WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable rural policy

  1. Policy Priorities In Rural Women Empowerment Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In like manner, equitability can not be divorced from sustainability as it is one major issue in sustainability. History has revealed that Nigerian women are not always allowed by men to exert themselves fully. Some encumbrances are placed on the road to development of the feminine gender by the society. Such inequities ...

  2. Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment; governance, policy and multifunctionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from food and raw materials, agriculture can also provide ancillary benefits such as landscapes, biodiversity, cultural heritage and thriving rural communities. This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of strategies for sustainable management practices and their implementation through the

  3. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  4. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  5. Problems and social policy priorities sustainable development of rural territories (on the Republic Komi example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of term «sustainable development» of rural areas. Social problems of rural development of the republic of Komi are identified. An intra-rural typology creation is performed. An increasing differentiation in the development of rural areas is concluded. Rural settlements in the republic are characterized by low population density and a rare network of settlements. Low level and quality of rural life (low rural incomes, poor living conditions and high unemployment and better living conditions in urban areas adversely affect migration processes of the village. Characteristic features of modern rural labour market are: inconsistency of supply and demand of labour in vocational and qualification angle, seasonality of production and temporary nature of the proposed work, low wages, low competitiveness of the youth labour market, high level of registered unemployment and even higher — of unregistered. Analytical material allowed the authors to determine the direction of social policy for sustainable development of rural areas according to the conditions of the North.

  6. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Recent trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  7. Social capital, leadership and policy arrangements in generating sustainable European rural regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Marsden, T.

    2010-01-01

    In European regions, an increasingly complex arena of actors is involved in today’s development agendas. They range from private firms and labour organisations to government and non-government institutions. The complexity of issues and actors is difficult to manage for current policy institutions.

  8. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  9. Development of Sustainable Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kantar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sociological view of possibilities for the development of sustainable rural tourism in Koprivnica-Krizevci county, which is located in the north-western part of Croatia. The possibilities for developing rural tourism within the concept of sustainable development have been researched through qualitative empirical research interview method. Research subjects were the owners of tourist farms, decision makers, experts and other stakeholders in the tourism development. Rural tourism represents an alternative to maritime tourism and is relatively undeveloped but important in terms of development of rural areas and family farms. This paper enables an insight into an integrated sustainability of rural tourism which consists of four dimensions: biologicalecological, economic, socio-cultural and political sustainability. In conclusion, integral sustainability in rural tourism is not achieved in all dimensions. Therefore, rural tourism could be a strategy for sustainable development for rural areas and also could be a tool for product differentiation for area that are at stagnation stage.

  10. The Quest for Rural Sustainability in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Wegren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural depopulation and the disappearance of villages in rural Russia occurred as part of the historical process of urbanization and industrialization. Rural depopulation also occurred for structural reasons having to do with village location, and for behavioral reasons whereby villagers react to primitive living conditions and poor economic prospects. Three possible strategies for addressing the problem of sustainable villages are considered. The government is attempting to improve rural living conditions, but rural depopulation is likely to continue. Characteristics of sustainable villages are outlined. Agro-tourism is analyzed for its potential to support sustainable villages.

  11. Environment, sustainability, and education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan

    presentations.Objectives: .Methods: .Results: Educational Policy and Environment and Sustainability Part 1: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Policy Research (90 minutes)Paper 1 - How might critical policy sociology inform policy analysis and enactment in environmental and sustainability education...

  12. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  13. Rural Entrepreneurship Policy in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an overview of the entrepreneurship policies targeted at rural areas and family undertakings. Agricultural undertakings, especially cattle breeders, have been almost ignored in the development of Estonia’s entrepreneurship policies. Various action plans have been devised for the development of rural living environments. Unfortunately none of them supports cattle breeding. The author obtained the data used in this research from the databases of Estonian Animal Recording Centre, Estonian Agricultural Register and from questionnaires. The author conducted interviews with beef cattle breeders doing performance testing and with parish authorities. Family enterprises are extremely vulnerable; their reserves for surviving critical periods are small or nearly nonexistent. They often depend only on one area of activity. In the current economic situation owners of family enterprises need to pay particular attention to strategic management, so as to survive in difficult situations. They must take right decisions and start looking for challenges.

  14. Sustaining the Entrepreneurship in Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiza Md Sharif

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs play an important role in sustaining rural tourism and formulation of sustainable strategies being the initiators of the tourism business and the engine of the local development. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate the development of entrepreneurial activities for the recovery of rural tourism potential and regional traditions, maintaining local employment growth and increase living standards in line with identifies needs and priorities of regional human resources development. This article aims to discuss the involvement of local communities in development of rural tourism entrepreneurship as well as addressing the issue of entrepreneurship in rural tourism.

  15. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  16. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  17. Examining Success Factors for Sustainable Rural Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This collaborative project will examine the role the Integrated Co-operative Model can play in reducing poverty and promoting development in rural African communities. Specifically, it aims to add to the knowledge of how to improve livelihoods and reduce poverty in a sustainable way in rural communities. It will strive to: ...

  18. Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sri Lanka is looking toward aquaculture for rural economic diversification and increased food production, especially in the northern and eastern provinces recently liberated from civil ... Knowledge of alternative production options is critical to ensure that aquaculture successfully contributes to sustainable rural livelihoods.

  19. Bulgarian rural development policy implementation and new rural paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Peneva, Mariya Marinova; Kopeva, Diana Ilieva

    2010-01-01

    The role of Rural Development Policy is growing nowadays. As an EU member state Bulgaria started implementation of Rural Development Policy. The paper analyse the level of achievement of the Rural Development Programme’s objectives in Bulgaria. The programme started in 2008 and most of the measures are implemented. But effective payments have been done only under eight measures. The vast majority of financed projects are for investments mainly in agriculture (for perennial crops production, b...

  20. Assessing the Impact of Land Use Policy on Urban-Rural Sustainability Using the FoPIA Approach in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junun Sartohadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a sustainability impact assessment (SIA of policy induced land use changes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The regional problems include rapid expansions of urban areas, due to high population pressure, and the conversion of paddy fields and forests into settlements. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of two land use policies on social, economic, and environmental Land Use Functions (LUFs in Yogyakarta. The following scenarios were developed for the SIA: a forest protection scenario (S1, a paddy field conservation scenario (S2, and a counterfactual (no policy scenario of ‘Business As Usual’ (BAU. The Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA was applied to conduct an expert-based impact assessment. For the specification of the regional sustainability context, a set of nine key LUFs and associated indicators were developed, including three social, three economic, and three environmental sustainability criteria. The resulting scenario impacts of the assessment differed considerably, with positive impacts of the S1 and S2 scenarios on seven of nine LUFs, and negative impacts of the BAU scenario on six LUFs. The perception of the FoPIA method by the regional stakeholders was positive. We conclude that this method contributes toward an enhanced regional understanding of policy effects and sustainability, particularly in data-poor environments.

  1. RURAL COMMUNITIES AND POLICY PARTICIPATION: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    Rural communities of Zimbabwe have long been marginalised as evidenced by a large development gap between them and urban communities. The idea of linking lack of development in rural areas with participation in policy making process is vital for many policy makers. This research focused on assessing the roles ...

  2. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  3. Educating for Sustainable Rural Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Classrooms and their pedagogy have historically been characterised by a disconnection from the community outside, and this trend is particularly problematic for rural schools (Bryden & Boylan, 2004; Corbett, 2006). There is reduced encouragement for teachers to connect classroom and community with the current focus on standardised testing,…

  4. Sustainable rural development and communicative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Langvad, Anne-Mette

    2006-01-01

    Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach that is ...... that is able to coordinate the various partial perspectives. In this article we present such a theoretical framework for poly-ocular communicative learning....

  5. Sustainability in management education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    in business and management are essentially contestable. But the concept of “sustainability” has not become widely activated as a contested concept. The insufficient and problematic qualities of local practices of sustainability need to be acknowledged in order to recognize the limits attached to any......Sustainability with regards to environmental issues has until recently been seen as irrelevant to business and management practice and, consequently, has been largely missing from business and management education. But the last decade has seen increasing recognition of environmental problems...... been regulation, market-based instruments and voluntary agreements. However, in recent years, policies have started to focus on education. Management education, like adult education in general, is less institutionalized than primary, secondary and tertiary education. Many different actors...

  6. Forest Leafy Vegetables Marketing and Sustainable Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leafy vegetables from forests are capable of generating income and employment for rural populations sustainably. Investigation of wild vegetable marketing was conducted in Rivers State, Nigeria with well-structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Net profit, Rate of return on ...

  7. Rural Health Care Access and Policy in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Roger; Kam, Sophia M; Regalado, Sophie M

    2016-01-01

    Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote inhabitants experience lower life expectancy and poorer health status. Nowhere is the worldwide shortage of health professionals more pronounced than in rural areas of developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) includes a disproportionately large number of developing countries; therefore, this article explores SSA in depth as an example. Using the conceptual framework of access to primary health care, sustainable rural health service models, rural health workforce supply, and policy implications, this article presents a review of the academic and gray literature as the basis for recommendations designed to achieve greater health equity. An alternative international standard for health professional education is recommended. Decision makers should draw upon the expertise of communities to identify community-specific health priorities and should build capacity to enable the recruitment and training of local students from underserviced areas to deliver quality health care in rural community settings.

  8. Sustainable Rural Development in Nigeria through Microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Based on its low Gross National Product (GNP) per capital, Nigeria has since. 1990 been classified as a “poor .... rural purchasing power to provide markets for the new urban products – these are among the most persuasive .... there are yet no established government policies and mechanisms for regulating and supervising.

  9. Lesotho's Rural Development Policy: Objectives and Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesotho's rural development policy evolved at the beginning of the second decade of the last century. Initially it was an attempt to shore up the Basotho subsistence economy through efforts directed at protecting the fertility of the soil and to protect animals from diseases. After independence rural development, hitherto an ...

  10. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.

    2016-01-01

    , and therefore facilitates planning and management of the 2014-2020 RDP funds reserved for greenway implementation. This decision making framework consists of a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System (MC-SDSS) that integrates a Geographic Information System (GIS) with the Multiple Criteria Decision...... decision making framework enabling both greenway implementations by policy makers (top-down strategy), and the choice among various alternatives evaluated by different stakeholders (bottom-up strategy). This helps policy makers to identify the greenway that best promotes the objectives of RSD...... to identify four greenways. We then established a hierarchy consisting of four groups of stakeholders, seven criteria and twenty-one sub-criteria. Finally, GAHP was applied to aggregate the preferences of stakeholders and obtain the ranking. Specifically, Greenway 4 is the preferred alternative for every...

  11. Rural Tourism: Development, Management and Sustainability in Rural Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Villanueva-Álvaro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the economic driving forces of Spain: the consolidation of existing tourist destinations and new market niches encourage an upward trend of tourism. The economic impacts produced by tourism are one of the major concerns of the authorities; the question is whether it is possible to continue growing without compromising our environment. This work attempts to answer this issue by analysing one of the tourism segments with higher growth in recent years: rural tourism. Using a model of partial least squares (PLS, we will analyse the environmental impacts from the point of view of the supply and its relationships with the environmental management conducted. We will also analyse the rural establishments from a global point of view and, depending on their category, explain the factors which determine the sustainable behaviour of providers, and identify that the establishments of low categories have a more sustainable conduct.

  12. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng

    2017-05-01

    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  13. Are the Rural Electrification Efforts in the Ecuadorian Amazon Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feron

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the sustainability of rural electrification programs in Ecuador, paying special attention to programs targeting small indigenous communities in the Amazon basin. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural and is based on an exhaustive qualitative document analysis, complemented by semi-structured expert interviews. We found that disruptive changes have affected the electrification policies in Ecuador during decades of avoiding the development of strengthened institutions. Despite this major drawback, we found that there is a consensus on granting access to energy for all. This partially explains the national efforts, persistent through different administrations to fund rural electrification. However, in the case of off-grid photovoltaic solutions, these efforts have consistently neglected allocating funds for operation and maintenance, which has seriously compromised the sustainability. Moreover, although Ecuadorian officials declared to favor stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the case of indigenous communities in the Amazon, we found that environmental or socio-cultural aspects have a minor role in the selection of these systems. Progress regarding environmental awareness, social acceptance, and cultural justice, is still needed for ensuring the sustainability of rural electrification efforts in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  14. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  15. Policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nhemachena, C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study crafts a policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa. The district, being predominantly agricultural and rural, faces contention in terms of land allocation...

  16. Assessing the Financial Sustainability of China’s Rural Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rapid growth of China’s elderly rural population, establishing both an adequate and a financially sustainable rural pension system is a major challenge. Focusing on financial sustainability, this article defines this concept of financial sustainability before constructing sound actuarial models for China’s rural pension system. Based on these models and statistical data, the analysis finds that the rural pension funding gap should rise from 97.80 billion Yuan in 2014 to 3062.31 billion Yuan in 2049, which represents an annual growth rate of 10.34%. This implies that, as it stands, the rural pension system in China is not financially sustainable. Finally, the article explains how this problem could be fixed through policy recommendations based on recent international experiences.

  17. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Editor(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print.

  18. Nigeria: Positioning Rural Economy for Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Michael Okunola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as nation has over the years engaged in lots of developmental activities without actions which makes achievements to elude the people. Development of societies doesn’t happen in the vacuum. Thus, the adoption of Structural Adjustment Program, SAP, by Nigeria leading to the neglect of the custom periodic National Plan at a time when Nigeria had no structure for development was the beginning of journey to widened inequality and large poverty incidence, depth and severity. To close the gap between the rich and the poor, the Nigeria government had designed and implemented some programs and policies whose implementation has not solved the inherent problems. In year 2000, the world leaders subscribed to the Millennium Development Goals to ensure synergized global approach to solving the poverty menace. Programs designed in Nigeria to achieve the MDGs focused on the urban centers thereby relegating the rural areas which are responsible for the feeding of the teeming population of the urban dwellers. Farming households and the general rural communities do not have access to clean water, quality education and health facilities, good feeder roads, affordable and safe energy as well as other socioeconomic and socio-infrastructural facilities that would ensure sustainable living for the people whose contribution to the national economy cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore looks at the structural actions the Nigeria government should embarked upon to ensure that the rural dweller have access to life. As the government would be developing programs and policies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals whose priority is the end poverty in all forms and everywhere by 2030, this study reveals how to position the rural economy for developmental attention from the policy makers.

  19. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; van Kranenburg, H.L.; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of systems to defeat the policies that have been designed to improve them is known as ‘policy resistance’. This paper addresses the question how we can explain the persistence of policy resistance in the co...

  20. Rural development in the European Union: the concept and the policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gallardo-Cobos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are key elements that underpin the social and economic European territory and shape its landscape. The rural setting is a dynamic concept, able to distinguish three stages on how the European Union (EU understands “rural”: rural as image, rural as local, and rural as a social construction. The evolution of the concept is reflected in the need to adapt the approach used to address rural issues, and consequently the political design for rural development. Thus, under the term Rural Development, the EU has included and mixed very different issues, supporting measures and equally heterogeneous financial instruments. For the purpose of supporting the European rural world the two main EU policies have come together: the agricultural and the regional policies. So, Rural Development in the EU has been navigating between the sectorial policy and the territorial policy. At a time of redefinition of European priorities and policies for 2013, territorial cohesion, rural/urban articulation, social partnership, institutional cooperation, environmental sustainability, and governance (flexible and multilevel are the fundamental elements upon which a policy should rest that is addressed to ensure the existence of a living countryside, inhabitable and friendly environment.

  1. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVANOVIC Verka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

  2. Methodology for Evaluating the Rural Tourism Potentials: A Tool to Ensure Sustainable Development of Rural Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Trukhachev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses potentials, challenges and problems of the rural tourism from the point of view of its impact on sustainable rural development. It explores alternative sources of income for rural people by means of tourism and investigates effects of the rural tourism on agricultural production in local rural communities. The aim is to identify the existing and potential tourist attractions within the rural areas in Southern Russia and to provide solutions to be introduced in particular rural settlements in order to make them attractive for tourists. The paper includes the elaboration and testing of a methodology for evaluating the rural tourism potentials using the case of rural settlements of Stavropol Krai, Russia. The paper concludes with a ranking of the selected rural settlements according to their rural tourist capacity and substantiation of the tourism models to be implemented to ensure a sustainable development of the considered rural areas.

  3. Environmental and sustainability education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and innovations in scholarship. They also offer critical commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches and findings. Including a wide range of examples of ESE policy and policy research, the book draws on studies of educational initiatives and legislation, policy making processes and rhetoric......The volume draws on a wide range of policy studies and syntheses to provide readers with insights into the international genealogy and priorities of ESE policy. Editors and contributors call for renewed attention to the possibilities for future directions in light of previously published work......, ideological orthodoxy and critique, curriculum making and educational theory, globalisation and neoliberalism, climate change and environmental worldviews, and much more....

  4. Reflections on Beijing Rural Energy Policies and New Rural Construction ——Using Digital Information Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the Beijing construction in accordance with the philosophy of environmental protection, solid depth to carry out a series of policies and measures, such as rural energy structure optimization and adjustment; rural residential seismic energy-saving; village green landscaping. If displaying and recording movement states and regulars of the beautiful countryside construction through this information process, It will greatly strengthen regulation of the relationship between new rural people, to realize system optimization, make urban and rural become conducive to human survival and sustainable development of space.

  5. Sustainable heritage utilization in rural tourism development in Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maksin Marija

    2012-01-01

    Research on natural and cultural heritage as one of the key levers of sustainable tourism development in Serbia has been conducted 2010, for the elaboration of the Master plan for Sustainable Rural...

  6. Assessing Rural Sustainable Development potentialities using a Dominance-based Rough Set Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Antonio; Rocchi, Lucia; Paolotti, Luisa; Musotti, Francesco; Greco, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Rural Development is a priority in Europe and it is supported by specific, financial programmes. At the same time, sustainability is the key word for the European Union to construct programmes and policies for all human activities. However, measuring sustainability of rural areas is not easy, due to their particular features. The improvement of knowledge on sustainability in rural areas is important to build long term policies and strategies for those territories. The objective of this study is the development of a decision support system based on the Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA), to assess the level of Rural Sustainable Development in specific areas. We used DRSA to analyze the level of sustainability of the 92 municipalities of the Region of Umbria, Italy. The results were synthesized in a final ranking, taking into account the equilibrium and the integration between development and sustainability of each municipality. DRSA showed a high potential in the context of management or planning, and for supporting Decision Makers. DRSA is able to give a ranking as well as an explanation of the main factors driving sustainable development in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainable heritage utilization in rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and cultural heritage as one of the key levers of sustainable tourism development in Serbia has been conducted 2010, for the elaboration of the Master plan for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia. To evaluate achieved and potential attractiveness of natural and cultural heritage at rural Serbia the FAS methodology was implemented, and the results of this evaluation are discussed. Based on achieved and potential attractiveness and accessibility of natural and cultural heritage, and other criteria, the rural tourism clusters have been established. Methodology for rural tourism clusters identification and prioritization is presented, and the results of prioritization discussed. Elaboration of the Master plan for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia has been based on the holistic approach. Therefore the aim of rural tourism development is to protect, revitalize and use the natural and cultural assets in sustainable way to benefit the rural communities. Challenges and possibilities for sustainable heritage utilization, sustainable rural tourism development, and management arrangements are discussed for two cases - Viminacium archaeological park and Mountain Stara planina Nature Park. Based on analyzed cases the evaluation criteria for management of sustainable heritage utilization and rural tourism development are proposed.

  8. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  9. Gender mainstreaming and rural development policy; the trivialisation of rural gender issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers gender mainstreaming of the EU Rural Development Programme. The EU promotes the gender mainstreaming of rural development policies because retaining women in rural areas is seen as crucial to the long-term viability of rural areas. A review of literature and scan of policy

  10. How to develop sustainable tourism in rural destinations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štetić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical distinction between countries of tourist offer and countries of tourist demand has already been surpassed considering that many countries of tourist demand (USA, Germany, Great Britain … earn much more from tourism than the countries of tourist offer (Italy, Greece, Portugal …. The changes in customers' behaviour are reflected through restructuring of tourist movements towards new destinations. What is essential in creating, promoting and marketing tourist destinations for the specific tourism forms development is the identification of all the positive and negative factors that influence the development of these destinations. Converting a potential into a tourist destination depends on many factors both in qualitative and in quantitative sense. Discovering an area of preserved environment that also possesses attractive motifs presents the beginning of the possible tourist destination creating. Further 'destiny' of a tourist destination depends on its planning and development intensity. Rural tourism is a significant component of integral and sustainable development and revitalization of the village, as well as a component that is missing in stimulating the local market development for agricultural and non-agricultural activities in the country, along with a special stimulation to employment. Serbia possesses remarkable natural resources and other potentials for the development of all forms of rural tourism. However, rural tourism in Serbia is an insufficiently organized field that is not being developed adequately to the possibilities available to it. That is why this paper wants to point out the potential opportunities for the development of rural tourism in Serbia through sustainable development and correct performance policy on both national and international tourist market.

  11. Government policies on sustainable development in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Tarr, P.; Blackie, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution, since 1990, of key government policies on sustainable development in Namibia. Namibia’s approach has been largely homegrown, responding to issues that are of concern to the Namibian public and policy-makers. The most successful policies have been those that have either been based on strong community-level institutions such as conservancies, or on high-quality scientific analysis, such as the management of fisheries and Environmental Assessment...

  12. Balancing Rural and Urban Development: Applying Coordinated Urban–Rural Development (CURD Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hin Li

    2017-10-01

    CURD policies reduce the pressure for rural residents to migrate to the city for better job opportunities, which in turn reduce the need to expand the development scale, especially housing needs, of the urban configuration. Consequently, CURD ideology helps contribute to a more sustainable urbanisation process in China that accommodates and balances the needs and interests of both the city and rural residents.

  13. Managing sustainability in management education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Sustainability with regards to environmental issues has until recently been seen as irrelevant to business and management practice and, consequently, has been largely missing from business and management education. But the last decades has seen increasingrecognition of environmental problems...... such as climate change and resource depletion. The main policy instruments used to promote sustainability have been regulation, market-based instruments and voluntary agreements, but in recent years, policies have started tofocus on education. Many different actors, such as business schools, businesses...... and governments, interact in shaping management education. These actors derive their conception of sustainability from a range of meanings, practices, and norms. Drawing on Connolly´s analytical framework regarding “essentially contested concepts” (1994), this paper interrogates management education policy...

  14. Fiscal sustainability and fiscal policy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    Analyses of fiscal sustainability have become integral parts of fiscal policy planning due to high debt levels and projected demographic changes. A popular metric by which to evaluate sustainability gaps is the so-called S2 metric given as the permanent change in the primary budget balance...... (relative to GDP) needed to meet the intertemporal budget constraint. While a very useful metric it also suffers from some problems, and the paper discusses some of the problems with this metric as a way to assess fiscal sustainability problems. A particular important issue is the extent to which the S2...... indicator can be given a normative interpretation, and this issue is extensively discussed. The paper ends by discussing the formulation of fiscal policy targets to ensure fiscal sustainability....

  15. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND FISCAL POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICU MARCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the future is seen from the perspective of sustainable development. Awareness of the planet's limited resources led to the creation of protective barriers, there’s no more desire for development at any cost. However, establishing these barriers is the most difficult task - how much can we pollute, what is the correct level of taxation for pigouvian taxes? State intervention in coordinating these issues is crucial. Through the power of the "invisible hand", the state is the only one that can keep the pollution problem under control. Integrating the concept of social responsibility in the everyday life of the consumer is the most important step for the future

  16. Towards equity and sustainability of rural and remote health services access: supporting social capital and integrated organisational and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Adrian; Lawn, Sharon; Carson, Dean

    2016-04-02

    Access to rural health services is compromised in many countries including Australia due to workforce shortages. The issues that consequently impact on equity of access and sustainability of rural and remote health services are complex. The purpose of this paper is to describe a number of approaches from the literature that could form the basis of a more integrated approach to health workforce and rural health service enhancement that can be supported by policy. A case study is used to demonstrate how such an approach could work. Disjointed health services are common in rural areas due to the 'tyranny of distance.' Recruitment and retention of health professionals in rural areas and access to and sustainability of rural health services is therefore compromised. Strategies to address these issues tend to have a narrow focus. An integrated approach is needed to enhance rural workforce and health services; one that develops, acknowledges and accounts for social capital and social relations within the rural community.

  17. Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural Nigeria: I. Poverty issues and its determinants among cassava-based farming households in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, cross river state, Nigeria.

  18. Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural Nigeria: II food security issues and their determinants among cassava-based farming households in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria.

  19. Smart sustainable energy for the rural built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available robust methodology to adapt innovative and renewable smart grid technologies to deliver real and sustainable decentralised energy solutions for remote and rural communities, thereby improving livelihoods and opportunities for inclusive growth...

  20. Sustainable heritage utilization in rural tourism development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin Marija

    2012-01-01

    Research on natural and cultural heritage as one of the key levers of sustainable tourism development in Serbia has been conducted 2010, for the elaboration of the Master plan for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia. To evaluate achieved and potential attractiveness of natural and cultural heritage at rural Serbia the FAS methodology was implemented, and the results of this evaluation are discussed. Based on achieved and potential attractiveness...

  1. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension Practice in Nigeria. ... The expanded scope could include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, service to farmers' associations, technical extension service and urban extension. These services should be provided at ...

  2. Challenges of sustainable rural tourism development in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings, however, indicated that local people are not aware of these resources hence the lack of participation in tourism development. Various strategies were suggested for raising social awareness and the promotion of cultural and heritage resources in the rural area. Keywords: Tourism, rural tourism, sustainable ...

  3. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  4. Sustainable User Innovation from a Policy Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Kristian; Reisch, Lucia A.; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    by suggesting that end-users often play a critical role with regard to sustainable innovation. To further consolidate this field, the purpose of this paper is threefold. First, the paper summarizes and synthesizes key insights within the field based on 84 papers published from 1992 to 2015. Second, we offer...... these drivers and barriers. Third, the paper suggests how this form of innovation may be ameliorated from a policy perspective. The paper reveals that the literature on end-user innovation within sustainability is both diverse and compartmentalized. Hence, policy mechanisms designed to support this type...... focusing on independent end-user innovation typically highlights policy aimed at enabling end-users with the necessary skills and resources to innovate, whereas literature focusing on facilitated end-user innovation typically emphasizes creating platforms that enable the effective introduction of end...

  5. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  6. Implications of rural tourism and agritourism in sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia-Lorena Cut-Lupulescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania shows: a variety of historical cultural values ​​- folk art, ethnography, folklore, traditions, historical artifacts - a natural harmoniously combined with a varied and picturesque landscape background. All these are facets of Romanian rural tourism in particular. Occurred and developed by the various forms of relief since the time of the Thracian-Dacian, Romanian rural settlements kept and still keeps in good measure ancient customs and traditions, a rich and varied folklore, ethnography and folk original elements that can be travel exploited in a strategy for the organization and development of rural tourism. Rural tourism in our country always practical, but spontaneous, sporadic, random, and mostly unorganized form of manifestation is the beginning of the '20s and '30s, the casual visitor accommodation citizens of rural settlements.

  7. Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The). Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras: Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. - Research Highlights: {yields} This paper shows the development of a long-term energy policy for Honduras. {yields} The various diagnoses of the energy sector in Honduras are shown, considering the use of wood, biomass, biofuels, electricity, transportation, hydrocarbons and rural electrification. {yields} The most relevant results of the analysis of energy forecasting are shown, for which the LEAP software was used. {yields} The objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes.

  9. Policy Instruments for Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Lorek, Sylvia; Bietz, Sabine

    , and to incentivise, enable, empower and motivate the actors along the food chain to engage in more sustainable production and consumption. In addition, governments can influence markets and mindsets by stimulating and supporting voluntary self commitments by businesses. Moreover, governments and public bodies can....... On the basis of previous voting rounds among CORPUS community members, we discuss several instruments, including the labelling of organic food, products’ carbon footprints and nutritional values, in more detail. Based on a “polycentric approach” to sustainability policy (Belz & Reisch, 2007) we conclude...... with recommendations on actions that consumers (in their role as market actors and consumer citizens), NGOs, the media, the food industry, retailers and governments can take in a shared pursuit of more sustainable food consumption and production....

  10. Innovative factors and conditions of sustainable development of rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main features of sustainable development of rural territories, identifies the factors of innovative entrepreneurship, and assesses their influence on the condition of rural economy. Special attention is paid to the analysis of concepts, programmes, and projects in the field of rural territory development. The authors summarise conceptual and strategic approaches and actions of the Baltic region states in the field of sustainable development of rural territories. The article identifies objectives, common for the Baltic region, relating to sustainability of rural territories, including sustainable use of natural resource potential, diversification of production through support for non-agricultural activities and employment, application of innovations and efficient technologies, and manufacturing of environmentally friendly products. The analysis of the development of agricultural and innovations in the Baltic Sea regions serves as a basis for identifying the factors and conditions of supporting innovative entrepreneurship. Of special importance are the research, technological, and innovative potential of the territory, the availability of adequate innovative infrastructure, and the formation of innovative culture. The authors corroborate the idea of innovative entrepreneurship development in rural territories through the transformation of organizational and economic mechanism of management relating to the creation of institutional, infrastructure, and spatial conditions. Research and technological cooperation in the Baltic region is emphasised as a priority area.

  11. Prerequisites of Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in Continental Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoluci Mato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to analyze the current status of rural tourism in Croatia and to identify possibilities, guidelines and methods of its sustainable development. The research has shown that rural tourism in Croatia falls behind the sun-and-beach holiday tourism in coastal Croatia and that numerous and diverse natural and social resources in Continental Croatia are insufficiently employed, especially in the Continental part of the country Past research of rural tourism in continental Croatia relied on individual entrepreneurial initiative and scarce funding resources, so that consequently a heterogeneous and fragmented rural tourism offer, based on various tourism forms and special interest tourism types, has developed in an unorganized way. However, rural tourism can become a driving force for the development of rural areas, taking into account the concept of sustainable development, based on the balance of economic, ecological and social responsibility. In the future, it should encourage development projects that ensure integrated tourist offer and thereby enable long-term sustainable development of rural tourism in continental Croatia.

  12. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  13. Sustaining a Korean Traditional Rural Landscape in the Context of Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Joon Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape, by considering various stakeholder perspectives. It is now recognized that strong community engagement with the landscape should be translated into conservation and management practices. This paper aims to examine the recent conservation activities around endangered traditional rural landscapes in Korea through a case study of Gacheon village. In this village, since 2000, a series of central administrative measures have been implemented to revive the local community, and to conserve its distinctive landscape. By analyzing challenges to the site, by discussing conservation experience and lessons, and by recommending future strategies for sustaining its cultural landscapes, this paper is expected to provide a basis for future policy-making for safeguarding traditional rural landscapes.

  14. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  15. Public policies for sustainability in mountain environments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amazile López Netto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mountains encompass a great biological diversity, essential to the survival of the ecosystem on the planet, and key resources for humans, such as water and deposits for genetic food safety. Brazil is among the countries with largest area of mountains on the planet. The country is a signatory of documents prepared for global environmental conventions, in which the fostering sustainability in mountain environments is signed, taking as examples Global Agenda 21; Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and The Future We Want.  The objective of this study is to analyze whether the Brazilian public actions promoting sustainability in mountain environments, as recommended in the global environmental conventions.  This was done through a survey and critical analysis of secondary data, where it was observed that the Brazilian government has no public actions where the focal theme are the mountains, checking only transversal issues at the federal, regional and state levels that affect these environments.  Among these policies, there is the payment for environmental services that can be basis for considering public actions that promote sustainable rural development in mountain environments Brazilians.

