring methodology to the other dimensions. The scores are based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from key stakeholders, taking into account different perspectives and aims. The framework and analytical methods are exemplified using a subset of data collected in over 40 off-grid DRE systems utilizing a common community ownership and hybrid financial structure. The proposed methodology can be used to understand the sustainability conditions of a given approach to energy access and can therefore be used by practitioners and policy makers to develop strategies and guide policies to roll out effective solutions.

  11. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami

    2016-01-01

    from financial and sustainability reports of four leading Chinese iron and steel firms. The proposed sustainable assessment system is envisaged to help Chinese iron and steel firms to objectively investigate their sustainability performance, provide clear and effective information to decision makers......The environmental impact of the Chinese iron and steel industry is huge due to its high consumption of ore, coal and energy, and water and air pollution. It is important not only for China but also for the rest of the world that the Chinese iron and steel industry becomes more sustainable....... A sustainable assessment indicator system is an important tool to support that development. Currently, however, a sustainable assessment system, specifically designed to match the characteristics of Chinese iron and steel firms, is not available. In this paper such a system is proposed and evaluated using data...

  12. The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril I.; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tudzharov, Gjorgji

    2001-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  13. Sustaining the rural primary healthcare workforce: survey of healthcare professionals in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Helen M; Farmer, Jane; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam

    2005-01-01

    Many westernised countries face ongoing difficulties in the recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote and rural communities. Predictors of rural working have been identified by the international literature, and include: the individual having been born or educated in a rural location; exposure to rural healthcare during training; access to continuing professional education; good relationships with peers; spousal contentedness; adoption of a rural 'lifestyle'; successful integration into local communities; and educational opportunities for children. However, those themes remain unverified in the UK. The present study aimed to ascertain whether the internationally identified determinants of recruitment and retention of the rural health workforce apply in the Highlands of Scotland, which includes the most sparsely populated area of the UK mainland, as well as an urban area. In 2003, a questionnaire was sent to all 2070 primary healthcare professionals working in the Highlands (which makes up one-third of Scotland's land area (9800 square miles) and has just 4% of the country's population (209,000)). Approximately one-quarter of the Highland's population live in Inverness. The area is ideal for investigating the rural workforce due to its population sparsity and the inclusion of small towns and Inverness, allowing urban/rural comparisons. The questionnaire asked about places of birth and education; intentions to stay/leave current location; professional isolation; access to amenities; and perceptions of belonging to the local community. The response rate was 53%. Compared with respondents working in urban areas, those working in rural areas were more likely to have been born in rural areas. Professionals living in rural areas were more likely to have been born outside Scotland and to have completed their secondary education and professional training outside Scotland, compared with those living in urban areas. Approximately one-third (34%) had lived in

  14. Evaluation of criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programs via a modified pairwise comparison method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia has long introduced homestay programs across the country to enhance the quality of life of people, especially those living in rural areas. This type of program is classified as a community-based tourism (CBT) as it is expected to economically improve livelihood through cultural and community associated activities. It is the aspiration of the ministry to see that the income imbalance between people in the rural and urban areas is reduced, thus would contribute towards creating more developed states of Malaysia. Since 1970s, there are 154 homestay programs registered with the ministry. However, the performance and sustainability of the programs are still not satisfying. There are only a number of homestay programs that perform well and able to sustain. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify relevant criteria contributing to the sustainability of a homestay program. The criteria are evaluated for their levels of importance via the use of a modified pairwise method and analyzed for other potentials. The findings will help the homestay operators to focus on the necessary criteria and thus, effectively perform as the CBT business initiative.

  15. Sustainable Tourism Development: the Adaptation and Resilience of the Rural Communities in (the Tourist Villages of Karimunjawa, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2009 to 2015, the growth of tourism in the tourist villages (desa wisata of Karimunjawa underwent rapid progress. However, the level of poverty in Karimunjawa remained high. Nevertheless, the involvement of rural people in the sustainable development of tourism has received only limited discussion. Therefore, this article discusses the rural communities’ adaptation and resilience in Karimunjawa with the support of sustainable development planning in tourist villages. It covers the background of sustainable development, the elements of the communities’ adaptive capacity and resilience, and the role of the regional government. Empirical evidence of variations in the capacity to respond to changes of socioeconomic and ecological environments due to tourism development is presented. In addition, a case study is used in this article to describe how the people learned from their experience, knowledge, and past efforts. To obtain the necessary information, in-depth interviews were conducted with a number of key informants in the tourist villages of Karimunjawa, which were selected via purposive and snowball sampling. The results of the research show that social resilience will increase among those communities that are capable of accessing flexible social networks. These social networks are practical tools that open up the dissemination of new information and knowledge. This is a key element for a stronger process of transformation. Furthermore, communities that have capital and financial access as well as skills will also be capable of adaptation to the transformation process.

  16. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  17. Alternative energy supply system to a rural village in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Background Most households in rural developing countries do not have access to modern energy supply. Household level biogas energy was considered as an option but failed due to lack of sufficient resources for its installation and operation. A community energy system can be an option, but most

  18. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es), a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED'electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity fro...

  19. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es) ,a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED' electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity f...

  20. Harnessing the sun: Developing capacity to sustain local solar energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarewaju, Olufemi

    2011-12-01

    Use of solar photovoltaic (PV) and other renewable sources to meet rising electricity demand by a growing world population has gained traction in many countries in recent years. In rural Sub-Saharan Africa, where 86 percent of the populace has no access to electricity, solar energy systems represent partial solutions to demand, especially in support of rural development initiatives to supply potable water, health care services and education. Unfortunately, development of human and organizational capacity to maintain solar technology has not kept pace with the rate of installation, causing many to fall into disrepair and disuse. This has stimulated interest in capacity development processes required to make solar systems sustainable. To cast light on the practical meanings and challenges of capacity development for solar energy, this study compares the experiences of two rural projects, one in Lagos State (Nigeria) that disregarded the importance of capacity development, and the other in Texas (United States) that, in contrast, made such development the centerpiece of its operations. Based largely on interviews with 60 key actors, findings underscore the crucial importance of sustained investment in capacity development to assurance of durable power supply from renewable sources.

  1. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami; Boer, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of the Chinese iron and steel industry is huge due to its high consumption of ore, coal and energy, and water and air pollution. It is important not only for China but also for the rest of the world that the Chinese iron and steel industry becomes more sustainable. A sustainable assessment indicator system is an important tool to support that development. Currently, however, a sustainable assessment system, specifically designed to match the characteristics of Chinese...

  2. The integration of traditional and advanced design in the formation of sustainable New Rural Housing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Tran, Van

    2018-04-01

    Socio-economic growth in Vietnam greatly depends on the new rural development process in this country; the work is considered a strategic position in national development. Thus, the study of the principles of the architectural design of new rural housing solutions in accordance with the New Rural Environment as required by the Vietnam Ministry of Construction has become urgent. Climate change has become a global concern, so the creation of significant impacts by architectural designs to respond to climate change and make the living environment of rural people better is a major demand. Experience has shown that the dogmatic application of current urban-type housing does not reach the requirements of New Rural Housing. This research intends to show that the solutions of the traditional Vietnamese rural house, which retains the advantages of traditional architecture with excellent characteristics that have been challenged over thousands of years, when combined with advanced design methodologies and technologies, will be the appropriate solution for ‘New Rural Housing’.

  3. Food system sustainability for health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2015-09-01

    To describe how Indigenous Peoples understand how to enhance use of their food systems to promote sustainability, as demonstrated in several food-based interventions. Comments contributed by partners from case studies of Indigenous Peoples and their food systems attending an international meeting were implemented with public health interventions at the community level in nine countries. The Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy, where experiences from case studies of Indigenous Peoples were considered and then conducted in their home communities in rural areas. Leaders of the Indigenous Peoples' case studies, their communities and their academic partners. Reported strategies on how to improve use of local food systems in case study communities of Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples' reflections on their local food systems should be encouraged and acted upon to protect and promote sustainability of the cultures and ecosystems that derive their food systems. Promoting use of local traditional food biodiversity is an essential driver of food system sustainability for Indigenous Peoples, and contributes to global consciousness for protecting food biodiversity and food system sustainability more broadly. Key lessons learned, key messages and good practices for nutrition and public health practitioners and policy makers are given.

  4. Guidebook : managing operating costs for rural and small urban public transit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This guidebook is a resource for rural and small urban transit agency managers to use in better understanding, predicting, and managing operational costs. Doing so can improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of public transit in the...

  5. Integrated Systems Mitigate Land Degradation and Improve Agricultural System Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Rain-fed agricultural production supported by exogenous inputs is not sustainable because a continuous influx of expensive inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, fossil fuel, labor, tillage, and other) is required. Alternatives to traditional management allow natural occurring dynamic soil processes to provide the necessary microbial activity that supports nutrient cycling in balance with nature. Research designed to investigate the potential for integrated systems to replace expensive inputs has shown that healthy soils rich in soil organic matter (SOM) are the foundation upon which microbial nutrient cycling can reduce and eventually replace expensive fertilizer. No-till seed placement technology effectively replaces multiple-pass cultivation conserving stored soil water in semi-arid farming systems. In multi-crop rotations, cool- and warm-season crops are grown in sequence to meet goals of the integrated farming and ranching system, and each crop in the rotation complements the subsequent crop by supplying a continuous flow of essential SOM for soil nutrient cycling. Grazing animals serve an essential role in the system's sustainability as non-mechanized animal harvesters that reduce fossil fuel consumption and labor, and animal waste contributes soil nutrients to the system. Integrated systems' complementarity has contributed to greater soil nutrient cycling and crop yields, fertilizer reduction or elimination, greater yearling steer grazing net return, reduced cow wintering costs grazing crop residues, increased wildlife sightings, and reduced environmental footprint. Therefore, integrating crop and animal systems can reverse soil quality decline and adopting non-traditional procedures has resulted in a wider array of opportunities for sustainable agriculture and profitability.

  6. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  7. Rural Health in the People's Republic of China; Report of a Visit by the Rural Health Systems Delegation, June 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    A 28-day visit to the People's Republic of China during June and July 1978 by the Rural Health Systems Delegation from the United States, sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, resulted in an exchange of information about rural health policy and planning. Specific areas of emphasis included:…

  8. Assessment Framework and Decision—Support System for Consolidating Urban-Rural Construction Land in Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Cai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization transforms urban-rural landscape and profoundly affects ecological processes. To maintain a sustainable urbanization, two important issues of land-use need to be quantified: the comprehensive variation of urban-rural construction land and the specific models for consolidating these lands. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework to assess the change of urban-rural construction land and build a decision-support system for consolidating these lands. Four sub-layers were first built in the assessment framework, including the characteristic layer, the coordination layer, the potential layer and the urgency layer. Each layer encompassed specific indices for evaluating the change of urban-rural construction land in different aspects. The entropy method was then applied to the data resources from Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper images, statistical data and overall land-use and land consolidation planning of Nantong city in coastal China to allocate weightings to the indices in each sub-layer. Finally, the decision-support system was built based on the assessment results and the degree of importance for consolidating urban and rural construction land, respectively. The results of our study show an overall investigation and quantitative description of the change of urban-rural construction land and provide an effective framework for land consolidation and land use management.

  9. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  10. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  11. Model of sustainable development of energy system, case of Hamedan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahabmanesh, Aref; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable economic growth and improvement of the social welfare depend upon the sufficient supply of energy resources, while the utilization of energy resources is one of the main factors of environmental degradation. This research is involved with development of a sustainable energy system model and a new method for sustainability assessment. This model represents the flow of energy from primary resources through processing, conversion, and end-use technologies in an optimization framework where the useful energy demand in various social and economic sectors is met. The impact of energy supply and consumption chain on the environment at each level of energy system is also embedded in the model structure. A multi-criteria analysis of changes is then applied and sustainable development indices of the whole system are concluded. Finally, effects of the energy subsidy policy and high economic growth rate on sustainability of the energy system in three scenarios are analyzed. Results demonstrate that energy subsidy decelerates the improvement rate of the total sustainability index. Also, when a high economic growth is accompanied with the energy subsidy this index reduces considerably. Results show that how penetration of renewable energy potentials changes the sustainability situation of energy systems. - Highlights: • Developing a new model for sustainable energy systems. • Presenting a new method for sustainability assessment of energy systems. • Optimizing the energy flow and capacity expansion of Hamedan energy system. • Utilizing an MCDA approach to obtain sustainability indices of the whole system. • Analysis of energy subsidy and high economic growth on energy sustainability.

  12. Placing Ecosystem Sustainability Within the Context of Dynamic Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecos...