  16. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  17. Energy policies for sustainable livelihoods and sustainable development of poor areas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jie [Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liang Yutian; Tao Anjun [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sheng Kerong [Shandong University of Technology, Shandong 255049 (China); Ma Hailong [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu Yong; Wang Chuansheng [Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sun Wei, E-mail: sunw@igsnrr.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Focusing on the sustainable livelihoods of rural households and regional sustainable development, this research takes Yan'an at the upper reaches of Yellow River and Zhaotong at mid-upper reaches of the Yangtze River as the study areas, extracts the central affecting factors of energy consumption and characteristic indexes of energy zoning based on 1560 rural household questionnaires of 85 villages in 4 counties (districts) and database analysis of socio-economic development, conducts energy zoning for the poor areas in China, and puts forward specific supporting policies for each type of zone. The research finds that (1) the study areas are found to have the following energy consumption characteristics: low per capita energy consumption (merely 1/4 of the national average), with energy consumption for non-production purposes taking up the main part (more than 70%), high proportion of non-commercial energy, i.e. firewood, straw, etc. (more than 45%), low utilization rate of such new energy resources as biogas, solar energy, etc. (lower than 2% in high mountain regions), remarkable differentiation of vertical and horizontal zonality, etc. (2) Physical conditions like temperature and topography, socio-economic factors, i.e. income of rural households, energy endowment, transportation conditions, and institutional factors like policy support are the major affecting factors of energy consumption and characteristic indexes of energy policy zoning. (3) According to the characteristic index evaluation and matrix classification of both the suitability for energy development and types of regional energy endowment, the poor areas in China can be divided into three energy policy-oriented zones, i.e. network-based centralized energy supply zone, diversified energy utilization zone, and new energy utilization zone. - Research highlights: {yields}Energy consumption characteristics of the study areas are as follows: low per capita energy consumption, high proportion of non

  18. Sustainable development of rural areas: Case studies Vojvodina - Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcan Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic aims of Serbian economic development is supporting of the villages sustainable development through rural economy diversification where rural tourism development has an important place. In spite of this model of tourism importance recognition as a possible way of rural areas development, Serbia is in an opening phase of. Although there are several positive examples, it is significant that recent projects haven't been established according to national and European development programs, but according to private initiatives of individuals and groups. Rural tourism is an important component of integrated and sustainable development and revitalization of villages, as well an an important factor in encouraging the development of local agricultural and non-farmer activities in rural areas and villages, and also a special incentive to employment. This work highlights the importance of rural tourism in the function of the revitalization of the village, focusing on the challenges of the environment and the possible directions of development in the context of creating a recognizable tourist product and brand of rural tourism in Vojvodina.

  19. Nanotechnology policy in Korea for sustainable growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Dae Sup; Kim, Chang Woo; Chung, Pil Seung; Jhon, Myung S.

    2012-06-01

    Korea has become one of the leading countries in nanotechnology along with the U.S., Japan, and Germany. Since 2001, the Korean Government established the "Nanotechnology Development Plan." Since then, the trend in nanotechnology is steadily changing from fundamental research to application-driven technologies. In this paper, we examine the nanotechnology development and policy during the past decade, which includes the investments in R&D, infrastructure, and education. The Third Phase (2011-2020) on clean nanotechnology convergence and integration in information, energy, and the environmental sector is also given. Furthermore, the program on long-term strategy dealing with sustainability in resolving future societal demand and plans for sustainable energy and environmental activities will be discussed in depth. The outcomes and national evaluations of research and education are also given.

  20. Smart sustainable energy for rural community development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available to electricity in their homes with 590 million of these people living in sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated 80% of these people live in rural areas; most have scant prospects of gaining access to electricity in the near future, unless innovative and robust ways...

  1. Fertilizer inaccessibility, rural livelihood and sustainable agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A participatory appraisal methodology was adopted. The analysis shows that inaccessibility to chemical fertilizer has negative impact on rural livelihood by causing low yield. However, it has a positive effect by inducing the adoption of organic fertilizer, which is deemed environment-friendly agriculture. The conclusion is that ...

  2. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  3. How to use sustainability indicators for tourism planning: the case of rural tourism in Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas, F J; Lozano-Oyola, M; González, M; Guerrero, F M; Caballero, R

    2011-12-15

    This paper proposes an indicators system to analyse the sustainability of tourist activity at rural destinations in countries with a consolidated tourism sector. The proposed system aims at providing tourist managers and policy-makers with information to better understand the transition to sustainability at specific destinations and to encourage them to carry out corresponding policy and management responses. To illustrate how indicators can be quantified, we create a practical guideline on how to use the statistical information available. Likewise, we suggest a method for obtaining sustainability indexes by aggregation that reduces the subjectivity associated with the composite indicator. This procedure is based on the combination of principal component analysis and distance to a reference point. Together with the definition of sustainable tourism indicators, we explain how to use these systems and sustainability indexes to fulfil three practical uses in tourism sector planning: the comparison and characterisation of destinations, the definition of benchmarking practices, and the quantification of sustainable tourism objectives. Each practical use is illustrated using the case of rural zones in a consolidated destination such as Andalusia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating waterpoint sustainability and access implications of revenue collection approaches in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Hope, R.

    2017-02-01

    Water policies in many sub-Saharan African countries stipulate that rural communities are responsible for self-financing their waterpoint's operation and maintenance. In the absence of policy consensus or evidence on optimal payment models, rural communities adopt a diversity of approaches to revenue collection. This study empirically assesses waterpoint sustainability and access outcomes associated with different revenue collection approaches on the south coast of Kenya. The analysis draws on a unique data set comprising financial records spanning 27 years and 100 communities, operational performance indicators for 200 waterpoints, and water source choices for more than 2000 households. Results suggest communities collecting pay-as-you-fetch fees on a volumetric basis generate higher levels of revenue and experience better operational performance than communities charging flat fees. In both cases, financial flows mirror seasonal rainfall peaks and troughs. These outcomes are tempered by evidence that households are more likely to opt for an unimproved drinking water source when a pay-as-you-fetch system is in place. The findings illuminate a possible tension between financial sustainability and universal access. If the Sustainable Development Goal of "safe water for all" is to become a reality, policymakers and practitioners will need to address this issue and ensure rural water services are both sustainable and inclusive.

  5. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  6. Asparagus Production and Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asparagus production in Lesotho is one of those strategies that was used by the government to combat rural poverty. In the past years, especially during the initial years of implementation of the asparagus project, the peasants achieved sustainable livelihoods. However, starting from the last decade, the asparagus project ...

  7. Sustainable water for rural security - A transdisciplinary approach [Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maherry, A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biennial Conference & Exhibition, Cape Town, 2012 Sustainable water for rural security – a transdisciplinary approach *Maherry A1, Genthe B1, Steyn M,1 Clarke S1, Beukman E1, Audouin M1, Van Wyk I2 and Wall K1. 1 CSIR. Natural Resources...

  8. Policies to promote sustainable consumption: innovative approaches in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, G.; Rubik, F.; Kalimo, H.; Biedenkopf, K.; Soebech, O.

    2010-01-01

    Policy-makers are increasingly recognising that the promotion of more sustainable consumption patterns is an indispensable prerequisite for achieving sustainable development in the long term. Policy documents and action plans have been published, and a wide array of policy instruments has been

  9. Climate policy under sustainable discounted utilitarianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Simon [London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) (United Kingdom); Asheim, Geir B. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Economics

    2011-08-15

    Empirical evaluation of policies to mitigate climate change has been largely confined to the application of discounted utilitarianism (DU). DU is controversial, both due to the conditions through which it is justified and due to its consequences for climate policies, where the discounting of future utility gains from present abatement efforts makes it harder for such measures to justify their present costs. In this paper, we propose sustainable discounted utilitarianism (SDU) as an alternative principle for evaluation of climate policy. Unlike undiscounted utilitarianism, which always assigns zero relative weight to present utility, SDU is an axiomatically based criterion, which departs from DU by assigning zero weight to present utility if and only if the present is better off than the future. Using the DICE integrated assessment model to run risk analysis, we show that it is possible for the future to be worse off than the present along a 'business as usual' development path. Consequently SDU and DU differ, and willingness to pay for emissions reductions is (sometimes significantly) higher under SDU than under DU. Under SDU, stringent schedules of emissions reductions increase social welfare, even for a relatively high utility discount rate. (orig.)

  10. GOOD PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN FOOD POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena NICOLESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper, based on the coordinates of the problems triggered by the negative externalities chain generated by the poor food supply and production system at the level of the urban collectivities, carries out an analysis focused on the identification of the tools, mechanisms, and good practices needed to ensure the sustainability of the local policies on public nutrition. The experiences in the field show that the progress is remarkable in the case of collaborative administrations aimed at enhancing the cooperation and partnership relations, based on common interests, on both internal and international collaboration level, such as The Milan Urban Food Policy Pact (2015. From this perspective, the paper presents a case study, a significant experience of improving the food supply system of Bucharest population, through local public nutrition policy and the public action set implemented by Bucharest local authorities with the support of State public bodies and the representatives of civil society, materialized in the establishment of peasant markets as flea markets on the territory of Bucharest.

  11. WTO Agreement on Agriculture and its Implication on Rural Development Policies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin Vasily

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at overview of the history and major contents of the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organization. Special attention is paid to implications of the Agreement for agricultural and trade policies in developing countries, including Russia, recently accessed the WTO. The differential treatment that developing countries receive under the agreement is investigated. The paper includes an overview of the recently adopted State Program of the Russian Federation for Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets in 2013-2020. The research considers four applications of the given State Program: compliance with WTO requirements, state support of agriculture, provision of food security, and ensurance of sustainable rural development. The paper results in the conclusion that state policies in the sphere of rural development have to evolve beyond the traditional, sector-based model, with its almost exclusive focus on agriculture. Contemporary set of tools to ensure sustainable rural development should be based on the multi-sectoral strategies and programs that identify and better exploit the development potential of rural area through a variety of factors: national food security, agricultural production, liberalization of trade and foreign economic activities, support of local producers and rural households, rural infrastructure, environmental and recreational potential.

  12. Sustainability of Rural Nonprofit Organizations: Czech Republic and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Valentinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of nonprofit organizations is a key concern for today’s nonprofit scholars and practitioners. Building upon the nonprofit economics literature, the present paper introduces the distinction between the demand-side and supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability and makes the case for the discrepancy between them. This discrepancy presents not only a generic conceptual explanation of the nonprofit sustainability problems but is also applicable to the context of the European rural nonprofit sector. Three arguments are advanced. First, the notorious implementation problems of LEADER partnerships can be explained as a manifestation of the above discrepancy. Second, and related, the rural context implies the tendency of the supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability to undermine the demand-side ones. Third, recent empirical findings from the Czech Republic show that this tendency does not necessarily imply the possibility of a clear classification of the demand-side and supply-side sustainability determinants. Rather, those features of rural areas and communities that significantly affect the size of the local nonprofit sector exhibit a controversial entanglement of demand-side and supply-side identities.

  13. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  14. A rural typology for strategic European policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eupen, van M.; Metzger, M.J.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Verburg, P.H.; Doorn, van A.M.; Bunce, R.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The role that the agricultural sector plays in rural areas has considerably changed in the last five decades, and is reflected in a major shift towards multi-dimensional, multi-sectoral land use. Existing European rural typologies are mostly one-dimensional, based on a rather coarse administrative

  15. ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh--Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan E.A.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Kostecki, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Today, 35-77 million Bangladeshis drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater from shallow tube wells. Arsenic remediation efforts have focused on the development and dissemination of household filters that frequently fall into disuse due to the amount of attention and maintenance that they require. A community scale clean water center has many advantages over household filters and allows for both chemical and electricity-based technologies to be beneficial to rural areas. Full cost recovery would enable the treatment center to be sustainable over time. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) is compatible with community scale water treatment for rural Bangladesh. We demonstrate the ability of ECAR to reduce arsenic levels> 500 ppb to less than 10 ppb in synthetic and real Bangladesh groundwater samples and examine the influence of several operating parameters on arsenic removal effectiveness. Operating cost and waste estimates are provided. Policy implication recommendations that encourage sustainable community treatment centers are discussed.

  16. Sensitising rural policy: Assessing spatial variation in rural development options for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van D.B.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Regional distinctiveness is supported by the European Union in rural development policy. However, there is little information about the spatial distribution of the potential for rural development across Europe. The concept of territorial capital is used to consider spatial characteristics in

  17. The role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of rural communities: The case of rural cooperatives in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Mhembwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research was to analyse the role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of local rural communities in Shurugwi District in Zimbabwe. Descriptive survey design was used in this mixed method approach to the study. A questionnaire, interviews and observation methods were employed as the main research instruments. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and data were collected from government officials and from members of the six cooperatives in Shurugwi District. A total of 50 research participants were involved in the study. It was found that cooperatives were established as a strategy to sustain livelihoods of rural communities. With the adoption of cooperatives, people in the rural communities managed to generate employment, boost food production, empower the marginalised, especially women, and promote social cohesion and integration, thereby improving their livelihoods and reducing poverty. Most cooperatives face a number of challenges that include lack of financial support, poor management and lack of management skills, and lack of competitive markets to sell their produce. The study recommends that the government and the banking sector render financial support to cooperatives in rural communities to allow them to expand and diversify their business operations; constant training on leadership and management skills is provided to cooperatives’ members. There is also a need for cooperatives, especially those in the agricultural sector, to form some producer associations so as to easily market their produce. Lastly, the study recommends that future research should focus on investigating issues that hinder the growth of the cooperative movement in rural communities of Zimbabwe. It is hoped that policy-makers, the academia and communities would benefit from the study.

  18. Assessing the impacts of the changes in farming systems on food security and environmental sustainability of a Chinese rural region under different policy scenarios: an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Qi, Xiaoxing; Fu, Yonghu; Ye, Jinwei

    2017-07-01

    Since China has undergone a series of economic reforms and implemented opening up policies, its farming systems have significantly changed and have dramatically influenced the society, economy, and environment of China. To assess the comprehensive impacts of these changes on food security and environmental sustainability, and establish effective and environment-friendly subsidy policies, this research constructed an agent-based model (ABM). Daligang Town, which is located in the two-season rice region of Southern China, was selected as the case study site. Four different policy scenarios, i.e., "sharply increasing" (SI), "no-increase" (NI), "adjusted-method" (AM), and "trend" (TD) scenarios were investigated from 2015 to 2029. The validation result shows that the relative prediction errors between the simulated and actual values annually ranged from -20 to 20%, indicating the reliability of the proposed model. The scenario analysis revealed that the four scenarios generated different variations in cropping systems, rice yield, and fertilizer and pesticide inputs when the purchase price of rice and the non-agricultural income were assumed to increase annually by 0.1 RMB per kg and 10% per person, respectively. Among the four different policy scenarios in Daligang, the TD scenario was considered the best, because it had a relatively high rice yield, fairly minimal use of fertilizers and pesticides, and a lower level of subsidy. Despite its limitations, ABM could be considered a useful tool in analyzing, exploring, and discussing the comprehensive effects of the changes in farming system on food security and environmental sustainability.

  19. Sustainable rural tourism. Wineries in the Ribera del Duero, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    D'Acampora, Bárbara Eliodora Alves

    2015-01-01

    The Ribera del Duero, is located in the Autonomous Community of Castilha and León (Spain), despite having reputation of its wines all over the world, it needs an extra effort to value their natural areas. This paper proposes to restore the local tourism sector; joining sustainable rural tourism wineries integrate with nature and landscape. Using indicators and SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) on the characteristics of wine touri...

  20. Promoting sustainable rural development in the Ccapi district, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Janálová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents and analyses the possibilities of promoting sustainable rural development in the Ccapi District, Cusco Region in Peru. The aim of the thesis is to propose a development project which contributes to an increase in economic, environmental and social opportunities for the poor and improvement in standard of living of the local communities with regard to their cultural values. The project is designed in response to the major causes of poverty and environmental degrada...

  1. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    2006-01-01

    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...

  2. How far can systematic reviews inform policy development for "wicked" rural health service problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, John S; Kuipers, Pim; Wakerman, John; Wells, Robert; Jones, Judith A; Kinsman, Leigh D

    2009-11-01

    Policy makers and researchers increasingly look to systematic reviews as a means of connecting research and evidence more effectively with policy. Based on Australian research into rural and remote primary health care services, we note some concerns regarding the suitability of systematic review methods when applied to such settings. It suggests that rural and other health services are highly complex and researching them is akin to dealing with "wicked" problems. It proposes that the notion of "wicked" problems may inform our understanding of the issues and our choice of appropriate methods to inform health service policy. Key issues including the complexity of health services, methodological limitations of traditional reviews, the nature of materials under review, and the importance of the service context are highlighted. These indicate the need for broader approaches to capturing relevant evidence. Sustained, collaborative synthesis in which complexity, ambiguity and context is acknowledged is proposed as a way of addressing the wicked nature of these issues.

  3. Urban policy engagement with social sustainability in metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Meg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of social sustainability in comparative theoretical context and as a challenge to the post-political interpretation of sustainability in policy practice at the urban and regional scales. Metro Vancouver provides a case study for improving our understanding of the meaning of social sustainability as a framework for social policy in that it is among the handful of cities around the world currently working to define and enact social sustainability in governance terms. Results of this participant research provide evidence that some cities are politically engaging alternative development pathways using the concept of social sustainability. For sustainable development to retain its promise as an alternative policy framework for cities, social sustainability must be at the forefront.

  4. People with learning disabilities in rural Scotland: review of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Anthony

    2015-10-14

    People with learning disabilities may have additional healthcare needs compared to the general population, and the NHS faces challenges in addressing these needs. Scotland has many remote and rural communities, and residents of these communities can encounter difficulties in accessing healthcare resources. This article considers Scotland's healthcare policy in relation to remote and rural areas, and how effective it is in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities in these communities.

  5. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... concrete suggestions for network activities had been made, but overall the development is at an early stage....

  6. Land-use planning and sustainable development of rural areas; Amenagement du territoire et developpement rural durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, G.

    2002-03-01

    The concept of rural development applies to two different realities: that of a space where the resources developed by man form the basis for a multitude of uses, the most important of which is agriculture, and that of the populations that derive their revenue from those resources and inhabit that space. Sustainable development as it relates to rural development, applies two paradigms: the rational management of resources in a rural environment, and responsible participation of rural communities in the development processes that concern them. The paradigms at times partially overlap and interact, but leave important questions unresolved. The author began by providing a definition of rural area, whereby it defines the space utilized by rural populations. The paradigms were discussed, followed by the options of rational management of natural resources. The options of economic and social development of rural areas was next examined. Another section was devoted to land-use planning as an instrument of reconciliation in sustainable rural development.

  7. Solarising tropical Africa’s rural homes to sustainably overcome energy poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyarusoke, K. E.

    2017-11-01

    At less than 30% electrification, Tropical Africa is the most energy-poor electrified region of the world. At home level, the annual per-capita electric energy consumption ranges between 0 and 150 kWh in rural areas, where 83% of the population reside. This is well below the 250 kWh recommended by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as the threshold for exiting rural ‘Energy Poverty’. Some governments have tried to extend the grid to such areas but these efforts have not yielded much. The approaches of rural electrification – as is being done now have therefore failed – and they may not be able to electrify every home in the countries concerned. An alternative approach promoting stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) and other solar powered heat and mass transfer systems at home level is proposed. An example of the approach in a village home in rural Uganda, East Africa is given. It is estimated that the combined unit energy cost over the systems’ lifespan would be just about US 3 cents. Health, Education, and Sustainability in all its forms would be greatly improved. The main recommendation is for policy makers to adopt this approach for rural homes while sparing grid supply only for commercial and industrial activities.

  8. Workshop in a Box: Sustainable Management of Rural and Small Water and Wastewater Systems Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A resource to help rural and small systems and communities to conduct workshops, either for an individual system or for a group of systems, based on the Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management.

  9. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  10. Factors affecting ICT Policy Implementation in Rural Namibian Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT provision is often limited in scope to allow optimal usage of education systems. A study to investigate factors that affect ICT Policy implementation in Namibia was conducted in 2010. In order to describe the rural area situation with regard to ICT implementation in the education sector, a quantitative approach was used to ...

  11. Implementation Of Rural Development Policies In Nigeria: Agenda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plagued with an apparently intractable problem of persistent backwardness, developing countries, including Nigeria, have been stampeded into many a policy calculated to give a face lift to the rural areas, hosts to the most severe degree of underdevelopment. The paper diagnoses the problems of implementing the well ...

  12. Professional Development Policy in a Small Rural Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    Professional development policy of a small, rural education system in New South Wales (Australia) allows control of staff development at system, school, and individual levels; and identifies a rationale and aim, assumptions, principles of procedure, and characteristics of a healthy professional learning environment. These features guide…

  13. Rural finance institutions, markets and policies in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Pederson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We identify three types of obstacles (missing institutions that limit the process of financial deepening in rural financial markets.  Each of these obstacles contributes to a continuing and common dilemma in developing countries - the lack of long-term finance.  In Africa, as in most developing regions, there is need to develop a more consistent strategy for improving access to term finance in agriculture and rural areas.  Although some examples of term financing can be found in African agriculture, the general lack of term financing in rural areas can be linked to the lack of general policy measures to enhance the environment for long-term financing, weak effective demand for rural and agricultural investment financing, and inadequate capacity of lenders to provide long-term finance to those clientele.

  14. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) - Vol 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards sustainable farming: An analysis and review of the European Union's agricultural subsidy policy · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L De Deyne, 65-82 ...

  15. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of the Sterilization Policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ping Chung; Jen-Te Hwang; Chieh-Hsuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the sterilization policy in China. First, several indices are used to measure the status of China’s markets and to determine effectiveness and sustainability of the sterilization policy and the possible impacts it may have induced. Second, within a microeconomic framework, we incorporate the housing price variable into the target loss function of the monetary authority to explore its financial capabilities and evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability o...

  16. Energy supply for sustainable rural livelihoods. A multi-criteria decision-support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherni, Judith A. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.cherni@imperial.ac.uk; Dyner, Isaac [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 1027 Medellin (Colombia); Henao, Felipe [Office B 1.32, Doctoral Programme Warwick Business School, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Jaramillo, Patricia [Instituto de Sistemas y Ciencias de la Decision Escuela de Sistemas Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Smith, Ricardo [Escuela de Geociencias y Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Font, Raul Olalde [Universidad Central ' Marta Abreu' de Las Villas, Centro de Estudio de Termoenergetica Azucarera, Carretera a Camajuani Km 5.5. CP: 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba)

    2007-03-15

    Energy supply to the rural poor in developing countries is a complex activity that transcends the simple selection of a best technology. This paper explains the outcomes achieved by using a new multi-criteria decision-support system to assist in calculating the most appropriate set of energy options for providing sufficient power to fulfil local demands that improve livelihoods. The elicitation of the priorities of future users, which are subsequently integrated into the energy selection process, is seen as a mechanism for the promotion of energy policies that ensure that technological developments reduce poverty. The sustainable rural energy decision support system (SURE DSS), a methodological package and software designed by the research team RESURL builds upon technical and non-technical features of energy development in remote poor areas, drawing on a sustainable livelihoods approach as part of its rationale. SURE enables simulations and calculation of the disparities that may arise between current and potential livelihoods after specific energy solutions have been installed, as well as measuring potential trade-offs among alternative livelihoods. The paper reports the outcome of an application of SURE to the case of a remote Colombian rural community whose total energy demands are only partly met through a diesel generator.

  17. Rural Extension Services. Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jock R.; Feder, Gershon

    This paper analyzes the considerations that lead policy makers to undertake extension investments as a key public responsibility, as well as the complex set of factors and intra-agency incentives that explain variations in performance between different extension systems. The goals of extension include transferring knowledge from researchers to…

  18. Sustainable Development: New Thoughts, New Policy, New Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    New thoughts and new policy on sustainable development have been brought forward and widely discussed and accepted, but law is still lagging behind. This paper aims to fill up that gap and tries to put some new light on how legislation and jurisprudence could meet up with modern sustainability

  19. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (JSDLP) is Nigeria's first interdisciplinary sustainable development journal, published by the OGEES Institute, Afe Babalola University, Nigeria. The journal fosters the dissemination of research results and scholarly papers by teaching and research scholars in Africa ...

  20. Mapping Areas for Policy Evaluation: an Analysis of Rural Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONASTEROLO

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of the effect of the EU membership on the agricultural and rural counties of Hungary, paying particular attention to the introduction of the CAP and Cohesion Policy. Moving from the mixed case study approach introduced for the evaluation of Rural Development policies, Hungarian rural areas are mapped using multivariate statistical methodologies (principal components analysis and cluster analysis on a set of relevant variables periodically updated and available at a disaggregated level. Comparing the Hungarian rural counties in 2003 and 2007, a divergence between the expected objectives of the EU membership and the actual outcome emerges, with rural areas by far the worse off. Marginalization increased in lagging behind counties, such as Nógrád, confirming the presence of winning and losing regions as a result of the enlargement. Moreover, this study highlights the limits imposed by lacking national statistical sources on the quality of statistical analysis, and on the possibilities to undertake further evaluations of the EU accession experiences.

  1. [Letter to the] Environment & Rural Development Committee meeting on sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Scotland

    2006-01-01

    On December 13th 2006, the Sustainable Development Commission gave evidence as part of the Environment & Rural Development Committee's enquiry into sustainable development. This letter was sent as a written submission before the meeting. Publisher PDF

  2. RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES IN URUGUAY PROGRESSIVE: 2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Cabrera Cabral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the rural development policies adopted by the Uruguayan government progressive in the period 2007-2011. The research investigated the new development model driven by progressive government. The central hypothesis is that progressive Uruguayan government implemented a new model of rural development to benefit the agroexporters sector and international capital. The analysis was conducted from documents prepared by the Uruguayan government in the period 2007-2011. The results indicate four basic themes: the first relates to a new configuration of rural development policies in the country based on a "new" institutionality created by the government for rural development, the second focuses on the logic of spatial planning as legitimizing element of the new development model, and the third shows how the leftist government focuses its development policy on the logic of economic development and territorial; fourth theme as historical issues regarding the use of property and land ownership not only remain unsolved, but also gain a new dimension.

  3. Are sustainable tourism policies and strategies working in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article briefly explores the development of tourism in Tanzania and then focuses primarily on relevant tourism policies adopted by the Tanzanian Government in order to grow the industry in a sustainable manner. Although these policies have been effective for a decade since their introduction, indications are that they ...

  4. Dimensions of sustainable rural development in mountainous and less favored areas: Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastis Stefanos A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to classify research, policy priorities, and development objectives in mountainous and less favored areas into a conceptual framework of sustainable rural development. The classification of sustainable development is based on the three main pillars: economic development, environmental conservation, and societal equity. Under the pillar of economic development, the role of agrotourism and the role of mountainous agricultural food products are considered. Under the pillar of environmental conservation, the role of environmental protection and the role of the agricultural landscape maintenance are presented. Under the pillar of societal equity, the contribution of women and the role of young farmers are considered. Finally, the conceptual framework developed is used to classify, analyze, and evaluate the latest research findings from Greece.

  5. Application of geoinformation techniques in sustainable development of marginal rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynska, G.

    2009-04-01

    The basic objective of the studies is to create a geographic information system that would assure integration of activities aimed at protecting biological diversity with sustainable development of marginal rural areas through defining the conditions for development of tourism and recreation in the identified areas. The choice of that solution is a consequence of the fact that numerous phenomena and processes presented in maps are linked to functional relations or they can be viewed as functions of space, time and attributes. The paper presents the system development stage aimed at elaborating the template for the system serving solution of the above-presented problem. In case of this issue the geographic information system will be developed to support development of marginal rural areas through selection of appropriate forms of tourism for the endangered areas including indication of locations for development of appropriate tourist infrastructure. Selection of the appropriate form of tourism will depend on natural, tourist and infrastructure values present in a given area and conditioned by the need to present the biodiversity component present in those areas together with elements of traditional agricultural landscape. The most important problem is to reconcile two seemingly contradictory aims: 1. Preventing social and economic marginalization of the restructured rural areas. 2. Preserving biological diversity in the restructured areas.Agriculture influences many aspects of the natural environment such as water resources, biodiversity and status of natural habitats, status of soils, landscape and, in a wider context, the climate. Project implementation will involve application of technologies allowing analysis of the systems for managing marginal rural areas as spatial models based on geographic information systems. Modelling of marginal rural areas management using the GIS technologies will involve creating spatial models of actual objects. On the basis of data

  6. Report Calls for U.S. National Sustainability Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    The White House should issue an executive order establishing a U.S. national sustainability policy, according to a new report by a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies. The 28 June report found that sustainability issues inherently involve connections among environmental, economic, and social issues and that the U.S. federal government "is generally not organized or operated to deal with this complexity." The report calls for a sustainability policy to address intertwined environmental, economic, and societal issues that require interagency cooperation.

  7. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Bačka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average rural household in Bačka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Bačka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Bačka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  8. The effect of rural development policy on domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćejvanović Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy deals with achieving goals for rural areas and a wide range of socio-economic activities are included within it. This work intends to connect rural development policies with the occurrence of domestic violence in rural areas. The area of research is the territory of Tuzla Canton, which is, by definition of OECD (less than 150 habitants/km2, a predominantly rural area. Domestic violence is a wide spread form of violence and a discrimination against women. Domestic violence includes all forms of violence occurring in the family, expanding the possibilities that perpetrators of violence and victims of violence may even be persons who do not live in the family but are related to family members, e.g. former partners, relatives, etc. Research results show that victims of domestic violence are in 90% of the cases women (wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, etc. and that domestic violence is constantly increasing each following year. All forms of violence over women come stem from a principal discrimination towards women which results in coerce or use of force. For that reason, violence over women is a manifestation of a fundamentally unequal position of women and men, and it represents a form of discrimination against women. This paper uses data acquired from Federal Office of Statistics of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tuzla Canton. On the basis of the gathered data, we employed the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, as well as the comparative method of analysis. The hypothesis of this paper was the assumption that 'women in rural areas are more frequently victims of domestic violence than women living in urban areas'.

  9. Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2015-01-01

    equivalent to 2 °C stabilization. Accounting for heterogeneity of national transport systems, these papers use diverse methods, frameworks and models to assess the response of the transport system to environmental policy, such as a carbon tax, as well as to a cluster of policies aimed at diverse development......Transformation of Asia's transport sector has vital implications for climate change, sustainable development and energy indicators. Papers in this special issue show how transport transitions in Asia may play out in different socio-economic and policy scenarios, including a low carbon scenario...... indicators. The analysis shows that CO2 mitigation in a transport system is achieved more effectively by aligning mitigation policies with sustainable development policies and measures such as mandates for mode share and choices such as urban design, information and communication systems, and behavioral...

  10. China’s Urban-Rural Integration Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqing Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis presented here is based on the keynote speech discussing the most recent developments in rural policy on urban-rural integration in China delivered in Chinese by Professor Ye Xingqing at the Ninth European Conference on Agriculture and Rural Development in China (ECARDC9 held at the University of Leeds in the UK on 3-5 April 2009. Professor Ye’s paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main initiatives, their rationale and their context, including some of the debates surrounding them. Professor Ye, who is an invited keynote speaker of ECARDC9 and the director-general of the Department for Rural Economy, Research Office of the State Council, People’s Republic of China, has been personally involved in the process of formulating these policy initiatives.Translated from Chinese by Prof. Flemming Christiansen, professor in Chinese Studies, Department of East Asian Studies, University of Leeds and also Director of National Institute of Chinese Studies, White Rose East Asia Centre, United Kingdom.

  11. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An integrated policy framework for the sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there are not sufficiently tailored policies focusing on biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands. This paper will provide an integrated policy framework and recommendations to facilitate understanding for the market sectors involved and the key principles which can be used to form future sustainable policies for this issue. The work will focus at EU level policy recommendations and discuss how these can interrelate with national and regional level policies to promote the usage of marginal lands for biomass and bioenergy. Recommended policy measures will be based on the findings of the Biomass Policies (www.biomasspolicies.eu) and S2Biom (www.s2biom.eu) projects and will be prepared taking into account the key influencing factors (technical, environmental, social and economic) on biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands: • across different types of marginality (biophysical such as: low temperature, dryness, excess soil moisture, poor chemical properties, steep slope, etc., and socio-economic resulting from lack of economic competitiveness in certain regions and crops, abandonment or rural areas, etc.) • across the different stages of the biomass value chain (supply, logistics, conversion, distribution and end-use). The aim of recommendations will be to inform policy makers on how to distinguish key policy related attributes across biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands, measure them and prioritise actions with a 'system' based approach.

  13. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction

  14. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of the Sterilization Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the sterilization policy in China. First, several indices are used to measure the status of China’s markets and to determine effectiveness and sustainability of the sterilization policy and the possible impacts it may have induced. Second, within a microeconomic framework, we incorporate the housing price variable into the target loss function of the monetary authority to explore its financial capabilities and evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of China’s sterilization policy. The empirical results show that Chinese monetary authorities sterilize almost all of the effects of international capital inflows and increase foreign exchange reserves on the monetary base. That is, increased capital mobility does not sabotage the independence of the Chinese monetary policy. Nevertheless, analyses of the sustainability of sterilization policy indicate that the sustainability of the monetary sterilization policy has been seriously challenged since March 2008, which suggests that Chinese monetary authority has endured tremendous pressure for unsustainable sterilization.

  15. Is South Korea’s Green Job Policy Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Mi Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s green job policy was implemented in February 2008 as a part of low-carbon green growth policy, but has been discontinued at the present. The country’s actual energy and environmental consumption has continuously increased, and South Korean society has grown increasingly distant from sustainable development. The study constructs a theoretical framework centering on sustainable development and analyzes the process and contents of South Korea’s green job policy. We suggest four findings: First, in terms of ideology, the nation’s green job policy was based on green growth. Implemented as a strategy typical of developing countries, South Korea’s green growth was pursued as weak ecological modernization, relatively stressing economic growth and excluding citizens’ participation. Second, in terms of governance, the nation’s green job policy was led by the central government, thus nearly completely destroying existing legal and institutional infrastructures related to sustainable development. Third, South Korea’s green job policy was defined on the basis of a growth orientation and concentrated on the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project and the NPP project, both of which betrayed considerable problems from the perspective of sustainable development. Fourth, green jobs were created in traditional environmental protection and pollution reduction and therefore limited.

  16. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  17. Forest Policy and Law for Sustainability within the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, sustainable forest management (SFM has emerged as a paradigm of forest management on global, regional and national levels. In developing countries, avoiding deforestation is a preliminary step towards SFM. The Korean peninsula experienced severe deforestation and forest degradation after the Korean War (1950–1953. In the 1970s and 1980s, South Korea achieved forest restoration through the National Greening Program. In contrast, North Korea failed to restore forests in spite of continuous trials with forest restoration plans. In North Korea, deforestation has accelerated since the mid-1980s. Deforestation and forest degradation in North Korea threatens stability throughout the Korean peninsula. This study focuses on comparing the forest policy and laws of South Korea and North Korea and suggesting forest policy that promotes sustainability in the Korean peninsula. The research findings can provide developing countries with significant information on forest policy and laws to avoid deforestation and forest degradation and move towards sustainability.

  18. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  19. Methodology for Monitoring Sustainable Development of Isolated Microgrids in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are a rapidly evolving and increasingly common form of local power generation used to serve the needs of both rural and urban communities. In this paper, we present a methodology to evaluate the evolution of the sustainability of stand-alone microgrids projects. The proposed methodology considers a composite sustainability index (CSI that includes both positive and negative impacts of the operation of the microgrid in a given community. The CSI is constructed along environmental, social, economic and technical dimensions of the microgrid. The sub-indexes of each dimension are aggregated into the CSI via a set of adaptive weighting factors, which indicate the relative importance of the corresponding dimension in the sustainability goals. The proposed methodology aims to be a support instrument for policy makers especially when defining sound corrective measures to guarantee the sustainability of small, isolated microgrid projects. To validate the performance of the proposed methodology, a microgrid installed in the northern part of Chile (Huatacondo has been used as a benchmarking project.

  20. Work in corporate sustainability policies: the contribution of ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, I; Brunoro, C M; Sznelwar, L I

    2014-01-01

    By introducing policies for sustainability and social responsibility, companies declare their interest in caring for all stakeholders, including workers. To analyze how and which themes related to work practices and to workers are approached in the discourse of corporations are considered sustainable and socially responsible. Based on ergonomic principles, more elements are brought into this discussion, viewed from a strategic perspective for the development of corporations and society. Data collected from 20 corporations considered more sustainable according to an assessment made by the Corporate Knights organization. Multiple-case study, based on the analysis of secondary sources content (websites and reports). Analysis of websites and reports by their content, and their classification according to the aspects present in the thematic of work practices and of human rights elaborated by standard ISO 26000. Corporations show that the worker is one of the stakeholders to be considered in their sustainability and social responsibility policies. However, it's not possible using this method to obtain effective evidences related to actual programs performed by companies in order to demonstrate the real importance of workers in sustainable polices. The discipline of ergonomics could be active in improving the implementation of corporate social responsibility policies, especially by emphasizing the social dimension of these policies.

  1. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  2. Rural Education as Rural Development: Understanding the Rural School-Community Well-Being Linkage in a 21st-Century Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant proportions of rural Americans, schools, and public school students situated in the geographic peripheries of an increasingly urbanizing country, rural education in the United States has consistently occupied both scholarly and policy peripheries. This is to the detriment of rural America, especially to the extent that…

  3. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Jonas Imperiale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how community resilience can be effectively included and assessed in local development efforts. We argue that social impact assessment (SIA can and should play a key role in assessing regional development strategies and proposals and in building community resilience. We present the SIA Framework for Action as a tool to enhance policies, plans, programs, and projects and to assist in attaining appropriate social development outcomes, including community resilience. We demonstrate the value of the framework by discussing its application in a development project in rural Italy—the restoration of the Tratturo Magno, an ancient path used by shepherds and flocks for transhumance over centuries. The project, Vie e Civiltà della Transumanza, patrimonio dell'Umanità (Routes and Civilization of Transhumance World Heritage, inter alia, sought to promote rural tourism by restoring parts of the Tratturo Magno in the area damaged by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.

  4. Changing Paradigms: A Sketch for Sustainable Wellbeing and Ecosocial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Hirvilammi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in the Anthropocene era, where human action has an unforeseen impact on global ecosystems. This is visible, for instance, in climate change, in the loss of biodiversity and in the acidification of the oceans. Little attention is given to the fact that the Anthropocene is related to anthropocentric thinking that also guides our policies. Therefore, we argue that ecologically and socially sustainable policies will not be achieved by incidental policy measures alone, but a change of paradigm is needed. In our article, we lay out the tenets of a relational paradigm resting on holistic thinking and deep ecology. On the basis of this paradigm, the principles, conceptions and goals specific to any given policy can be formulated, giving them a common ground. In this article, we apply the relational paradigm to social policy in order to contribute to the quest for sustainable wellbeing in the overconsuming welfare states. Here, we formulate a multidimensional and relational conception of wellbeing, the HDLB-model (Having-Doing-Loving-Being, which is a modification of sociologist Erik Allardt’s theory. We illustrate how this model could provide the foundation of a sustainable ecosocial policy.

  5. Harnessing wind power with sustained policy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, L. [BITS-Pilani. Dept. of Economics, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. The ''Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)'' has played a leading role in promoting wind energy in India. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, a combination of domestic policy support for wind power and the rise of Suzlon (a leading global wind turbine manufacturer) have led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. (Author)

  6. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    paradigm; first, the heavy reliance on modern science leads to a failure to use local knowledge and practices which can be more sustainable to sustainability; second, the acceptance of the international capitalist system as the basis for project implementation results in little or no long-term sustainability commitment; and third, the compatibility of economic growth with environmental sustainability, which appears unlikely in the context of global economic inequality. As an alternative, this dissertation suggests several policies for promoting energy systems for rural sustainable development in the Global South.

  7. Rural electrification policy: overcoming institutional dilemmas; Politica de eletrificacao rural: superando dilemas institucionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Santos, Jose Francisco Martins [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1994-12-01

    Only one in four rural estates in Brazil receives electric energy. The great majority can only be reached by a rural electrification program adopting low cost technological solutions, following an institutional arrangement different from those presently practiced. Such objective is denied at three stages. In the first instance, it is denied by the state economic policy, which has little sensitivity for meeting the requirements of low income rural producers. At another instance, it is denied by the power companies, always facing more urgent problems and more important clients.Finally it is denied by the distribution sectors of those companies, which is turned towards an excellence engineering, while turning its back to the required technological simplifications. This work reviews a model for electrification of small rural properties, formulated and financed by BNDES in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, allowing for a suitable solution for the issue. Rural electrification is discussed either as a social issue, or as an economic issue and even as a technical issue. The political nature of the decisions is highlighted at those three levels. (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Sustainable rural learning ecologies- a prolegomenon traversing transcendence of discursive notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes, through traversing contested notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty, to discourses around creation of sustainable rural learning ecologies. There has always been at least in the realm of scientific discourse, an attempt to dissociate the natural or physical environment from the social and human environment. This trend did not only affect the two spheres of existence only. It is further imbued and spawned fragmented and pervasive terminology, practices and human thought. Drawing from the ‘creating sustainable rural learning ecologies’ research project that commenced in 2011, I challenge and contest the use of such discourses and argue for the transcendence of such. This would, in my opinion, create space for harmonious and fluid co-existence between nature and humanity, such that the contribution of learning practices exudes and expedites sustainability in rural ecologies.

  9. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  10. Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food and nutrition security in Nigeria. ... Acceleration of agricultural development by increasing agricultural production, improved marketing and distribution that would lead to food and nutrition security can only be possible through knowledge and information.

  11. Towards efficient and sustainable wood utilization policy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy guidelines are needed to drive wood market transformation through concerted efforts with timber exploiters and sellers to (a). Halt deforestation (b). Promote best practices in sustainable forest management (c). Promote economic and social impact of the forest communities (d). Encourage recyclability of waste wood ...

  12. Agrofuels policy in Colombia: expectations and rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia Alfonso Sandra Liliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The debate over the current biofuels policy has two positions: first, those considering it as an alternative aimed at reducing dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming; secondly, those who argue about the distributional conflicts that can bring socio-environmental adoption of these policies at local level. This article presents the national policy settings and scenarios of biofuel production based on agro-energy projects, which are used raw materials such as palm oil to produce biodiesel, sugar cane, sugar loaf cane and cassava for the distillation of ethanol. Thus regional dynamics observed that intersect with the new rural environment in the Colombian countryside connection between the local and global that generate expectations to achieve rural development goals.

  13. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs[PRI Project, Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliadis, P. [Government of Canada Privy Council Office, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Policy Research Initiative; Creech, H.; Glanville, B.; Barg, S.; Cosbey, A.; Roy, M.; Swanson, D.A.; Venema, H.D.; Von Moltke, K. [International Inst. for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Slayen, S. (ed.)

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs.

  14. The Development of Public Policy for the Rural Sector Through the Relationship between Agriculture Family, State and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marana Sotero de Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This present article aims to analyze the family farming as a development mechanism to promoting public policies for the rural sector. Thus, also aims to equally demonstrate that the development of such policies took place mostly from the actions and programs for family farming, and from the rise of this agricultural activity as a professional category that the State, united with the civil society organizations, they began to worry and develop public policies in order to boost the rural sector as a whole, which received attention and incentives from the 1990's, along with the consolidation of managerial reform of the State, ceasing to be theoretical and becoming part of the political agenda of the country. Still, those public policies aimed at family farming are designed to tackle the main ills in rural areas, which are, rural poverty, lack of sustainability and the food insecurity, in order to help to achieve the development of this area. In this context, we emphasize it would not be possible to develop public policies for the rural sector without counting with the participation of State and the actors social involved - farmers, associations and trade unions, for example. Therefore it's necessary to make the union between State, democracy and family agriculture for the development of such policies, since this tripod is the basis for the development of programs aimed to foment rural areas. Finally, it is important to note that this study was drawn from the most diverse literature sources, from analyzes carried out in books and scientific articles on the subject.

  15. Analysis of Sustainability of New Rural Housing (Case of ole Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyran Chamcham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of rural housing based on the principles of sustainability is one of the most important prerequisites for achieving sustainable development in rural areas. This can only be achieved by knowing the exact status of rural housing and its range of stability. And rural planning is not possible without it. On the other hand, survey of the stability of the different aspects of rural housing will have a decisive role in decisions related to how to promote this project aimed at sustainable rural development. Therefore, this study we have investigated and compared the economic, Social, environmental, technical and physical aspects of new rural housing with sustainability approach, quantitative paradigm and the case study method. The statistical population in the study were all the people of Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village from which a number were selected who had reconstructed their homes. The results are shown in 4 dimensions of new housing's economic, social, environmental, technical and physical aspects in the Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village although they have very little inclination towards sustainability. Despite this, the hybrid economic index for reconstruction of rural housing turned out to be more stable than other metrics.

  16. Addressing the health disadvantage of rural populations: how does epidemiological evidence inform rural health policies and research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karly B; Humphreys, John S; Wilson, Murray G A

    2008-04-01

    We reviewed evidence of any apparently significant 'rural-urban' health status differentials in developed countries, to determine whether such differentials are generic or nation-specific, and to explore the nature and policy implications of determinants underpinning rural-urban health variations. A comprehensive literature review of rural-urban health status differentials within Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the USA, the UK, and a variety of other western European nations was undertaken to understand the differences in life expectancy and cause-specific morbidity and mortality. While rural location plays a major role in determining the nature and level of access to and provision of health services, it does not always translate into health disadvantage. When controlling for major risk determinants, rurality per se does not necessarily lead to rural-urban disparities, but may exacerbate the effects of socio-economic disadvantage, ethnicity, poorer service availability, higher levels of personal risk and more hazardous environmental, occupational and transportation conditions. Programs to improve rural health will be most effective when based on policies which target all risk determinants collectively contributing to poor rural health outcomes. Focusing solely on 'area-based' explanations and responses to rural health problems may divert attention from more fundamental social and structural processes operating in the broader context to the detriment of rural health policy formulation and remedial effort.

  17. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  18. Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference of Information Science and Computer Applications (ICISCA), Bali, Indonesia, 19-20 November 2012 Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa Nomusa Dlodlo and Mofolo Mofolo CSIR...

  19. Can solar -biogas hybrid systems be the solution to sustainable energy supply in rural areas?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to modern energy services is a fundamental prerequisite for property reduction and sustainable human development. Many remote rural South African communities are characterized by low energy demand and low population densities, making...

  20. Evaluate the Capabilities and Limitations Sustainable Rural Development in the Kermanshah District

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Safari AliAkbari; Hamdollah Pishroo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the capabilities and limitations sustainable rural development in the Kermanshah district, is. Kermanshah district is, the one of Kermanshah city in the Kermanshah Province, located in the West of Iran. Province with an area of 24,640 square kilometers, the seventeenth province of Iran, the extent of. Reviews features and capabilities of the rural Kermanshah district, in order to achieve sustainable development goals of the study is considered. To a...

  1. Investing in Sustainable and Resilient Rural Social Space: Lessons for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone; Lock, Graeme; Hastings, Wendy; Cooper, Maxine; Reid, Jo-Anne; Green, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Attracting and retaining effective education leaders and teaching staff for regional, rural and remote schools in Australia is a major sustainability and quality issue facing every State and Territory. It is also a major concern in pre-service teacher education, particularly for those universities which have a commitment to rural and regional…

  2. Sustainable Rural Development in Russia Through Diversification: The Case of the Stavropol Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary relevance of ensuring sustainable rural development is stipulated, on the one hand, by the growing economic and social backwardness of rural territories, and on the other hand by their ultimate importance for the nation in such issues as food security, preservation of soil and

  3. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  4. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry...... by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...

  5. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    on other resources (e.g., knowl-edge) as well. Together with the person's level of motivation to do so, this subjective feeling of how difficult it is to make a change towards a more sustainable lifestyle deter-mine how hard the person will strive to do so. Consumer policy can empower consumers......, the two approaches are equivalent. However, they may differ in their political feasibility, ef-fectiveness, and costs. Policy that increases a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper I discuss both types......At least judged by its outcome, it seems that consumers in the rich parts of the world make less of an effort at changing their lifestyle in a sustainable direction than is desired by society and than is in their own collective long-term interest. Part of the explanations is that individual...

  6. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy.

  7. Classifying Adoption of Sustainability Policies and Programs: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Development of a Community Sustainability Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how and why different communities engage with sustainability policies and actions is of critical importance for furthering implementation of innovative and conventional sustainability strategies. Despite this importance, an understanding of how and why communities a...

  8. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy Institute sur les questions de paix, de violence et de développement. Alors que la paix, la violence et le développement représentent des défis de taille au Pakistan, ils constituent rarement le point de mire pour l'élaboration de politiques. De surcroît, les étudiants ...

  9. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras. Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. (author)

  10. A theory of how rural health services contribute to community sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Prior, Maria; Taylor, Judy

    2012-11-01

    Study and opinion suggest that health services play a significant role in supporting the social fabric of fragile rural communities. We draw on empirical evidence about the added-value contributions of health services to communities and unite it with theory of capitals to propose a theoretical model depicting how rural health services contribute to community sustainability. While providing an analytical framework, the paper also points to construction of a measurement tool for enabling planners to measure the contributions of diverse sectors to community sustainability and predict or measure the impact of changes to models of service delivery on the future of rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what...... extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability...... evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance...

  12. Development Towards Sustainability: How to judge past and proposed policies?

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The scientific data about the state of our planet, presented at the 2012 (Rio+20) summit, documented that today's human family lives even less sustainably than it did in 1992. The data indicate furthermore that the environmental impacts from our current economic activities are so large, that we are approaching situations where potentially controllable regional problems can easily lead to uncontrollable global disasters. Assuming that (1) the majority of the human family, once adequately informed, wants to achieve a "sustainable way of life" and (2) that the "development towards sustainability" roadmap will be based on scientific principles, one must begin with unambiguous and quantifiable definitions of these goals. As will be demonstrated, the well known scientific method to define abstract and complex issues by their negation, satisfies these requirements. Following this new approach, it also becomes possible to decide if proposed and actual policies changes will make our way of life less unsustainable, and...

  13. Management and policy issues in China's rural development 1977–81

    OpenAIRE

    Steidl-Meier, Paul

    1982-01-01

    China's rural development policy has divided the Chinese leadership since the mid-fifties. Since about mid-1977 Deng Xiaoping has been in the ascendancy. In the rural areas he has striven to rapidly introduce a number of far-reaching policles. These policies are discussed in the following article and the likelihood of the continuing implementation of Deng's line assessed.

  14. SWOT analysis: appraisal of a new tool in European rural development policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knierim, A.; Nowicki, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Strategic policy making for rural regions has gained increasing importance during the last few decades in the European Union. A coherent framework for the development of agricultural and rural policy measures has been made available (Council Decision 2006/144/EC), which integrates Strengths,

  15. The concept of sustainable tourism development in rural areas – A case study of Zbąszyń commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiak Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in rural areas has been defined as all tourist activities conducted in rural areas. The development of tourism in rural areas is dependent on external factors (e.g. landscape attractiveness, as well as internal factors (e.g. involvement of local authorities and society. Hence, it is important to increase the tourism potential for further increase of local tourism, and in turn to intensify the social-economic development according to a sustainable policy and multifunctional rural development. The main aim of the present study was to indicate possibilities to improve tourism management of the Zbąszyń urban-rural commune. For this purpose the following detailed aims were set: to evaluate local society satisfaction with tourism development in Zbąszyń commune, to evaluate the natural-landscape state of the analyzed area, to designate a new tourist trail or to revise the existing trails, and to propose modernization of existing tourism infrastructure. The obtained results revealed that in the opinion of local society there is still not sufficient tourism development despite some natural-landscape values. Hence, activities connected with tourism enrichment should be mainly connected with designation of two new cycling trails and supplementation of tourist information signs and tables. All proposed activities leading to an increase of tourism potential should bear in mind social aspects as well as natural values and would have a positive effect on economic income of the area.

  16. The Question of Sustainability of Green Electricity Policy Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the financial viability and economic sustainability implications of government programs for the development of renewable energy sources, explicitly considering that consumers take environmental issues into account. We envisage a broad policy strategy for the future, which we label the “World Sustainable Scenario”, and we quantify the inter-temporal resource requirement in terms of investment necessary to achieve it. We perform an empirical meta-analysis to quantify the willingness to pay for green electricity worldwide. Subsequently, we compare the amount of resources required according to policy programs and the populations’ willingness to sacrifice current resources for future benefits (i.e., willingness to finance future investments to assess the plausibility of current policies. The main empirical findings show that the population’s attitude toward green electricity will support, on average, 50% of the total investment required. We conclude that this is a positive result, which will make possible the success of the renewable energy sources development policy.

  17. Sustainable use of endogenous touristic resources of rural areas: two portuguese case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Vareiro, Laurentina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence shows that tourism can give a real contribution to regional development and, in the case of certain remote and economic lagged territories, it is one of the best sectors to achieve this goal. This role of tourism as to do, namely, with the possibility of taking profit from the endogenous resources endowment of these territories. Meanwhile, the opportunities are not the same for each region and it is easy to understand that, considering the resources available, not every one has the choice to base its development strategy in the tourism sector. On the other hand, sustainable development depends, both, on conservation and valorisation of the resources potential and on diversification of tourism activities and products, no matter the agents or policy options are. Based on empirical research carried out in Caminha and Paredes de Coura portuguese municipalities, and in what Tourism in Rural Areas (TRA is concerned, we present in this paper a preliminary evaluation of the social and economic impacts of the tourism strategies followed. We also aim to extract some policy implications in order to better design future approaches to this issue of taking profit from resources endowment of territories. The starting point is the one of tourism based on quality, which serves the interests of local populations

  18. An evaluation of China's new rural cooperative medical system: achievements and inadequacies from policy goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-10-23

    Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of

  19. Sustainable development in the awareness of rural residents of podkarpackie voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grzybek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on awareness of sustainable development and the hierarchy of the objectives in the opinion of 400 inhabitants of rural municipalities of Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Studies have shown that the concept of “sustainable development” is not widely known among the villagers. The hierarchy of social, economic and natural goals of sustainable development examined by gender, age, social status and education of the respondents varied widely in each of the factors.

  20. Health in all policies in the partnership for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M. Buss

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article analyzes the dynamic interaction between the Health in All Policies (HiAP agenda and the ongoing implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. At the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, held in Rio de Janeiro in October 2011, the Rio Political Declaration pledged to use HiAP as a mechanism to address health inequities. In 2014, the Ministers of Health of the Region of the Americas approved a regional Plan of Action of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO that sought to call attention to the health consequences and benefits of policies and actions developed by other sectors. The HiAP approach seeks to integrate activities across the pillars of the sustainable development governance framework (economic, social, and environmental development. Advocates of the process are challenged to consider, using guiding questions outlined at the close of this article, how to pursue action at the country level and in what ways the HiAP approach can contribute to timely and effective implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The authors propose that coordination between the 2030 Agenda and the regional Plan of Action on HiAP can make an important contribution to the implementation of both processes in the Region.

  1. Public housing and ecologically sustainable development in NSW government policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, M; Proctor, D. [Department of Housing, Liverpool, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The New South Wales Department of Housing is a public service organisation providing quality rental housing for moderate-to-low income earners with almost 80 percent of the residents relying on government pensions or benefits as their main source of income. Over the years, demographic and social changes have resulted in a need for concentrating on housing for pensioners and smaller households. Increasing concern about the use of resources and the quality of the environment has resulted in a need for adopting sustainable practices in planning for future developments. Responding to the National Strategy of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) and recognizing the benefits of developing ESD and management practices, the Department has developed an ESD policy. This paper explains the policy and the trial by the Department of the Nationwide Housing Energy Rating Tool (NatHERs) on a sample of the Department`s dwellings. The challenges of implementing the ESD policy are education of staff, development of an ESD methodology, the establishment of standards for ESD developments through integration with industry and business, and the integration of ESD issues into planning, design and engineering briefs to facilitate their implementation at the project level. It is concluded that the development of an appropriate ESD methodology will result in a flexible and responsive application of ESD principles which will lead to the development of housing that is appropriate to the needs of the residents, is economically viable to the Department and promotes environmentally sensitive development. (author). 5 figs., refs.

  2. TERRITORY, PUBLIC POLICIES AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CATURITÉ, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenize Carlos de Macêdo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the environmental conditions of the semiarid territory, livestock has constituted one of the main economic activities and plays an important role in regional economic system.The municipality of Caturité - PB is characterized by the predominance of cattle livestock as the main productive activity. In recent years, however, this is being threatened due to infestation of the Cochineal Carmine (Dactylopius opuntiae in plantations of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, primary forage food for bovine and goat herds.As consequences of the devastation of spineless cactus, there has been the productive processes of dispossession and dislocation, with consequent loss of identity. In this sense, the objective of this work was to analyze public policies that have been established in the municipality of Caturité the major organs Municipal, State and Federal, seeking to reverse the current situation and promote rural development, as well as producers realize and given the actions of these bodies.Was used as the research methodology of theoretical frameworks, focusing on the concepts of rural areas, public policy and development, there was also the questionnaires in government agencies as well as to farmers in two rural communities surveyed (Serraria and Malhada daPanela aiming establish their socioeconomic profile.The results revealed the importance of agriculture for local development, as well as the environmental degradation caused by Cochineal carmine.There was also the implementation of new cactus cultivars resistant to pests as a possible referral to the minimization problem, which should have an answer in the medium term. However, it was found that the actions have been ad hoc and are not integrated into a broader development project that will be sustainable.

  3. Defining and Describing Rural: Implications for Rural Special Education Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Leslie R.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Bovaird, James A.; McCormick, Carina M.; Welch, Greg W.; Arthur, Ann M.; Bash, Kirstie

    2016-01-01

    A critical aspect of rural research is carefully defining and describing the rural context. This is particularly important in rural special education research because different definitions of rural may influence resource allocation, grant funding eligibility, and/or research findings. In order to highlight the importance of operationalizing rural,…

  4. Rural community sustainable development portal - towards sustainable knowledge management and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available and exchange of experiences, practices and success stories in rural areas of developing countries. The vision of the rural development portal is to provide leadership in rural development matters through focusing on developing countries. The portal aims to be a...

  5. The workers role in knowledge management and sustainability policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concepts of sustainability and knowledge management, this article seeks to identify points of contact between the two themes through an exploratory study of existing literature. The first objective is to find, in international literature, the largest number of papers jointly related to the theme of knowledge management and sustainability. In these documents, the authors looked at the kind of relationship existing between the two themes and what the benefits introduced in organizations are. Based on an ergonomic point of view, the second objective of this article is to analyze the role of the worker (whether at the strategic or operational level) and his importance in this context. The results demonstrate that there is very little literature that addresses the two themes together. The few papers found, however, can be said to show the many advantages of introducing sustainability policies supported by adequate knowledge management. Very little has been studied with regards to the role of workers, which could be interpreted as meaning that little importance is given to the proactive role they may play. On the other hand, there is a high potential for future research in these areas, based on the high level of consideration of workers in knowledge management and sustainability literature, as well as in literature in the areas of ergonomics and sociology.

  6. The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchert, Luciana [Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Lago, 876, CEP 05508.900, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    This article explores the institutionalization of environmental policies in the Dutch building sector and the applicability of the current model to developing countries. First, it analyzes the transition of sustainable building practices in the Netherlands from the 1970s until today, exploring how these were originally embedded in a discourse on 'de-modernization', which attempted to improve the environmental performance of building stocks by means of self-sufficient technologies, whereas nowadays they adopt a framework of 'ecological modernization', with integrative approaches seeking to improve the environmental performance of building stocks through more efficient-rather than self-sufficient-technologies. The study subsequently shows how the current Dutch sustainable building framework has thereby managed to achieve a pragmatic and widely accepted rationale, which can serve to orient the ecological restructuring of building stocks in developing countries. (author)

  7. Towards sustainable management of groundwater: policy developments in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijzen, Johannes P A; Otte, Piet; van Dreumel, Mari

    2014-07-01

    This article presents and discusses the main elements for a fundamental policy change for groundwater management in The Netherlands. The study analyzes the status and current use of groundwater, the increasing pressure in The Netherlands and many other countries on the natural soil-water system, the effects on quality and quantity of groundwater and the use of the subsoil. An overview is given of the current national and European regulations regarding groundwater and related policies for e.g. drinking water, soil policies and other interventions in the subsurface. The Dutch National Government is developing a new framework for groundwater management that aims a sustainable use of groundwater not only in environmental, but also in economic and social perspective. This framework for groundwater will benefit the Structure vision on the subsoil. The question is how 'sustainable use' can be a guiding principle in groundwater management, strengthening the relation between groundwater quantity and quality. It is proposed to define a generic National approach for the assessment of new and existing activities with potential effects on groundwater and for groundwater quality assessment. Additionally it is proposed to give local authorities the opportunity to set area-specific objectives on a regional or local scale to adjust for specific societal needs and area-specific characteristics. For setting these objectives it is recommended to use the concept of ecosystem services as a leading principle for defining the groundwater quality and quantity (e.g. for use as source for drinking water, aquifer thermal storage and sustaining terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Historical review of sports policy in rural China (1949-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyun, Lu; Henry, Ian P

    2011-01-01

    The rural population in China remains in the majority, and has traditionally played a key role in the development of China. This paper outlines the rhetoric of, and the material changes in the development of rural sports policy in the period since 1949. In effect this represents the largest single programmatic attempt to develop a rural sports policy, and it is one which reflects and contributes to the changing ideology of the state in China. The article explores the historical context of the unfolding of rural sports policy, the rationales provided by state and party leaders and representatives, and the rhetoric employed in supporting such policy direction. The development of policy is described as falling into three periods. From 1949 to 1977 the emphasis was on developing policies to promote labour production and national defence. This was succeeded by a period from 1978 to 2001 in which the major focus was on promoting a culturally positive environment (the construction of a 'spiritual civilization'), while in the period 2002 -08 the concern was with promoting equity and reducing the gap between urban and rural life quality. These developing rationales have sought in a variety of ways to address the major imbalances that exist in Chinese society between urban and rural, Eastern and Western China, and sports policy has thus became a significant tool in China's modernization agenda in the rural context.

  9. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil...

  10. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil...

  11. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  12. A Sustainable Rural Food–Energy–Water Nexus Framework for the Northern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Sieverding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The expected worldwide demand for agriculture, energy, and manufactured products will result in a supply chain that is increasingly dependent on exported rural products (e.g., livestock, cereal grains, fossil fuel, and biofuel. Rural areas such as the northern Great Plains are net exporters of food and energy, essentially “mining” valuable water and nutrient resources to do so. Rural areas are the foundation of supply chains; thus, to achieve sustainability, one must begin focusing at the source of the supply chain– with the farm, ranch, mine, or well. There are many knowledge gaps within the food–energy–water nexus in rural areas that shroud regional sustainability thresholds. Research and legislation are needed to address these critical issues.

  13. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  14. Telehealth services in rural and remote Australia: a systematic review of models of care and factors influencing success and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Natalie K; Caffery, Liam J; Smith, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    including clinical speciality, disciplines involved, geographical location and the role of the service. Data relating to the success or sustainability of services were grouped thematically. Inclusion criteria were met by 116 articles that described 72 discrete telehealth services. Telehealth services in rural and remote Australia are described and we have identified six key factors associated with the success and sustainability of services: vision, ownership, adaptability, economics, efficiency and equipment. Telehealth has the potential to address many of the key challenges to providing health in Australia, with its substantial land area and widely dispersed population. This review collates information regarding the telehealth services in Australia and describes models of care and characteristics of successful and sustainable services. We identified a wide variety of telehealth services being provided in rural and remote areas of Australia. There is great potential to increase this number by scaling up and replicating successful services. This review provides information for policy makers, governments and public and private health services that wish to integrate telehealth into routine practice and for telehealth providers to enhance the sustainability of their service.

  15. Exit, voice, and disappointment: mountain decline and EU compensatory rural policy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the Spanish experience of EU compensatory rural policy in order to contribute to broader debates on the effectiveness of this kind of policy and the role of agriculture in the definition of European rural policies. In the case of Spain, compensatory allowances to mainly mountain farmers had little effect on economic trajectories or social cohesion because of the small sums involved, the exclusion of those with very small farms, and the decreasing role of agriculture in the rural economy. Other, more structural, instruments of rural policy focused on small-scale promotion of business growth but were ill-equipped to challenge some of the territorially defined items of living standard gaps. A historically grounded analysis suggests that the main changes in the social trajectory of Spain's mountain areas in the last decades have little to do with compensatory policy and are related to ordinary economic dynamics.