  13. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  14. Exploring cultural connectedness in the sustainability of rural community tourism development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque de la investigación sobre la sostenibilidad del turismo rural comunitario en Jamaica a menudo gravita hacia los componentes económicos, ambientales, políticos y de gestión. Este estudio etnográfico explora cómo dos grupos distintivos- Charles Tow Marrons, descendientes de los esclavos combatientes de la resistencia y Seaford Town Germans, descendientes de trabajadore contratados en Alemania-están explotando su cultura por medio del turismo rural comunitario a la moda nuevas fuentes de sustento. La discusión se ofrece detalles sobre cómo la gente se basan en su pasado para generar tangibles e intagibles productos de turismo cultural. Se destac la cultura significados tiene para los habitantes rurales en relación con el sentido del lugar, la identidad y el desarrollo del turimo rural comunitario sostenible.

  15. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  16. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddle, D.B.; Perlack, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  17. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  18. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  19. A rural transit asset management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This reports the research undertaken to create an interactive, geographic information system based asset management system for the Alabama Department of Transportation to manage vehicles purchased and operated through Section 5310 and 5311 federal gr...

  20. Sustainability concept for energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review is aimed to introduce historical background for the sustainability concept development for energy, water and environment systems. In the assessment of global energy and water resources attention is focussed in on the resource consumption and its relevancy to the future demand. In the review of the sustainability concept development special emphasize is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its relevancy to the historical background of the sustainability idea. In order to introduce measuring of sustainability the attention is devoted to the definition of respective criteria. There have been a number of attempts to define the criterions for the assessment of the sustainability of the market products. Having those criterions as bases, it was introduced a specific application in the energy system design

  1. Do entrepreneurial food systems innovations impact rural economies and health? Evidence and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaker, Marilyn; Kolodinsky, Jane; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Seguin, Rebecca A

    A potential solution for weakened rural economies is the development of local food systems, which include affordable foods sources for consumers and economically feasible structures for producers. Local food systems are purported to promote sustainability, improve local economies, increase access to healthy foods, and improve the local diets. Four entrepreneurial food systems innovations that support local economies include farmers' markets, community supported agriculture, farm to institution programs and food hubs. We review current literature to determine whether innovations for aggregation, processing, distribution and marketing in local food systems: 1) enable producers to make a living; 2) improve local economies; 3) provide local residents with greater access to affordable, healthy food; and 4) contribute to greater consumption of healthy food among residents. While there is some evidence for each, more transdisciplinary research is needed to determine whether entrepreneurial food systems innovations provide economic and public health benefits.

  2. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  3. Rural applications of Advanced Traveler Information Systems : evaluation of satellite communications systems for mayday applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of satellite communication systems for mayday applications conducted as part of the Rural Applications of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) study. It focuses on satellite communications sy...

  4. Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods: What do they really certify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangel, Josefin, E-mail: josefin.wangel@abe.kth.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallhagen, Marita, E-mail: marita.wallhagen@hig.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, SE-801 76 Gävle (Sweden); Malmqvist, Tove, E-mail: tove.malmqvist@abe.kth.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Finnveden, Göran, E-mail: goran.finnveden@abe.kth.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development – BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward. - Highlights: • BREEAM-C and LEED-ND were analysed in terms of content and structure. • Specific attention was given to the type of indicators used for showing compliance. • In both systems procedure and feature indicators dominate over performance indicators. • Several other limitations of these certification systems were also identified. • Altogether the limitations imply that a certificate does not warrant sustainability.

  5. Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods: What do they really certify?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangel, Josefin; Wallhagen, Marita; Malmqvist, Tove; Finnveden, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development – BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward. - Highlights: • BREEAM-C and LEED-ND were analysed in terms of content and structure. • Specific attention was given to the type of indicators used for showing compliance. • In both systems procedure and feature indicators dominate over performance indicators. • Several other limitations of these certification systems were also identified. • Altogether the limitations imply that a certificate does not warrant sustainability.

  6. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  7. Building reactor operator sustain expert system with C language integrated production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Qin; Hu Shouyin; Wang Ruipian

    2002-01-01

    The development of the reactor operator sustain expert system is introduced, the capability of building reactor operator sustain expert system is discussed with C Language Integrated Production System (Clips), and a simple antitype of expert system is illustrated. The limitation of building reactor operator sustain expert system with Clips is also discussed

  8. Revisiting System Paradigms from the Viewpoint of Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuming Bi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers’ requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers’ needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the consideration of sustainability becomes essential to today’s manufacturing systems; a new challenge is how to evolve existing paradigms to accommodate the requirements of sustainability. In contrast to ample research activities on system paradigms in past decades, recent studies on system paradigms have been restricted, partially due to unclear research directions. Limited works can be found on conceiving new manufacturing system paradigms from the perspective of sustainability; most of the related literature concerns the new requirements of sustainability. The objectives of this work are (i to examine the requirements of manufacturing systems in a wider scope; (ii to revisit existing paradigms to clarify their limitations and bottlenecks; and eventually (iii to identify some research directions, which will lead to a solution of sustainable manufacturing. To achieve these objectives, firstly, a brief description of today’s manufacturing environment is provided. Secondly, the requirements of sustainability are discussed, and the relevant researches on system sustainability are surveyed. Thirdly, the reconfigurable system paradigm is focused, and the gaps between a reconfigurable manufacturing system and a sustainable manufacturing system are discussed. Finally, the future endeavors towards to the next-generation manufacturing system paradigms are discussed.

  9. Understanding sustainability from an exergetic frame in complex adaptive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Hernandez, Glem Alonso

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sustainability was developed from thermodynamic properties applied to complex adaptive systems. The origins of the perception about sustainable development and limitation in its application to analyze the interaction between a system and its surroundings were described. The properties of a complex adaptive system were taken as basis to determine how a system can to be affected by the resources restriction and irreversibility of the processes. The complex adaptive system was understood using the first and second law of thermodynamics, generating a conceptual framework to define the sustainability of a system. The contributions developed by exergy were shown to analyze the sustainability of systems in an economic, social and environmental context [es

  10. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  11. Post-Construction Support and Sustainability in Community-Managed Rural Water Supply : Case Studies in Peru, Bolivia, and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Akanbang (Bernard); A. Alvestegui (Alfonso); A. Bakalian (Alexander); B. Bucheli (Brenda); J. Davis (Jennifer); J. Izaguirre (Jorge); M. Jeuland (Marc); K. Komives (Kristin); E. Larbi (Eugene); G. Lizárraga (Gloria); H. Lukacs (Heather); L. Prokopy (Linda); B. Soto (Betty); R. Thorsten (Richard); B. Tuffuor (Benedict); W. Wakeman (Wendy); D. Whittington (Dale)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractExecutive Summary This volume reports the main findings from a multi-country research project that was designed to develop a better understanding of how rural water supply systems are performing in developing countries. We began the research in 2004 to investigate how the provision of

  12. Socially sustainable work organizations and systems thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, M.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2010-01-01

    This Research Note seeks to add to the body of knowledge concerning social sustainability in work organizations, especially within the context of new challenges and threats in contemporary, post-industrial working life. Moreover, the intention is to explore the added value of the complexity lens in

  13. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  14. Sustainable Capture: Concepts for Managing Stream-Aquifer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Jeffrey C; Mehl, Steffen W

    2015-01-01

    Most surface water bodies (i.e., streams, lakes, etc.) are connected to the groundwater system to some degree so that changes to surface water bodies (either diversions or importations) can change flows in aquifer systems, and pumping from an aquifer can reduce discharge to, or induce additional recharge from streams, springs, and lakes. The timescales of these interactions are often very long (decades), making sustainable management of these systems difficult if relying only on observations of system responses. Instead, management scenarios are often analyzed based on numerical modeling. In this paper we propose a framework and metrics that can be used to relate the Theis concepts of capture to sustainable measures of stream-aquifer systems. We introduce four concepts: Sustainable Capture Fractions, Sustainable Capture Thresholds, Capture Efficiency, and Sustainable Groundwater Storage that can be used as the basis for developing metrics for sustainable management of stream-aquifer systems. We demonstrate their utility on a hypothetical stream-aquifer system where pumping captures both streamflow and discharge to phreatophytes at different amounts based on pumping location. In particular, Capture Efficiency (CE) can be easily understood by both scientists and non-scientist alike, and readily identifies vulnerabilities to sustainable stream-aquifer management when its value exceeds 100%. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Operationalizing sustainability in urban coastal systems: a system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2013-12-15

    We propose a system dynamics approach for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in urban coastal systems. A systematic analysis based on theoretical considerations, policy analysis and experts' knowledge is followed in order to define the concept of ESD. The principles underlying ESD feed the development of a System Dynamics Model (SDM) that connects the pollutant loads produced by urban systems' socioeconomic activities with the ecological condition of the coastal ecosystem that it is delineated in operational terms through key biological elements defined by the EU Water Framework Directive. The receiving waters of the Athens Metropolitan area, which bears the elements of typical high population density Mediterranean coastal city but which currently has also new dynamics induced by the ongoing financial crisis, are used as an experimental system for testing a system dynamics approach to apply the concept of ESD. Systems' thinking is employed to represent the complex relationships among the components of the system. Interconnections and dependencies that determine the potentials for achieving ESD are revealed. The proposed system dynamics analysis can facilitate decision makers to define paths of development that comply with the principles of ESD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing a sustainable business model for e-governance embedded rural telecentres (EGERT in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Naik

    2011-06-01

    The first part of this article, the academic perspective, suggests an alternative model for rural telecentres, the e-governance embedded rural telecentres (EGERT, in which e-governance is an important service to be provided, and details the contentious issues clustered round the role of the government; the viability of partnership models with the private and NGO sectors; the institutional design for rural telecentres; the services to be rendered by the centres and the likely markets for them; the location of the centres and support in the form of infrastructure and manpower; and the technology to support the institutional design. Stakeholder representatives from the government, the industry, the NGO sector and the academia discuss these issues in the second part of the article, and make suggestions towards a viable model for service.

  17. Framing in innovation. Towards sustainable agro-food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartkruis, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability issues in the agro-food sector have become increasingly important, and in order to deal with these sustainability issues, innovations are deemed necessary. Only introducing new technologies is not enough, system innovations are needed in which changes in the whole socio-technical

  18. The mediating effect of sustainability control system on reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses part of the viability of green supply chain management practices created for fisheries industry to implement sustainability control system adoption as mediating on reverse logistics innovation and customer environmental collaboration towards sustainability performance. It examines reverse logistics ...

  19. Health financing and integration of urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Zhang, Luying; Yuan, Shasha; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zhiruo

    2017-11-07

    China is in the process of integrating the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the urban residents' basic medical insurance system (URBMI) into the urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance system (URRBMI). However, how to integrate the financing policies of NCMS and URBMI has not been described in detail. This paper attempts to illustrate the differences between the financing mechanisms of NCMS and URBMI, to analyze financing inequity between urban and rural residents and to identify financing mechanisms for integrating urban and rural residents' medical insurance systems. Financing data for NCMS and URBMI (from 2008 to 2015) was collected from the China health statistics yearbook, the China health and family planning statistics yearbook, the National Handbook of NCMS Information, the China human resources and social security statistics yearbook, and the China social security yearbook. "Ability to pay" was introduced to measure inequity in health financing. Individual contributions to NCMS and URBMI as a function of per capita disposable income was used to analyze equity in health financing between rural and urban residents. URBMI had a financing mechanism that was similar to that used by NCMS in that public finance accounted for more than three quarters of the pooling funds. The scale of financing for NCMS was less than 5% of the per capita net income of rural residents and less than 2% of the per capita disposable income of urban residents for URBMI. Individual contributions to the NCMS and URBMI funds were less than 1% of their disposable and net incomes. Inequity in health financing between urban and rural residents in China was not improved as expected with the introduction of NCMS and URBMI. The role of the central government and local governments in financing NCMS and URBMI was oscillating in the past decade. The scale of financing for URRBMI is insufficient for the increasing demands for medical services from the insured. The pooling fund

  20. Indonesia solar home systems project for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghvi, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents, from a financing aspect the broad issues involved in a plan to provide solar home systems (SHS) to provide rural electrification in several areas of rural Indonesia. The paper discusses the approaches being used to provide funding, develop awareness of the technology, and assure the success of the project. The plan involves the use of grant money to help with some of the initial costs of such systems, and thereby to encourage local financing on a terms rather than cash basis. There are needs for market development, and development of a business structure in the country to support this type of technology. Provided this plan can succeed, it may serve as a model for further efforts.