  16. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Pantyley

    2017-09-01

    In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  17. A comparative analysis of policies addressing rural oral health in eight English-speaking OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Leonard A; Goldberg, Lynette R; Bell, Erica; Seidel, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Oral health is fundamental to overall health. Poor oral health is largely preventable but unacceptable inequalities exist, particularly for people in rural areas. The issues are complex. Rural populations are characterised by lower rates of health insurance, higher rates of poverty, less water fluoridation, fewer dentists and oral health specialists, and greater distances to access care. These factors inter-relate with educational, attitudinal, and system-level issues. An important area of enquiry is whether and how national oral health policies address causes and solutions for poor rural oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine a series of government policies on oral health to (i) determine the extent to which such policies addressed rural oral health issues, and (ii) identify enabling assumptions in policy language about problems and solutions regarding rural communities. Eight current oral health policies were identified from Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the USA, England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. Validated content and critical discourse analyses were used to document and explore the concepts in these policy documents, with a particular focus on the frequency with which rural oral health was mentioned, and the enabling assumptions in policy language about rural communities. Seventy-three concepts relating to oral health were identified from the textual analysis of the eight policy documents. The rural concept addressing oral health issues occurred in only 2% of all policies and was notably absent from the oral health policies of countries with substantial rural populations. It occurred most frequently in the policy documents from Australia and Scotland, less so in the policy documents from Canada, Wales, and New Zealand, and not at all in the oral health policies from the US, England, and Northern Ireland. Thus, the oral health needs of rural communities were generally not the focus of, nor included in, the oral health policy

  18. Social Policy Issues in Planning Major Development Projects: Rural Community Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies social policy issues for rural communities affected by major development projects. Advocates increased attention in legislation by community workers and fuller recognition of social policy as a planning and development priority. Concludes that economics is still the major concern for development projects, rather than social policy. (BR)

  19. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  20. Sustainable diet policy development: implications of multi-criteria and other approaches, 2008-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tim; Mason, Pamela

    2017-12-04

    The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems. The paper outlines national sustainable diet policy in various countries: Australia, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Qatar, Sweden, UK and USA. While no overarching common framework for sustainable diets has appeared, a policy typology of lessons for sustainable diets is proposed, differentiating (a) orientation and focus, (b) engagement styles and (c) modes of leadership. The paper considers the particularly tortuous rise and fall of UK governmental interest in sustainable diet advice. Initial engagement in the 2000s turned to disengagement in the 2010s, yet some advice has emerged. The 2016 referendum to leave the EU has created a new period of policy uncertainty for the UK food system. This might marginalise attempts to generate sustainable diet advice, but could also be an opportunity for sustainable diets to be a goal for a sustainable UK food system. The role of nutritionists and other food science professions will be significant in this period of policy flux.

  1. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  2. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...... a Geographic Information System with the Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding methods “Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution” and “Dominance-based Rough Set Approach”. In order to demonstrate the validity of this methodological approach, this Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support...... provided a common decision making framework that can also be applied to Local Action Group partnerships within the European Union....

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DORNA BASIN, BY PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Lucian VINTILĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any strategy of diversification of non-agricultural economic activities and development of micro-enterprises in rural areas, aims to increase farms’ side incomes from non-agricultural activities, to create new job opportunities, new services for local people, to promote entrepreneurship and development of rural tourism. Sustainable developmentby promoting tourism should have as objective, besides recovery and sustainable promotion of cultural heritage the natural resources with tourism potential as well and the use of local products, which are marketed not only as raw materials but also as products with added value.

  4. Driving Rural Development: Policy and Practice in Seven EU Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, H.

    2006-01-01

    European Perspectives on Rural Development Rural development occupies a prominent place on the political agenda of the European Union and its member states. This book captures rural development experiences in seven EU states: France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and the United

  5. Opinion: Endogenizing culture in sustainability science research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Marcellus M.; Sanderson, Matthew R.; Mather, Martha E.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Bergtold, Jason S.; Aistrup, Joseph; Heier Stamm, Jessica L.; Haukos, David A.; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle; Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Lopez-Carr, David

    2015-01-01

    Integrating the analysis of natural and social systems to achieve sustainability has been an international scientific goal for years (1, 2). However, full integration has proven challenging, especially in regard to the role of culture (3), which is often missing from the complex sustainability equation. To enact policies and practices that can achieve sustainability, researchers and policymakers must do a better job of accounting for culture, difficult though this task may be.The concept of culture is complex, with hundreds of definitions that for years have generated disagreement among social scientists (4). Understood at the most basic level, culture constitutes shared values, beliefs, and norms through which people “see,” interpret, or give meaning to ideas, actions, and environments. Culture is often used synonymously with “worldviews” or “cosmologies” (5, 6) to explain the patterned ways of assigning meanings and interpretations among individuals within groups. Used in this way, culture has been found to have only limited empirical support as an explanation of human risk perception (7, 8) and environmentalism (9).

  6. The internet of things in agriculture for sustainable rural development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available these issues. The intention of this research is to investigate the potential contributions of internet of things technologies (IoT) towards poverty reduction in these rural areas, in line with the needs identified in these communities and with emphasis...

  7. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  8. The Conceptual Model of Sustainable Development of the Rural Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Sukhinina, Veronika V.; Starikova, Lyudmila D.; Pecherskaya, Evelina P.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of the studied issue is determined by growing lag of rural territorial units in socioeconomic development, and one the other by their significance in such important aspects of the country, as ensuring food supply security, preservation of the available land, production, ecological, demographic and human potential.…

  9. Appraising the combustion of biogas for sustainable rural energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows the combustion of biogas in rural households' appliances. Biogas has been known since 1800s as an odourless and colourless gas with high combustion rate. Its use is beginning to gain ground in most developing countries like Nigeria due to its availability, ease of generation and environmental ...

  10. Design for sustainability: rural connectivity with village operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available -50, 2009. [2] D. P. Conradie et al. .? Using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for deep rural development in South Africa, ? COMMUNICATIO, vol. 29, p. 199, February 2003. [3] M. Chetty, et al. , ?VoIP Deregulation in South Africa...

  11. Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

  12. Early school leavers and sustainable learning environments in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I show by means of Yosso's community cultural wealth theoretical framework how equal numbers of early school leavers (ESLs) from the rural and the urban parts of the North-West province cite similar reasons for their early departure from school. The conclusion drawn from this scenario is that, irrespective of ...

  13. The Role of Adult Education and Learning Policy in Fostering Societal Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-01-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is -- and could…

  14. Searching for sustainability within public health policy: insights from an injury prevention perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Gail; Evans, Catrin; Watson, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining public health programmes in the long-term is key to ensuring full manifestation of their intended benefits. Although an increasing interest in sustainability is apparent within the global literature, empirical studies from within the European setting are few. The factors that influence sustainability are generally conceptualized at three levels: programme level, the immediate context and the wider environment. To-date attention has focused primarily on the former two. Using a community-based child injury prevention programme in England as an exemplar, this paper explores the concept of sustainability within the wider policy environment, and considers the impact of this on local programmes. A content review of global and UK national public health policies (1981-2014) relevant to child safety was undertaken. Interviews were held with senior representatives of global and UK agencies involved in developing child safety policy. Forty-nine policies were reviewed. The term 'sustain', or its derivatives, featured in 36 (73%) of these. Its' use however, related primarily to conservation of resources rather than continued programme operation. Potential mechanisms for supporting programme sustainability featured within some documents; however, the approach to sustainability was inconsistent between policies and over time. Policy stakeholders identified programme sustainability as relevant to their core business, but its' conceptualization varied according to individual interpretation. Programme sustainability is poorly addressed within global and UK-based public health policy. Strengthening a national and international policy focus on sustainability and incorporating sustainability into public health planning frameworks may create a more supportive environment for local programmes.

  15. Migration and Rural Welfare: The Impact of Potential Policy Reforms in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wouterse, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses an agricultural household model in an imperfect market environment and data from Burkina Faso to explore the impact of potential immigration policy reforms in Europe on the welfare of rural households...

  16. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  17. Policy Implications for Using ICTs for Empowerment of Rural Women in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

    2008-01-01

    Using rural household survey data collected from 1000 female household heads selected from all the ten administrative regions in Ghana, this paper explored the policy implications for using ICTs for empowerment of rural women. A contingent valuation (CV) method was used to quantitatively estimate the influence of selected socio-economic factors on…

  18. Organisational sustainability policies and employee green behaviour : The mediating role of work climate perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norton, Thomas A.; Zacher, Hannes; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    Organisations are increasingly introducing sustainability policies to encourage environmentally friendly behaviours. Employees' green work climate perceptions (i.e., how they perceive their organisations' and co-workers' orientations towards environmental sustainability) may constitute psychological

  19. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses' views on rural posts and policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullei, Kethi; Mudhune, Sandra; Wafula, Jackline; Masamo, Eunice; English, Michael; Goodman, Catherine; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2010-07-02

    Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs) (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience). Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at each MTC. Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya's recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of

  20. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location

  1. Tourscape: A systematic approach towards a sustainable rural tourism management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. C.; Wang, Y. C.; Songan, P.; Yeo, A. W.

    2014-02-01

    Tourism plays an important role in the Malaysian economy as it is considered to be one of the corner stones of the country's economy. The purpose of this research is to conduct an analysis based on the existing tourism industry in rural tourism destinations in Malaysia by examining the impact of economics, environmental, social and cultural factors of the tourism industry on the local communities in Malaysia. 516 respondents comprising of tourism stakeholders from 34 rural tourism sites in Malaysia took part voluntarily in this study. To assess the developed model, SmartPLS 2.0 (M3) was applied based on path modeling and then bootstrapping with 200 re-samples was applied to generate the standard error of the estimate and t-values. Subsequently, a system named Tourscape was designed to manage the information. This system can be considered as a benchmark for tourism industry stakeholders as it is able to display the current situational analysis and the tourism health of selected tourism destination sites by capturing data and information, not only from local communities but industry players and tourists as well. The findings from this study revealed that the cooperation from various stakeholders has created significant impact on the development of rural tourism.

  2. EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The non-agricultural economy (small and medium-sized enterprises in industry, services, rural tourism has a low share in Romania's rural area. To start a business in the countryside can be both an advantage and a risk. The investments in the non-agricultural and food economy, while contributing to gross value added increase through the processing of agricultural and non-agricultural raw products from local resources, have another great advantage, by creating new jobs and by using and maintaining the local (rural labour, revitalization of rural localities, mainly those in the less-favoured and remote rural areas. The paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. The socioeconomic analysis based on current data and future forecasts is the basis in drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in the less-developed regions and also for the economic revitalization.

  3. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  4. 77 FR 10939 - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... procurement of biobased products to promote rural economic development, create new jobs, and provide new... applicable new contract actions for products and services advance sustainable acquisition, including biobased... Transportation Management) and Executive Order 13514); (ii) include biobased products as part of their...

  5. LOCAL INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL HOKKAIDO: A CASE STUDY OF SAMANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Dublin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field investigation about sustainable development of Samani town—a rural area in Hidaka region, Hokkaido, Japan. Local activities, business, environmental, social and economic challenges that affect the town as well as the advantages were investigated. The research was done by means of field visits, questionnaires and interviews involving the local people and government. The main economic sectors: olivine industry, fishery, agriculture and tourism were targeted as well as the government sector and the local high school with a particular focus on rural-urban migration. Samani has quite unique natural features on hand but a few strong comprehensive challenges on the other hand. The authors focused on the citizens opinions and positions which were based on the uniqueness of Samani and their own local activities and initiatives for the sustainable development of the town in the future which can be replicated in other rural communities around the world.

  6. Teachers and Teaching Conditions in Rural Texas: Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Lorna

    2004-01-01

    Over four milliion children go to public schools in Texas; of these, almost half a million (474,000) students attend school in rural areas. Thirty-six percent of rural Texas students are members of a minority group, 46% are poor, and more than 31,000 students in rural Texas do not speak English well. These are Texas-style large numbers that begin…

  7. Carving out indigenous tree species to sustain rural livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the over-dependence on a few selected indigenous tree species for carving is a source of concern, threatening local livelihoods and survival of the industry. This study sought to investigate the sources, availability and sustainability of tree species used, awareness of alternative species for carving and the ...

  8. Participatory Watershed Management for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in India

    OpenAIRE

    Budumuru Yoganand; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2006-01-01

    International development goals moved beyond increasing food production to include poverty reduction and protecting the environment in a sustainable way. Degradation of natural resources due to exploitation coupled with population pressure in developing countries causing food insecurity and environmental degradation further. Participatory watershed management approach is proposed to address this problem effectively.

  9. From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prändl-Zika, Veronika

    2008-04-01

    The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future.

  10. Sustainable fuelwood use in rural Mexico. Volume 1: Current patterns of resource use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.

    1993-04-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the first phase of a project of cooperation between the Mexican National Commission for Energy Conservation (CONAE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) on sustainable biofuel use in rural Mexico. This first phase has been devoted to (i) conducting an in-depth review of the status of fuelwood use in rural and peri-urban areas of Mexico, (ii) providing improved estimates of biomass energy use, (iii) assessing the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of fuelwood use, and (iv) identifying preliminary potential lines of action to improve the patterns of biomass energy use in Mexico; in particular, identifying those interventions that, by improving living conditions for rural inhabitants, can result in global benefits (such as the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions). A comprehensive review of the existing documentation of biofuel use in rural and peri-urban Mexico was conducted. Reports from official, academic, and non-governmental organizations were gathered and analyzed. A computerized rural energy database was created by re-processing a national rural energy survey. Because of the paucity of information about biofuel use in small rural industries, most of the analysis is devoted to the household sector.

  11. Social Health Insurance in Nigeria: Policy Implications in A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social health insurance was introduced in Nigeria in 1999 and had since been restricted to workers in the formal public sector. There are plans for scaling up to include rural populations in a foreseeable future. Information on willingness to participate and pay a premium in the programme by rural populations is dearth.

  12. Towards regional differentiation of rural development policy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Venema, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this study a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) in four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia) is made. Such plans are

  13. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, not only infrastructures and information technologies are absent in the rural communities but even health care facilities, educational facilities and library and information services are all a thing of the past in most of the rural areas in Nigeria. It is against this background that the Nigerian Government has formulated ...

  14. Sustainable Development Policies as Indicators and Pre-Conditions for Sustainability Efforts at Universities: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Brandli, Luciana Londero; Becker, Deisi; Skanavis, Constantina; Kounani, Aristea; Sardi, Chrysoula; Papaioannidou, Dimitra; Paço, Arminda; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; de Sousa, Luiza Olim; Raath, Schalk; Pretorius, Rudi Wessel; Shiel, Christine; Vargas, Valeria; Trencher, Gregory; Marans, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: There is a widely held belief that sustainable development (SD) policies are essential for universities to successfully engage in matters related to sustainability, and are an indicator of the extent to which they are active in this field. This paper aims to examine the evidence which currently exists to support this assumption. It…

  15. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Pelkmans, L. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Berndes, G. [Chalmers University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Prieler, S.; Fischer, G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Cueste Cabal, H. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and

  16. Do Farm Advisory Services Improve Adoption of Rural Development Policies? An Empirical Analysis in GI Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to evaluate how advisory services stimulate the adoption of rural development policies (RDP) aiming at value creation. Design/methodology/approach: By linking the use of agricultural extension services (AES) to policies for value creation, we will put forward an empirical analysis in Italy, with the aim of…

  17. Indicators for sustainable transport policy in Denmark - why, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Cornet, Yannick

    in the Danish transport policy, using policy goals, sustainability indicators and performance measures. The paper represents a first step in the SUSTAIN project aiming to develop a framework for national sustainable transport planning. The paper will draw on analysis of experience with the development and use......Denmark and other countries have the ambition to move towards a sustainable transport system. However it is challenging to achieve and credibly demonstrate progress towards sustainability in transport. The paper will specify foundations for monitoring and reporting progress towards sustainability...... of sustainability indicators to report transport policy performance, in Europe, North America and other parts of the world. The experience will be connected to critical literature in the areas of sustainability theory, knowledge utilization, and implementation in order to identify challenges to overcome...

  18. Design and sustainability issues of rural credit and savings programs

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, Aliou

    2000-01-01

    Joint liability group lending is currently the lending technology of choice of microfinance institutions because of the success of the Grameen Bank, which is using the technology to successfully lend to millions of poor Bangladeshi women. The analysis and findings presented in this brief are the results of research undertaken by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Bunda College of Agriculture on the practice and performance of joint liability group lending in Malawi. ...

  19. Policy measures and governance for sustainable tourism and recreation in the Netherlands – an evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the policy approach for facilitating sustainable development of the tourism and recreation sector inside the Netherlands. Taking a national perspective, it reflects on the sustainability challenges facing the sector, and how the currently used governance and policy styles address

  20. Greening Governance : An Evolutionary Approach to Policy Making for a Sustainable Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    After twenty years of sustainable building policies, the issue of environmental impact of buildings and urban environments remains. Policy makers still have difficulties addressing the ambiguous, contested and dynamic goals encapsulated in the term ‘sustainable development’. How to decide between

  1. A sustainable and affordable support system for rural healthcare delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barjis, J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available et al., 2009). Furthermore, many projects that have taken place, started by government or non-government organizations, have delivered ‘white elephants’ rather than a sustainable system. The idiom of ‘white elephant’ (Robinson and Toryik, 2005, p.... The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: in part one we discuss the socio-cultural and economic context, which sets the stage for the research carried out and the results presented in this article; in part we discuss the underlying theoretical...

  2. Evaluation of Sustainable Development in Rural Territories in Latgale Region (Latvia) by Using the Conception of Smart Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipilova, Viktorija; Ostrovska, Inta; Jermolajeva, Elita; Aleksejeva, Ludmila; Olehnovics, Dmitrijs

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to achieve sustainable development is based on smart specialization. Rural areas are of particular importance in ensuring sustainable development, the smart development of which largely determines the balanced sustainable development of a state as a whole. The present study reflects the quantitative and the qualitative…

  3. AGROECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION OF PARAÍBA RURAL AREA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BIOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenildo Pedro da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture modernization resulting from green revolution occurred through means of diverse technological innovations as soluble fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery and genetically modified seeds, aimed at increasing food production. However, the indiscriminate use of these innovations by farmers has been highlighted numerous environmental problems, affecting the productive agricultural system. This technological innovations reality and environmental obstacles, is also been experienced by cassava production in Paraíba rural area. Therefore, this study tried to assess the agroecosystems sustainability of cassava production (Manihot esculenta Crantz of Paraíba Rural Mesoregion, using Sustainable Development Index (S³ method, and its graphical representation, the Biogram. The results showed sustainability differences between the agroecosystems of investigated municipalities, of which Araçagi showed stable levels of sustainability, Araruna and Bananeiras demonstrated unstable levels, and Puxinanã showed the most critical sustainably level. It was concluded that, even the agroecosystems of Araçagi municipality showing better levels of sustainability, when compared with other municipalities assessed, cassava production showed unsustainability situations regarding its technological innovation levels, average yield of cassava production, land in erosion process, water scarcity and lack of social participation.

  4. What about Us? Economic and Policy Changes Affecting Rural HIV/AIDS Services and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Tashuna; Martinez, Isabel; Gibson, Crystal; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen R

    2017-01-01

    Health care budgets and policies are chief drivers in the delivery and access to health services. Place is also a factor that affects patient and provider experiences within the health care system. We examine the impact of policy changes and subsequent budget cuts on rural HIV/AIDS care, support services, and prevention. We interviewed 11 social workers, case managers, and outreach workers who serve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. We conducted telephone interviews inquiring about the effect of economics and policies on direct practice with rural clients. We analyzed data using a content analysis approach. We found several themes from the data. Ryan White funding and policy changes shifted direct practice to a medical case management model. Changes in federal and state poverty levels affected client eligibility for the AIDS Drugs Assistance Program. Policy banning financial support for syringe service programs hindered prevention efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission. Ancillary services were reduced, such as housing assistance, transportation, and emergency financial assistance. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of place-based policies to improve access to healthcare and services. We also provide recommendations for greater inclusion in HIV/AIDS-related policy development, care, and service planning for rural workers.

  5. Factors influencing sustainability of communally-managed water facilities in rural areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kativhu, T.; Mazvimavi, D.; Tevera, D.; Nhapi, I.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability of point water facilities is a major development challenge in many rural settings of developing countries not sparing those in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. This study was done in Zimbabwe to investigate the factors influencing sustainability of rural water supply systems. A total of 399 water points were studied in Nyanga, Chivi and Gwanda districts. Data was collected using a questionnaire, observation checklist and key informant interview guide. Multi-Criteria analysis was used to assess the sustainability of water points and inferential statistical analysis such as Chi square tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine if there were significant differences on selected variables across districts and types of lifting devices used in the study area. The thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results show that most water points were not functional and only 17% across the districts were found to be sustainable. A fusion of social, technical, financial, environmental and institutional factors was found to be influencing sustainability. On technical factors the ANOVA results show that the type of lifting device fitted at a water point significantly influences sustainability (F = 37.4, p planning stage of water projects was also found to be critical for sustainability although field results showed passive participation by communities at this critical project stage. Financial factors of adequacy of financial contributions and establishment of operation and maintenance funds were also found to be of great importance in sustaining water supply systems. It is recommended that all factors should be considered when assessing sustainability since they are interrelated.

  6. What Can Rural Communities Do to Be Sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC was founded in 1965, various reports have been presented to summarize the progress in terms of economic development, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats among studied communities in the Appalachian region. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1 the condition and usage of facilities and services in the studied communities; (2 what factors contribute to local growth in improving areas; and (3 what barriers deter growth in the studied communities based on the perceptions of study participants. Ten studied counties were categorized based on their topography, demographics, and economics. Each sub-region has two selected counties (non-distressed and distressed to represent and compare their similar topography and various stages of demographic opportunities and economic development and challenges. Location is recognized as one of the significant factors that affect communities’ development. Counties perform better when they are adjacent to urban areas, own major transportation corridors, and have more supplies of natural resources than those located in more rural areas with fewer resources. This study noted the need to improve communication infrastructure (such as Internet access, broadband, and mobile communications that impact local development opportunities and public safety.

  7. Urban Land Expansion and Sustainable Land Use Policy in Shenzhen: A Case Study of China’s Rapid Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Shenzhen is a city that is highly representative of China’s rapid urbanization process. As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources. This paper introduces the evolution of urban land expansion and the sustainable land use policy of the Shenzhen Government since 2005. The policy covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban redevelopment, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems that are unique to China. The current top-down indicative and mandatory mode of control, which relies on the central government, has very limited effects. Good results were achieved in Shenzhen for the following elements: governmental self-restraint, governmental identity change, and policy innovation. Shenzhen’s sustainable land use practices can provide a reference for other cities in China.

  8. Attaining Sustainable Rural Infrastructure through the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Datta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA 2005, with its rights-based approach through a time-bound employment guarantee and legal framework, has marked a paradigm shift not only from other wage-employment programmes hitherto pursued in India, but also from neo-liberal reforms undertaken since 1991. The Act came into force on 2 February 2006 and was implemented in a phased manner. In Phase I it was introduced in 200 of the most backward districts of the country; Phase II added another 130 districts in 2007-08; and in Phase III the scheme was further extended to the remaining 274 rural districts of India from 1 April 2008.

  9. Sustainable Administrative Reform Movements Policy in Joko Widodo's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Suprayogi Sugandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Joko Widodo (Jokowi is a leader that is widely expected to transform Indonesia into a better country. Hopes and wishes were rising when he was elected as the president of Indonesia. This paper will describe various innovations undertaken before and after his presidential inauguration as well as the assorted innovations made in reforming the administration of his cabinet. As the president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo is required to realize the aspirations of the people in freeing the government from corruption, collusion, and nepotism. The management of ministerial and non-ministerial institutions becomes the very first crucial issue undertaken by Joko Widodo. This led to a polemic in regards to reducing or increasing the number of institutions, as the Jokowi administration actually increased the amount. In Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's administration, several policies were made systematically and based on legislations that had been approved by the lagislature. Joko Widodo's administration in more partial in nature. The administrative reform program that is highly anticipated is the continuation of the Public Service Act. This law is a step forward from the administrative reform program that aims at the creation of good governance. Changes is career path, salary system, pension and benefits for civil servants, performance-based staffing are various efforts of sustainability carried out by Joko Widodo's administration.

  10. Investigation of Sustainable Energy Policy: Nairobi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengyuan, Y.; Habiyaremye, J. F. L.; Yingying, W.

    2017-07-01

    A plan for actively achieving green energy obligation is a strategic tool for policies that point forward the diminution of the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) in conformity with the Paris environment-friendly accords (COP21) and updates of other ecosystem agreements. To achieve the concrete implementation of the sustainable energy strategy (SES) and to accomplish its objectives, an investigation is a critical factor. SES investigation has to consider both the advancement of each particular action and its wide-ranging green effect, which necessitates multiple levels of improvement. In this study, a consolidated eco strategy for evaluating, monitoring and handling the SES via investigation and execution process is established. The city of Nairobi was used as one of the geographical positions to test the effectiveness of this approach and to investigate its robust and weak points. Specifically, benefit-cost analysis, reliability, peer review and general level of participation were renowned as vital tools for attaining a functional SES investigation and for then drafting successful energy guidelines. Some suggestions were put forward to highlight the research and execution methods and to draw a road map of how SES can be strategically placed into practice.

  11. Sustaining the Drone Enterprise: How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-17

    Sustaining the Drone Enterprise How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force Major Kiel M. Martin, Ph.D...CT 06510 Abstract The Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), colloquially labeled the “ drone ,” has become iconic of American military campaigns this...Sustaining the Drone Enterprise: How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force’ informed policy decisions by the Office of

  12. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  13. Assessment of SIP Buildings for Sustainable Development in Rural China Using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libiao Bai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional rural residential construction has the problems of high energy consumption and severe pollution. In general, with sustainable development in the construction industry, rural residential construction should be aimed towards low energy consumption and low carbon emissions. To help achieve this objective, in this paper, we evaluated four different possible building structures using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis, which consists of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Grey Correlation Analysis. The four structures included the traditional and currently widely used brick and concrete structure, as well as structure insulated panels (SIPs. Comparing the performances of economic benefit and carbon emission, the conclusion that SIPs have the best overall performance can be obtained, providing a reference to help builders choose the most appropriate building structure in rural China.

  14. Assessment of SIP Buildings for Sustainable Development in Rural China Using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Libiao; Wang, Hailing; Shi, Chunming; Du, Qiang; Li, Yi

    2017-10-25

    Traditional rural residential construction has the problems of high energy consumption and severe pollution. In general, with sustainable development in the construction industry, rural residential construction should be aimed towards low energy consumption and low carbon emissions. To help achieve this objective, in this paper, we evaluated four different possible building structures using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis, which consists of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Grey Correlation Analysis. The four structures included the traditional and currently widely used brick and concrete structure, as well as structure insulated panels (SIPs). Comparing the performances of economic benefit and carbon emission, the conclusion that SIPs have the best overall performance can be obtained, providing a reference to help builders choose the most appropriate building structure in rural China.

  15. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  16. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    -closure monitoring program implementation and financing. Apart from the Mining Law, the Government Decision, which transposes EU Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries, as well as Government Emergency Ordinance, which implements the requirements of EU Directive 2004/35/CE on environmental liability, requests financial guarantees for waste facilities maintenance and for environment restoration in the case of pollution, respectively. In practice, there are problems in the calculation of the financial guarantee and the development of financial security instruments and markets as required by Directive, due to the lack of expertise in financial, economic and liability matters. Mining companies are usually not required to set up a special guarantee for the waste facilities, but only to set up and maintain the financial guarantee regulated under the Mining Law. Romania - because of the structure of its mining sector - has serious environmental legacies, a lack of funds for their restoration and the need to strengthen the administrative capacity in this area, as well as the important tasks on harmonization and/or implementation of the EU mining waste legislation. This work is presented within the framework of SUSMIN project. Key words : sustainable development, waste management, policy

  17. Window of opportunity--positioning food and nutrition policy within a sustainability agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Heather

    2008-04-01

    Public health professionals have an opportunity to refocus national attention on food and nutrition policy, within a sustainability agenda. A broadly based national Food and Nutrition Policy was developed in 1992. However, its implementation has been selective and primarily based within the health sector. Other major policy areas, for example; industry, agriculture and trade, have dominated Australian nutrition and health policy. A broad, whole-of-government commitment to a comprehensive food and nutrition policy that engages with the community is required to achieve outcomes in terms of public health, a sustainable environment and viable food production for future generations.

  18. Information, public policy analysis and sustainable development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and public policy analysis are critical factors in adequate public policy formulation, implementation and evaluation if the public good is to be achieved in Nigeria. This paper has carried out a critical examination of the interface between information and the public policy process and the effect on public policy ...

  19. Research on Climate Change Policies and Rural Development in Latin America: Scope and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Locatelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change policies can contribute to policy development by building an understanding of the barriers faced in policy processes, and by providing knowledge needed throughout policy cycles. This paper explores the thematic coverage of research on climate change policies related to rural areas, rural development, and natural resource management in Latin America. A three-tier framework is proposed to analyse the selected literature. The results show that research studies have focussed on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from forests, and adaptations to climate change in agriculture. There is little policy research on other vulnerable sectors (e.g., water and health and emitting sectors (e.g., energy and industry in the context of rural development. Our analysis highlights the various research gaps that deserve increased scientific attention, including: cross-sector approaches, multi-level governance, and the stages of policy adoption, implementation and evaluation. In addition, the selected literature has a limited contribution to theoretical discussions in policy sciences.

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE, VARIABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ZIMBABWE'S RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gukurume Simbarashe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural productivity in the communal area of Bikita. The article further examines the adaptation and mitigation strategies devised by farmers to deal with the vagaries of climate change and variability. The sustainability of these is also interrogated in this article. This study juxtaposed qualitative and quantitative methodologies albeit with more bias on the former. A total of 40 farmers were sampled for unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. This article argues that the adverse impacts of climate change and variability are felt heavily by the poor communal farmers who are directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood. From the study, some of the widely reported signs of climate variability in Bikita included late and unpredictable rains, high temperatures (heat waves, successive drought, shortening rainfall seasons and seasonal changes in the timing of rainfall. The paper argues that climate change has compounded the vulnerability of peasant farmers in the drought - prone district of Bikita plunging them into food insecurity and abject poverty. It emerged in the study that some of effects of climate variability felt by communal farmers in Bikita included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields, all of which have led to declining agricultural productivity. Findings in this study however established that communal farmers have not been passive victims of the vagaries of climate change and variability. They have rationally responded to it through various adaptation and mitigation strategies both individually and collectively.

  1. Social Farming in the Promotion of Social-Ecological Sustainability in Rural and Periurban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina García-Llorente

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are facing a spectrum of landscape changes and vulnerability as a consequence of financial and environmental crises. Innovative approaches are required to maintain the provision of social services and manage ecosystem services in these areas. We explore the capacity of social farming to create viable and sustainable rural and periurban areas according to a social-ecological perspective. We use the key elements of social-ecological systems under social farming practices to analyse (1 the role of local communities and non-formal institutions; (2 the involvement of target stakeholders; and (3 the explicit connection between agroecosystems and human wellbeing. To do so, we selected and described four cases of local social farming initiatives in terms of the key elements of social-ecological systems and conducted a literature review to provide an overview of the explicit impact of social farming on the quality of life. We found that social farming illustrates hybrid governance solutions beyond market instruments that could be applied for the governance of agroecosystems. It can also provide a range of other wellbeing and cultural ecosystem services to rural and urban inhabitants. Greater cooperation between social farming and ecosystem service science could rebound in rural landscape sustainability.

  2. The use of fiscal instruments in sustainable building policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Although progressive government guidelines and knowledge about sustainable building exist, sustainability measures are not adopted in large scale. Several barriers have been identified, especially the perceived costs of implementing environmental management and the lack of market demand. The choice

  3. Establishing Priorities for Sustainable Environmental Design in the Rural Villages of Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pitts

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses sustainable rural village development in China. Rural development is unlike the process of urbanization in Chinese cities and reflects different land ownership rules and different organizational structures. Even though there are an increasing number of Chinese residents in cities, there are still more than 600 million people living in the countryside. The attention lavished on city development has been, in part, now refocused to rural villages. Since 2006, the support for large-scale investment in the countryside has created much change; however, not all of this change is well organized, with potential for less than optimum impacts on the environment and sustainability. The paper identifies the key influences and drivers from historic and contemporary points of view. The sustainability of the villages will derive from long-term self-sufficiency, and this must include the understanding of environmental design principles, which enable suitable dwelling design. Two villages are taken as contrasting examples, and information derived from other sources is discussed. Technologies and techniques that can help determine environmental design priorities are evaluated and directions for future development suggested. This includes development of a design support aid with key drivers of: orientation and site location, window design and key construction features.

  4. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  5. Evaluation on community tree plantations as sustainable source for rural bioenergy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, U. J.; Narendra, B. H.; Suryana, J.; Siregar, C. A.; Weston, C.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia has forest plantation resources in rural areas far from the national electricity grid that have potential as feedstock for biomass based electricity generation. Although some fast growing tree plantations have been established for bioenergy, their sustainability has not been evaluated to date. This research aimed to evaluate the growth of several tree species, cultivated by rural communities in Jawa Island, for their sustainability as a source for bio-electricity. For each tree species the biomass was calculated from diameter and height measurements and an estimate made for potential electricity generation based on density of available biomass and calorific content. Species evaluated included Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. crasicarpa, Anthocephalus cadamba, Calliandra calothirsus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Falcataria moluccana, Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucochephala and Sesbania grandiflora. Among these species Falcataria moluccana and Anthocephalus cadamba showed the best potential for bioenergy production, with up to 133.7 and 67.1 ton/ha biomass respectively, from which 160412 and 80481 Kwh of electricity respectively could be generated. Plantations of these species could potentially meet the estimated demand for biomass feedstock to produce bioenergy in many rural villages, suggesting that community plantations could sustainably provide much needed electricity.

  6. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  7. Rail travel: Conceptualizing a study on slow tourism approaches in sustaining rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Noor Farah Atiqah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transportation in Peninsular Malaysia is a popular transportation mode for locals to return to their hometown but is not frequently used as the mode of transport when travelling for holidays. Rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia have immense opportunity to be promoted as a popular tourism destination without the need of intense modern development. Using train rather than taking a car or a bus would endorse the concept of slowness during travel enabling tourists to enjoy the time taken to travel rather than rushing to travel to a destination. Encouragement of travelling by rail to the rural towns will enable improved utilization of the existing rail network and further uplift the travel appeal to rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia. In order to promote the concept of slow tourism that would benefit the rural towns’ sustainability, the perception of tourists on travelling slowly by train should first be understood and taken for consideration. A qualitative methodology of in depth interviews with domestic and international tourists whom have travel on trains to the rural towns will be conducted.

  8. The Local Beneath the National and Global - Institutional Education, Credentialed Natural Resource Management (NRM) and Rural Community (Un) Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of strategies for national and global outcomes has in some instances left rural community resources and practices devalued and disturbed and rural people demoralised with the result that local community sustainability has been compromised. Formal education in Australia is about many things, but is rarely sympathetic towards…

  9. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Members of the Eastern Africa Agricultural Economics Society receive the Journal as part of the membership. Orders for individual copies of the journal and changes of address of subscribers should be addressed to: The Office of the Editor, Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development, Department of Agricultural Economics ...

  10. Educational Policy and Rural Re-development in Post-industrial Society: The Case of the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Walter L.

    Recent emphasis on industrial and urban development is described as a factor contributing to the greatly accelerated flight from the land. The concept of rural redevelopment is examined along with educational policy changes needed for rural redevelopment. The author's stated opinion is that rural redevelopment in the United States and other…

  11. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude-action, value-action or knowledge-action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio-ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio-ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio-ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local

  12. Modeling rural landowners' hunter access policies in East Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brett A.; Fesenmaier, Daniel R.

    1988-03-01

    Private landowners in East Texas, USA, were aggregated into one of four policy categories according to the degree of access allowed to their lands for hunting. Based on these categories, a logistic regression model of possible determinants of access policy was developed and probabilities of policy adoption were calculated. Overwhelmingly, attitudes toward hunting as a sport, incentives, and control over the actions of hunters were most predictive of landowners' policies. Additionally, the availability of deer was found to be negatively correlated with access, thereby suggesting management efforts to increase deer populations may be counter to increasing access. Further, probabilities derived from the model indicated that there was almost a 7 in 10 chance (0.66) that landowners would adopt policies commensurate with allowing family and personal acquaintances to hunt on their property. However, the probability of increasing access beyond this level, where access was provided for the general public, dropped off drastically to less than 5% (0.04).

  13. Mapping of Policies Shaping the Agenda within Health and Sustainability Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Simovska, Venka

    This paper maps the key international and national policy documents influencing work with health education/promotion and education for sustainable development within primary and lower secondary education in Denmark. This mapping will provide the foundation for further analysis of: - the ways...... in which the concepts of health and sustainability are articulated, with particular focus on stated aims, strategies and competences required for health promotion and sustainable development - the relevance of the above-mentioned conceptualizations for school-based health education/promotion and education...... for sustainable development - the transformation processes which take place when international/national policies are interpreted and put into practice at municipal and school levels...

  14. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruxandra Malina Petrescu-Mag; Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ovidiu Calin Safirescu; Mihaela Hetvary; Ioan Gheorghe Oroian; Dumitru Vâju

    2016-01-01

      Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a "Cinderella" of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life...

  15. INNOVATION POLICY IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: PROSPECTS FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila TODOROVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The future of the rural world has been the subject of much research in Europe and a large number of reports have been written on this subject. For the European Union, which aims to support rural development, it is essential to precisely define what a rural area is and even distinguish several different types of rural area. Rural areas are facing major challenges today which arise mainly from globalization, demographic change and the rural migration of young, well-trained people. Policies for rural areas aim to contribute to recognizing and making use of strengths and opportunities. Innovations have a direct influence on the level of welfare and satisfaction of each rural citizen and whole society. EU policies concerning innovations are aimed at transforming the European Union into a leading economy based on knowledge.

  16. Globalisation, rural restructuring and health service delivery in Australia: policy failure and the role of social work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2007-05-01

    The impacts of globalisation and rural restructuring on health service delivery in rural Australia have been significant. In the present paper, it is argued that declining health service access represents a failure of policy. Rural communities across the world are in a state of flux, and Australia is no different: rural communities are ageing at faster rates than urban communities and young people are out-migrating in large numbers. During the past 5 years, rural Australia has also experienced a severe and widespread drought that has exacerbated rural poverty, and impacted on the health and well-being of rural Australians. Australian governments have responded to globalising forces by introducing neoliberal policy initiatives favouring market solutions and championing the need for self-reliance among citizens. The result for rural Australia has been a withdrawal of services at a time of increased need. This paper addresses the social work response to these changes.

  17. Analysis and Relevant Policy Research for Transport Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Guoli; Zhao, Zhao

    2003-01-01

    While it is an inevitable request of social economic development to establish a sustainable transport system, current transport developmental mode has a lot of contradictions with the sustainable principle. Transport is an industry with obvious externalities. Consequently, its negative influence on the development of economy and society will be more and more remarkable if we make no adjustment of the current system. This paper discussed the influence and function of establishing a sustainable...

  18. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how

  19. Rural print media portrayal of secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, Donald W; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Amundsen, Shelby J; Lee, Erin; Riker, Carol A; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the print media portrays secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy in rural communities. Baseline print media clips from an ongoing 5-year study of smoke-free policy development in 40 rural communities were analyzed. The authors hypothesized that community population size would be positively associated with media favorability toward smoke-free policy. Conversely, pounds of tobacco produced and adult smoking prevalence would be negatively associated with media favorability. There was a positive correlation between population size and percentage of articles favorable toward smoke-free policy. The authors did not find a correlation between adult smoking or tobacco produced and media favorability toward smoke-free policy, but we did find a positive relationship between tobacco produced and percentage of pro-tobacco articles and a negative relationship between adult smoking prevalence and percentage of articles about health/comfort. Implications for targeting pro-health media in rural communities as well as policy-based initiatives for tobacco control are discussed.

  20. THE HOUSING SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN THE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stolarska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The basic research material comprised empirical data on household budgets conducted by CSO (The Central Statistical Offi ce. The analysed housing conditions of 15 742 rural households in 2012 in Poland. Attention is paid to some households in poor housing situation. Diversity of housing situation and factors affecting this state of affairs is presented. We observe not only the diversity of household wealth, but there are also disparities in housing situation. Disturbing and contrary to the principles of sustainable development and sustainable consumption is the fact that there are signifi cant differences in the size (10–900 m2 and quality of fl ats. Some have more than one house, others are not able to meet their basic needs. Until 13% fl ats of rural households had leaky roofs, damp walls or rotting windows and fl oors. Nearly 1.3% of them also was too tight and located in an area with a low level of infrastructure. It was associated with poor revenue situation, but also the type of the main source of income, family situation and who was the owner of the apartment. Approx. 1.4% of the fl ats had no running water, and almost 18% were heated using heating furnaces, which are not only a nuisance in operation, but also emit carbon dioxide harmful to the environment. Some rural households (5% had credit, but they have better fi nancial situation than others.

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURIST PRODUCT IN ROMANIACASE STUDY GORJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMȚU Liviu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of rural tourism as a tourism branch meets all requirements of sustainable development considering that can be touched all three pillars of this type of development: economic development, social development, environmental protection. In recent years rural tourism has benefited of sustainable development approaches, like other tourist product, unfortunately more in economically developed countries than in less developed countries such as Romania. A balanced development can be ensured through planning and zoning land to allow adapted development for tourism to the capacity of ecosystems. Any equipment or infrastructure item that is done at community level is a potential incentive for local development. Natural and human environment will become more active, stimulating local people to conserve natural monuments, archaeological sites, historical buildings and remains as important resources for economic growth and social welfare of local communities. The setting up of the tourist village typology is based on the highlighting of the specific of the rural localities, their classification within the tourist area of Romania, on a few fundamental types. From the theoretical point of view, the issue of the tourist villages typology could be optionally approached, but its application represents a necessary solution for the determination of the tourist features to be applied.

  2. Rural Sanctuaries as ‘Smart Destinations’ – Sustainability Concerns (Mazovia Region, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlikowska-Piechotka Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this paper is to present and discuss the factors that need to be taken into account to ensure that the development and management of religious tourism at rural sites was sustainable from an economic, environmental and socio-cultural point of view. Among other issues, sustainable religious tourism means accessibility to the sanctuaries, protection of cultural and heritage values of the local community, benefits for the local residents and meaningful experience for visitors. Authors were especially interested in the less popular, more remotely located holy sites in Mazovia Region (Poland and two concerns: readiness to respond the needs of persons with different disabilities and local community opinion on tourists. As was documented by our research outcomes despite the recent numerous improvements, the most popular rural sanctuaries in Mazovia Region, remain only partially accessible for persons with disabilities. As masses of pilgrims have a significant effect on wellbeing and everyday life quality of residents (contributing both to positive and to negative effects, those who accept that tourists are important for economic development, benefit from it, creating ‘smart host area’. These rural communities which are not knowledgeable about positive impacts – see only negative consequences.

  3. Anticipating change : sustainable water policy pathways for an uncertain future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2013-01-01

    Water management should preferably bring solutions that sustain even if conditions change. In anticipating change, a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social targets, but it should also be robust to uncertainty and able to be adapted over time to (unforeseen)

  4. Sustainable Consumption: A Theoretical and Environmental Policy Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.

    2003-01-01

    Within environmental social sciences, the authors believe that the analysis of sustainable production should be complemented by bringing in issues of sustainable consumption and lifestyles. It is possible to place a stronger emphasis on consumption issues without lapsing into the socio-psychological

  5. Sustainable production and consumption in a regional policy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main challenges regions face in sustainable development is changing their production and consumption patterns. This paper focuses on the role of regional government in sustainable production and consumption polices, one of the specific topics in the framework of the European Regional

  6. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY POLICY INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT “SEPIA” - Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    LAES, Eric; COUDER, Johan; VERBRUGGEN, Aviel; EGGERMONT, Gilbert; HUGE, Jean; MAES, Fré; MESKENS, Gaston; RUAN, Da; SCHROEDER, Jantine; Jacquemain, Marc; Italiano, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The report summarizes a 3 years research program aimed at developping long term sustainable scenarios for Belgian the energy system. The research included expert participation, stakeholders assessment, quantitative modelling and fuzzy-logic analysis of the assessments. It produced three scenarios for a sustainable energy system in Belgium 2050.

  7. Soil Degradation, Policy Intervention and Sustainable Agricultural Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasmal, J.; Weikard, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural growth in developing countries is jeopardized by soil degradation consequent upon intensive cultivation and use of increasing doses of chemical inputs. To pave the way to sustainable agricultural growth we develop a model that incorporates organic fertilizer into the

  8. State Primary Stroke Center Policies in the US: Rural Health Issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slade, C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Rho, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between state primary stroke center (PSC) designation policy implementation and access to optimal stroke care for residents of rural areas. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected during the period September 2008–August 2009. Following content

  9. Rural development policy in Egypt towards 2025 : targeted conditional income support: a suitable option?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.; Vullings, L.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    This report is the final output of the project “Policy towards dynamic rural area in Egypt” (BO-10-006-115) financed by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality. Project purposes 2007 are: Advice to the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation on preservation of

  10. EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas, 2nd rev. ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, A.J.; Meester, G.; Silvis, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in Member States. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and

  11. 75 FR 42760 - Office of Rural Health Policy; Statement of Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Office of Rural Health Policy; Statement of... and Human Services, delegated to the Administrator, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

  12. Abstracts: Proceeding of National Seminar on "Integrated Rural Development and Management: Issues, Strategies and Policy Options"

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous; Das, Prakash Kanti; Mallick, Amal Kumar; Dutta, Amitava; Goswami, Rupak; Md. Nasim ALI

    2010-01-01

    This document is a collection of 157 abstracts received during the National Seminar on "Integrated Rural Development and Management: Issues, Strategies and Policy Options" held at the IRDM Faculty Centre of Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University during 17-18 December, 2010

  13. A Global Review of Sustainable Construction Project Financing: Policies, Practices, and Research Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Shan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing investment in sustainable development over the past decade, a systematic review of sustainable construction project financing is lacking. The objectives of this paper are to conduct a systematic review to examine the policies, practices, and research efforts in the area of sustainable construction project financing, and to explore the potential opportunities for the future research. To achieve these goals, this paper first reviewed the sustainable construction project financing practices implemented by four representative developed economies including the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, and Australia. Then, this paper reviewed the efforts and initiatives launched by three international organizations including the United Nations, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and International Finance Corporation. After that, this paper reviewed the research efforts of sustainable construction project financing published in peer-review journals and books. This paper identified four major research themes within this area, which are the review of financial stakeholders and market of sustainable construction, benefits and barriers to sustainable construction project financing, financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects, innovative models and mechanisms for sustainable construction project financing. Additionally, this paper revealed five directions for the future research of sustainable construction project financing, which are the identification of financial issues in sustainable construction projects, the investigation of financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects in terms of their strengths, limitations, and performances, the examination of critical drivers for implementing sustainable construction project financing, the development of a knowledge-based decision support system for implementing sustainable construction financing, and the development of best practices for

  14. (Im-)Mobile policies: Why sustainability went wrong in the 2014 Olympics in Sochi

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a tripartite framework of transportation, transformation and translation to conceptualise the circulation, mutation and impacts of mobile policies as translocal, socio-material networks. Drawing on material from semi-structured interviews, participant observation and documents it considers the value of this framework by examining the mobility of the sustainability agenda of the Winter Olympic Games 2014 in Sochi, Russia. The paper shows how sustainability policies were pac...

  15. Securing Communal Land Rights to Achieve Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Critical Analysis and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Andrew Clarke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of sustainable development gains increasing traction under international law, effective and scalable policies to translate these principles into practice remain largely beyond reach. This article analyses one possible strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa - increasing security of communal tenure to improve resource management and achieve rural sustainable development. Although this approach has attracted some attention, particularly with management responsibility of communal property increasingly devolved to the community-level, the expected results in terms of more sustainable resource exploitation and sounder environmental management have yet to be realised. Through critical analysis, with particular emphasis on the Gestion Terroir approach in Burkina Faso , the article explores the reasons behind the limited success. The article suggests that greater emphasis must be placed on bridging statutory command-and-control regimes with community-based models. Focusing on the links between communal land tenure and environmental management, and effectively embedding community land management institutions within existing environmental governance structures offers a practical model to promote sustainable development.

  16. Some use—Little influence? On the roles of indicators in European sustainable transport policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2013-01-01

    transport agenda. The first case concerns indicators tracking the fulfillment of national transport policy objectives in Sweden. The case explores the use and influence of an annual monitoring and evaluation report produced for this purpose, within a general ‘Management-by-Objectives’ regime. The second......The paper focuses on the use and influence of indicators in European sustainable transport policy from a ‘knowledge utilization’ research point of view. The starting point is the contrast between the widely held idea that indicators are important tools for sustainable transport policy making......, versus ‘knowledge utilization’ oriented research, which has often demonstrated that formal technical knowledge is used much less, or at least differently, than expected in policy and decision making.The paper looks at two cases of indicators applied for strategic policy making within the sustainable...

  17. Between Urban and Rural: Sustainability of Small Towns in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishar Antonín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the position of small towns in the Czech settlement system. It deals with the definition of small towns, their geographical positions, demographic characteristics and functions in the national settlement system. A typology of small towns aimed at individual pillars of their sustainability is one of the results of the paper. The article discusses the position of small towns as part of the urban world and their position as a part of the countryside. It concludes that small towns are functionally important as rural centres. However, differences between urban and rural seem to be less important than differences among individual types of the Czech countryside (suburban, intermediate, inner periphery, borderland.

  18. China's New Rural Income Support Policy: Impacts on Grain Production and Rural Income Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of agricultural tax abolition and direct income payments to grain farmers on grain production and rural inequality in China. To separate the impact of the income support measures from recent price trends for grains and inputs, and to account for differences in

  19. Systemic Analysis of Food Supply and Distribution Systems in City-Region Systems—An Examination of FAO’s Policy Guidelines towards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Armendáriz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.

  20. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971),in the Meadows report (1972) and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987). The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In...

  1. Sustainability in architectural heritage: review of policies and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Zvonko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If sustainable development goals are to be achieved, it is necessary to consider refurbishment of architectural heritage buildings as well! As just 1% of buildings in the European Union have been built since 2006, it is essential to turn towards refurbishment of existing buildings if goals of sustainable development are to be achieved. Therefore, this article explores the ways in which sustainable development in construction is encouraged and achieved, especially concentrating on architectural heritage buildings. The idea of sustainable development revolves solely around carbon emissions, and therefore, historic buildings in Europe face the key issue of sustainability. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in reusing existing buildings through refurbishment and adaptive reuse where possible, as building reuse should offer environmental savings over demolition and new construction. In addition, despite popular belief, older buildings are capable of adapting to the new energy efficiency norms. This study explores the possibilities of encouraging complete refurbishment (including both sustainable renovation and strengthening of historical buildings by exploring incentives used in Europe, the USA, Canada and New Zealand. Based on the literature review and best practices, the article concludes with recommendations on how to increase the positive investment flow of private capital into architectural heritage buildings, thus ensuring both preservation of heritage and achievement of sustainable development goals. The findings help both the user of the initiative on gaining insight into the intervention process that can be expected, as well as the local and regional governments interested in boosting adaptive reuse and refurbishment of existing buildings in order to achieve sustainable development goals.

  2. A Mathematics Educator's Introduction to Rural Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Michael S., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the scholarship and commentary on mathematics education deals with issues of curriculum and instruction; this is understandable in a field logically belonging to the domain of curriculum and instruction. Moreover, issues of teaching and learning are compelling to people who love to learn and teach mathematics. Policy receives shorter…

  3. Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka does not have an official science and technology (S&T) policy. Investments in S&T have so far occurred on an ad-hoc basis. Nevertheless, government and research and development (R&D) institutions have ...

  4. Enacting sustainable school-based health initiatives: a communication-centered approach to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGreco, Marianne; Canary, Heather E

    2011-03-01

    Communication plays an important role in all aspects of the development and use of policy. We present a communication-centered perspective on the processes of enacting public health policies. Our proposed conceptual framework comprises 4 communication frames: orientation, amplification, implementation, and integration. Empirical examples from 2 longitudinal studies of school-based health policies show how each frame includes different communication processes that enable sustainable public health policy practices in school-based health initiatives. These 4 frames provide unique insight into the capacity of school-based public health policy to engage youths, parents, and a broader community of stakeholders. Communication is often included as an element of health policy; however, our framework demonstrates the importance of communication as a pivotal resource in sustaining changes in public health practices.

  5. Sustainability policy and effects on practices in the remediation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2012-12-01

    Land is not only a critical component of the earth's life support system, but also a precious resource and an important factor of production in economy. However, historical industrial operations have caused a huge stockpile of contaminated land that is only slowly being remediated. After several decades of clean-up efforts, there are still an estimated 294,000 contaminated sites in the US and over 300,000 hectares of potentially contaminated land in the UK. It is imperative to develop technical solutions as well as socioeconomic and political instruments to achieve sustainable restoration of contaminated land. The inclusion of sustainability in decision making provides an opportunity to integrate a wide range of considerations: risk control, brownfield regeneration, carbon footprint, water footprint, renewable energy, etc. This study explores the behavior patterns and driving forces behind sustainable practices in remediation, aiming at advancing our understanding of the fundamental relationships among changing natural and manipulated geological environments, sustainability, and technology choices. A large-scale survey is being conducted in the US and UK to study behaviour and decision making issues from a stakeholder perspective. Historically stakeholder theories have been extensively applied to study organization management issues in the academia. This study intends to apply stakeholder theories to engineering practice and sustainability science studies. Pilot test results found that sustainability considerations are widely adopted and in a wide variety of ways. Site owners and regulators are found to be most influential in the decision making process. There is no lack of incentives to adopt sustainability practices, but various factors, such as lack of resources and cost considerations, are still considered impeding factors. At the time of the 2012 AGU meeting, further results from the survey will be available.

  6. Dynamics and forecast in a simple model of sustainable development for rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, David; Angulo, Fabiola; Olivar, Gerard

    2015-02-01

    Society is becoming more conscious on the need to preserve the environment. Sustainable development schemes have grown rapidly as a tool for managing, predicting and improving the growth path in different regions and economy sectors. We introduce a novel and simple mathematical model of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in order to obtain a dynamical description for each one of the sustainability components (economy, social development and environment conservation), together with their dependence with demographic dynamics. The main part in the modeling task is inspired by the works by Cobb, Douglas, Brander and Taylor. This is completed through some new insights by the authors. A model application is presented for three specific geographical rural regions in Caldas (Colombia).

  7. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  8. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL POLICY DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia MĂNESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a new concept whose opportunities are enhancing and diversifying economic activities, enhancing investments in the private sector, contributing to unemployment reduction, and last but not least improving the standard of living. To assure the development policies in economy, agriculture, forestry, tourism, regional planning, infrastructure, and education etc., it is needed to take into account the specific conditions of the rural regions, Romanian villages and to observe the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity. In this context, the paper aimed to point out the opportunities for the development of rural communities through regional development.

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of Settlement Sustainability Policy (QESSP; Forward Planning for 26 Irish Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Fitzgerald

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasingly associated with negative environmental impacts due to concentrated resource consumption; however urban areas also offer economies of scale in terms of service provision. There is no accepted mechanism to aid decision-makers in policy selection to determine where to promote population growth or how to select settlement specific policies to improve sustainability of urban areas. There is strong political desire for methods assessing policy implementation impact on overall sustainability targets, but this has proved challenging, as views on the meaning of sustainability vary, and methods developed satisfying scientists’ needs for rigor are deemed too complex and inadequately transparent by decision-makers. Sustainability measurement is vital to check whether a new policy, decision or technical innovation is helpful in enhancing sustainability. By 2055 estimates indicate that 75 percent of the world population will live in urban areas, highlighting the importance of promoting low cost policy decisions providing greatest environmental benefit, with short implementation timescale. This paper describes an evidence-based method developed and piloted to address these drivers and provide a decision support system for planners and policy-makers developed for Irish settlements with population range 500–20,000, which may have application elsewhere.

  10. Policies to sustain the nursing workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, J; Twigg, D; Dussault, G; Duffield, C; Stone, P W

    2015-06-01

    Examine metrics and policies regarding nurse workforce across four countries. International comparisons inform health policy makers. Data from the OECD were used to compare expenditure, workforce and health in: Australia, Portugal, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Workforce policy context was explored. Public spending varied from less than 50% of gross domestic product in the US to over 80% in the UK. Australia had the highest life expectancy. Portugal has fewer nurses and more physicians. The Australian national health workforce planning agency has increased the scope for co-ordinated policy intervention. Portugal risks losing nurses through migration. In the UK, the economic crisis resulted in frozen pay, reduced employment, and reduced student nurses. In the US, there has been limited scope to develop a significant national nursing workforce policy approach, with a continuation of State based regulation adding to the complexity of the policy landscape. The US is the most developed in the use of nurses in advanced practice roles. Ageing of the workforce is likely to drive projected shortages in all countries. There are differences as well as variation in the overall impact of the global financial crisis in these countries. Future supply of nurses in all four countries is vulnerable. Work force planning is absent or restricted in three of the countries. Scope for improved productivity through use of advanced nurse roles exists in all countries. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Sustainability State” in the Making? Institutionalization of Sustainability in German Federal Policy Making

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Heinrichs; Norman Laws

    2014-01-01

    More than two decades after the Rio-conference on environment and development in 1992, sustainable development remains a big challenge. Politics and administration, especially in democratic societies, have a specific responsibility in coordinating sustainable development. In order to fulfill this role, the regulative idea of sustainability needs to be integrated into decision-making in politics and administration at all levels, from local to global. Taking this into account, we have analyzed ...

  12. Malta’s Tourism Policy: Standing Still or Advancing towards Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dodds

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available As with most warm water islands, Malta’s tourism has been historically focused towards sun, sea and sand package holidays. As a result, the ratio of visitors to locals has expanded very quickly and the strain on infrastructure from too many tourists is evident. As do other small islands, Malta also suffers from an absence of pluralism amongst the political-economic elite and a familiarity between voters and politicians, thereby creating barriers to implementing successful policies. Through an examination of how successful tourism policy implementation has been to date, this paper examines Malta’s tourism development as it relates to sustainable tourism. The paper addresses the economic, social and political implications of tourism development as well as discusses barriers to implementing a tourism policy specifically geared to sustainability. The paper concludes by providing insights into sustainable tourism policy implementation issues for other island destinations.

  13. Evaluating the Improvement of Sustainability of Sports Industry Policy Based on MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hua Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of globalization on sports has turned out to be a popular issue widely discussed by researchers. Improvement to the sustainability of sports industry policy is an important and challenging issue, and related are inherently multiple attribute decision making (MADM problems that can be strategically important to economic systems. The purpose of this study is to set up a new sustainability sports industry policy evaluation model that addresses the main causal factors and amends the priorities. A MADM model is combined with DEMATEL, DANP, and VIKOR for the evaluation and improvement of the sustainability of sports industry policy. The improvement priorities according to the domain expert interviews are in the following order: promotion and assistance of government policy (A, sports venues and facilities (D, enterprise sponsorship of sports quality (E, expert human resources (B, and finally sports competitions and events (C.

  14. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  15. Developing Policy Scenarios for Sustainable Urban Growth Management: A Delphi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Perveen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, a rapid urbanization process is taking place at an unprecedented scale, and its drastic impacts on societies and the environment are evident. To combat the externalities of such rapid, and to a degree uncontrolled, development, many cities around the globe introduced various urban growth management policies. However, policy making—to provide sustainable outcomes, while generating growth opportunities—has been a daunting task for urban administrators. To ease the task, scenario-based planning methods are introduced to produce alternative visions for managing urban growth in sustainable ways by incorporating various socio-environmental issues. However, even though modelling urban growth and associated impacts based on these scenarios have emerged to strengthen and quantify the future of urban policies and related planning actions, this process has a number of glitches. Major issues include the uncertainties associated with the selection of suitable methods to generate scenarios, identify indicators to be used to assess scenarios, evaluate scenarios to prioritize for policy formulation, and assess the impacts of policy scenarios. This paper aims to address the challenge of developing suitable policy scenarios for sustainable urban growth. As for the methodological approach, the study undertakes a thorough review of the literature and current practices, and conducts a two-round Delphi survey—involving experts from public, private and academic sectors specialized in the fields of urban planning, environmental planning, social planning, transportation modelling, and economic development. The expert driven policy scenarios are validated in a local context by comparing findings against the policy options as proposed in the South East Queensland Regional Plan 2017 (Australia. The findings offer valuable guidelines for planners, modellers, and policy makers in adopting suitable methods, indicators, and policy priorities

  16. The Wasteland Auction Policy in Northwest China: Solving Environmental Degradation and Rural Poverty? / Rural Development in Transitional China: A Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to relieve rural poverty and solve the problem of soil and water erosion on marginal land, various provinces and regions throughout China proclaimed a new policy in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This 'Four Wastelands Auction Policy' attempts to boost the development of land of low

  17. Rural credit: sustainability and the paradox of the Social and economic development of the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR AS PRUDENTE CAMPOS SOUZA VERAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that rural credit has an important role in the modernization and operation of the field by the promotion of agricultural activities, enabling the countryside social and economic development, the objective by this article, is to demonstrate that the institute in frank evolution of an earlier priority for the operation and modernization of farming techniques and pastoral seeking a higher yield, has gone up over time to have a priority for the sustainability of the field by the creation of aid programs for family agriculture and its foundations.So even if the means are temporally disjointed, it is understood that the objectives of sustainability and social economic development of the field would possess the common goal of benefiting the farmers, however, certainly there would be a paradox between them, since the rural credit is taken as the principal by agricultural expansion in 70s, as well by the fact that Brazil is now a world power in agribusiness, which also encompass the environment degradation that has occurred since then.

  18. Sustainability Policy and Sustainability in Higher Education Curricula: The Educational Developer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have investigated the views of higher education staff and students about sustainability, yet educational developer perspectives are under-represented in the research. This project gathered educational developer perspectives about sustainability in the curriculum. It sought to capture their views about a national sustainability…

  19. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, papers that explore broad themes of sustainable development such as agriculture, banking, e-commerce, environment, natural resources, public private partnerships, alternative dispute resolutions, human rights, peace, and conflict studies would be most welcome. We also welcome book reviews, case ...

  20. Pro-Poor Growth and Social Policy Approaches to Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the intriquing paradoxes for most developing countries including Nigeria is the rising rate of low human development indices. This study is a critical examination of human welfare issues and human development indices as a parameter for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper contends that one major issue ...