  1. Dynamics of sustained use and abandonment of clean cooking systems: study protocol for community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Chalise, Nishesh; Yadama, Gautam N

    2016-04-26

    More than 3 billion of the world's population are affected by household air pollution from relying on unprocessed solid fuels for heating and cooking. Household air pollution is harmful to human health, climate, and environment. Sustained uptake and use of cleaner cooking technologies and fuels are proposed as solutions to this problem. In this paper, we present our study protocol aimed at understanding multiple interacting feedback mechanisms involved in the dynamic behavior between social, ecological, and technological systems driving sustained use or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies among the rural poor in India. This study uses a comparative case study design to understand the dynamics of sustained use or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies and fuels in four rural communities of Rajasthan, India. The study adopts a community based system dynamics modeling approach. We describe our approach of using community based system dynamics with rural communities to delineate the feedback mechanisms involved in the uptake and sustainment of clean cooking technologies. We develop a reference mode with communities showing the trend over time of use or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies and fuels in these communities. Subsequently, the study develops a system dynamics model with communities to understand the complex sub-systems driving the behavior in these communities as reflected in the reference mode. We use group model building techniques to facilitate participation of relevant stakeholders in the four communities and elicit a narrative describing the feedback mechanisms underlying sustained adoption or abandonment of cleaner cooking technologies. In understanding the dynamics of feedback mechanisms in the uptake and exclusive use of cleaner cooking systems, we increase the likelihood of dissemination and implementation of efficacious interventions into everyday settings to improve the health and wellbeing of women and children most affected

  2. Strengthening of rural areas and small islands on a sustainable basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of the scope for supporting peripheral areas without conflicts with an objective of promoting sustainable development in the transport sector.......Assessment of the scope for supporting peripheral areas without conflicts with an objective of promoting sustainable development in the transport sector....

  3. 77 FR 10939 - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Sustainable Product Procurement Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Bio... economic development, create new jobs, and provide new markets for farm commodities. Biobased and sustainable products help to increase our energy security and independence. The Federal Government, with...

  4. Sustaining organizational culture change in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron David; Saul, Jessie; Bevan, Helen; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Mannion, Russell; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Howland, David; Jenkins, Emily; Bitz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The questions addressed by this review are: first, what are the guiding principles underlying efforts to stimulate sustained cultural change; second, what are the mechanisms by which these principles operate; and, finally, what are the contextual factors that influence the likelihood of these principles being effective? The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors conducted a literature review informed by rapid realist review methodology that examined how interventions interact with contexts and mechanisms to influence the sustainability of cultural change. Reference and expert panelists assisted in refining the research questions, systematically searching published and grey literature, and helping to identify interactions between interventions, mechanisms and contexts. Six guiding principles were identified: align vision and action; make incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy; foster distributed leadership; promote staff engagement; create collaborative relationships; and continuously assess and learn from change. These principles interact with contextual elements such as local power distributions, pre-existing values and beliefs and readiness to engage. Mechanisms influencing how these principles sustain cultural change include activation of a shared sense of urgency and fostering flexible levels of engagement. The principles identified in this review, along with the contexts and mechanisms that influence their effectiveness, are useful domains for policy and practice leaders to explore when grappling with cultural change. These principles are sufficiently broad to allow local flexibilities in adoption and application. This is the first study to adopt a realist approach for understanding how changes in organizational culture may be sustained. Through doing so, this review highlights the broad principles by which organizational action may be organized within enabling contextual settings.

  5. Implementation of a sustainable energy plantation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bassam, N.; Bacher, W.

    2000-01-01

    Renewable energy sources should be developed to form the foundation of the global energy structure in the future. This is related to the shortage of fossil energy resources, the greenhouse effects, the increasing number of world's population and the increasing demand for energy and food. Fuels derived from energy crops are not only potentially renewable, but are also sufficiently similar in origin to the fossil fuels to provide direct substitution. They can be converted into a wide variety of energy carriers. Together with solar- and wind technique, adequate energy supply can be to meet the demand of people in rural regions. The concept of Integrated Energy Farms (IEF) has been developed and described in this contribution which includes a decentralised living area from which the daily necessities (food and energy) can be produced directly on-site for approximately 700 people. The area needed to produce biofuels will not exceed 10 % of the whole farm area. (Author)

  6. Leadership for Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Areas: Bridging Personal and Institutional Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Padt, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid transformations offer new challenges for rural regions to invent new pathways for development. For many, an obvious choice is to set out on the path towards economic growth and to compete with other regions for global, mobile capital and labor. There is however an increasing awareness that in

  7. The glue that holds the community together? Sport and sustainability in rural Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the author's research in northwest Victoria, Australia, this essay examines the forms of capital that are created in and through rural sport as well as the processes of social inclusion and exclusion that structure access to social networks and to the resources these networks contain. In

  8. Institutional Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Resources Management: Changing the rules of the game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaria Guerra, J.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to critically examine the state of the art of institutional innovation and to identify the theories of action informing it in rural research and development (R&D) organisations.The study was carried out in three cases. The selected case studies are different in their

  9. Effects of Rural – Urban Interaction on Socio-Economic Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural dwellers in the study area. Policy makers and development workers should exploit the role of rural-urban interaction to bring about sustainable livelihood in the present changing perspective of extension system in ...

  10. Assessing the global sustainability of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartelle Barros, Juan José; Lara Coira, Manuel; Cruz López, María Pilar de la; Caño Gochi, Alfredo del

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for assessing the global sustainability of power plants. It uses requirement trees, value functions and the analytic hierarchy process. The model consists of 27 parameters and makes it possible to obtain a sustainability index for each conventional or renewable energy plant, throughout its life-cycle. Here the aim is to make society aware of the sustainability level for each type of power system. As a result, decision making can be done with greater objectivity in both the public and private sectors. The model can be useful for engineers, researchers and, in general, decision makers in the energy policy field. With the exception of biomass fuels, the results obtained reinforce the idea that renewable energies make a greater contribution to sustainable development than their conventional counterparts. Renewable energies have a sustainability index that varies between 0.39 and 0.80; 0 and 1 being the lowest and highest contribution to sustainability, respectively. On the other hand, conventional power plants obtained results that fall between 0.29 and 0.57. High temperature solar-thermal plants, wind farms, photovoltaic solar plants and mini-hydroelectric power plants occupy the first four places, in this order. - Highlights: • A model for assessing the integral sustainability of power plants is proposed. • Different energy alternatives are ordered according to sustainability criteria. • Except for biomass, renewable energies contribute more to sustainable development. • The model aids the decision making process in the energy policy field

  11. Exergy and Sustainability : Insights into the Value of Exergy Analysis in Sustainability Assessment of Technological Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in striving for a more sustainable society is the selection of technological systems. Given the capital intensity of industrial production plants, power generation systems and infrastructure, investment decisions create path dependencies for decades to come. It is difficult to know

  12. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  13. Green innovation and sustainable industrial systems within sustainability and company improvement perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian

    2017-12-01

    This paper comprises discussion of Green Innovation and Sustainable Industrial Systems within Sustainability and Company Improvement Perspective of beverage manufacturing company (BMC). The stakeholder theory is the grand theory for the company improvement perspective in this paper. The data processing in this paper is conducted through software which are SEM-PLS with SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS 19. The specified objective of this paper has focus on sustainability as one of 6 variables, in lieu of those 6 variables as the big picture. The reason behind this focus on sustainability is the fact that there are assorted challenges in sustainability that is ranging from economic, environment and company perspectives. Those challenges in sustainability include the sustainable service supply chain management and its involvement of society. The overall objective is to analyze relationship hypothesis of 6 variables, 4 of them (leadership, organizational learning, innovation, and performance) are based on Malcolm Baldrige’s performance excellence concept to achieve sustainability and competitive advantage through company-competitor and customer questionnaire, and its relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Management System (QMS). In conclusion, the spearheaded of company improvement in this paper is in term of consumer satisfaction through 99.997% quality standards. These can be achieved by ambidexterity through exploitation and exploration innovation. Furthermore, in this paper, TQM enables to obtain popularity brand index achievement that is greater than 45.9%. Subsequently, ISO22000 of food security standard encompasses quality standard of ISO9000 and HACCP. Through the ambidexterity of exploitation and exploration (Non Standard Product Inspection) NOSPI machine, the company improvement generates the achievement of 75% automation, 99.997% quality control standard and 80% of waste reduction.

  14. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic outlook for conservation of the environment. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Abstract. This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently ...

  15. Enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge: A focus ... This research work provides a Web-Based University library, ability to access the ... and generates pins to authorize bonafide students and staff of the University.

  16. Knowledge and adoption of solar home systems in rural Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebane, Kaja L.; Barham, Bradford L.

    2011-01-01

    Solar home systems (SHSs) are a promising electrification option for many households in the developing world. In most countries SHSs are at an early stage of dissemination, and thus face a hurdle common to many emerging alternative energy technologies: many people do not know enough about them to decide whether to adopt one or not. This study uses survey data collected in Nicaragua to investigate characteristics that predict the knowledge and adoption of SHSs among the rural population. First, a series of probit models is used to model the determinants of four measures of SHS knowledge. Next, a biprobit model with sample selection is employed to investigate the factors that predict SHS adoption, conditional on having sufficient knowledge to make an adoption decision. Comparison of the biprobit formulation to a standard probit model of adoption affirms its value. This study identifies multiple determinants of SHS knowledge and adoption, offers several practical recommendations to project planners, and provides an analytical framework for future work in this policy-relevant area. - Research highlights: → Solar home systems (SHSs) are a promising rural electrification option in the developing world. → As with many emerging renewable energy technologies, lack of knowledge may limit SHS adoption. → We use probit models to investigate the determinants of SHS knowledge in rural Nicaragua. → We also employ a biprobit model linking the determinants of knowledge and adoption. → We find that in analyzing SHS adoption, accounting for sample selection based on knowledge is key.

  17. Valorisation of vernacular farm buildings for the sustainable development of rural tourism in mountain areas of the Adriatic-Ionian macro-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Statuto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural buildings play a central role on the environmental characteristics of the extra-urban land. They accompanied in the centuries the development of agricultural activities by humans, who was so able to breed cattle, to grow and yield crops, and to store, transform and process agricultural products in a functional and efficient way, working into intensive conditions, so being unaffected by the external climate. On the other hand, constructions built by the farmer-man marked the territory, influencing and steering the spontaneous development of nature, while leading to production that enabled humanity to get food. Vernacular farm buildings, often used as seasonal settlements, are in some cases organised in areas of mountain pasture for summer cattle grazing. Even if in most case they were abandoned during recent years - since people living there moved to more comfortable residences within urban settlements - their contemporary potential for preserving traditional cattle-raising procedures and dairy products, rich cultural-historical heritage and perspectives of organised tourism activities, appears a very intriguing task to be approached. Rural tourism - including agro-, eco- and cultural tourism - offers indeed new opportunities for enjoying the extra-urban land in close contact with naturally untouched landscapes. It enables to appreciate some traditional aspects that the new industrialised modern society may have forgotten. The opportunities offered by rural tourism could help in the development of environmentally friendly tourism, which is growing three times faster than those choosing mainstream trips. With the aim to valorise the vernacular rural buildings in some mountain areas of the Adriatic-Ionian macro-region, in the present paper a first approach was proposed, through the implementation of a geographical information system aimed to survey the current situation into two different mountain areas within this macro-region, located in

  18. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  19. Field trial of rural solar photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, P.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Banerjee, T.; Das, S.; Saha, H.

    Experience, costs, and performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems set up in a remote Indian village to power an adult literacy center and an irrigation pump are described. The center was furnished with a 14-module, 200 W array to power a television and three fluorescent lamps. The pumping installation has 20 modules for a 300 W output directly coupled to a 300-W dc pump motor. Data were gathered on the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, specific gravity of the battery fluid, degradation of the cells, nominal operating temperature of the cells, load currents, Amp-hours, water flow rate (pump), and the static head and draw down rate (pump). Monitoring of the array performances in the dusty environment showed that once/week cleaning is necessary. Al-substrates cracked at the center installation and sealant evaporation caused condensation which degraded the light transmissivity and thereby the short-circuit current of the modules. The combination of low-efficiency (5 pct) cells and cheap labor demonstrated economic operation without high-efficiency cells.

  20. Defining sustainable transport in rural tourism: experiences from the New Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Janet E.; Smith, A.; Robbins, Derek K.

    2017-01-01

    Transport policy agendas have long sought to bring about more sustainable transport at tourism destinations. While there are examples of successes, it remains unclear what inroads have been made towards creating a sustainable transport future. Policy directions have evolved over a number of years and in many tourism destination contexts it is far from clear what a desirable transport future looks like. When translated to implementation, the aims of initiatives can be unclear and baseline meas...

  1. The Sustainable Development of Industry Clusters: Emergent Knowledge Networks and Socio Complex Adaptive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Nousala

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive global economy the development of sustainable, innovative responses from Industry is now vital. Many industries globally need to respond rather than react to current economic climate through sustainable (economically and environmentally development. The steel industry is a critical player in the urban landscape. Like many industries, small, medium enterprises (SMEs are vital players within the steel industry supply chain. The Australian SME steel housing sector (based in rural and regional areas are still developing systemic capabilities with the aim of realizing its full potential. The question of an effective sustainable industry is much larger than any one player. This paper aims to present a proposed methodological approach for sustainable cluster development based on previous industry wide investigations. Through the lens of scalability of a socio complex adaptive system, SME development becomes arguably the most significant player with regards to industry cluster development. By starting with SME development it's possible to build an understanding of a simultaneous two layered approach, "bottom up – top down" whilst including a very diversified group.