  1. Land Use Policies For Sustainable Development : exploring Integrated Assessment Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNeill, D.; Nesheim, I.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The urgent need to enhance sustainable development in developing countries has never been greater: poverty levels are growing, land conversions are uncontrolled, and there is rapid loss of biodiversity through land use change. This timely book highlights the need for integrated assessment tools for

  2. Creating Sustainable Industrial Clusters : How policy becomes durable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Jiao (Wenting)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIndustrial symbiosis seeks to decrease ecological impact of firms within a regional industrial system through exchanges of by-products and waste, and utility sharing. Industrial parks that seek to develop symbiotic linkages are referred to as Sustainable Industrial Clusters (SICs) in

  3. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  4. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope O. Kaaronen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective

  5. India's Proposed Universal Health Coverage Policy: Evidence for Age Structure Transition Effect and Fiscal Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Muttur Ranganathan

    2016-12-01

    India's High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage in 2011 recommended a universal, public-funded and national health coverage policy. As a plausible forward-looking macroeconomic reform in the health sector, this policy proposal on universal health coverage (UHC) needs to be evaluated for age structure transition effect and fiscal sustainability to strengthen its current design and future implementation. Macroeconomic analyses of the long-term implications of age structure transition and fiscal sustainability on India's proposed UHC policy. A new measure of age-specific UHC is developed by combining the age profile of public and private health consumption expenditure by using the National Transfer Accounts methodology. Different projections of age-specific public health expenditure are calculated over the period 2005-2100 to account for the age structure transition effect. The projections include changes in: (1) levels of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows, (2) levels and shape of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows and expenditure converges to that of developed countries (or convergence scenario) based on the Lee-Carter model of forecasting mortality rates, and (3) levels of the expenditure as India moves toward a UHC policy. Fiscal sustainability under each health expenditure projection is determined by using the measures of generational imbalance and sustainability gap in the Generational Accounting methodology. Public health expenditure is marked by age specificities and the elderly population is costlier to support for their healthcare needs in the future. Given the discount and productivity growth rates, the proposed UHC is not fiscally sustainable under India's current fiscal policies except for the convergence scenario. However, if the income elasticity of public expenditure on social welfare and health expenditure is less than one, fiscal sustainability of the UHC policy is attainable in all scenarios of projected public

  6. Desenvolvimento sustentável com perspectiva de gênero - Brasil, México e Cuba: mulheres protagonistas no meio rural Sustainable development from a gender perspective - Brazil, Mexico, and Cuba: women as protagonists in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kleba Lisboa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz para o debate as concepções de alguns autores sobre desenvolvimento sustentável e, a partir de uma pesquisa realizada em três países (Brasil, México e Cuba, ressaltamos o protagonismo das mulheres camponesas junto à produção de alimentos e ao manejo de recursos naturais; a força dos movimentos de mulheres camponesas na conquista de direitos; e a decisiva participação das mulheres na definição e propostas de políticas públicas que garantam a equidade de gênero no meio rural. Uma breve análise comparativa nos leva a deduzir que o modelo de desenvolvimento, nos três países, ainda prioriza a figura masculina no espaço agrícola, no que se refere à titularidade da terra, ao acesso à crédito e à aquisição de equipamentos ou outros recursos materiais. Sugere-se que, tanto em Cuba, um país socialista, como no México e Brasil, países capitalistas, os pressupostos das políticas sociais direcionadas para as trabalhadoras rurais devem levar em conta as necessidades básicas das mulheres camponesas para garantir um desenvolvimento mais humano e sustentávelThis article discusses different views about sustainable development, emphasizing - on the basis of a survey conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and Cuba - the role of rural women in food production and natural resource management, the strength of the rural women's movement in the conquest of rights, and the decisive participation of women in defining proposals for public policies that guarantee gender equality in rural areas. A brief comparative analysis leads us to conclude that the development model in the three countries still prioritizes the male figure in relation to land tenure, access to credit and purchase of equipment or other material resources. It is suggested that both in Cuba, a socialist country, and in Mexico and Brazil, capitalist countries, the assumptions of social policies directed to rural female workers should take into account the basic needs

  7. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... green economy, international trade, banking, taxation, public policy, public private partnerships, alternative dispute resolutions, peace, and conflict studies are normally given top consideration. The Editorial Board of the Journal comprises international development scholars and experts from Italy, United Kingdom, ...

  8. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) - Vol 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy in Ukraine: towards national eco-management · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Distributive justice and human rights in climate policy: the long road to Paris · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  9. Chinese water policy for sustainable water resources: Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most hydrological means are pretty meaningless in reality. Though the nation is not sure if it can handle such a project effectively yet, it will certainly approach it with a degree of commitment. The paper aims to build an integrated understanding of these issues and to illustrate appropriate policy directions and management ...

  10. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  11. Sustainability of community based family planning services: experience from rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, Shimeles; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane

    2006-01-01

    The important role of active Community Based Reproductive Health Services (CBRHS), formerly known us Community Based Distribution (CBD) of family planning program, in increasing contraceptive uptake has been reported from several studies. However, the sustainability of project based services has not been documented in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of community based Family planning services in rural communities of Ethiopia. The study was carried out in three sets of 30 peasant villages selected from five districts of Eastern Showa Zone in Ethiopia. Comparison was made between never former; and current CBRHS areas. Relevant information was collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The respondents were women in the reproductive age groups (15-49 years). Knowledge about contraception was higher in both former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 6.89 (4.69, 10.17) and 12.48 (7.84, 20.25)], respectively. Ever use of modern contraception was significantly greater among women from former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS communities [MH-OR (95% CI) = 3.75 (2.54, 5.97) and 5.72 (3.93, 9.39), respectively]. Current use of modern contraception methods was however significantly better only in current CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 2.42; (1.16, 5.37)]; there was no statistically significant difference with former CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 1.13; (0.51, 2.49)]. Results of this study indicate that the effect of CBRHS in raising the level of modern contraception use in rural communities is transient. In order to sustain the effects of a good community based family planning services appropriate mechanisms must be designed to motivate and enable women to continuously utilize the services.

  12. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancing sustainability of rural adobe houses of hills by addition of vernacular fiber reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adobe is a commonly used building material in rural houses of district Hamirpur of the North Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Adobe is a sustainable material but has limitations of building smaller room sizes and requires frequent maintenance which is not suitable for modern lifestyle. These become main reasons for rejection of adobe as a building material. Initial investigation comprising of water content analysis, specific gravity analysis, grain size analysis, plastic limit and liquid limit analysis, maximum dry density check reveals that soil is sand clay and its low compressive strength shall be increased for enhancing its sustainability. For this purpose, stabilization with natural fibers of Pinus roxburghii and Grewia optiva in 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% proportions is proposed. Total 360 cubical and cylindrical shaped samples of both stabilized and unstabilized compositions were prepared and tested in a laboratory according to Indian standards. Unconfined compressive strength tests and maximum Stress Carrying Capacity tests were conducted after 07 days, 14 days, 28 days, 56 days and 90 days of casting. Results reveal that compressive strength of soil increases by 131–145% with addition of fiber P. roxburghii and 225–235% with addition of fiber G. optiva for cubical and cylindrical samples respectively. Increased compressive strength also results in a reduced thickness of traditional mud walls thereby increasing internal room size which would suit to changed modern lifestyle requirements. Enhanced properties of adobe will result in wider acceptance of adobe as a building material that will make development of rural housing more sustainable on a wider scale.

  14. Sustainability as the basic principle of responsible budgetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Viktorovich Galukhin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The author touches upon rather critical issues of management of the regional budget system sustainability. The prospect to studying this issue is confirmed at the highest level – by the RF President. The article indicates that the main components of the budgets financial sustainability concept are the following: the territory’s self-sufficiency (independence, its solvency, income and expenditure balance. The swot analysis of the public finances state in the Northwestern Federal District regions has revealed lowering independence of the territories, debt burden deterioration in the post-crisis period and the unsolved problem of income and expenses imbalance. The study shows the territories’ capacity constraints to find additional financial resources, although the anti-crisis instruments of the budget process (regional reserve funds are not used in full measure. The analysis has resulted in the development of directions to stimulate the regional budget system sustainability, such as the modernization model of fiscal federalism, strengthening and development of tax potential, improving the budget expenditures efficiency and encouraging the use of regional reserve funds potential. According to the author, the timeliness of these measures is to be achieved through continuous financial situation monitoring in the RF subjects

  15. Three decades of policy layering and politically sustainable reform in the European Union's agricultural policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions are introdu......The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions...... dynamics that can result in lasting reform trajectories. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has changed substantially over the last three decades in response to emerging policy concerns by adding new layers. This succession of reforms proved durable and resilient to reversal in the lead......-up to the 2013 CAP reform when institutional and political circumstances changed....

  16. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzina, Tatyana; Egorova, Natalia; Zaruba, Natalia; Kosinskij, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism) providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  17. Land use policies and practices for reducing vulnerability in rural Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Zvi; Wolfgramm, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Tajikistan, with 93% of its surface area taken up by mountains and 65% of its labor force employed in agriculture, is judged to be highly vulnerable to risks, including climate change risks and food insecurity risks. The article examines a set of land use policies and practices that can be used to mitigate the vulnerability of Tajikistan’s large rural population, primarily by increasing family incomes. Empirical evidence from Tajikistan and other CIS countries suggests that families with more...

  18. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  19. New Approaches to Revitalise Rural Economies and Communities – Reflections of a Policy Analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Janet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Looking ahead, rural Europe faces significant challenges. Some of these are long-term and will require major adaptation, such as climate change, increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the ageing indigenous population. Others are medium-term and subject to political uncertainty, such as economic stagnation and unemployment, pressures from in-migration, and constrained public finances. Markets appear likely to continue to encourage conventional farm modernisation and capitalization, but these may increase, rather than resolve, rural problems and tensions. Seen through an ecological lens, conventional patterns of development decrease rural social, environmental and economic resilience, and yet this is becoming increasingly important. New approaches are needed which can work with global and local processes to maintain rural diversity, quality and community: key factors in resilience-building. Interesting tactics may involve increasing local capacity to act, stimulating new local products, services and markets and new forms of pluri-activity. Business profitability and productivity will remain central, but can be realised in a variety of unconventional ways. Some examples and approaches are briefly presented and some general lessons identified for the new Rural Development Policy and Programmes, 2014–2020.

  20. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  1. Assessing the Economic, Environmental and Social Sustainability of Biofuel Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels started to raise interest almost 40 years ago, when the Arab oil embargo pushed oil prices up and therefore spurred the research towards new forms of energy. Nevertheless, biofuel production has not really taken off until recently, when the combination of high oil prices, concern about greenhouse gas emissions, and the progressive reduction of oil reserves induced many countries across the world to implement policies encouraging biofuels production. At the beginning of the 2000s, ...

  2. Paradigms of global climate change and sustainable development: Issues and related policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Combating climate change is intimately linked with peace and resource equity. Therefore, critical link establishment between climate change and sustainable development is extremely relevant in global scenario. Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, the international sustainable development agenda was taken up by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD; the climate change agenda was carried forward by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. International and local climate change mitigation policies need to be assessed based on sustainability criteria. The increasing concern over climate change drives towards the search of solutions enabling to combat climate change into broader context of sustainable development. The core element of sustainable development is the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns in policy-making. Therefore, article also analyzes post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes and their impact on sustainable development. Wide range of post- Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures has different impact on different groups of countries. Nevertheless, there are several reasons for optimism that sustainable consumption patterns might develop. One is the diversity of current consumption patterns and the growing minority concerned with ethical consumption. Another is the growing understanding of innovation processes, developed to address technological change, but applicable to social innovation. A third reason is the growing reflexivity of communities and institutions.

  3. Social Technology as a Sustainable Public Policy: The Mandalla Project in Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Souza Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation in semi-arid Northeast has been a great challenge for the Brazilian government. The need to generate employment and income, justifies the establishment of productive activities competitive and covering the dimensions of sustainability. In this context, there is the movement of Social Technology (ST, aimed at social inclusion and development through the appropriation of simple technologies, inexpensive and consolidated in the culture of the community benefit. As a public policy of the government of Ceará, appeared the Mandalla Project, using irrigated agriculture and agribusiness production system, which includes the creation of small animals from natural methods. This study aims to analyze the ST Mandalla as a public policy that promotes sustainable development. The results show that this technology, contributes significantly to the sustainable development of semi-arid and improving the quality of life of communities served when examined against the dimensions of Sustainable Development model of Sachs (2002.

  4. Can Joint Forest Management Programme Sustain Rural Life: A Livelihood Analysis from Community-based Forest Management Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nimai

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study assesses the impact of community-based initiative under gender sensitive joint forest management (JFM) programme on sustainable rural livelihoods (SRL) across the socio-economic groups of forest fringe community based on JFM and non-JFM villages. The study suggests that strong livelihood sustainability criteria within the SRL framework meets for all marginal landholding and landless categories of households, which live below poverty line and that are almost dependent on f...

  5. Policy Brief: Engagement with Sustainability Concerns in Public Procurement in India: Why and How

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Anandajit; Diljun, Gaurang Meher; Scrivastava, Nidhi

    2013-08-15

    A major part of the Indian GDP is spent on public procurement. Owing to large spending on procurement, Indian public sector can push towards a process of sustainable production and consumption through sustainable public procurement. Once such a process is implemented with specific contexts, it can create social, economic and environmental benefits. With this background, the policy brief explores why there is a need to promote sustainable public procurement within India. Further, it highlights how such a procurement process can be implemented within India by drawing from international experiences. This policy brief charts out an action plan to implement the procurement process with an analysis of roles and responsibilities of different agencies involved in the implementation. While laying down this action plan, the brief also indicates about the existing status of sustainable public procurement in India. Therefore, this policy brief creates a way forward for public sector agencies, policy and decision makers to implement sustainable public procurement within India by understanding the current context of the issue within the nation and abroad.

  6. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-10-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  7. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...... environmental problems, energy security concerns and dangerous climate change. This review explores a systematic approach to describe interactions documented in the literature, between policies targeting energy use in road passenger transport to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development....

  8. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of culture in relation to policy-making and planning activities, exemplified through a discussion on how it may influence sustainable transport policy and planning. It is recognised that discourses and institutions play an essential part in framing problems...... and solutions, however an improved understanding of barriers and potentials in policy and planning deliberation is likely to be reached if underlying layers of values and perceptions are considered and illuminated more explicitly. Culture is also changeable, which means that it becomes relevant for policy...... and barriers. In conclusion, a culture focus recognises diversity inside and outside normal policy and planning settings and procedures and attempts to bring different cultures to interact and to learn from each other. A transport policy-making and planning process based in a culture approach may illuminate...

  9. Marketing mix for rural development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLGÁR (DESZKE Klára-Dalma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development supposes a uniformly increasing of living level for the entire population of a nation. The reducing of disparities between the urban and rural regions is a purpose of the rural development policy, as a part of Community Agriculture Policy and also subject of European financing programs. A marketing approach of rural development could ensure an integrated implementation of LEADER program in Romania. This paper defines the components of marketing mix for rural development and their content for Romanian rural development marketing.

  10. Linking sustainable use policies to novel economic incentives to stimulate antibiotic research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Theuretzbacher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong

  11. Developing a sustainable autogas market - a guide for policy-makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In meeting the increasing demands for more environmentally friendly automotive fuels, the role of policy-makers is critical. This Guide discusses the rationale for economic incentives, why auto-gas makes sense, gives examples of successful incentive programs in a variety of countries, and underscores the need for sustainable policies that encourage vehicle manufacturers and consumers to take advantage of the unique benefits of auto-gas.

  12. Linking Sustainable Use Policies to Novel Economic Incentives to Stimulate Antibiotic Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Årdal, Christine; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-03-30

    There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D) investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong sustainable use policies will

  13. Policies for sustainable development: The case of governmental agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2004-01-01

    a proactive role in continuing efforts towards a more sustainable development. The paper is based on the author's own experiences from participation in an advisory board assisting the government in the preparation of a new and green business strategy. It attempts to clarify the vision and framework...... behaviour can only be seen as a negative burden detrimental to competitiveness. In opposition to this, a new, green national enterprise strategy has been developed in Denmark. This strategy seems to challenge the traditional approach by focusing instead on the positive side of the environmental agenda...... already to some extent begun to take on a more pro-active stance towards environmental issues. This paper presents the results from empirical studies on industrial greening carried out by the author on behalf of the EU and various sponsors. The paper addresses how the present Danish government has adopted...

  14. Tourism as a factor of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Lela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at tourism as an essential component of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory. The aim of the paper is to point to the role of tourism in the integration of rural areas into the national and international economy based on the analysis of the relevant rural development model and in terms of more efficient endogenous development. The main hypothesis is that rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory have significant natural and anthropogenic resources for tourism development. However, what lacks is an integrated strategy that would contribute to sustainability and strengthening of the competitiveness of the rural economy. In accordance with the subject of the paper, its aim and the set hypotheses, qualitative, quantitative and SWOT analysis were applied during the research. A survey was conducted in order to obtain positions and feedback from the key actors involved in tourism development. The paper is organized in eight sections. The main result of the research points to the necessity of giving priority to rural tourism development as an essential component of the revitalization of villages and local communities.

  15. Analysis of the Role of Handicraft Production in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case of Sar Aqa Seyyed, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Divandari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prioritizing the Rural development is one of the fundamental concerns of the Islamic Republic of Iran that is not achieved only through the agriculture development in villages of Iran, since weakness of agricultural foundations affect the unstable ecological conditions including the shortage of agricultural fields and the lack of the increase in number of land plots under cultivation, and cannot provide the proper social and economic indices for rural development. Experiences of successful countries in the rural development show the importance of the village industrialization in creating the job opportunities and preventing the rural migration to the cities. Theory of development and industrialization of rural areas is a factor affecting the economic and social development process and may be considered as the last solution for solving the problem of poverty in the rural areas as we see its success in China through this paper. Therefore, this paper examines the role of the handicraft production in sustainable development in the Sar Aqa Seyyed village. A number of handicrafts including carpet weaving as the main handicrafts of Sar Aqa Seyyed village are still flourishing. Handicraft production and development in this village not only creates employment opportunities and income, but also can play a major role in sustainable development and the village independence.

  16. Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brisa; Vetter, Matthias [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany); Bourg, Catherine [Fondation Energies pour le Monde (France); Crehay, Romain [Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The project ''Renewable Energy Sustainable Programs for Intelligent Rural Electrifrication'' RESIREA has been looking for the creation of conditions that make possible the establishment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) markets in targeted provinces to Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. As a main result of the project, in three different selected provinces (one in each country) have been proposed villages as ''ready to implement''. The ''ready to implement'' villages are specific RET projects resulted from applying developed methodologies. One methodology is a deeply well structured cross-analysis of technical and economic parameters and the results have been integrated in a Geographical Information System GIS. Based on the least-cost methodology, off-grid biomass and photovoltaic PV power supply systems have been designed and asset for the proposed villages. In the case of PV system designs, a detailed study has been carried out by means of simulations tools and extensive field data. The PV system design looks to contribute to an ''easy scale-up'' concept for off-grid power supply systems, especially when rural communities are too diverse. Further expected benefits besides the supply of electricity services are the improvement of the living and health conditions of the populations, the stimulation of local markets for RET and economic activities. (orig.)

  17. A Life-cycle Approach to Improve the Sustainability of Rural Water Systems in Resource-Limited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Stacey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A WHO and UNICEF joint report states that in 2008, 884 million people lacked access to potable drinking water. A life-cycle approach to develop potable water systems may improve the sustainability for such systems, however, a review of the literature shows that such an approach has primarily been used for urban systems located in resourced countries. Although urbanization is increasing globally, over 40 percent of the world’s population is currently rural with many considered poor. In this paper, we present a first step towards using life-cycle assessment to develop sustainable rural water systems in resource-limited countries while pointing out the needs. For example, while there are few differences in costs and environmental impacts for many improved rural water system options, a system that uses groundwater with community standpipes is substantially lower in cost that other alternatives with a somewhat lower environmental inventory. However, a LCA approach shows that from institutional as well as community and managerial perspectives, sustainability includes many other factors besides cost and environment that are a function of the interdependent decision process used across the life cycle of a water system by aid organizations, water user committees, and household users. These factors often present the biggest challenge to designing sustainable rural water systems for resource-limited countries.

  18. The Optimization of Rural Landscape in the Light of the Idea of Sustainable Development – The Example of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobala Michał

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rural landscapes in Poland are being changed intensively and adversely. These changes lead to landscape disharmony, spatial disorder, the blurring of individual and specific features and disruption to the ecological equilibrium. This article aims to present general rules for the optimization of rural landscapes. It discusses the causes and consequences of unfavourable changes within Poland’s rural landscapes which constitute a threat to their sustainable development. The authors attempt to identify the major factors to be considered in taking steps aimed at landscape optimization. Landscape equilibrium may be assessed through the sustainable development dimensions: ethical, ecological, social, economic, technical, political and legal. Landscape optimization consists in maintaining the balance within these dimensions.

  19. SUSTAINING CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION—POLICY, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rechkemmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world that is becoming more and more exposed and vulnerable to the effects of global climate change, combining integrated risk assessment tools with effective strategies for both mitigation and adaptation is a key prerogative for policy-making. With the focus of both researchers and decision-makers gradually shifting from observing and assessing the bio-physical aspects of climate change to a more human and society centered understanding of the nature of the problem, the social, behavioral, economic and technological aspects have entered center stage of the public discourse. Responses to the climate change challenge have to establish an optimal interplay between mitigation, adaptation and socio-economic instruments. Yet, given the band-width and scale of the climate problematique and its projected impacts, very ambitious mitigation measures have to be undertaken without delays, a fact that is particularly true for emerging economies with their very rapid and unprecedented growth rates, both in GDP and GHG emissions terms. The challenge for the next years is to harmonize poverty eradication and attaining the Millenium Development Goals through stable economic growth with mitigating the effects of climate change. Therefore, “inclusive green growth” has become the motto of the day. But how can this goal be achieved? Obviously, quite fundamental changes have to be introduced that affect both the production and the consumption sectors and allow for real innovation in technologies and energy, in urban mobility, infrastructure and transportation grids. This paper illustrates the deep social and societal nature of climate change response strategies, especially in the area of mitigation, and shows that transitions to green and low-carbon economies will have to embed policies, incentive schemes and economic instruments in a larger societal context of social learning and behavioral change.

  20. Rural development in Nigera: Problems and remedies | Eteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural development in Nigeria constitutes a fundamental problem. Over the years, rural development has been neglected. Rural areas are regarded as abodes of diseases, superstition, poverty, lethargy, low income and low productivity. This problem, which is primarily due to government non sustainable policy action ...

  1. A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Karen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

  2. Sustainability of Fiscal Policy in Democracies and Autocracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wurster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to identify the fiscal sustainability record of democratically and autocratically governed countries by applying various performance indicators (credit worthiness, payment defaults, national debt, foreign assets and also to clarify what effect the characteristics of a regime have on consolidation efforts in a country. The study identifies two key findings. While in the past, democracies have clearly found it easier to preserve their credit standing and solvency and to avoid government bankruptcy, a similar advantage can no longer be detected for democracies in terms of reducing national debt and foreign debts. Why democracies, in spite of their arrangements with a sensitivity for the public good and for due process, are finding it so difficult to avoid shifting their debts to future generations, to undertake cutback measures and to provide sufficient financial foresight, can in principle be interpreted as the other side of the coin, namely highly presence-oriented interests boosted even further through the short "democracy-specific time horizon".

  3. Renewable energy and its impact on rural development and sustainability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the social and economic benefits of renewable energy by examining twelve case studies and applying the findings to the wider industry in order to forecast the effect of renewable energy on rural development. The UK government's policy on renewable energy development, the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, and the effect of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) on the market price for electricity are discussed. Details are given of the case studies concerning wind power, biomass, and wind and hydro schemes; the identification of the economic impacts, the workforce involved, and the expenditure in the local area; and the use of a Keynsian local economic multiplier model to evaluate the impact of the local expenditure and the incoming investment in renewable energy.

  4. Social Innovation and Sustainable Rural Development: The Case of a Brazilian Agroecology Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Rover

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food is central to human beings and their social life. The growing industrialization of the food system has led to a greater availability of food, along with an increasing risk perception and awareness in consumers. At the same time, there is an increasing resistance from citizens to the dominant model of production and a growing demand for healthy food. As a consequence, an increasing number of social networks have been formed worldwide involving the collaboration between producers and consumers. One of these networks, the Ecovida Agroecology Network, which operates in Southern Brazil, involves farming families, non-governmental organizations, and consumer organizations, together with other social actors. Using a qualitative approach based on participant observation and an analysis of documents, the article examines this network. The theoretical framework used is social innovation, which is commonly recognized as being fundamental in fostering rural development. Results show that Ecovida has instigated innovations that relate to its horizontal and decentralized structure, its participatory certification of organic food, and its dynamic relationship with the markets based on local exchanges and reciprocal relations. Furthermore, such innovation processes have been proven to impact on public sector policies and on the increasing cooperation between the social actors from rural and urban areas.

  5. Partnerships in implementing sustainability policies theoretical considerations and experiences from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The greening of economic and industrial activities requires that new relationships be formed between private actors who often never met before on the business or policy arenas. To initiate and give direction to the sustainability transition, public actors may choose to become involved in

  6. Maternity Leave Length and Workplace Policies' Impact on the Sustainment of Breastfeeding: Global Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    Breastfeeding is a global initiative of the World Health Organization and the U.S. domestic health agenda, Healthy People 2020; both recommend exclusive breastfeeding, defined as providing breast milk only via breast or bottle, through the first 6 months of an infant's life. Previous literature has shown the correlation between socioeconomic status and breastfeeding, with higher maternal education and income as predictors of sustained breastfeeding. This same population of women is more likely to be employed outside the home. PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify the effect of maternity leave length and workplace policies on the sustainment of breastfeeding for employed mothers. Common facilitators to sustainment of breastfeeding included longer length of maternity leave as well as adequate time and space for the pumping of breast milk once the mother returned to the workplace. Barriers included inconsistency in policy and the lack of enforcement of policies in different countries. There is a lack of consistency globally on maternity leave length and workplace policy as determinants of sustained breastfeeding for employed mothers. A consistent approach is needed to achieve the goal of exclusive breastfeeding for infants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Argentina - Water Resources Management : Policy Elements for Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews the challenges water resources management faces, and the opportunities for policy formulation towards sustainable development in Argentina, where regardless of prudent public finances management, water resources management remain disproportionately backward compared to regional, and international best practices. Hence, within a frame of reference on the country's populati...

  8. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  9. Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to

  10. The Introduction of Floodplain Rehabilitation and Rural Development into the Water Policy for the Tisza River in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Matczak, P.; Flachner, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers a novel interpretation of the introduction of floodplain rehabilitation and rural development into the water policy for the Tisza River in Hungary. It looks at the role of individuals and the strategies that they used to bring about water policy change. Five strategies are

  11. The dilemmas and complexities of implementing language-in-education policies: perspectives from urban and rural contexts in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Moorcroft, S.; van der Draai, H.

    2014-01-01

    Language-in-education policies are a highly debated topic in Africa and at the root of understanding inequalities in Africa's education systems. This article explores the implementation of Uganda's recent local language education policy; how it has been received and practiced in urban and rural

  12. Walking on Foot: sustainable mobility and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ermelina Brosch Malatesta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem from the current urban lifestyle demands dynamic cycles of energetic replacement not always reached, producing an intense process of autophagy resources caused by rampant processes of consumption of natural resources of the planet. Another type of environmental resulting imbalance is also even more serious, the concentration of wealth in a small portion of the population as opposed to the majority platform of poverty and social conflict. This imbalance is also reflected in models of mobility practiced in cities, especially in the brazilian ones, where the privilege to individual motorized modes responsible for the commitment of both air quality as a valuable public space for the practice of community life and citizenship seriously compromise the environment urban.    To mitigate this process, public policies supported by laws have been rebalancing environmental conditions and ensuring good quality of urban life as well as a fairer city.

  13. Measuring Sustainable Development Effectiveness in EU’s Policies Implementation in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Damian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargement, the main incentive for 12 candidate countries - the actual membership - has been ruled out. EU cannot play the „sticks and carrots” game while the impact of the pre-accession policies and 2007-2013 funding infusion can now be fully measured. The literature covering the Europeanization of domestic policies and their results for the new Member States does not count too many successes but argues that it is the domestic policies that have the relevant impact. We analyze the case of sustainable development for Romania and argue that although it is a core horizontal principle of EU policies its impact is very limited and it is rather a subject of good wording due to several policy shortcomings.

  14. Global Outlook on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Policies: Taking Action Together. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Chris; Perera, Oshani [International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnepeg, Ontario (Canada); Arden-Clarke, Charles; Farah, Adriana Zacarias; Polsterer, Nicole [UNEP, Paris (France)

    2012-03-21

    This executive summary, which will be complemented by the full report, was developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the financial support of the European Commission, The study provides a non-exhaustive review of policies and initiatives that are promoting the shift towards Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns. It is illustrated by 56 case studies ranging from global multilateral agreements and regional strategies to specific policies and initiatives being implemented by governments, businesses and civil society organizations. The main objectives are to provide information about existing activities promoting SCP, to identify best practices, and to provide recommendations to adapt, replicate and scale up SCP policies and initiatives contributing to the overarching goal of achieving sustainable development.

  15. Improving and sustaining quality of child health care through IMCI training and supervision: experience from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, D M Emdadul; Arifeen, Shams E; Rahman, Muntasirur; Chowdhury, Enayet K; Haque, Twaha M; Begum, Khadija; Hossain, M Altaf; Akter, Tasnima; Haque, Fazlul; Anwar, Tariq; Billah, Sk Masum; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Huque, Md Hamidul; Christou, Aliki; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E

    2014-09-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy includes guidelines for the management of sick children at first-level facilities. These guidelines intend to improve quality of care by ensuring a complete assessment of the child's health and by providing algorithms that combine presenting symptoms into a set of illness classifications for management by IMCI-trained service providers at first-level facilities. To investigate the sustainability of improvements in under-five case management by two cadres of first-level government service providers with different levels of pre-service training following implementation of IMCI training and supportive supervision. Twenty first-level health facilities in the rural sub-district of Matlab in Bangladesh were randomly assigned to IMCI intervention or comparison groups. Health workers in IMCI facilities received training in case management and monthly supportive supervision that involved observations of case management and reinforcement of skills by trained physicians. Health workers in comparison facilities were supervised according to Government of Bangladesh standards. Health facility surveys involving observations of case management were carried out at baseline (2000) and at two points (2003 and 2005) after implementation of IMCI in intervention facilities. Improvement in the management of sick under-five children by IMCI trained service providers with only 18 months of pre-service training was equivalent to that of service providers with 4 years of pre-service training. The improvements in quality of care were sustained over a 2-year period across both cadres of providers in intervention facilities. IMCI training coupled with regular supervision can sustain improvements in the quality of child health care in first-level health facilities, even among workers with minimal pre-service training. These findings can guide government policy makers and provide further evidence to support the scale-up of regular

  16. Tourism as an Approach to Sustainable Rural Development in Post-Socialist Countries: A Comparative Study of Serbia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Petrović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the sustainable development of the Serbian and Slovenian countryside, under the influence of tourism progress. The article identifies the main rural tourism competitiveness in Serbia and Slovenia, as one of the essential factors of rural development in both countries, analyzing the main contributions and making a series of proposals to guide the future research agenda. The aim of the paper is to clarify around one obviously defined objective—to point out the competitiveness of sustainable rural tourism in typical post-socialist settings. The data for this study were collected using the Integrated Model of Destination Competitiveness to observe Serbian and Slovenian competitiveness in tourism. Determinants were assessed using a survey evaluating four demanding factors and 20 supporting factors, based upon a five-point Likert Scale. The results indicated that the friendliness of residents towards visitors, easy communication between them, together with quality of infrastructure and health facilities show the highest level of statistical correlation. These are the main propositions to start an initiative for the authorities in local communities to actively participate in sustainable rural development. The findings provide tourism stakeholders with relevant respondents’ perceptions pertaining to the tourism development in non-urban areas.

  17. Perspectives on Cultural and Sustainable Rural Tourism in a Smart Region: The Case Study of Marmilla in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Garau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is being inserted into the current debate on the topic of sustainability, as it applies to rural tourism. In particular, it addresses the need to identify strategic actions that will enhance the dissemination of cultural resources to facilitate cultural planning. Balancing the dynamic tension that characterizes the relationship between tourism development and protection of the landscape is key to finalizing appropriate planning strategies and actions, especially in the context of marginal rural areas. In support of theoretical and methodological reflections pertinent to this relationship, this paper presents a case study of the region of Marmilla on Italy’s island of Sardinia. The absence of both a “cultural planning” philosophy and a strategic approach to systemic and sustainable rural tourism in this country has been acknowledged. This paper concludes by discussing the results that emerged during the preparation of this case study, with respect to smart, sustainable, rural tourism development, while accepting the need for compromises between the force of globalization, nature, tourism, places, and people.

  18. Water Policy Reforms in South Korea: A Historical Review and Ongoing Challenges for Sustainable Water Governance and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Chang Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1 uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2 significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3 inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4 recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1 support for upstream (rural low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2 improvement in water facilities; and (3 efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea.

  19. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  20. Hegemony and the Politics of Policy Making for Education for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Stefan Lars

    2016-01-01

    Assumptions are readily made about the global nature and discourse of education for sustainable development. This study challenges assumptions made about structural power as expressed through Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) policy and politics of education. Focusing on the concept of sustainable development (SD) and ESD, the research…

  1. The Role of Indicator-Based Sustainability Assessment in Policy and the Decision-Making Process: A Review and Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Dizdaroglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to regulate natural processes and control the scale of human activities, sustainability assessment needs to be integrated into urban planning. In this context, indicator-based sustainability assessment tools are fundamental instruments that provide information to support policy and decision-making. Indicators are necessary to monitor the implementation of the policies and provide feedback needed to accomplish the desirable state of sustainable urban development. This paper aims to explore the role of indicator-based sustainability assessment in policy and the decision-making process. Therefore, it reviews the identified sustainable development indicator initiatives and addresses the research gaps in the literature for future improvement of sustainability assessment frameworks. It concludes with a discussion that the major problem in sustainability assessment lies in the gathering of reliable and accessible data.

  2. Effective policy for sustainable behavior. An international comparison; Effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag. Een internationale vergelijking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Uyterlinde, M.; Pol, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Breukers, S.; Mourik, R.; Backhaus, J.; Mathijsen, T. [DuneWorks, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This international comparative case study (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom) compares policy themes (household energy, food, mobility, household waste) and cases of interventions aims at more sustainable behaviours. It investigates how national policy can contribute to sustainable behaviour in these four themes. The study focuses on policy contexts and concrete 'best practice examples' (both policy -initiated and society-driven initiatives), paying attention to the extent to which social scientific insights have been utilised to conduct and evaluate the interventions. The conceptual approach in this study regards individual behaviour not in isolation but as embedded in institutional, social and physical contexts. In line with this, the evaluation of best practice examples focuses on how the following dimensions have been addressed in order to enable, support and sustain behavioural changes: the policy environment and institutional environment, individual behaviour, social norms a nd the physical environment. In this discussion, the Netherlands is both the starting point and the point of return, enabling us to draw lessons for Dutch policy. We conclude that a more proactive, dynamic and supportive role would fit national policy if it aims at encouraging the spread of more sustainable behaviours in society. Dutch policy could learn from the experiences of other countries and attempt at (among others): showing explicit commitment, connecting initiatives at different levels, and facilitating platforms for exchange of knowledge, experience and expertise, across sectors and departments, in order to arrive at a more integrated approach towards encouraging sustainable behaviours [Dutch] Als achtergrondstudie voor het advies Duurzame gedragspatronen zijn twee onderzoeken uitgevoerd naar effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag (1) in Nederland en (2) internationaal. De twee rapporten beschrijven een aantal beleidscases die vanuit gedragskundig

  3. How do small rural primary health care services sustain themselves in a constantly changing health system environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Humphreys, John S; Tham, Rachel; Kinsman, Leigh; Wakerman, John; Asaid, Adel; Tuohey, Kathy

    2012-03-26

    The ability to sustain comprehensive primary health care (PHC) services in the face of change is crucial to the health of rural communities. This paper illustrates how one service has proactively managed change to remain sustainable. A 6-year longitudinal evaluation of the Elmore Primary Health Service (EPHS) located in rural Victoria, Australia, is currently underway, examining the performance, quality and sustainability of the service. Threats to, and enablers of, sustainability have been identified from evaluation data (audit of service indicators, community surveys, key stakeholder interviews and focus groups) and our own observations. These are mapped against an overarching framework of service sustainability requirements: workforce organisation and supply; funding; governance, management and leadership; service linkages; and infrastructure. Four years into the evaluation, the evidence indicates EPHS has responded effectively to external and internal changes to ensure viability. The specific steps taken by the service to address risks and capitalise on opportunities are identified. This evaluation highlights lessons for health service providers, policymakers, consumers and researchers about the importance of ongoing monitoring of sentinel service indicators; being attentive to changes that have an impact on sustainability; maintaining community involvement; and succession planning.

  4. Sustainable Development Policy for the Environomy: Population, Land-use, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravago, M.; Roumasset, J.

    2009-12-01

    Despite its inertia and avowed purpose of being practical and feasible, sustainability science has yet to embrace the policy sciences. The existing sustainability science agenda emphasizes the importance of taking a systems approach and stresses capturing many interactions between natural and human systems. In order to incorporate policy analysis, we first trace the history of thought of sustainable development, including its definition and operationalization. After rejecting the popular Venn diagram approach to sustainable development (environment, economy, society) as non-operational and unfettered preservationism as counterproductive, two promising approaches to sustainable growth are contrasted. Negative sustainability is an injunction not to deplete the total value of natural and produced capital, leaving all other questions of economic and environmental management unanswered. To fill the void, we offer positive sustainability, which maximizes intertemporal welfare while incorporating interlinkages within the total environomy. This provides an operational framework for sustainable growth, including the efficiency values of produced and natural capital. In addition, sustainable development must include the optimal patterns of production, consumption, and trade. We illustrate particular patterns of unsustainable development by drawing on lessons from cultivation patterns in the Philippines. In the province of Bukidnon, Philippines the traditional drivers of agricultural expansion were logging and forest fires. In recent decades, intense vegetable cultivation coupled with access to roads and lack of well-defined property rights drive intensification and environmental degradation. Population in the province has risen and grew more than the national average. The high population growth, combined with distorted economic policies, has resulted in extreme population pressure in the province, which decreased the fallow period and caused erosion, falling yields, and

  5. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  6. 'Sustainability does not quite get the attention it deserves': synergies and tensions in the sustainability frames of Australian food policy actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Kaldor, Jenny Claire; Downs, Shauna M

    2015-09-01

    The development of food policy is strongly influenced by the understanding and position actors adopt in their 'framing' of sustainability. The Australian Government developed a National Food Plan (2010-2013). In public consultations on the National Food Plan Green Paper, the government sought stakeholders' views on sustainability. The present study examined the way in which the food industry and civil society organizations framed sustainability in their submissions to the Green Paper. Submissions by food industry actors and civil society organizations were analysed using a framing matrix that examined positioning, drivers, underlying principles and policy solutions related to sustainability. Submissions were open coded and subsequently organized based on themes within the framing matrix. Australia. One hundred and twenty-four written submissions (1420 pages). While submissions from industry and civil society organizations often framed sustainability similarly, there were also major differences. Civil society organizations were more likely to make the link between the food supply and population health, while industry was more likely to focus on economic sustainability. Both viewed consumer demand as a driver of sustainability, welcomed the idea of a whole-of-government approach and stressed the need for investment in research and development to improve productivity and sustainable farming practices. The meaning of sustainability shifted throughout the policy process. There are opportunities for creating shared value in food policy, where the health, environment and economic dimensions of sustainability can be compatible. However, despite pockets of optimism there is a need for a shared vision of sustainability if Australia is to have a food policy integrating these dimensions.

  7. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  8. Identifying the Conditions for Rural Sustainability through Place-Based Culture: Applying the CIPM and CDPM Models into Meibei Ancient Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional rural China faces more serious challenges in its sustainable development. How to regain the vital momentum of those historically and culturally preeminent villages, among over 680,000 administrative villages in total, has become the pressing agenda for all the stakeholders, due to the fact that these villages have huge potential to be the leverage for successful rural transition and new urbanization in China. This paper therefore tries to diagnose and identify the current situation of those villages from a cultural perspective by taking the Meibei ancient village as the case. By applying the proposed Cultural Inverted Pyramid Model (CIPM and Cultural Dual Pyramid Model (CDPM with seven layers, i.e., root/vision, value, symbol, hero, ritual, lifestyle, and governance & management, Meibei’s development mechanism has been systematically explored from a cultural perspective through the comparison between its past prosperity and present challenges. It is found that the great merit of Meibei’s past prosperity lied in the organic integration of cultural elements in all the layers through the five development dimensions, i.e., economic, social, institutional, environmental and cultural dimensions. The empirical study proves that CIPM is a useful tool for diagnosing and identifying the current situation of the village, while CDPM is an effective instrument for planning and designing a culture-embedded and improved place for the future. Unless Meibei can recreate a new cultural ecosystem with resilience fitting to its existed heritage with cultural excellence and tourism promotion, the village cannot catch up with its past prosperity. Finally, this paper calls for more in-depth culture-oriented research to improve the CIPM and CDPM paradigm to allow for the realization of rural sustainability, particularly from the perspectives of policy options and academic concerns.

  9. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-01-01

    the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU...... HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES ON SHAPING THE COMPANIES' MARKETING POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Dovleac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, consumers do not just buy brands, but also buy company philosophies and policies. Worldwide studies have shown that customers tend to favour companies that are perceived to be socially and environmentally responsible. For that, companies need to face the challenge of evaluating their product and service portfolios, as well as the way these products and services are created, produced and marketed. The question is how to integrate marketing strategy and sustainable development principles for the company success. This paper aims to discover how hard young consumers are influenced in their buying decision by the companies’ preoccupations for sustainable development.

  11. Forest Science and forest policy in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East: Building Bridges to a sustainable future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Guldin; Niels Elers Koch; John A. Parrotta; Christian Gamborg; Bo J. Thorsen

    2004-01-01

    Making forest policies that help bridge from the current situation to a sustainable future requires sound scientific information. Too often, scientific information is available, yet policy makers do not use it. At a workshop in Denmark, attendees reviewed case studies where forest science influenced forest policies and identified six major reasons for success. Three...

  12. The Past of Present Livelihoods : Historical perspectives on modernisation, rural policy regimes and smallholder poverty - a case from Eastern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Amberntsson, Pelle

    2011-01-01

    This study is an enquiry into the processes shaping rural livelihoods in peripheral areas. The study is situated in the field of livelihood research and departs in the persistent crisis within African smallholder agriculture and in rural policy debates during the postindependence era. The research takes a critical stance to the way that people-centred and actor-oriented approaches have dominated livelihood research, thereby over-shadowing structural and macro-oriented features. The aim of thi...

  13. Physician shortages in rural Vietnam: using a labor market approach to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Managing urban stormwater for urban sustainability: Barriers and policy solutions for green infrastructure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Chevalier, Lizette R

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) revitalizes vegetation and soil, restores hydro-ecological processes destroyed by traditional urbanization, and naturally manages stormwater on-site, offering numerous sustainability benefits. However, despite being sustainable and despite being the object of unrelenting expert advocacy for more than two decades, GI implementation remains slow. On the other hand, the practice of traditional gray infrastructure, which is known to have significant adverse impacts on the environment, is still ubiquitous in urban areas throughout the world. This relationship between knowledge and practice seems unaccountable, which has not yet received adequate attention from academia, policy makers, or research communities. We deal with this problem in this paper. The specific objective of the paper is to explore the barriers to GI, and suggest policies that can both overcome these barriers and expedite implementation. By surveying the status of implementation in 10 US cities and assessing the relevant city, state and federal policies, we identified 29 barriers and grouped them into 5 categories. The findings show that most of the barriers stem from cognitive limitations and socio-institutional arrangements. Accordingly, we suggest 33 policies, also grouped into 5 categories, which span from conducting public education and awareness programs to changing policies and governance structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...... the past two decades, for three reasons. First, to provide readers with a series of snapshots into the genealogy of ESE policy research in this field. Second, to encourage renewed attention to previously published work. And third, to offer commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches...

  16. Building a sustainable workforce in a rural and remote health service: A comprehensive and innovative Rural Generalist training approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orda, Ulrich; Orda, Sabine; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Knight, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    Historically it has been challenging to recruit and retain an appropriately trained medical workforce to care for rural and remote Australians. This paper describes the Queensland North West Hospital and Health Service (NWHHS) workforce redesign, developing education strategies and pathways to practice, thereby improving service provision, recruitment and retention of staff. The Mount Isa-based Medical Education Unit sought accreditation for a Rural Generalist (RG) training pathway from Internship to Fellowship with the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) and the Regional Training Provider (RTP). This approach enhanced the James Cook University (JCU) undergraduate pathway for rurally committed students while improving recruitment and retention of RMOs/Registrars. Accreditation was achieved through collaboration with training providers, accreditation agencies, ACRRM and a local general practice. The whole pathway from ignore Internship to Fellowship is offered with the RG Intern intake as a primary allocation site beginning in 2016. Comprehensive supervision and excellent clinical exposure provide an interesting and rewarding experience - for staff at all levels. Since 2013 RMO locum rates have been <1%. Registrars on the ACRRM pathway and Interns increased from 0 to 7 positions each in 2015, with similar achievements in SMO staffing. Three RMOs expressed interest in a Registrar position, CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate governance is needed to develop and advertise the program. This includes the NWHHS, the RG Pathway and JCU. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. Accomplishing rural electrification for over a billion people: Approaches towards sustainable solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mizanur Md.

    2014-01-01

    Access to electricity appears to be a prerequisite to materialize social, economic, and human development in the underprivileged rural areas. However, 1.1 billion rural people in the world, almost all of them living in developing countries, still do not have access to electricity. Although the rural electrification process poses more challenges than urban electrification, rural areas are blessed with abundant and relatively evenly distributed renewable energy resources. To facilitate electric...

  18. Grasslands in India: Problems and perspectives for sustaining livestock and rural livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy K. Roy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, grazing-based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy as around 50% of animals depend on grazing. Pasturelands over an area of 12 Mha constitute the main grazing resources that are available. Temperate/alpine pastures are spread across elevations higher than 2000 m in the Eastern and Western Himalayas including the Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states. Nearly 30 pastoral communities in hilly or arid/semi-arid regions in northern and western parts of India, as well as 20 in temperate/hilly regions, depend on grazing-based livestock production. Due to overgrazing coupled with poor management and care, these grazing lands have deteriorated to a large extent and need amelioration or rehabilitation. Appropriate technologies have been developed, refined and tested in various research and academic institutions. These technologies need to be implemented on a large scale in different parts of the country for augmenting forage resources, enhancing livestock production and sustaining livelihood options in an eco-friendly manner.

  19. Is Sustainable Intensification Pro-Poor? Evidence from Small-Scale Farmers in Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Brüssow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of farming systems to higher levels of productivity without overusing natural resources is of rising interest especially in African countries, where population growth has often been larger than past productivity increases. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on whether environmentally friendly agricultural practices are compatible with economic interests. In the context of small-scale farm households in Tanzania, the analysis focuses on Conservation Agriculture (CA at different levels of agricultural output, as CA is a promising toolbox for sustainable intensification. The results are based on a household survey conducted in 2014 with 900 randomly selected small-scale farmers in rural Tanzania, i.e., in semi-arid Dodoma and in semi-humid Morogoro region. We find that mulching is most frequently applied, followed by crop rotation, fallowing, intercropping and tree planting. Logit regressions show that CA adoption is influenced by socio-economic factors, farm characteristics and the regional context. Quantile regressions explain different levels of agricultural output through variables related to the extent of using CA. They indicate that marginalized farmers have the strongest crop income effect from an increased use of mulching. With increasing levels of agricultural output, the use of mulching remains beneficial for farmers, but the effect appears less pronounced.

  20. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  1. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country’s renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy, a specific methodology is proposed. In terms of the New Delhi Declaration of 2002 there are 7 principles of international law effecting sustainable development. These principles will be used as criteria in a principled assessment of South-African renewable energy law and policy in order to establish whether the goal of promoting sustainable development would be effected through the national policy developments.

  2. Ecosystem Services for a Sustainable Energy Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbah, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of ecosystem services for a sustainable energy policy, and briefly analyses of current and possible energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). BiH remains an important cosumer of fossil fuel energies, using both domestic (coal) and imported (petrol and gas) resources. BiH is also using renewable energy sources such as hydropower for electricity production and biomass mainly for heating and has strong potential to further develop other renewable sources of ...

  3. Ecosystem Services for a Sustainable Energy Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbah, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of ecosystem services for a sustainable energy policy, and briefly analyses of current and possible energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). BiH remains an important cosumer of fossil fuel energies, using both domestic (coal) and imported (petrol and gas) resources. BiH is also using renewable energy sources such as hydropower for electricity production and biomass mainly for heating and has strong potential to further develop other renewable sources of ...

  4. OysterFutures: Integrating Stakeholder Objectives with Natural System Models to Promote Sustainable Natural Resource Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, E. W.; Blair, J.; Cornwell, J. C.; Freitag, A. E.; Gawde, R. K.; Hartley, T. W.; Hood, R. R.; Jones, R. M.; Miller, T. J.; Thomas, J. E.; Wainger, L. A.; Wilberg, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Achieving effective natural resource management is challenged by multiple and often competing objectives, a restricted set of policy options, and uncertainty in the performance of those options. Yet, managers need policies that allow continued use of natural resources while ensuring access for future generations and maintenance of ecosystem services. Formal approaches are needed that will assist managers and stakeholders in choosing policy options that have a high likelihood of achieving social, ecological, and economic goals. The goal of this project, OysterFutures, is to address this need by improving the use of predictive models to support sustainable natural resource policy and management. A stakeholder-centered process will be used to build an integrated model that combines estuarine physics, oyster life history, and the ecosystem services that oysters provide (e.g., harvest, water quality) to forecast outcomes under alternative management strategies. Through a series of facilitated meetings, stakeholders will participate in a science-based collaborative process which will allow them to project how well policies are expected to meet their objectives using the integrated model. This iterative process will ensure that the model will incorporate the complex human uses of the ecosystem as well as focus on the outcomes most important to the stakeholders. In addition, a study of the socioeconomic drivers of stakeholder involvement, information flow, use and influence, and policy formation will be undertaken to improve the process, enhance implementation success of recommended policies, and provide new ideas for integrating natural and social sciences, and scientists, in sustainable resource management. In this presentation, the strategy for integrating natural system models, stakeholder views, and sociological studies as well as methods for selecting stakeholders and facilitating stakeholder meetings will be described and discussed.

  5. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  6. Health Policy Brief: Global Mental Health and the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratsley, Kelso; Mackey, Tim K

    2018-01-25

    Increased awareness of the importance of mental health for global health has led to a number of new initiatives, including influential policy instruments issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN). This policy brief describes two WHO instruments, the Mental Health Action Plan for 2013-2020 (World Health Organization, 2013) and the Mental Health Atlas (World Health Organization, 2015), and presents a comparative analysis with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015). The WHO's Action Plan calls for several specific objectives and targets, with a focus on improving global mental health governance and service coverage. In contrast, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals include only one goal specific to mental health, with a single indicator tracking suicide mortality rates. The discrepancy between the WHO and UN frameworks suggests a need for increased policy coherence. Improved global health governance can provide the basis for ensuring and accelerating progress in global mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  8. The Role of Systems Modeling for Sustainable Development Policy Analysis: the Case of Bio-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Chan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic systems modeling technique has been developed to assess technologies according to the criterion of sustainability. In a case study, the potential contribution of bio-ethanol toward achieving Canada's commitment to the Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas reductions is analyzed. The analysis concludes that, although bio-ethanol may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the technology by itself is insufficient to meet the Kyoto target. Applying the systems modeling approach to analyze sustainability helps highlight those policy issues that warrant more in-depth study. Although the systems model may not provide definitive answers, it raises relevant questions about physical constraints that might be encountered and estimates the extent to which sustainability targets may be met under various scenarios.

  9. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Ilaria; van der Wees, Philip J; Mot, Esther S; Wammes, Joost J G; Jeurissen, Patrick P T

    2016-08-17

    The sustainability of long-term care (LTC) is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU) Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU's European Semester. This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1) public- and private funding; (2) informal care and externalities; and (3) the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State governments to meet all their goals for sustainable LTC

  10. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mosca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The sustainability of long-term care (LTC is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU’s European Semester. Methods This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1 public- and private funding; (2 informal care and externalities; and (3 the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. Results The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. Conclusion The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State

  11. Renewable rural electrification: Prediction of sustainability in South Africa: Case study: Wind and solar photo-voltaic with lead acid battery storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A case study methodology and assessment of renewable energy technology and sustainable development is applied to a DME rural village project. Wind, solar and lead acid battery energy storage technology were used for off-grid electrification...

  12. Report of the FAO/NACA Consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development: Chiang Rai, Thailand, 29-31 March 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development jointly organised by FAO and NACA in Chiang Rai, Thailand on 29-31 March 1999 to develop the detailed structure...

  13. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  14. Keep wetlands wet: the myth of sustainable development of tropical peatlands - implications for policies and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Stephanie; Yule, Catherine M; Padfield, Rory; O'Reilly, Patrick; Varkkey, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Pristine tropical peat swamp forests (PSFs) represent a unique wetland ecosystem of distinctive hydrology which support unique biodiversity and globally significant stores of soil carbon. Yet in Indonesia and Malaysia, home to 56% of the world's tropical peatland, they are subject to considerable developmental pressures, including widespread drainage to support agricultural needs. In this article, we review the ecology behind the functioning and ecosystem services provided by PSFs, with a particular focus on hydrological processes as well as the role of the forest itself in maintaining those services. Drawing on this, we review the suitability of current policy frameworks and consider the efficacy of their implementation. We suggest that policies in Malaysia and Indonesia are often based around the narrative of oil palm and other major monocrops as drivers of prosperity and development. However, we also argue that this narrative is also being supported by a priori claims concerning the possibility of sustainability of peat swamp exploitation via drainage-based agriculture through the adherence to best management practices. We discuss how this limits their efficacy, uptake and the political will towards enforcement. Further, we consider how both narratives (prosperity and sustainability) clearly exclude important considerations concerning the ecosystem value of tropical PSFs which are dependent on their unimpacted hydrology. Current research clearly shows that the actual debate should be focused not on how to develop drainage-based plantations sustainably, but on whether the sustainable conversion to drainage-based systems is possible at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. THE ROLE OF INNOVATION POLICIES IN ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the key-elements providing increased competitiveness to countries which is defining in building effective economies. In modern conditions, great attention is paid to economic sustainability which besides effectiveness takes into account the impact of human activities over the environment. Europe has always been one of leading forces of innovation in the world. However, its importance has constantly decreased due to rise of the US, Japan and newly of China. The European Union has oriented much effort towards fostering innovation through various policies and instruments in order to keep up with the growing pace of economic and technologic development in the modern world. By these policies, the EU aims at creating favourable conditions for countries to promote innovation taking into account the national peculiarities as to allow improved flexibility and adaptability. The main goal of the present paper is to assess the impact of the EU innovation policies upon sustainable development of the member countries. There are to be analysed the main paradigms,concepts, initiatives and strategies frame-working innovation in the EU and, consequently, their impact upon economic development and the consistence in facing new challenges. In the end,on the base on identified correlations, concrete actions and measures to foster performance of innovation policies in general are identified.

  16. Response of Fuel Subsidy Removal as Sustainable Transport Policy (Case Study: Workers in Jakarta Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octaviani Ariyanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motorization in urban areas contributes several problems such as congestion, accidents, gas emissions, noises, and infrastructure breakage. Meanwhile, most of the developing countries cannot overcome such growth activities, as well as in Jakarta. By December 2013, Vice Governor of Jakarta proposes fuel subsidy removal policy as one of sustainable transport policy. This study is intended to understand and investigate how fuel subsidy removal policy scenarios (25%, 50%, and 100% in Jakarta affects travelers’ behavior and analyze such policy to support sustainable transport by using qualitative research methodology. Interviews and questionnaires survey is conducted to workers in Jakarta, which includes ranking scale question for traveler response options. The result shows that half of the respondents are not affected and will only respond to fuel price increasing at IDR 31,400 for gasoline price and IDR 26,300 for ADO (Auto Diesel Oil. Moreover, there is a tendency of respondent's to the response by changing their travel mode choices into more fuel efficient private vehicle.

  17. Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Steven Emery

    The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables

  18. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlan, S.A. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: salajlan@kacst.edu.sa; Al-Ibrahim, A.M. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Abdulkhaleq, M. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia); Alghamdi, F. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-09-15

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this

  19. Involving decision-makers in the transformation of results into urban sustainability policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Feleki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mind mapping tools are used to stimulate thinking about sustainability and define its significance for urban planning. Such tools are based on keywords that are identified and structured through dialogue-based procedures. The approach can be used also for switching between highlighting sectorial aspects, such as territorial management and urban design, social and economic cohesion and cross-sectorial aspects, such as sustainable mobility and energy efficiency. This paper emphasizes a structured dialogue with desicion-makers at national, regional and local levels, aimed at identifying what decision-makers really need to decide and the key barriers to the implementation of existing urban sustainability tools. This study was organized in four discrete steps. Initially, what EU urban sustainability projects can deliver (studies, methodologies, tools, policies, etc. was identified. The deliverables were evaluated against certain criteria and categorized into cross-cutting aspects (territorial management and urban design, social and economic cohesion and sectorial aspects (sustainable mobility, energy efficiency. The structured dialogue was implemented in parallel with the evaluation of the deliverables in order to match them with decision-makers’ needs, priorities and expectations. The ultimate goal was to develop and make available an operational Decision Support System (DSS for public Authorities and urban planners, which combines their needs, priorities and expectations (structured dialogue results with existing deliverables, developed within the framework of EU projects that up to now have had a low transferability and applicability rate.

  20. Sustained use of biogas fuel and blood pressure among women in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Maniraj; Basnyat, Buddha; Fischer, Rainald; Froeschl, Guenter; Wolbers, Marcel; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    More than two fifths of the world's population cook with solid fuels and are exposed to household air pollution (HAP). As of now, no studies have assessed whether switching to alternative fuels like biogas could impact cardiovascular health among cooks previously exposed to solid fuel use. We conducted a propensity score matched cross-sectional study to explore if the sustained use of biogas fuel for at least ten years impacts blood pressure among adult female cooks of rural Nepal. We recruited one primary cook ≥ 30 years of age from each biogas (219 cooks) and firewood (300 cooks) using household and measured their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Household characteristics, kitchen ventilation and 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide were assessed. We matched cooks by age, body mass index and socio-economic status score using propensity scores and investigated the effect of biogas use through multivariate regression models in two age groups, 30-50 years and >50 years to account for any post-menopausal changes. We found substantially reduced 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide levels among biogas-using households. After matching and adjustment for smoking, kitchen characteristics, ventilation status and additional fuel use, the use of biogas was associated with 9.8 mmHg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), -20.4 to 0.8] and 6.5 mmHg lower DBP (95% CI, -12.2 to -0.8) compared to firewood users among women >50 years of age. In this age group, biogas use was also associated with 68% reduced odds [Odds ratio 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.71)] of developing hypertension. These effects, however, were not identified in younger women aged 30-50 years. Sustained use of biogas for cooking may protect against cardiovascular disease by lowering the risk of high blood pressure, especially DBP, among older female cooks. These findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal or experimental studies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  2. Educating for action: Aligning skills with policies for sustainable development in the Danube river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kenneth; Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Popescu, Ioana; Pfeiffer, Ellen; Păun, Andrei; Drobot, Radu; Gettel, Gretchen; Staska, Bernadette; Stanica, Adrian; Hein, Thomas; Habersack, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Sustainable river basin management depends on knowledge, skills and education. The DANCERS project set out to identify feasible options for achieving education for sustainable water management across the Danube river basin, and its integration with broader education and economic development. The study traced the historic, regulatory and educational landscape of water management in the basin, contrasting it with the complex political decision-making, data-heavy decision support, learning-centred collaboration, and information-based participation that are all inherent components of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). While there is a wide range of educational opportunities and mobility schemes available to individuals, there is no coherent network related to training in water management and sustainable development in the study region. Progress in addressing the multi-layered environmental challenges within the basin requires further aligning of economic, environmental and educational policies, advancing the EU Bologna Process across the region, and the development of dedicated training programmes that combine technical and relational skills. The DANCERS project identified key short and medium term needs for education and research to support progressive adoption of sustainable development, and the necessary dialogue across the public and private sectors to align policies. These include the development of new education networks for masters and PhD programmes, including joint programmes; improved access to technical training and life-long learning programmes for skills development; developing formalized and certified competency structures and associated accreditation of institutions where such skilled individuals work; and developing a co-ordinated research infrastructure and pan-basin programme for research for water management and sustainable development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Poverty, housing, and the rural slum: policies and the production of inequities, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sarah M; Villarejo, Don

    2012-09-01

    We studied historical materials to examine the conditions that gave rise to California's rural slums, the consequences of their emergence, and how interpretations of housing, health, and welfare policies by government officials, and public health officials in particular, produced health inequities for residents of these communities. For more than a century, successive groups of immigrants and domestic migrant laborers have worked on California's farms and faced numerous challenges, among them a lack of safe and affordable housing, poor working conditions, and denial of public services. Although these experiences are not new, nor are they unique to agricultural workers, they illustrate a longer history in which inequities and injustices have been rooted in the exploitation and disposability of labor. Ameliorating or even redressing inequities will require understanding the social determinants of health through ecological approaches that can overcome the historical, social, and political causes of inequity.

  4. Mentoring as a retention strategy to sustain the rural and remote health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Waite, Catherine; Wright, Julian

    2014-02-01

    To propose a model of mentoring suitable for rural and remote health professionals. Given the rural and remote health workforce shortage, mentoring is proposed as a workforce retention strategy. Mentoring literature was reviewed; aspects of mentoring highlighted in the literature were considered to ascertain their suitability for rural and remote health professionals. A total of 39 mentoring papers were reviewed to outline key factors in mentoring rural and remote health professionals. Using this literature, key ways that rural and remote practice enhance or are barriers to mentoring were identified. From this, a model for mentoring rural and remote health practitioners, students and academics was developed. Four models of mentoring were identified: the cloning, nurturing, friendship and apprenticeship models. The apprenticeship model was identified as suitable for students, the nurturing model as suited to new health professionals to rural and remote settings and the friendship model for senior practitioners/academics. Factors more likely to enable mentoring in rural and remote settings were identified as feelings of obligation by senior practitioners, strong relationships between staff, blurred work/social boundaries, lack of hierarchy, inter-professional practice and technology. The barriers identified included workloads, access to mentors, fee-for-service system for some practitioners, conflicts which could jeopardise working and business relationships, and feelings of being judged. A model of mentoring for rural and remote health professionals was presented. Given the potential to strengthen and increase the rural and remote health workforce, trialling such a model is worthwhile and evaluation would identify its impact. © 2014 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Community Food Security: Policies for a More Sustainable Food System in the Context of the 1995 Farm Bill and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Robert; Fisher, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    During the 1985 and 1990 Farm Bill debates, a movement emerged that sought to incorporate the goals of sustainable agriculture into legislation. As a consequence of this coalition-building process, important new policy initiatives were introduced. Recent efforts have also been made to link urban food concerns with sustainable agriculture agendas under the broader framework of food security advocacy. In relation to that effort, this paper lays out the framework and specific policy components o...

  6. Selecting for a sustainable workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of rural communities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M; Mercer, A M; Lichtwark, I; Tran, S; Hodgson, W C; Aretz, H T; Armstrong, E G; Gorman, D

    2017-05-01

    An undersupply of generalists doctors in rural communities globally led to widening participation (WP) initiatives to increase the proportion of rural origin medical students. In 2002 the Australian Government mandated that 25% of commencing Australian medical students be of rural origin. Meeting this target has largely been achieved through reduced standards of entry for rural relative to urban applicants. This initiative is based on the assumption that rural origin students will succeed during training, and return to practice in rural locations. One aim of this study was to determine the relationships between student geographical origin (rural or urban), selection scores, and future practice intentions of medical students at course entry and course exit. Two multicentre databases containing selection and future practice preferences (location and specialisation) were combined (5862), representing 54% of undergraduate medical students commencing from 2006 to 2013 across nine Australian medical schools. A second aim was to determine course performance of rural origin students selected on lower scores than their urban peers. Selection and course performance data for rural (461) and urban (1431) origin students commencing 2006-2014 from one medical school was used. For Aim 1, a third (33.7%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future rural practice at course exit, and even fewer (6.7%) urban origin students made this preference. Results from logistic regression analyses showed significant independent predictors were rural origin (OR 4.0), lower Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) (OR 2.1), or lower Undergraduate Medical and Health Sciences Admissions Test Section 3 (non-verbal reasoning) (OR 1.3). Less than a fifth (17.6%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future generalist practice at course exit. Significant predictors were female gender (OR 1.7) or lower ATAR (OR 1.2), but not rural origin. Fewer (10.5%) urban origin

  7. Policy implementation in wheelchair service delivery in a rural South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wheelchairs allow users to realise basic human rights and improved quality of life. South African and international documents guide rehabilitation service delivery and thus the provision of wheelchairs. Evidence indicates that rehabilitation policy implementation gaps exist in rural South Africa.Objectives: The aim of this article was to explore the extent to which wheelchair service delivery in a rural, remote area of South Africa was aligned with the South African National Guidelines on Provision of Assistive Devices, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and The World Health Organization Guidelines on Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings.Method: Qualitative methods were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 participants who were identified through purposive sampling. Content analysis of data was preformed around the construct of wheelchair service delivery.Results: Study findings identified gaps between the guiding documents and wheelchair service delivery. Areas where gaps were identified included service aspects such as referral, assessment, prescription, user and provider training, follow up, maintenance and repair as well as management aspects such as staff support, budget and monitoring. Positive findings related to individual assessments, enthusiastic and caring staff and the provision of wheelchairs at no cost.Conclusion: The gaps in policy implementation can have a negative impact on users and the service provider. Inappropriate or no wheelchairs limit user function, participation and quality of life. In addition, an inappropriate wheelchair will have a shorter lifespan, requiring frequent repairs and replacements with cost implications for the service provider.