  2. Sustainability of animal production systems: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, M

    1996-06-01

    The question of sustainability of agricultural production and the use of natural resources has become a popular topic. Most scientists agree that current systems are generally non-sustainable. Current rates of resource extraction will lead us to a depleted earth in the future. Sustainability is defined in many ways. For this paper sustainability should be considered the overlap of what is wanted and what is ecologically possible. Attempts have been made to place a quantitative measure on sustainability. However, it should be considered a trajectory or goal, a direction that guides constructive change, rather than a single quantitative measure. Research and extension personnel may have to take a broader look at their efforts and expand their knowledge base in order to address the issue of sustainable production systems. Both natural events and those caused by humans bring about changes in production potential that require shifts in management. Uncertainty and change should be incorporated into adaptive management strategies. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to confront these issues. Animal scientists need to formulate management systems that are environmentally compatible or face restrictive legislation that will force change. Members of the American Society of Animal Science seem to agree: efficient and sustainable use of natural resources appears in the draft of the Strategic Plan of the Society, and a poll of members revealed that environmental concerns about animal agriculture was a primary issue facing animal scientists.

  3. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  4. Evaluation of choices for sustainable rural electrification in developing countries: A multicriteria approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Paatero, Jukka V.; Lahdelma, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Rural electrification (RE) can be modelled as a multifactorial task connected to a large number of variables: decision makers need to choose the appropriate options by considering not only the techno-economic competitiveness but also socio-cultural dynamics and environmental consequences, making the task intricate. Many rural electrification projects have failed due to lack of attention to the issues beyond financial and technical dimensions. This paper presents a standardized approach for decision making concerning the extension of electricity services to rural areas. This approach first determines whether the supply provision should be grid expansion or off-grid on the basis of levelized cost of delivered electricity. If the grid expansion is found nonviable over off-grid options then a multicriteria decision aiding tool, SMAA-2 (Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis), will evaluate off-grid technologies by aggregating 24 criteria values. While applying this approach, the delivered costs of electricity by the grid in remote areas within the 1–25 km distances vary in a range of 0.10–7.85 US$/kW h depending on the line lengths and load conditions. In the off-grid evaluation, the solar PV (photovoltaic) and biogas plants are found as the most preferable alternatives with 59% and 41% acceptability in their first rank, respectively. - Highlights: • Rural electrification involves a large number of socio-cultural issues in addition to technical and environmental considerations. • Decision makers need to choose the appropriate options by considering many criteria. • Many off-grid projects failed due to noncomplying of societal issues. • Multicriteria based decision choice can safeguard the projects from these issues. • SMAA analysis can select the alternatives based on merits

  5. Sustainability in Health Condition of the People Living in Rural Province of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kon, Sayuri; Kubo, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, located in southern part of Africa, drought is frequently happened in dry season but recently heavy rainfall seriously damages crops in rainy season. Life of the people depending on farming are liable to be greatly affected by environmental change, which decrease provision of food, furthermore it affects their nutritional and health conditions. We have conducted longitudinal body measurements for the people living in rural villages to reveal the variation of nutritional status whic...

  6. Utilising a collective case study system theory mixed methods approach: a rural health example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robyn; Jones, Anne; Lefmann, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2014-07-28

    Insight into local health service provision in rural communities is limited in the literature. The dominant workforce focus in the rural health literature, while revealing issues of shortage of maldistribution, does not describe service provision in rural towns. Similarly aggregation of data tends to render local health service provision virtually invisible. This paper describes a methodology to explore specific aspects of rural health service provision with an initial focus on understanding rurality as it pertains to rural physiotherapy service provision. A system theory-case study heuristic combined with a sequential mixed methods approach to provide a framework for both quantitative and qualitative exploration across sites. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in depth interviews. The investigation site was a large area of one Australian state with a mix of rural, regional and remote communities. 39 surveys were received from 11 locations within the investigation site and 19 in depth interviews were conducted. Stakeholder perspectives of rurality and workforce numbers informed the development of six case types relevant to the exploration of rural physiotherapy service provision. Participant perspective of rurality often differed with the geographical classification of their location. The numbers of onsite colleagues and local access to health services contributed to participant perceptions of rurality. The complexity of understanding the concept of rurality was revealed by interview participants when providing their perspectives about rural physiotherapy service provision. Dual measures, such as rurality and workforce numbers, provide more relevant differentiation of sites to explore specific services, such rural physiotherapy service provision, than single measure of rurality as defined by geographic classification. The system theory-case study heuristic supports both qualitative and quantitative exploration in rural health services

  7. RURAL TOURISM AND AGRITOURISM - FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MARGINIMEA SIBIULUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nicula

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The delightful geographical framework, the purity of nature, the accessibility of places, the richness and diversity of cultural heritage, make Mărginimea Sibiului an area with great tourism potential. The area holds more than 30% of the total accommodation capacity available in Sibiu. Although it is a rural area, tourist offer is diverse (active tourism and recreation, traditional cuisine, cultural tourism and business segment coverage through specific facilities, all these in addition to the multitude of leisure, and the degree of comfort is increased. In Mărginimea Sibiului, agritourism and rural tourism creates opportunities for local and regional economic growth and help create new jobs through harnessing the specific cultural and natural heritage. Also, an important part of the new jobs created represents an opportunity for regional female employment. Hence the need to implement many projects, which bring to the forefront the stabilization of the active population in rural areas, the capitalization of natural and anthropic tourism potential in the context of eco-economy, and thus raising living standards.

  8. Economic and Social Sustainable Synergies to Promote Innovations in Rural Tourism and Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quaranta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of tourism in rural areas is pivotal for the integration and valorization of territorial resources and it is strengthened by the capacity to promote local community participation in processes of development. The paper addresses the issue by presenting and discussing a case study of a rural area of southern Italy where a territorial network for the development of local tourism has been set up. The innovative initiative aimed, firstly, to facilitate a closer connection between production and consumption by reducing transaction costs and, secondly, to connect local production with quality conscious consumers looking for traditional products. The network project also aimed to create conditions conducive to increasing the competitiveness of the local production chain and tourism sector. The case study shows how the challenge for many rural territories lies in increasing levels of trust and rebuilding social capital as a precondition of developing the tourism sector and fostering socio-economic development as a whole. Traditional institutions, as well as hybrid institutions, with the support of research organizations, can play a key role.

  9. Sustainability of Pension Systems in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rajevska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the paper is to identify how the concept of sustainability is understood and ensured in the pension systems of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania; and what implications it brings to the performance of pension schemes. Research Design & Methods: Analysis of various conceptual and methodological approaches to the notion of sustainability of pension systems. Comparative analysis of present pension legislation, as well as preceding stage of pension reforms,   accompanied by a number of numerical models. Findings: The understanding of sustainability is limited by narrow ‘fiscal’ meaning in Latvia, compared to more a multifaceted concept that includes the principle of social fairness and which can be traced in the logic of Estonian and Lithuanian legislators. Implications & Recommendations: In the long-term, pure financial appreciation of sustainability is misleading, low level of credibility may cripple a financially sound but socially unfair system; the perceived unfairness of redistribution can undermine the public support to, and, therefore, sustainability of pension systems. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying how differences at policy formulation stage and in the very design of pension schemes influence pension system sustainability in countries with a very similar initial conditions and socio-economic environment.

  10. Utilization of Electronic Learning System in Swat Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed Sangi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.

  11. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge

    1995-07-01

    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  12. The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bacon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often overlook the full range of social dimensions, we propose a dual focus on a broad set of criteria, i.e., human health, labor, democratic participation, resiliency, biological and cultural diversity, equity, and ethics, to assess social outcomes, and on institutions that could support diversified farming systems (DFS. A comparative analysis of case studies from California's Central Valley, Mesoamerican coffee agroforestry systems, and European Union agricultural parks finds that DFS practices are unevenly adopted within and among these systems and interdependent with institutional environments that specifically promote diversified farming practices. Influential institutions in these cases include state policies, farmers' cooperatives/associations, and organized civic efforts to influence agroenvironmental policy, share knowledge, and shape markets for more 'sustainable' products. The Californian and Mesoamerican cases considers organic and fair trade certifications, finding that although they promote several DFS practices and generate social benefits, they are inadequate as a single strategy to promote agricultural sustainability. The complex governance and multifunctional management of Europe's peri-urban agricultural parks show unexpected potential for promoting DFS. Unless DFS are anchored in supportive institutions and evaluated against an inclusive set of social and environmental criteria, short-term investments to advance diversified agriculture could

  13. Towards self-sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved by modul......We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved...... of minimizing the cost of the generation. The simulation results prove the feasibility of power talk as enabler of fully self-sustainable DC MicroGrids....

  14. Opportunities and challenges for multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the Special Feature on "Multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability" is on the complex challenges of making and communicating overall assessments of food systems sustainability based on multiple and varied criteria. Four papers concern the choice and development of appropriate tools for making multicriteria sustainability assessments that handle built-in methodological conflicts and trade-offs between different assessment objectives. They underscore the value of linking diverse methods and tools, or nesting and stepping their deployment, to help build resilience and sustainability. They conclude that there is no one tool, one framework, or one indicator set that is appropriate for the different purposes and contexts of sustainability assessment. The process of creating the assessment framework also emerges as important: if the key stakeholders are not given a responsible and full role in the development of any assessment tool, it is less likely to be fit for their purpose and they are unlikely to take ownership or have confidence in it. Six other papers reflect on more fundamental considerations of how assessments are based in different scientific perspectives and on the role of values, motivation, and trust in relation to assessments in the development of more sustainable food systems. They recommend a radical break with the tradition of conducting multicriteria assessment from one hegemonic perspective to considering multiple perspectives. Collectively the contributions to this Special Feature identify three main challenges for improved multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability: (i how to balance different types of knowledge to avoid that the most well-known, precise, or easiest to measure dimensions of sustainability gets the most weight; (ii how to expose the values in assessment tools and choices to allow evaluation of how they relate to the ethical principles of sustainable food systems, to societal

  15. Regional factor of sustainable development of rural settlements of Kalna and Minićevo at the foot of the Stara Planina mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranđelović Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental potential of rural settlements of Kalna and Minićevo should be reviewed in the wider context of the area in which they are located. The natural resources of Stara Planina mountain, as a special purpose area focused on tourism and agriculture, represent the basic components for sustainable development of the mentioned settlements. The heritage of autochthonus, traditional rural architecture and sacral buildings, together with natural resources potentials, represent attractors for the development of a specific form of rural tourism. This research paper presents an analysis of the options for the development of rural tourism in the territory of Knjaževac municipality, aimed at sustainable development of rural settlements of Kalna and Minićevo. The basic idea of the paper is for Kalna and Minićevo to become the centres towards which the population of smaller surrounding villages will gravitate: towards Kalna as a potential tourism centre and towards Minićevo as a transit tourist settlement with accompanying public and other services. The purpose of the paper is not to offer a solution that would completely eliminate economic and demographic changes, but to review different options for the development of rural settlements that could keep up with modern social needs.

  16. Analysis of Affecting Factors and Construction of Index System of Rural Domestic Pollution in Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Chunyi

    2018-01-01

    This paper systematically analysed the influential factors of rural domestic pollution in Guangxi and the current situation and evaluation index of rural domestic pollution, constructed moisture contents indexes system, which included two kinds of indicators in three levels, in a total of 19 indicators of rural domestic pollution. According to the moisture contents indexes system, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted to make regionalization of rural domestic pollution in Guangxi more reasonable and provided scientific support for the prevention and control of rural domestic pollution in Guangxi Province.

  17. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Sustainable Monitoring and Surveillance Systems to Improve HIV Programs: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Mahy, Mary; Renaud, Francoise; Calleja, Txema

    2018-04-24

    HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships. This paper reviews the surveillance priorities in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the shift from periodic measurement towards sustainable disaggregated, real-time, case, and patient data, which are used routinely to improve programs. Finally, the key directions in developing person-centered monitoring systems are assessed with country examples. The directions contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal focus on people-centered development applied to data. ©Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.04.2018.

  19. Systems approaches for the design of sustainable agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, M.J.; Bouma, J.; Jones, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of agricultural systems and the need to fulfil multiple objectives in sustainable agro-ecosystems call for interdisciplinary analyzes and input from a wide variety of disciplines in order to better understand the complete agronomic production system. Systems approaches have been

  20. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Dale Carnegie , Fellowship, etc.) NA None of the above OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS 36 Question 11: Army Civilian Education System...Darden, Dale Carnegie , Fellowship, etc.) None of the above 11. Army Civilian Education System (check all that apply) Action Officer Development Course

  1. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  2. Sustainability and Convergence: The Future of Corporate Governance Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, a sustainable approach to corporate governance can be a source of competitive advantage and a long-term success factor for any firm. Sustainable governance requires that the board of directors considers economic, social and environmental expectations in an integrated way, no matter what ownership structure and formal rules of corporate governance apply to the company: this mitigates the traditional differences between insider and outsider systems of corporate governance. Previous studies failed to consider the contribution of sustainability in the process of corporate governance convergence. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill the gap in the existing literature by means of a qualitative analysis, supporting the international debate about convergence of corporate governance systems. The article describes the evolution of outsider and insider systems in the light of the increasing importance of sustainability in the board’s decision-making and firm’s operation to satisfy the needs of all the company’s stakeholders. According to this, a qualitative content analysis developed with a directed approach completes the theoretical discussion, demonstrating that sustainability can bring de facto convergence between outsider and insider corporate governance systems. The article aims to be a theoretical starting point for future research, the findings of which could also have practical implications: the study encourages the policy makers to translate the sustainable business best practices into laws and recommendations, strengthening the mutual influence between formal and substantial convergence.

  3. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

  4. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  5. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  6. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Carioca, J.O.B.; Canafistula, F.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system.

  7. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano - IFSertao-PE, BR407, km 8, 56314-520 Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carioca, J.O.B. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Food Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canafistula, F.J.F. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system. (author)

  8. Reflections for a dialogue on sustainability and the rural education in Colombia, a country in war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Sicard, Tomas Enrique

    2000-01-01

    The article refers to the concept of agrarian sustainability from a complex perspective, underlying its ambiguity in relation with the interpretations given by the different actors. The difficulties to understand and apply the concept to the Colombian agrarian sector under the present historic moment of chronic war are presented, discussing some aspects of equity in the distribution and quality of agrarian products. The principal factors mentioned as obstacles to reach agrarian sustainability are the diversity of approaches towards agriculture; the multiple facets of sustainability and the various challenges posed by the scientific and technological revolution all the new biotechnological developments. Biological war to cocaine is presented as an example of technological dependence and some structural aspects of the university educational sector are debated in relation to the environmental problematic

  9. Use of forest biomass to provide energy in a context of sustainable rural development - Three case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Lopera, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    The author includes topics like energy and global climatic change; sustainable development and study of cases (conservation and restoration of forests in the Atrato, pacific Colombian, forest handling, forest handling and forest systems in the Colombian Amazonian and conversion of subjected lands to cattle rising and itinerant agriculture to forest and other systems

  10. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  11. Public-Private Partnerships and Sustainable Regional Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Johnson, Bjørn

    -private partnerships. The role of universities if and when actively participating in ‘life outside the ivory tower’ is addressed. These partnerships are also discussed in a regional context. With point of departure in innovation theory, we combine ‘sustainable development’ with the Regional System of Innovation...... approach to propose a new concept – Sustainable Regional Innovation System – in which regional initiatives such as Public-Private(-Academic) Partnerships play an integrated role, not least in the context of ‘learning and innovation for sustainable development’. Two cases are presented to underline...... be playing in public-private partnerships for sustainable development, and the links and benefits this may provide towards universities fulfilling their first (science) and second (education) missions. In this paper, the first part is dedicated to the discussion and clarification of the concept of public...

  12. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria...

  13. Performance versus values in sustainability transformation of food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo F.; Sautier, Marion; Legun, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    Questions have been raised on what role the knowledge provided by sustainability science actually plays in the transition to sustainability and what role it may play in the future. In this paper we investigate different approaches to sustainability transformation of food systems by analyzing......-based approaches that aim at communicating and mediating sustainability values to enable coordinated and cooperative action to transform the food system. We identify their respective strengths and weaknesses based on a cross-case analysis of four cases, and propose that the two approaches, likeWeber's two types...... of rationality, are complementary-because they are based on complementary observer stances-and that an optimal in-between approach therefore cannot be found. However, there are options for reflexive learning by observing one perspective-and its possible blind spots-from the vantage point of the other, so we...

  14. Sustainability and deliberate transition of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent; Stærdahl, Jens

    or developing socio-technical systems in order to integrate the concept of sustainability as a driver for the deliberate and purposeful shaping and transition. The article discusses the requirements to effective governance networks and governing of governance networks. Research within innovation systems......The article suggests that deliberate planning for sustainability demands a focus on the transition of socio-technical systems in order to establish robust and more sustainable patterns of production and consumption. This implies the necessity of a new perspective for environmental planning......, transition management and technology systems combined with planning and experimental activities provides both a theoretical and empirical body of knowledge of such governance processes. The article discusses how this perspective can be used in relation to the process of developing bio-fuel systems...

  15. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  16. THE USE OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN RURAL TOURISM IN MARAMURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisuc Diana-Aderina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing accommodation in the rural Maramures region is essential for the development of tourism. Most accommodation units are within the typology of rural tourist hostels, therefore special attention should be paid to promote and diversify their touristic offers. Despite its attractive potential, the rural tourism in Maramures has its weaknesses because there is no organizational strategy for its deployment. Tour operators must adopt new solutions to promote tourist services, one of which may be using expert systems.The main purpose of this study is to develop a model of an expert system, applying new methodological approaches to the evaluation and ranking of countryside hostels in Maramures. This model can be easily implemented with private and public entities and could be a source of significant benefits for them. Scientific literature in the field highlights the benefits of using expert systems in all business sectors and reinforces our conviction that they can be applied extensively in tourism as well. The research methodology included: defining the nature and scope of the problem, identifying experts, acquiring knowledge, selecting the system building tools, as well as encoding and evaluating the system. In the knowledge acquisition phase we used interviews, thus obtaining a database with information on countryside hostels in Maramures. We turned to tourism professionals to establish expert rules in a way that reflects as accurately and completely as possible the context. These rules led to the encoding of the system. In order to encode them, we used the Corvid system, developed by Exsys, which was verified and validated. The system, once designed, provides a user-friendly interface. After being implemented in specialized sites, the system will be able to facilitate searching and finding information by users. We propose that the model obtained will be a starting point for further research, given that the development environment allows

  17. The role of cogeneration systems in sustainability of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakir, Uğur; Çomakli, Kemal; Yüksel, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy source on the world is tending to run out day by day while the energy need of humanity is increasing simultaneously. ► There are two ways to overcome this problem; one of them is renewable energy sources like solar or wind energy systems. ► The other way is like cogeneration systems. ► Cogeneration system is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. ► A case study is made for a hospital to present the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Cogeneration system (CHP) is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. When compared to separate fossil-fired generation of heat and electricity, CHP may result in a consistent energy conservation (usually ranging from 10% to 30%) while the avoided CO 2 emissions are, as a first approximation, similar to the amount of energy saving. In terms of sustainability, one of the primary considerations is energy efficiency. Sustainable energy is considered as a kind of energy which is renewable and continuous, meaning that the use of such energy can potentially be kept up well into the future without causing harmful repercussions for future generations. In this study, environmental benefits and sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems and importance of those systems to the use of sustainable energy are underlined. To support this idea, first we have referred some scientific studies previously made on cogeneration systems and then we have used our own case study. The case study made on gas engined cogeneration system was applied for a hospital to show the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems.

  18. Rural water sustainability in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sanitation boards in Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Prado, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    El agua es un recurso esencial y vector fundamental para el desarrollo sostenible. La falta de acceso a agua potable tiene impactos clave en la salud, la economía y la educación, especialmente en poblaciones vulnerables. Sin embargo, el acceso no garantiza un nivel adecuado de servicio, asequible, equitativo y universal. Importantes esfuerzos en el ámbito internacional han impulsado la agenda para mejorar el acceso a agua potable, especialmente en las zonas rurales donde históricamente los ni...

  19. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  20. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how

  1. Democratizing Rural Economy: Institutional Friction, Sustainable Struggle and the Cooperative Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Patrick H.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development demands institutions manage the conflicts and struggles that inevitably arise over material and ideal interests. While current cooperative theory privileges the economic element, a political economy of cooperation emphasizes cooperatives' tentative bridging of economic and political spheres with a democratic ethos. The…

  2. CIRCULAR ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT. THEORY AND BEST PRACTICE: A CHALLENGE FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO CIANI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy through the Sustainable Development Goals 2015-2030 needs take into consideration the EU’ package from December 2015 concerning the achievement of the Circular Economy under the vision of the 3R - Recycle, Reuse, Reduce. The concept of Circular Economy has started to develop in response to the crisis of the traditional model and the need to deal with limited resources. A key role in the pursuit and implementation of circular economy is taken by investments in innovation and technologies that enhance the scraps of industrial and / or agricultural sectors. This can lead not only to a reduction of waste and hence environmental impacts but also in net savings for businesses of up to 604 billion Euros throughout the European Union, in line with the global framework (Sustainable Development Goals 2015 -2030. The paper try to demonstrate through an inductive model, several tables, figures and our analysis that the success of the Strategy of Sustainable Development depend, in the next years, by the application of the best practices of the Circular Economy.

  3. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how

  4. It's real sustainable rural tourism development: case studies from the Heartland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Burr

    1998-01-01

    In order to be sustainable, tourism development must involve the local population, proceed only with their approval, and provide a degree of local control. The most promising approach involves development which is low impact, small in scale and careful in progress, appropriate and sensitive to the local natural and socio-cultural environment, and readily integrated...

  5. Between Urban and Rural: Sustainability of Small Towns in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Nováková, Eva; Zapletalová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2016), s. 351-372 ISSN 1803-8417 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : small towns * sustainability * Czechia Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/euco.2016.8.issue-4/euco-2016-0025/euco-2016-0025.xml

  6. Trade Services System Adaptation for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrichenkov, A.; Shaufler, V.; Bannikova, L.

    2017-11-01

    Under market conditions, the trade services system in post-Soviet Russia, being one of the most important city infrastructures, loses its systematic and hierarchic consistency hence provoking the degradation of communicating transport systems and urban planning framework. This article describes the results of the research carried out to identify objects and object parameters that influence functioning of a locally significant trade services system. Based on the revealed consumer behaviour patterns, we propose methods to determine the optimal parameters of objects inside a locally significant trade services system.

  7. Improving Sustainability through a Dual Audit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Ji Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of a large-scale accounting fraud, China implemented a dual audit system for listed companies issuing foreign stocks (B shares and H shares from 2001 to 2006, before adopting Chinese-IFRS in 2007. At the end of 2010, the EU proposed that listed corporations over a certain size should be required to implement a joint audit system. However, only a few countries have implemented this system, and thus, data and references are extremely limited. The dual audit system is called the “twin” of the joint audit system. We analyze whether the dual system improves a company’s earnings quality. Earnings quality is studied by means of real earnings management, and the variable of loss aversion. We find that real earnings management of dual audited enterprises is lower than that of single audited (A-share enterprises, and the inclination toward loss aversion of enterprises in the foreign share market has not increased significantly relative to the A-share enterprises after the abolition of the dual audit system. The results indicate that a dual audit system improves earnings quality. We expect that the conclusions of this research will resolve the issues and concerns about the joint audit system.

  8. Sustainability Indicators for Coupled Human-Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J. R.; Kalnay, E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, the Human System went from having a small impact on the Earth System (including the Climate System) to becoming dominant, because both population and per capita consumption have grown extremely fast, especially since about 1950. We therefore argue that Human System Models must be included into Earth System Models through bidirectional couplings with feedbacks. In particular, population should be modeled endogenously, rather than exogenously as done currently in most Integrated Assessment Models. The growth of the Human System threatens to overwhelm the Carrying Capacity of the Earth System, and may be leading to catastrophic climate change and collapse. We propose a set of Ecological and Economic "Sustainability Indicators" that can employ large data-sets for developing and assessing effective mitigation and adaptation policies. Using the Human and Nature Dynamical Model (HANDY) and Coupled Human-Climate-Water Model (COWA), we carry out experiments with this set of Sustainability Indicators and show that they are applicable to various coupled systems including Population, Climate, Water, Energy, Agriculture, and Economy. Impact of nonrenewable resources and fossil fuels could also be understood using these indicators. We demonstrate interconnections of Ecological and Economic Indicators. Coupled systems often include feedbacks and can thus display counterintuitive dynamics. This makes it difficult for even experts to see coming catastrophes from just the raw data for different variables. Sustainability Indicators boil down the raw data into a set of simple numbers that cross their sustainability thresholds with a large time-lag before variables enter their catastrophic regimes. Therefore, we argue that Sustainability Indicators constitute a powerful but simple set of tools that could be directly used for making policies for sustainability.

  9. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha V. Panicker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC. Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements.

  10. Holistic countermeasures evaluation and the sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Wright, S.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.; Cox, G.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Emergency planning as conducted by most national authorities is often focussed upon short-term response (few days - weeks) and addresses issues such as the need for evacuation, problems associated with 1 31I and immediate requirements for restrictions on food and water. There is limited systematic consideration of the long-term management of contaminated areas to ensure their sustainability. Experience following the Chernobyl accident, most especially within the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) but also in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, have demonstrated that countermeasures may have to be employed for a number of decades. The evaluation criteria for the many countermeasures which have been developed needs to be extended from simply effectiveness and radiological protection criteria to a more integrated, holistic approach. Specifically, there needs to be an assessment as to whether countermeasures: can be practically applied; incur considerable direct or side-effect costs; have significant environmental side-effects; and are acceptable to society. In addition, suitable approaches for successfully communicating with a wide range of stake holders must be explored. This is an essential step in developing a decision framework and avoiding problems previously experienced in emergency management. This paper presents results from an ongoing project (see www.strategy-ec.org.uk) to develop a framework for the identification of strategies for the sustainable management of contaminated urban, rural and industrial areas

  11. La aplicación del modelo de estrategias locales sostenibles (sustainable livelihoods en los estudios de comunidades rurales de montaña La aplicación del modelo de estrategias locales sostenibles (sustainable livelihoods en los estudios de comunidades rurales de montaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumiła Lisocka-Jaegermann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization affects all types of rural places and it is time to know whether this process is in accordance to sustainable development. Here, I analyze the concept of sustainability and its strategies applied at local levels.The sustainable local strategies model brings the opportunity to see the interrelationships of events and current phenomena at spatial scales and at different organizational levels; it allows to see more clearly the intrinsic of the unions of the socioeconomic, political-cultural and environmental dimensions. It allows to pick-up the vulnerabilities of the local systems and the opportunities involved. It contemplates individuals, families, and communities as active actors and appreciates their knowledge and creativity. In my opinion, this model has also the potential to develop as the application experiences are accumulated.La globalización afecta a las zonas rurales de todo tipo y ya es tiempo de saber si esta va de acuerdo con lo que se entiende como desarrollo sostenible. Aquí se analiza el concepto de sostenibilidad y sus estrategias a nivel local, a la vez que se señalan sus limitaciones y defectos.El modelo de estrategias locales sostenibles permite apreciar las interrelaciones de eventos y fenómenos ocurrentes a escalas espaciales y a niveles organizacionales diferentes; deja ver con más claridad lo intrínseco de las uniones de las dimensiones socioeconómica, político-cultural y medioambientales de la realidad. También, permite captar las vulnerabilidades de los sistemas locales y las oportunidades que encuentran. Contempla a los individuos, a las familias y a las comunidades como actores activos y aprecia su saber y su creatividad. En mi opinión, el modelo tiene también el potencial de su desarrollo, a medida que se vayan acumulando las experiencias de su aplicación.

  12. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  13. Emergy-based sustainability evaluation of wind power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Emergy is used to quantify the sustainability level of wind farms. • A GHG-based indicator is incorporated into emergetic accounting. • Possible pathways to achieve sustainable wind farm management are analyzed. - Abstract: With large-scale commercialization of wind technology, one must investigate economical and sustainable wind resource utilization. In this paper, emergy analysis is used to quantify the environmental pressure, renewability, economic efficiency, and sustainability of a typical wind power system, considering the lifetime stages from extraction and processing of raw materials and resources to the final product (electricity) via material transportation, construction and operation. Possible pathways to achieve sustainable management of wind energy supply chain were also analyzed based on scenario analysis. Results show that wind power is a promising means of substituting traditional fossil fuel-based power generation systems, with the lowest transformity of 4.49 × 10"4 sej/J, smaller environmental loading ratio of 5.84, and lower greenhouse gas emission intensity of 0.56 kg/kWh. To shed light on potential pathways to achieve sustainable and low-carbon wind energy supply chain management and make informed choices, a sensitivity analysis was done by establishing scenarios from the perspectives of material recycling and technical development. Results suggest that using new materials of lower energy intensity or recycled materials in upstream wind turbine manufacturing and construction materials are the most effective measures.

  14. Intelligent decision support systems for sustainable computing paradigms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Siarry, Patrick; Sheng, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This unique book dicusses the latest research, innovative ideas, challenges and computational intelligence (CI) solutions in sustainable computing. It presents novel, in-depth fundamental research on achieving a sustainable lifestyle for society, either from a methodological or from an application perspective. Sustainable computing has expanded to become a significant research area covering the fields of computer science and engineering, electrical engineering and other engineering disciplines, and there has been an increase in the amount of literature on aspects sustainable computing such as energy efficiency and natural resources conservation that emphasizes the role of ICT (information and communications technology) in achieving system design and operation objectives. The energy impact/design of more efficient IT infrastructures is a key challenge in realizing new computing paradigms. The book explores the uses of computational intelligence (CI) techniques for intelligent decision support that can be explo...

  15. Sustained currents in coupled diffusive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larralde, Hernán; Sanders, David P

    2014-01-01

    Coupling two diffusive systems may give rise to a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) with a non-trivial persistent, circulating current. We study a simple example that is exactly soluble, consisting of random walkers with different biases towards a reflecting boundary, modelling, for example, Brownian particles with different charge states in an electric field. We obtain analytical expressions for the concentrations and currents in the NESS for this model, and exhibit the main features of the system by numerical simulation. (paper)

  16. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  17. Zijm Consortium: Engineering a Sustainable Supply Chain System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knofius, Nils; Rahimi Ghahroodi, Sajjad; van Capelleveen, Guido Cornelis; Yazdanpanah, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we address one of the current major research areas of the Zijm consortium; engineering sustainable supply chain systems by transforming traditionally linear practices to circular systems. We illustrate this field of research with a case consisting of a network of three firms Willem

  18. Sustainable Transportation Systems Research Group: Ongoing and Past Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gkritza, Konstantina "Nadia"; Hurtado, Davis Chacon; Gkartzonikas, Christos; Ke, Yue; Losada, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the ongoing and past activities of the Sustainable Transportation Systems Research (STSR) group at Purdue University (https://engineering.purdue.edu/STSRG). The STSR group aims to achieve green, safe, efficient, and equitable transportation systems by studying and modeling transportation externalities, using state of the art statistical, econometric, and economic analysis tools.

  19. Enabling Factors for Sustaining Open Defecation-Free Communities in Rural Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagiri, Mitsunori; Muhammad, Zainal; Cronin, Aidan A; Gnilo, Michael E; Mardikanto, Aldy K; Umam, Khaerul; Asamou, Yameha T

    2017-12-14

    Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) programmes, like the Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) programme of the Government of Indonesia, have played a significant role in reducing open defecation though still little is known about the sustainability of the outcomes. We assessed the sustainability of verified Open Defecation Free (ODF) villages and explored the association between slippage occurrence and the strength of social norms through a government conducted cross-sectional data collection in rural Indonesia. The study surveyed 587 households and held focus group discussions (FGDs) in six ODF villages two years after the government's ODF verification. Overall, the slippage rate (i.e., a combination of sub-optimal use of a latrine and open defecation at respondent level) was estimated to be 14.5% (95% CI 11.6-17.3). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that (1) weaker social norms, as measured by respondents' perceptions around latrine ownership coverage in their community, (2) a lack of all-year round water access, and (3) wealth levels (i.e., not being in the richest quintile), were found to be significantly associated with slippage occurrence. These findings, together with qualitative analysis, concluded that CATS programmes, including a combination of demand creation, removal of perceived constraints through community support mechanisms, and continued encouragement to pursue higher levels of services with post-ODF follow-up, could stabilize social norms and help to sustain longer-term latrine usage in study communities. Further investigation and at a larger scale, would be important to strengthen these findings.

  20. Organic versus Conventional Cropping Sustainability: A Comparative System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Fess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We are at a pivotal time in human history, as the agricultural sector undergoes consolidation coupled with increasing energy costs in the context of declining resource availability. Although organic systems are often thought of as more sustainable than conventional operations, the lack of concise and widely accepted means to measure sustainability makes coming to an agreement on this issue quite challenging. However, an accurate assessment of sustainability can be reached by dissecting the scientific underpinnings of opposing production practices and crop output between cropping systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth and comprehensive evaluation of modern global production practices and economics of organic cropping systems, as well as assess the sustainability of organic production practices through the clarification of information and analysis of recent research. Additionally, this review addresses areas where improvements can be made to help meet the needs of future organic producers, including organic-focused breeding programs and necessity of coming to a unified global stance on plant breeding technologies. By identifying management strategies that utilize practices with long-term environmental and resource efficiencies, a concerted global effort could guide the adoption of organic agriculture as a sustainable food production system.

  1. Assessing Sustainability Transition in the US Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McCauley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sustainability transition dynamics in the US electricity system, drawing on the socio-technical systems approach. We view system change as unfolding along several critical dimensions and geographical scales, including dynamics in the environment, science, civil society, discourse, and state regulatory institutions, as well as in capital and technology formations. A particular emphasis is given to the interaction of discourses, policy networks, and institutions. We trace four distinct regimes which have characterized the evolution of this discourse-network-institutional nexus over the last century. The research examines dynamics that present a challenge to the incumbent energy regime based on fossil fuels, nuclear and hydropower, and demonstrates how the actor-network supporting renewables and energy efficiency has grown stronger and more capable of moving toward a sustainability transition than at any time since the sustainable energy movement began a generation ago.

  2. Sustaining and growing the rural nursing and midwifery workforce: understanding the issues and isolating directions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen L; Mills, Jane E

    2011-01-01

    Nurses and midwives represent the largest group of health professionals in the Australian health care system. In rural environments nurses and midwives make up a greater proportion of the health workforce than in urban settings, which makes their role in service provision even more significant. The role and scope of these nurses and midwives' practice is by necessity more generalist than specialist, which results in disciplinary strengths and weaknesses. As generalist health professionals they work in diverse settings such as public hospitals, multi-purpose services, community health, aged care and in non-government and private for profit and no-profit organisations including general practices. Their scope of practice covers prevention, intervention and rehabilitation and is lifespan inclusive. Rural nurses and midwives are older than their metropolitan based counterparts, work part-time and traditionally have limited access to professional development often due to ineffective locum relief programs. Workplace inflexibility, access to acceptable housing and partner employment are factors cited as inhibitors to growing this workforces. The future of the rural nursing and midwifery workforce will only be secured if Government invests to a greater degree in both education and training and the development of a nationally agreed remuneration scale that allows for part-time work.

  3. Sustainable quality systems for every Health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo; Pittaluga, Roberto R.

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of a Quality system is an indispensable requirement to assure the protection and the radiological safety, especially in those facilities where the potential risks are important. One of the 'general conclusions' of the Conference of Malaga (to achieve the RPP) is also the implementation of quality systems. Lamentably the great majority of the Services of Health in the world, more than 95 %, has not nowadays any formal quality system but only any elements what can be named a 'natural quality system' that includes protocols of work, records of several processes, certified of training of the personnel and diverse practices that are realized in systematic form but that not always are documented. Most health services do not have the necessary means available to adhere quickly to international standards. At the same time the health services do not have either qualified or trained personnel to lead a certification or accreditation project and most of them do not have the resources available to hire external consultants, especially the public hospitals. The scenario described represents a challenge for the Regulatory Authorities who must determine 'how to ensure that installations comply with an acceptable standard of quality without it placing an impossible strain on their budget?' Due to these circumstances a 'Basic Guide' has developed for the implementation of a quality system in every Health Service that takes the elements as a foundation of the standard ISO - 9000:2000 and the standard for systems management GSR-3 of the IAEA. The criteria and the methodologies are showed in the presentation. (author)

  4. Rural poverty and environmental degradation in the Philippines: A system dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayno, Phares Penuliar

    Poverty among the small cultivators in the Philippines remains widespread despite a general increase in per capita income during the last three decades. At the same time, the degradation of agricultural land resources, as sources of daily subsistence for the rural workers, is progressing. Past policy studies on the alleviation of rural poverty in the developing countries have centered on the issue of increasing food production and expanding economic growth but gave little attention to the issue of constraints imposed by degradation of agricultural land resources. Only in recent years have there been increasing focus on the relationship between rural poverty and environmental degradation. Inquiry is, however, often done by simplistic one way causal relationships which, although often illuminating, does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the different interacting processes that create rural poverty and land degradation. Thus, policies ensuing from such analyses provide only short-term gains without effecting lasting improvement in the living conditions of the small cultivators. This dissertation examines the complex interrelationships between rural poverty and land degradation and attempts to explain the inefficacy of broad development programs implemented in alleviating rural poverty and reversing deterioration of land resources. The study uses the case of the Philippines for empirical validation. The analysis employs computer simulation experiments with a system dynamics model of a developing economy consisting of an agricultural sector whose microstructure incorporates processes influencing: agricultural production; disbursement of income; changes in the quality of agricultural land resources; demographic behavior; and rural-urban transfer of real and monetary resources. The system dynamics model used in this study extends the wage and income distribution model of Saeed (1988) by adding to it decision structures concerning changes in the quality of

  5. Women's Nutribusiness cooperatives in Kenya: an integrated strategy for sustaining rural livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the cooperatives were established, facilities and equipment were supplied and extensive participatory training was provided by university-affiliated investigators and project staff. This initiative enabled approximately 2500 rural Kenyan women farmers to add value to their crops by processing and locally marketing nutritious, convenient, culturally-appropriate weaning food mixes. Implementation of the NutriBusiness model is described and challenges of cultural engagement are highlighted.

  6. Renewable energy and its impact on rural development and sustainability in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the social and economic benefits of renewable energy by examining twelve case studies and applying the findings to the wider industry in order to forecast the effect of renewable energy on rural development. The UK government's policy on renewable energy development, the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, and the effect of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) on the market price for electricity are discussed. Details are given of the case studies concerning wind power, biomass, and wind and hydro schemes; the identification of the economic impacts, the workforce involved, and the expenditure in the local area; and the use of a Keynsian local economic multiplier model to evaluate the impact of the local expenditure and the incoming investment in renewable energy

  7. Renewable energy and its impact on rural development and sustainability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the social and economic benefits of renewable energy by examining twelve case studies and applying the findings to the wider industry in order to forecast the effect of renewable energy on rural development. The UK government's policy on renewable energy development, the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, and the effect of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) on the market price for electricity are discussed. Details are given of the case studies concerning wind power, biomass, and wind and hydro schemes; the identification of the economic impacts, the workforce involved, and the expenditure in the local area; and the use of a Keynsian local economic multiplier model to evaluate the impact of the local expenditure and the incoming investment in renewable energy.

  8. Effect of medicare payment on rural health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith J

    2002-01-01

    Medicare payments constitute a significant share of patient-generated revenues for rural providers, more so than for urban providers. Therefore, Medicare payment policies influence the behavior of rural providers and determine their financial viability. Health services researchers need to contribute to the understanding of the implications of changes in fee-for-service payment policy, prospects for change because of the payment to Medicare+Choice risk plans, and implications for rural providers inherent in any restructuring of the Medicare program. This article outlines the basic policy choices, implications for rural providers and Medicare beneficiaries, impacts of existing research, and suggestions for further research. Topics for further research include implications of the Critical Access Hospital program, understanding how changes in payment to rural hospitals affect patient care, developing improved formulas for paying rural hospitals, determining the payment-to-cost ratio for physicians, measuring the impact of changes in the payment methodology used to pay for services delivered by rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers, accounting for the reasons for differences in historical Medicare expenditures across rural counties and between rural and urban counties, explicating all reasons for Medicare+Choice plans withdrawing from some rural areas and entering others, measuring the rural impact of proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program, and measuring the impact of Medicare payment policies on rural economies.

  9. Problems of Rural Food Safety and Strategies of Constructing Supervision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the practical necessity of constructing diversified rural food safety supervision system as follows: it is the necessary requirements of guaranteeing people’s health and life safety; it is an important component of governmental function of social management and the logical extension of administrative responsibilities; it is the basis of maintaining order of rural society and constructing harmonious society. The main problems existing in the supervision of rural food safety are analyzed as follows: first, the legislative work of rural food safety lags behind to some extent; second, the supervision of governmental departments on rural food safety is insufficient; third, the industrial supervision mechanism of rural food security is not perfect; fourth, the role of rural social organizations in supervising food safety is limited; fifth, the farmers’ awareness of food safety supervision is not strong. Based on these problems, the targeted strategies of constructing diversified rural food safety supervision system are put forward as follows: accelerate the legislation of rural food safety, and ensure that there are laws to go by; give play to the dominant role of government, and strengthen administrative supervision on rural food safety; perfect industrial convention of rural food safety, and improve industrial supervision mechanism; actively support the fostering of social organizations, and give play to the role of supervision of organizations; cultivate correct concept of rights and obligations of farmers, and form awareness of food safety supervision.

  10. Sustainable Tourism Experiences in Ecuador; Implementing knowledge’ Social Construction process in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to socialize a successful experience for Social Knowledge Construction in the field of Environmental Literacy. This work takes place at the rural Afro-Ecuadorian community “San Miguel”, located in Ecuador, South America. The participants are 35 women and men, who installed a communitarian tourism project with the support of national and international rural development programs in 2005. However, any study had been executed in the location to determine the impacts on the natural and cultural heritage, since the touristic project began; in consequence, the community has not information to take decisions about their entrepreneurship. This work applied the ethnographic social research method and the techniques of semi-structured interview and community surveys to collect data. It was applied the Model of Echavarren for Assessing the Tourism Impacts on Natural and Cultural Resources. The results show that the economical contribution from the touristic project is still low but, necessary in the community. There are no relevant impacts on the natural and cultural heritage. However, an Environmental Literacy Plan based on Mendonça and the Social Knowledge Construction approach is introduced by the authors to strengthen local people environmental behavior. This plan can be adapted and applied in other communities. It is concluded that environmental literacy plans can be more efficient when are applied as transversal topics during formal and informal communitarian activities. This community members respect their agreement for keeping their natural and cultural resources for the enjoying of the future generations; even when, this represents a limited economic retribution.

  11. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We quantify ecotoxicity impacts caused by different solutions to manage stormwater using life cycle assessment. As a novelty, we include emissions of a wide range of pollutants present in runoff. These emissions turn out to be of great importance, especially in decentralized, above surface systems....

  12. A systems approach to improving rural care in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H Bradley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI, we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n = 2, most improved performance (n = 3, or consistently lower performance (n = 2 in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n = 51, we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1 managerial problem solving capacity, 2 relationship with the woreda (district health office, and 3 community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive

  13. A systems approach to improving rural care in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Byam, Patrick; Alpern, Rachelle; Thompson, Jennifer W; Zerihun, Abraham; Abebe, Yigeremu; Abeb, Yigeremu; Curry, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI), we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n = 2), most improved performance (n = 3), or consistently lower performance (n = 2) in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n = 51), we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1) managerial problem solving capacity, 2) relationship with the woreda (district) health office, and 3) community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive development of managerial problem solving skills, strong relationships with

  14. Mini-review: high rate algal ponds, flexible systems for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P; Taylor, M; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been a growing requirement by governments around the world for organisations to adopt more sustainable practices. Wastewater treatment is no exception, with many currently used systems requiring large capital investment, land area and power consumption. High rate algal ponds offer a sustainable, efficient and lower cost option to the systems currently in use. They are shallow, mixed lagoon based systems, which aim to maximise wastewater treatment by creating optimal conditions for algal growth and oxygen production-the key processes which remove nitrogen and organic waste in HRAP systems. This design means they can treat wastewater to an acceptable quality within a fifth of time of other lagoon systems while using 50% less surface area. This smaller land requirement decreases both the construction costs and evaporative water losses, making larger volumes of treated water available for beneficial reuse. They are ideal for rural, peri-urban and remote communities as they require minimum power and little on-site management. This review will address the history of and current trends in high rate algal pond development and application; a comparison of their performance with other systems when treating various wastewaters; and discuss their potential for production of added-value products. Finally, the review will consider areas requiring further research.

  15. Performance versus Values in Sustainability Transformation of Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Questions have been raised on what role the knowledge provided by sustainability science actually plays in the transition to sustainability and what role it may play in the future. In this paper we investigate different approaches to sustainability transformation of food systems by analyzing the rationale behind transformative acts-the ground that the direct agents of change act upon- and how the type of rationale is connected to the role of research and how the agents of change are involved. To do this we employ Max Weber’s distinction between instrumental rationality and value-rationality in social action. In particular, we compare two different approaches to the role of research in sustainability transformation: (1 Performance-based approaches that measure performance and set up sustainability indicator targets and benchmarks to motivate the agents in the food system to change; (2 Values-based approaches that aim at communicating and mediating sustainability values to enable coordinated and cooperative action to transform the food system. We identify their respective strengths and weaknesses based on a cross-case analysis of four cases, and propose that the two approaches, like Weber’s two types of rationality, are complementary-because they are based on complementary observer stances—and that an optimal in-between approach therefore cannot be found. However, there are options for reflexive learning by observing one perspective-and its possible blind spots-from the vantage point of the other, so we suggest that new strategies for sustainability transformation can be found based on reflexive rationality as a third and distinct type of rationality.

  16. Exploring intrinsic, instrumental, and relational values for sustainable management of social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Arias-Arévalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The values (i.e., importance that people place on ecosystems have been identified as a crucial dimension of sustainable management of social-ecological systems. Recently, the call for integrating plural values of ecosystems beyond intrinsic and instrumental values has prompted the notion of "relational values." With the aim of contributing to environmental management, we assess the environmental motivations (i.e., egoistic, biospheric, altruistic and values that people attribute to the ecosystems of the mid-upper stream of the Otún River watershed, central Andes, Colombia. We analyzed 589 questionnaires that were collected in urban and rural areas of the Otún River watershed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regressions. We found salient biospheric motivations and the attribution of plural values (i.e., intrinsic, relational, and instrumental to the ecosystems of the mid-upper stream of the Otún River watershed. Particularly, relational values were the most frequently mentioned value domain. Further, our results showed that environmental motivations and socioeconomic factors are associated with the expression of different value domains. We found negative associations between egoistic motivations and intrinsic values and between rural respondents and instrumental values. We found positive associations between altruistic motivations and relational values and between rural respondents and both intrinsic and relational values. In light of our results, we argue that intrinsic, instrumental, and relational values coexist in people's narratives about the importance of ecosystems. Plural valuation approaches could be enhanced by differentiating relational from instrumental values and by expressing them in nonmonetary terms. We argue that multiple values of ecosystems expressed by rural and urban societies should be included in environmental management to tackle social conflicts and consider the diverse needs and interests of

  17. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  18. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  19. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  20. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  1. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO 2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO 2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO 2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO 2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these

  2. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  3. Economically sustainable: market synergies in hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    As interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier grows, it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of a market-based approach to its introduction. While there will always be niche markets in which it makes sense to employ what is currently a comparatively expensive form of energy storage and delivery, this will not enable the sort of large-scale penetration that will allow for economies of mass-manufacture to bring the cost of hydrogen down. In addition, energy markets are becoming increasingly liberalised, and because of this it is important to understand the sort of market pressures that are arising where none have existed before. These pressures may actually lead to opportunities for hydrogen in energy storage and for use in power generation and transport fuel modes, and allow market penetration to occur more rapidly than might be the case in a centralised energy structure. In the liberalised energy market within the UK, for example, there are two areas of potentially major growth in hydrogen production and consumption: energy storage for renewable generators; and backup systems at weak electricity grid links. The first of these is due, in part, to potential changes in regulation governing the way that electricity is sold into the market, while the second is dependent more on an increasingly congested electricity grid and the high costs of building supplementary infrastructure. In both cases there is potential for the early use of hydrogen energy systems in an economically competitive environment. (author)

  4. Characterization of traditional production systems of sugarcane for panela and some prospects for improving their sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane used for the production of “panela” (unrefined cane sugar is a crop of great importance for Colombia’s rural economy. Additionally, it serves a fundamental role in the food security and sovereignty of the Colombian population and daily consumption. However, the small production system presents problems of sustainability, as a direct consequence of its technological arrears and loss of interest in this crop. In this study, a characterization of 30 small productive units located in three municipalities in Antioquia was performed with the objective of identifying the problems associated with this production system and stablish the causes associated with loss of area dedicated to this crop in the study area. The results demonstrate that in the region of study, this production system and its associated agro-industry have problems associated with low technological level, poor infrastructure, deficient agro-industry processing and low levels of associativity and marketing. This situation has generated a low economic solvency for the farmers, leading many to abandon this activity and migrate towards other economic sectors. The findings of this study indicate the need to reengineer this production system, for which they could make technological adaptations that improve productivity and product quality and generate added value. On the other hand, must the rural countryside attractive to avoid the loss of labor and make young people become interested in this economic activity. As strategies to improve productivity, we suggest the effective use of information technologies, improve rural living conditions, increase associativity and value added, involve the consumer in the production chain and design development policies for the entire chain of value.

  5. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Mathiessen, Brian vad; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This special issue of contributions presented at the 6th SDEWES Conference. ► Buildings are becoming energy neutral. ► Process integration enables significant improvements of energy efficiency. ► The electrification of transport and measures to increase its efficiency are needed. ► Renewable energy is becoming more viable while being complicated to integrate. -- Abstract: The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.

  6. Sustainability Decision Support Framework for Industrial System Prioritization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Wei, Shunan; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2016-01-01

    A multicriteria decision-making methodology for the sustainability prioritization of industrial systems is proposed. The methodology incorporates a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process method that allows the users to assess the soft criteria using linguistic terms. A fuzzy Analytic Network Process...... method is used to calculate the weights of each criterion, which can tackle the interdependencies and interactions among the criteria. The Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation approach is used to prioritize the sustainability sequence of the alternative systems. Moreover......, a sensitivity analysis method was developed to investigate the most critical and sensitive criteria. The developed methodology was illustrated by a case study to rank the sustainability of five alternative hydrogen production technologies. The advantages of the developed methodology over the previous approaches...

  7. Transforming rural health systems through clinical academic leadership: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J E; Couper, I D; Campbell, D; Walker, J

    2013-01-01

    Under-resourced and poorly managed rural health systems challenge the achievement of universal health coverage, and require innovative strategies worldwide to attract healthcare staff to rural areas. One such strategy is rural health training programs for health professionals. In addition, clinical leadership (for all categories of health professional) is a recognised prerequisite for substantial improvements in the quality of care in rural settings. Rural health training programs have been slow to develop in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and the impact of clinical leadership is under-researched in such settings. A 2012 conference in South Africa, with expert input from South Africa, Canada and Australia, discussed these issues and produced recommendations for change that will also be relevant in other LMICs. The two underpinning principles were that: rural clinical leadership (both academic and non-academic) is essential to developing and expanding rural training programs and improving care in LMICs; and leadership can be learned and should be taught. The three main sets of recommendations focused on supporting local rural clinical academic leaders; training health professionals for leadership roles in rural settings; and advancing the clinical academic leadership agenda through advocacy and research. By adopting the detailed recommendations, South Africa and other LMICs could energise management strategies, improve quality of care in rural settings and impact positively on rural health outcomes.

  8. A methodology for the sustainability assessment of agri-food systems: an application to the Slow Food Presidia project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Peano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New and alternative models for agri-food production and consumption have brought up questions regarding the effects they have on local development processes in terms of the economic exploitation of rural areas as well as environmental, cultural, and social factors. The agri-food system proposed by the Slow Food (SF Presidia Project, which focuses on farm-to-market systems for local, high-quality, sustainable products, can respond to the new and emerging needs of both rural and urban populaces via several approaches in addition to food production itself. However, evaluating these parameters is challenging. The aim of this study was to develop an indicator-based tool to monitor the sustainability in agri-food systems that considers quality as well as economic, ecological, social, and cultural aspects. We: (i translated the major SF principles of "good," "clean," and "fair" into five major criteria to evaluate sustainability; (ii designed multiple indicators to monitor progress toward sustainability for each of those criteria; and (iii applied the monitoring tools to three case studies as a first attempt at end-use validation. Indicators and criteria were weighted either equally or based on their importance to surveyed stakeholders, i.e., consumers, producers, and scientists/experts. The proposed approach performed well as a tool for a broad sustainability evaluation by effectively combining the indicators with the same feedback. With this approach, we demonstrated that the SF Presidia project increases all dimensions of sustainability and in particular socioeconomic and cultural capital by preserving the environmental and quality aspects of the food products.

  9. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  10. Placing ecosystem sustainability within the context of dynamic earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecosystem sustainability, three additional perspectives are presented. These are resilient systems, systems where tipping points occur, and systems subject to episodic geophysical resetting. Ecosystem resilience accommodates both natural and anthropogenic stressors and should be considered to properly frame many ecosystem assessments. A more complex problem emerges when stressors push systems to tipping points, causing a regime shift. Both chronic anthropogenic activities (e.g., over-grazing, forest conversion, poor irrigation practices) and natural changes (e.g., climate anomalies, geochemical weathering, tectonic uplift, vegetative succession) can exhaust ecosystem resilience leading to a rapid change in state. Anthropogenic perturbations can also lower the initiation threshold and increase the magnitude and frequency of certain natural disasters, increasing the likelihood of ecosystem change. Furthermore, when major episodic geophysical events (e.g., large earthquakes, tsunami, and floods; widespread volcanic activity and landslides) exceed thresholds of ecosystem resilience they may reset the attributes of entire systems or landscapes. Large disasters can initiate a cascade of linked events, as in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, where tsunami, fires, landslides, artificial fillslope collapses, radioactive releases, and associated health effects occurred. Understanding the potential for natural change (both chronic and episodic) in ecosystems is essential not only to the environmental aspect of sustainability but also to economic and social aspects. Examples are presented for: (1) ecosystems vulnerable to tipping points (Yunnan, China) and (2) ecosystems reset by earthquakes and

  11. An evaluation of China's new rural cooperative medical system: achievements and inadequacies from policy goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-10-23

    Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of

  12. Applied Mycology Can Contribute to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Building upon China's Matsutake Management Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Madeline; McLellan, Timothy; Li, Huili; Karunarathna, Samantha C.

    2018-02-01

    Matsutake mushrooms are an important part of rural livelihoods and forest ecosystems across large parts of China, as well as elsewhere in East Asia, Northern Europe and North America. Mushroom harvesters have developed sophisticated understandings of matsutake ecology and production, and are applying this knowledge in various innovative management strategies. At the same time, Chinese government agencies and scientists are promoting matsutake-based livelihoods to support development and conservation goals. We collaborated with matsutake harvesters in one Yunnan community to carry out a systematic experiment on a popular shiro-level management technique: covering matsutake shiros with either plastic or leaf litter. Our experimental results suggest that although leaf litter coverings are superior to plastic coverings, shiros that are left uncovered may produce the highest yields. Complementing our experimental work is a multi-sited household survey of existing matsutake management practices across Yunnan, which shows that a high proportion of harvesters are already engaged in a broad range of potentially beneficial management strategies. Though both findings highlight limitations of previous initiatives led by government and research actors in China, this existing body of work is an important foundation and opportunity for developing applied mycology in the region. In and beyond China, working with communities to develop site-specific management strategies through rigorous and participatory scientific inquiry can provide salient benefits for both scientists and resource users.

  13. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  14. Biorefinery systems – potential contributors to sustainable innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellisch, M.; Jungmeier, G.; Karbowski, A.; Patel, M.K.; Rogulska, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using

  15. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  16. Wetland harvesting systems -- developing alternatives for sustainable operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; Alvin Schilling

    1997-01-01

    Wetland forests represent some of the most productive forest lands in the Southeast. They are also an environmentally sensitive ecotype which presents unique problems for forest operations. Sustaining active management in these areas will require systems which can operate on weak soil conditions without adversely affecting soil properties or stand regeneration. The...

  17. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...

  18. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  19. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  20. On sustainable operation of warehouse order picking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriansyah, R.; Etman, L.F.P.; Rooda, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development calls for an efficient utilization of natural and human resources. This issue also arises for warehouse systems, where typically extensive capital investment and labor intensive work are involved. It is therefore important to assess and continuously monitor the performance of

  1. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  2. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    products including jet fuels, distillate fuels, residual fuels, automotive gasoline , specified bulk lubricating oils, aircraft engine oils, fuel...contained within this report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mission command Software Tactical applications (TacApps) Command post ...computing environment (CPCE) Command post client Battle command sustainment support System (BCS3) Logistics

  3. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well.

  4. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  5. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szydło

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  6. Standardized network order sets in rural Ontario: a follow-up report on successes and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Andrea; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Unifying, implementing and sustaining a large order set project requires strategic placement of key organizational professionals to provide ongoing user education, communication and support. This article will outline the successful strategies implemented by the Grey Bruce Health Network, Evidence-Based Care Program to reduce length of stay, increase patient satisfaction and increase the use of best practices resulting in quality outcomes, safer practice and better allocation of resources by using standardized Order Sets within a network of 11 hospital sites. Audits conducted in 2007 and again in 2008 revealed a reduced length of stay of 0.96 in-patient days when order sets were used on admission and readmission for the same or a related diagnosis within one month decreased from 5.5% without order sets to 3.5% with order sets.

  7. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  8. Is sustainability achievable? Exploring the limits of sustainability with model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Yogendra; Diwekar, Urmila; Cabezas, Heriberto; Williamson, James

    2008-09-01

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often nonlinear and nonintuitive relationships among different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the system-wide implications of human actions. This basic understanding further includes a sense of the time scale of possible future events and the limits of what is and is not likely to be possible. With this understanding, systematic approaches can then be used to develop policy guidelines for the system. This article presents an illustration of these ideas by analyzing an integrated ecological-economic-social model, which comprises various ecological (natural) and domesticated compartments representing species along with a macroeconomic price setting model. The stable and qualitatively realistic model is used to analyze different relevant scenarios. Apart from highlighting complex relationships within the system, it identifies potentially unsustainable future developments such as increased human per capita consumption rates. Dynamic optimization is then used to develop time-dependent policy guidelines for the unsustainable scenarios using objective functions that aim to minimize fluctuations in the system's Fisher information. The results can help to identify effective policy parameters and highlight the tradeoff between natural and domesticated compartments while managing such integrated systems. The results should also qualitatively guide further investigations in the area of system level studies and policy development.

  9. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Malsch, Ineke; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin; Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom; Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  10. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Vrishali, E-mail: vrishali.subramanian@unive.it; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy); Malsch, Ineke [Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands); McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin [University of Limerick, Kemmy Business School (Ireland); Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom [TNO (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio, E-mail: marcom@unive.it [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  11. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  13. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  14. World in transition 3 towards sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    'The publication of World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems is timely indeed. The World Summit on Sustainable Development gave great prominence to this challenge, but failed to agree on a quantitative, time-bound target for the introduction of renewable energy sources. The German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) has now produced a report with a global focus, which is essential in view of the global impacts of climate change. The report provides a convincing long-term analysis, which is also essential. Global energy policies have to take a long-term perspective, over the

  15. Collaborative business modeling for systemic and sustainability innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Konnertz, L.; Knab, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability innovations are characterized by a systemic nature, and require that multiple organizations act in an orchestrated fashion. To jointly identify opportunities and plan sustainability innovations, new methods and approaches are needed. In this article we describe a case study where 8...... firms have collaborated to envision and create new business models in the energy industry. After describing this collaborative business modelling (CBM) approach, we discuss its strengths and limitations and compare it to two alternative methods of strategy and innovation planning: scenario technique...

  16. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  17. Integrated Systems Health Management for Sustainable Habitats (Using Sustainability Base as a Testbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.

    2017-01-01

    Habitation systems provide a safe place for astronauts to live and work in space and on planetary surfaces. They enable crews to live and work safely in deep space, and include integrated life support systems, radiation protection, fire safety, and systems to reduce logistics and the need for resupply missions. Innovative health management technologies are needed in order to increase the safety and mission-effectiveness for future space habitats on other planets, asteroids, or lunar surfaces. For example, off-nominal or failure conditions occurring in safety-critical life support systems may need to be addressed quickly by the habitat crew without extensive technical support from Earth due to communication delays. If the crew in the habitat must manage, plan and operate much of the mission themselves, operations support must be migrated from Earth to the habitat. Enabling monitoring, tracking, and management capabilities on-board the habitat and related EVA platforms for a small crew to use will require significant automation and decision support software.Traditional caution and warning systems are typically triggered by out-of-bounds sensor values, but can be enhanced by including machine learning and data mining techniques. These methods aim to reveal latent, unknown conditions while still retaining and improving the ability to provide highly accurate alerts for known issues. A few of these techniques will briefly described, along with performance targets for known faults and failures. Specific system health management capabilities required for habitat system elements (environmental control and life support systems, etc.) may include relevant subsystems such as water recycling systems, photovoltaic systems, electrical power systems, and environmental monitoring systems. Sustainability Base, the agency's flagship LEED-platinum certified green building acts as a living laboratory for testing advanced information and sustainable technologies that provides an

  18. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  19. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  20. Systems Reliability Framework for Surface Water Sustainability and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. R.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2016-12-01

    With microbial contamination posing a serious threat to the availability of clean water across the world, it is necessary to develop a framework that evaluates the safety and sustainability of water systems in respect to non-point source fecal microbial contamination. The concept of water safety is closely related to the concept of failure in reliability theory. In water quality problems, the event of failure can be defined as the concentration of microbial contamination exceeding a certain standard for usability of water. It is pertinent in watershed management to know the likelihood of such an event of failure occurring at a particular point in space and time. Microbial fate and transport are driven by environmental processes taking place in complex, multi-component, interdependent environmental systems that are dynamic and spatially heterogeneous, which means these processes and therefore their influences upon microbial transport must be considered stochastic and variable through space and time. A physics-based stochastic model of microbial dynamics is presented that propagates uncertainty using a unique sampling method based on artificial neural networks to produce a correlation between watershed characteristics and spatial-temporal probabilistic patterns of microbial contamination. These results are used to address the question of water safety through several sustainability metrics: reliability, vulnerability, resilience and a composite sustainability index. System reliability is described uniquely though the temporal evolution of risk along watershed points or pathways. Probabilistic resilience describes how long the system is above a certain probability of failure, and the vulnerability metric describes how the temporal evolution of risk changes throughout a hierarchy of failure levels. Additionally our approach allows for the identification of contributions in microbial contamination and uncertainty from specific pathways and sources. We expect that this