  8. Does one medical school's admission policy help a rural state "grow their own" physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Philip B; Cossman, Jeralynn S

    2012-09-01

    The University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMC) has been the only medical school in the state since its inception in 1955 (until the 2008 establishment of the William Carey College of Osteopathic Medicine, yet to graduate its first class). Recruiting out-of-state physicians is difficult in Mississippi, and stakeholders frequently talk of "growing our own" physicians, especially challenging with a single public medical school. This study investigates: (1) the proportion of a recent (1990-1999) cohort of UMC graduates practicing in Mississippi, (2) the proportion of all practicing Mississippi physicians who are UMC grads, (3) whether UMC graduates are more likely to practice in rural, small towns, or geographically isolated areas than other physicians, and (4) whether UMC graduates are more likely to recommend Mississippi as a practice location to new medical school graduates. Using Mississippi Board of Medical Licensure data (2009) and Mississippi Medical Doctors survey data (2007-2008), we employ GIS, logistic regression, and multinomial logistic regression models. We also use qualitative methods to examine interviews from purposefully sampled minority and/or female Mississippi physicians from the Mississippi Medical Doctors survey. Approximately 56% of UMC 1990-1999 cohort grads are practicing in Mississippi. Moreover, UMC graduates--of any year--constitute about 58% of Mississippi's practicing physicians. UMC graduates are not more likely to practice in rural, small towns, or geographically isolated areas in Mississippi than physicians who graduated elsewhere. Controlling for other factors, UMC grads are not more likely to recommend practicing in Mississippi than physicians trained elsewhere. Health educators and policy makers should consider broadening UMC's enrollment policies, and greater emphasis should be placed on recruiting physicians.

  9. Using Causal Loop Diagramming to Explore the Drivers of the Sustained Functionality of Rural Water Services in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Neely

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that international water sector development work has issues with a lack of sustained positive outcomes. A large driver of this outcome is how NGOs work with communities to implement and then manage water services. Many NGOs tend to focus their efforts on improving their reach and organisational growth by continually engaging in new projects. This behaviour is largely driven by short-term donor funding models that reward extended coverage, leaving little focus on sustained outcomes. Similarly, community-based management (CBM schemes often impede sustained services as a result of the community’s limited capacity to operate and maintain the technology. To explore these complicated drivers on water service sustainability, we used causal loop diagramming to analyse the key aspect influencing the combined dynamics between NGOs, donors and CBM. We demonstrate this methodology through a study in Timor-Leste, where we gathered data necessary to develop and apply causal loop diagrams to analyse rural water supply program outcomes. The analysis of these diagrams allowed identification of leverage points used to suggest structural changes for sustained benefits of water services. These structural changes emphasize the importance of increased robustness and reliability of water technology and the associated impact this has on community satisfaction and, conjointly, on water service sustainability.

  10. Expanding the Scope of Sustainability Planning: Lessons from Stockholm’s Congestion Charging Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rader Olsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, after years of unresolved debate, the Swedish parliament approved a congestion charge for Stockholm applied to cars crossing the city’s inner boundary. Since its introduction, congestion charging has led to an even more lasting reduction of car trips to the city center, in part because the policy generates revenues for financing new subway extensions and uses these same resources as the basis for negotiating new transit oriented housing in subway extension areas. As such, congestion charging is arguably as much a sustainable housing solution as it is a narrowly defined transit policy for reducing automobile congestion or pollution. This article investigates how and why Stockholm, despite considerable political conflict, technical complexity and negative public opinion, was able to turn a long-standing and controversial debate over moderating automobile traffic via tolls into widespread support for a national congestion tax, which itself laid the groundwork for a more expansive sustainability agenda. It further suggests that only when congestion charging was strategically reframed and widely recognized as addressing the concerns of multiple and competing constituencies, did efforts for its adoption translate into larger sustainability gains.

  11. 'It's about the smoke, not the smoker': messages that motivate rural communities to support smoke-free policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2014-02-01

    Rural residents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco advertising and tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many rural communities. There is a need for effective health messages to counter the pro-tobacco culture in these communities. To determine relevant cultural themes and key message features that affect receptivity to pro-health advertisements among rural residents, 11 exploratory focus groups and surveys with community advocates (N = 82) in three rural Kentucky counties were conducted. Participants reviewed and rated a collection of print media advertisements and branding materials used by rural communities to promote smoke-free policies. Findings reveal that negative emotional tone, loss framing, appeals to religiosity, and shifting focus away from smokers are effective strategies with rural audiences. Potential pitfalls were identified. Attacks on smokers may not be a useful strategy. Health risk messages reinforced beliefs of secondhand smoke harm but some argued that the messages needed to appeal to smokers and emphasize health hazards to smokers, rather than to non-smokers only. Messages describing ineffectiveness of smoking sections were understood but participants felt they were only relevant for restaurants and not all public spaces. Emphasis on religiosity and social norms shows promise as a culturally sensitive approach to promoting smoke-free environments in rural communities.

  12. INQUIRY REGARDING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ACTIVE LABOR MARKET POLICIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLIMENI John M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMP are often used to assist in structural adjustment, including change to information society, and to prevent the jobless from getting ensnared in long-term unemployment. ALMPs can help reduce dependency on public transfers, especially in recent years when countries have struggled maintaining financial sustainability due to the global financial crisis and large public debt, by assisting workers in finding jobs. The main types of ALMPs have different ways of accomplishing the same objectives, chief among those reducing unemployment. As a result, ALMPs are frequently costly. There are two measures to determine the importance of ALMPs at the macro level: 1 the number of workers in an ALMP program as a share of the labor force; and 2 the public expenditures on ALMPs as a percentage of GDP. This paper will focus on the second measure, public expenditures on ALMPs as a percentage of GDP, to examine the importance of ALMPs in Romania, the financial sustainability of the public policies, and attempt to empirically illustrate how they impact the labor market. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy issues associated with ALMPs in Romania.

  13. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  14. The role of discourse and linguistic framing effects in sustaining high carbon energy policy-An accessible introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrase, J. Ivan, E-mail: ivan.scrase@gmail.co [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Ockwell, David G., E-mail: d.g.ockwell@sussex.ac.u [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9SJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper seeks to provide an accessible introduction to the relevance to energy policy of a fundamental insight from the policy sciences. This concerns the role that the linguistic framing of policy problems and solutions can play in sustaining the dominance of existing policy positions. The paper introduces a discourse perspective to understanding the policy process and uses it to analyse four central goals pursued in energy policy: access, security, efficiency and environmental acceptability, drawing on examples from UK policy documents. It introduces readers to how, as well as requiring technical and economic solutions, a transition to a low carbon energy system will also require a 'reframing' of energy policy problems and solutions in a way that either connects with, or overrides the powerful discourses that shape energy policy today.

  15. The role of discourse and linguistic framing effects in sustaining high carbon energy policy. An accessible introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrase, J. Ivan [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Ockwell, David G. [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9SJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper seeks to provide an accessible introduction to the relevance to energy policy of a fundamental insight from the policy sciences. This concerns the role that the linguistic framing of policy problems and solutions can play in sustaining the dominance of existing policy positions. The paper introduces a discourse perspective to understanding the policy process and uses it to analyse four central goals pursued in energy policy: access, security, efficiency and environmental acceptability, drawing on examples from UK policy documents. It introduces readers to how, as well as requiring technical and economic solutions, a transition to a low carbon energy system will also require a 'reframing' of energy policy problems and solutions in a way that either connects with, or overrides the powerful discourses that shape energy policy today. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the environmental and social sustainability policy of a mass tourism resort: A narrative account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Swart

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recordation of the life stories of individuals residing in the community of Ledig, who have been dependent on the Sun City Resort situated in the Pilanesberg area in the North West Province of South Africa for their quality of life for more than 20 years, provided the basis for the evaluation of the environmental and social sustainability of this micro-cosmos on a multidisciplinary level. This study focused on the hermeneutical arch of narrative theory within the framework of human geography and sustainability science. The natural environment was evaluated for the role it plays in the sustainability of the livelihoods of the Ledig community members as well as the institutional life of the Sun City Resort. The results of this study suggested that the environmental policy for the Sun City Resort, formalised in 2004, has been guiding the Sun City Resort to contribute positively to the sustainability of the area. The study also demonstrated that a focus on the next generation of potential employees and the environmental education of all the communities were crucial to ensure the resilience of the social and ecological capacity of the area.

  17. Are Emissions Trading Policies Sustainable? A Study of the Petrochemical Industry in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Korea inaugurated an emissions trading scheme (ETS. In this regard, many studies have considered the sustainable performance and efficiency of industries that emit carbon; however, few have examined ETS at company level. This paper focuses on companies’ data related to Korean ETS in the petrochemical industry. Based on the non-radial, nonparametric directional distance function (DDF, the paper evaluates the governance factors related to ETS policies and sustainable performance in terms of carbon technical efficiency (CTE, the shadow price of carbon emissions, and Morishima elasticity between the input and undesirable output of carbon emissions. Using a dual model, the paper shows that Korean ETS has huge potential for participating companies to improve CTE. If all companies consider the production possibility frontier, they could potentially improve efficiency by 52.8%. Further, Morishima elasticity shows strong substitutability between capital and energy, implying that green technology investment should bring a higher degree of energy-saving performance. Unfortunately, however, the market price of carbon emissions is far too low compared with its shadow price, suggesting that the Korean government’s price-oriented market intervention has resulted in the ETS producing poor sustainable performance. As the title suggests, ETS of Korea is not sustainable at the current stage, but with more efforts on the transition period, all the developing countries should support the governance factors of the ETS in terms of the more effective green investment with easier access to the green technology.

  18. Aligning Key Concepts for Global Change Policy: Robustness, Resilience, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Anderies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, the process by which local social-ecological systems (SESs are becoming linked in a global network, presents policy scientists and practitioners with unique and difficult challenges. Although local SESs can be extremely complex, when they become more tightly linked in the global system, complexity increases very rapidly as multi-scale and multi-level processes become more important. Here, we argue that addressing these multi-scale and multi-level challenges requires a collection of theories and models. We suggest that the conceptual domains of sustainability, resilience, and robustness provide a sufficiently rich collection of theories and models, but overlapping definitions and confusion about how these conceptual domains articulate with one another reduces their utility. We attempt to eliminate this confusion and illustrate how sustainability, resilience, and robustness can be used in tandem to address the multi-scale and multi-level challenges associated with global change.

  19. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Holford, John

    2016-01-01

    of “sustainability” entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning...... to consider how sustainability is – and could be – integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on “Societal sustainability”, the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept...... opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social Justice....

  20. Sostenibilidad, plan de desarrollo y política petrolera Sustainability, Development Plan and oil policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez H. Carlos G.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo examina la politica petrolera y de recursos naturales del Plan de Desarrollo. Muestra, en particular, que las declaraciones de 'sostenibilidad' son inconsistentes con las politicas que se adelantan y que se trata de una propuesta de incrementos desaforados de la produccion petrolera bajo la mirada de la economia estandar. El 'desarrollo sostenible' resulta siendo tarea de las generaciones futuras, desconociendo el mandato constitucional. Tambien discute la propuesta de reforma a la ley de regalias implicita en el articulo 60 del proyecto de ley de plan de desarrollo y muestra que se emplean indicadores de competitividad manipulados para subestimar la competitividad colombiana. De acuerdo con el analisis efectuado por el Ministerio de Minas no parece razonable aprobar esa reforma si se trata de mejorar la competitividad financiera. En suma, la actual politica petrolera no introduce elementos de democracia y sostenibilidad.This essay examines the oil and natural resource policies of the Development Plan. In particular, it shows that its declarations of 'sustainability' are inconsistent with the policies it puts forward and that it is really a proposal for boundless increases in oil production under the gaze of the standard economy. 'Sustainable development' turns out to be the task of future generations, ignoring the constitutional mandate.
    It also discusses the proposal for reform of the law on payments for oil and mineral exploitation implicit in Article 60 of the Plan's law proposal and shows that the competitiveness indicators it uses are manipulated to underestimate Colombian competi tiveness. In accordance with the analysis carried out by the Ministry of Mines, it does not appear reasonable to approve this reform if the purpose is to improve financial competitiveness. In sum, the current oil policy does not introduce elements of democracy or of sustainability.

  1. Health system strengthening: prospects and threats for its sustainability on the global health policy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimoli, Joseph F; Saxena, Sweta; Hatt, Laurel E; Yarrow, Kristina M; White, Trenton M; Ifafore-Calfee, Temitayo

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, Hafner and Shiffman applied Kingdon's public policy process model to explain the emergence of global attention to health system strengthening (HSS). They questioned, however, HSS's sustainability on the global health policy agenda, citing various concerns. Guided by the Grindle and Thomas interactive model of policy implementation, we advance and elaborate a proposition: a confluence of developments will contribute to maintaining HSS's prominent place on the agenda until at least 2030. Those developments include (1) technical, managerial, financial, and political responses to unpredictable public health crises that imperil the routine functioning of health systems, such as the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa; (2) similar responses to non-crisis situations requiring fully engaged, robust health systems, such as the pursuit of the new Sustainable Development Goal for health (SDG3); and (3) increased availability of new knowledge about system change at macro, meso, and micro levels and its effects on people's health and well-being. To gauge the accuracy of our proposition, we carried out a speculative assessment of credible threats to our premise by discussing all of the Hafner-Shiffman concerns. We conclude that (1) the components of our proposition and other forces that have the potential to promote continuing attention to HSS are of sufficient strength to counteract these concerns, and (2) prospective monitoring of HSS agenda status and further research on agenda sustainability can increase confidence in our threat assessment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Maternity services for rural and remote Australia: barriers to operationalising national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jo; Kornelsen, Jude; Pilcher, Jen; Kildea, Sue; Kruske, Sue; Grzybowski, Stefan; Robin, Sarah; Rolfe, Margaret; Donoghue, Deborah; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Barclay, Lesley

    2017-09-22

    In Australia, many small birthing units have closed in recent years, correlating with adverse outcomes including a rise in the number of babies born before arrival to hospital. Concurrently, a raft of national policy and planning documents promote continued provision of rural and remote maternity services, articulating a strategic intent for services to provide responsive, woman-centred care as close as possible to a woman's home. The aims of this paper are to contribute to an explanation of why this strategic intent is not realised, and to investigate the utility of an evidence based planning tool (the Toolkit) to assist with planning services to realise this intent. Interviews, focus groups and a group information session were conducted involving 141 participants in four Australian jurisdictions. Field notes and reports were thematically analysed. We identified barriers that helped explain the gap between strategic intent and services on the ground. These were absence of informed leadership; lack of knowledge of contemporary models of care and inadequate clinical governance; poor workforce planning and use of resources; fallacious perceptions of risk; and a dearth of community consultation. In this context, the implementation of policy is problematic without tools or guidance. Barriers to operationalising strategic intent in planning maternity services may be alleviated by using evidence based planning tools such as the Toolkit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Changes in agricultural policies and social rural property in the northern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco René Vidaurrázaga Obezo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The national and foreign capital did not arrive to the country in the terms that government was expected; in that way farmers from social and private sector did not get insert into specialized and directed project towards exports. This generated an undercapitalization on small, medium and big farmers that work to aim production at domestic market. Communal property on North Border of Mexico is doing important yet, and it will be to exist for long time despite the changes in Agricultural Policy, and basically by the change in Constitutional 27th Article from January 1992, and the passing law about the Agrarian Act on February 1992. The organization of the producers as much as social as private sector is on recession, and most of producers individually work with their own resources or financial means. This has been doing difficult to their integration to productive projects. The aim of this paper is to analyze those under gone changes by the rural property (namely ejidos, communities, agro and farm colonies of northern Mexico associated to the new agricultural policy.

  4. Urban policies and sustainability in China / Políticas Urbanas y sostenibilidad en China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Anguiano de Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available I mean to analyze the reciprocity between urban policies and economic growth; and the role of agents and estate developers in China. Emergent economy with high inequality rates. The roles of capitalist corporations and the Government in the construction and reconstruction of cities, Examine the infrastructures, business and commerce developers, sport and leisure areas, academic and cultural centers, and housing in the Chinese metropolis. The Asian country has become one of the most polluting ones as result of the fast urbanization, and the rapid growth of industry and infrastructures. Teams of architects have planned sustainable building but megalopoleis make eco-cities necessary.

  5. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  6. Carbon Emissions Decomposition and Environmental Mitigation Policy Recommendations for Sustainable Development in Shandong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Provincial carbon emissions research is necessary for China to realize emissions reduction targets. Two-level decomposition model based on the Kaya identity was applied to uncover the main driving forces for the energy related carbon emissions in Shandong province from 1995 to 2011, an important energy base in China. Coal consumption is still the biggest contributor to the increased carbon emissions in Shandong. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect is the most important contributors to the carbon emissions increments. The energy intensity effect is the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions. The emission coefficient effect plays an important negative but relatively minor effect on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a series of environment-friendly mitigation policies are raised by fully considering all of these influencing factors. Sustainable mitigation policies will pay more attention to the low-carbon economic development along with the significant energy intensity reduction in Shangdong province.

  7. Sustainable development policies and the geographical landscape of the green economy: actors, scales and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Hubert Depret

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the rise of climate and environmental challenges during thelast decade or so, the growing awareness among various actors of sustainability issues at the local and global levels has resulted in a change in public policies as in industrial and financial strategic moves. This change has been rapidly translated into substantial investments both in public and private environmental sectors. Indeed, many “green” technologies and innovations are now reaching the market and more radical ones are being developed through significant Research and Developing (R&D investments. However, the deve-lopment of this emergent “Green Economy” is rather concentrated in certain leading countries or regions. Building on some national examples, the paper explains this phenomenon by the key role played both by the integration and inter-temporal coherence of public policies and by territorial specific settings and permissive conditions.

  8. Policies and programs for sustainable energy innovations renewable energy and energy efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jisun; Iskin, Ibrahim; Taha, Rimal; Blommestein, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This volume features research and case studies across a variety of industries to showcase technological innovations and policy initiatives designed to promote renewable energy and sustainable economic development. The first section focuses on policies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, the second section covers the evaluation of energy efficiency programs, and the final section provides evaluations of energy technology innovations. Environmental concerns, energy availability, and political pressure have prompted governments to look for alternative energy resources that can minimize the undesirable effects for current energy systems.  For example, shifting away from conventional fuel resources and increasing the percentage of electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar and wind power, is an opportunity to guarantee lower CO2 emissions and to create better economic opportunities for citizens in the long run.  Including discussions of such of timely topics and issues as global...

  9. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS WITHIN FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Usmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategy of social and economic development of regions has to be a basis for formation budgetary and tax and a monetary policy. Formation of strategic plans have to provide an exit to the new level of innovative economic and social development of Russia. Adaptation of the current legislation is necessary for the solution of the set major problems regarding budgetary and tax and a monetary policy in the Russian Federation. The important direction of development of social and economic development of territories is the clustering and formation of projects of the public-private partnership (PPP. Within integration of the countries into the world economy the organizations as systems in the form of clusters and the PPP projects can only be the competitive. Within formation of the organizations as systems it is necessary to provide formation of standards of a sustainable development (SEU for social protection of the population and increase of the human capital.

  10. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  11. Service-learning partnerships: Features that promote transformational and sustainable rural and remote health partnerships and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Debra; McAllister, Lindy; Dyson, Robert; Lyle, David

    2017-11-06

    To describe features that promote transformational and sustainable community engaged health partnerships and services in rural and remote Australian locations. A pragmatic qualitative study using focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using four stages of data comparison. Far west New South Wales, Australia. The health partnership, initiated by primary school principals in 2008, aimed to address allied health service inequities experienced by regional children. A service-learning program was developed, aligning allied health student placements to student-led services. The program has been operational since 2009. Community participants included school principals (n = 7) and senior managers (n = 2) from local facilitating agencies. Campus participants included allied health students (n = 10) and academics (n = 2), one rurally located with student supervision responsibility and one metropolitan located with a strategic partnership role. All data were collected by an independent researcher. Four stages of data comparison were undertaken. A thematic analysis was conducted and six key features identified through Stage Four comparison, a comparison across the findings from discrete community and campus groups, reflecting transformational community engagement were identified. These six features are: (i) identifying and responding to community need, (ii) providing services of value, (iii) community leadership and innovation, (iv) reputation and trust, (v) consistency, and (vi) knowledge sharing and program adaptation. We propose that these features contributed to the transformational engagement of community and university participants. These features can inform health sector approaches to community engagement, enhancing rural and remote service accessibility, acceptability, and sustainability outcomes. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  13. Lessons for Research Policy and Practice: The Case of Co-enquiry Research With Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Caruso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between institutional funding for research and community-based or co-enquiry research practice. It examines the implementation of co-enquiry research in the COMBIOSERVE project, which was funded by the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme for research and innovation, between the years 2012 and 2015. Research partnerships between Latin American and European civil society organisations, research institutions, and Latin American rural communities are analysed. Challenges for effective collaboration in co-enquiry and lessons learned for research policy and practice are outlined. Based on our case study we suggest that: (1 the established values and practices of academia seem largely unfavourable towards alternative forms of research, such as co-enquiry; (2 the policies and administrative practices of this European Commission funding are unsuitable for adopting participatory forms of enquiry; and (3 the approach to research funding supports short engagements with communities whereas long-term collaborations are more desirable. Based on our case study, we propose more flexible funding models that support face-to-face meetings between researchers and communities from the time of proposal drafting, adaptation of research processes to local dynamics, adaptation of administrative processes to the capacities of all participants, and potential for long-term collaborations. Large-scale funding bodies such as European Commission research programmes are leaders in the evolution of research policy and practice. They have the power and the opportunity to publicly acknowledge the value of partnerships with civil society organisations and communities, actively support co-enquiry, and foment interest in innovative forms of research.

  14. What is going to change in EU rural development policies after 2013? Main implications in different national contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the changes the CAP post‐2013 may bring to its second pillar in EU countries. After the presentation of the legislative package put forward by the European Commission, a debate emerged in some countries on how to define rural development strategies for the period 2014‐2020. The paper will discuss positive innovations and main challenges of the new rural development policies with respect to what happened in the 2007‐2013 period. In particular, the paper intends to focus on the following issues: 1 which relevant changes have been introduced in the rural development framework; 2 how these changes can influence the preparation of the next programming period 2014-2020, looking more in depth at three countries (Italy, Spain and France; 3 what lessons can be drawn from this reform and the initial implementation in three countries in terms of institutional changes and their likely success and failure. This analysis concludes that the success or failure of the 2014-2020 reform of rural development will significantly depend on what types of transaction costs and incentive systems will be brought about within the programming system. These two factors in turn will strongly depend on the way the different actors will perceive the different costs and incentives, their expectations on the role of rural development programmes in a context where budget for agriculture is shrinking everywhere, and finally their capability to build new strategic alliances and cooperation at every level (national, regional and local with other economic and social actors. Future policy scenarios might bring new and heavy constraints to rural development policies and consequently might also reduce the opportunities of institutional innovations.

  15. Taking Specialist Surgical Services to the Rural District Hospitals at One Forth Cost: A Sustainable 'Return on Investment' Public Health Initiative of Patan Hospital, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, J N

    2015-01-01

    The inequitable distribution and centralization of resources and services in urban area persists around the world, more so in developing countries. The challenge to meet the health needs of rural population requires health policy makers, government and concerned organization to put extra efforts. Such efforts require innovative, feasible and sustainable strategies to address the social justice of people living in districts away from capital and urban cities. At Patan Academy of Health Sciences, the medial school curriculum is designed to address these issues. Together with health professionals from Patan Hospital, the main teaching hospital on which the academy evolved, have initiated strategies to bring specialist services, starting with surgical services to remote district hospitals to serve the need of rural population. This initiative is 'desirable, doable and feasible'. Further more, this can be modified for replication and promotion by other academic institutions, central hospitals and government health system.

  16. Super Network on the Prairie The Discursive Framing of Broadband Connectivity by Policy Planners and Rural Residents in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bakardjieva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of the SuperNet, an infrastructure project designed and sponsored by the provincial government of Alberta, Canada with the objective of providing broadband connectivity to public facilities, businesses and residences in rural communities. The data were collected through individual interviews, focus groups, and town hall meetings in the course of a collaborative research initiative (The SuperNet Research Alliance that investigated the social construction of the broadband network from multiple perspectives. The objective of the paper is to examine in parallel the discourses in which the concept of broadband connectivity acquired meaning and substance at the levels of 1 provincial government and industry policy planners and 2 the residents of the rural communities who were the intended beneficiaries of the SuperNet. Using actor-network theory as a departure point, this analysis takes stock of the framing devices employed in the two sets of discourses and of the distinctive worldviews that generated them. It looks for the meeting points and the disjunctions between the grand visions and the grounded projections underlying the positions taken by the two respective categories of actors. Differences in the interpretation and appropriation of broadband among rural Albertans themselves are discerned and related to social factors characterizing different situations within rural areas. Rural broadband connectivity thus emerges not so much as a one-dimensional access equalizer for rural people, but as a complex mediator of opportunity, participation and identity.

  17. System Merits or Failures? Policies for Transition to Sustainable P and N Systems in The Netherlands and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P cycles are absolutely vital in maintaining sustainable food systems. Human activities disturb the natural balance of these cycles by creating enormous additional nutrient fluxes, causing eutrophication of waterways and pollution in land systems. To tackle this problem, sustainable nutrient management is required. This paper addresses sustainable nutrient management in two countries: The Netherlands and Finland. We adopt a critical perspective on resource politics, especially towards opportunistic policy strategies for the pollutant management of N and P. Two research questions are considered. First, what are the key systemic and policy failures that occurred in the N and P systems in the Netherlands and Finland between 1970 and 2015? And second, which lessons can be drawn when addressing the policy responses in the two countries to cope with these failures? The cases are analyzed within Weber and Rohracher’s framework that addresses “failures” preventing sustainable transitions. The results show that a number of failures occurred, besides market failures (over-exploitation of the commons, externalization of costs: lack of directionality, policy coordination, institutions, capabilities, infrastructure, demand articulation, and reflexivity. Policy responses in both countries resulted in ponderous policy frameworks that were adequate to tackle nutrient problems from the industrial sector and municipalities. However, both countries provided only a moderate response in terms of system-wide integrated policy frameworks to cope with sectoral-transcending issues. The agricultural use of N and P, in contrast to detergents, has not been subjected to strong regulatory measures.

  18. Individual-, Family-, Community-, and Policy-Level Impact of a School-Based Cardiovascular Risk Detection Screening Program for Children in Underserved, Rural Areas: The CARDIAC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Cottrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coronary Artery Risk Detection In Appalachian Communities (CARDIAC Project has screened more than 80,000 children (10–12 years for cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors over the past 15 years. Simultaneous referral and intervention efforts have also contributed to the overall program impact. In this study, we examined evidence of programmatic impact in the past decade at the individual, family, community, and policy levels from child screening outcomes, referral rates, participation in subsequent services, and policies that embed the activities of the project as a significant element. Within this period of time, fifth-grade overweight and obesity rates were maintained at a time when rates elsewhere increased. 107 children were referred for additional screening and treatment for probable familial hypercholesterolemia (FH; 82 family members were subsequently screened in family-based screening efforts. 58 grants were distributed throughout the state for community-appropriate obesity intervention. A state wellness policy embedded CARDIAC as the method of assessment and national child cholesterol screening guidelines were impacted by CARDIAC findings. The sustainability and successful impact of this school-based program within a largely underserved, rural Appalachian state are also discussed.

  19. Exploring cultural connectedness in the sustainability of rural community tourism development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque de la investigación sobre la sostenibilidad del turismo rural comunitario en Jamaica a menudo gravita hacia los componentes económicos, ambientales, políticos y de gestión. Este estudio etnográfico explora cómo dos grupos distintivos- Charles Tow Marrons, descendientes de los esclavos combatientes de la resistencia y Seaford Town Germans, descendientes de trabajadore contratados en Alemania-están explotando su cultura por medio del turismo rural comunitario a la moda nuevas fuentes de sustento. La discusión se ofrece detalles sobre cómo la gente se basan en su pasado para generar tangibles e intagibles productos de turismo cultural. Se destac la cultura significados tiene para los habitantes rurales en relación con el sentido del lugar, la identidad y el desarrollo del turimo rural comunitario sostenible.

  20. Satisfaction and sustainability: a realist review of decentralized models of perinatal surgery for rural women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kornelsen, Jude; McCartney, Kevin; Williams, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article was developed as part of a larger realist review investigating the viability and efficacy of decentralized models of perinatal surgical services for rural women in the context of recent...

  1. Economic and Social Sustainable Synergies to Promote Innovations in Rural Tourism and Local Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giovanni Quaranta; Elisabetta Citro; Rosanna Salvia

    2016-01-01

      The role of tourism in rural areas is pivotal for the integration and valorization of territorial resources and it is strengthened by the capacity to promote local community participation in processes of development...

  2. Economic and Social Sustainable Synergies to Promote Innovations in Rural Tourism and Local Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Citro, Elisabetta; Salvia, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    The role of tourism in rural areas is pivotal for the integration and valorization of territorial resources and it is strengthened by the capacity to promote local community participation in processes of development...

  3. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy in Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosyidi Sri Atmaja P.; Lesmana, Surya Budi Lesmana [Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-12-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Chapter 2 provides a review of the national, regional and local policy and programs on energy access for poor communities that have been implemented in Yogyakarta region. However, the two villages, i.e., Dusun Srumbung, Segoroyoso village, Pleret District, Bantul Regency and Dusun Wirokerten, Botokenceng Village, Banguntapan District, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta Region, selected as locations for energy need assessments in this project have not received any support from the energy programs mentioned in this section. Chapter 3 gives the criteria used to select the locations. Chapter 4 provides the results and analysis of the participatory rural appraisal used for the energy needs assessments which have been carried out in the selected locations. Chapter presents the renewable energy potentials in the study area. Chapter 6 gives the results of a stakeholder analysis for implementing the proposed programmes and roadmap. Chapter 7 is the roadmap for RE project implementation for poor community and provincial budget analysis.

  4. [Government policies and actions in Burundi in the area of rural development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mworoha, E

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses policies and actions designed by the government of Burundi to assure food self-sufficiency and to improve living conditions in rural areas. Burundi has had a long history of food self-sufficiency due to good soils, adequate rainfall, and hard work by the rural population. In the past 3 decades, however, the food supply has been threatened by various factors including soil erosion and rapid population increase. The government has undertaken a reforestation program which covered 51,050 hectares in the past 7 years with plans to cover 20% of the national territory by the year 2000. Work has also been done to contain rivers within their courses and to popularize antierosion techniques such as terracing and proper use of pastures. Partly because the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year, the average plot available per household is estimated at only 1.3 hectare, rendering efforts to improve productivity imperative. The high cost of chemical fertilizers has forced reliance on compost, and some 6 million compost heaps are now in existence. Agropastoral integration projects are seeking to improve yields through better combinations of livestock and land use. Research to improve the seed supply has already resulted in improved strains of rice, maize, wheat, kidney beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, cotton, tea and coffee. Regional seed production centers are planned to facilitate distribution and adaptation of seeds to each ecological zone. Research is underway to identify appropriate new crops and to extend the ranges of existing crops. To encourage participation of the rural population in agricultural improvement efforts, the government is financing schools and institutions which will train local level agricultural promoters and extension agents. Local governments at all levels, regional development societies, cooperatives and other structures are also being organized to assist farmers. In order to restructure and modernize the rural

  5. Assessment of the turkey’s electric power policies in terms of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atis Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, using statistical data published by the Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, analyzes key parameters such as installed capacity and energy demand growth rates, investment plans and emission rates, taking into consideration the expected increase in use through the year 2023. The results of the analyses were compared to relevant data from around the world. The weight of domestic - and especially renewable - resources in investment plans for the next 10 years was discussed. Recommendations for an investment plan to support sustainable development in Turkey are listed. Consequently, the lack of investment in domestic and renewable energy projects decreases the competitive power of Turkey vis-à-vis Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development countries in terms of many parameters. For a sustainable development, the country must make significant changes in its foreign-dependent energy production policies. Any future policies must encourage supplying local resources to meet the continuously increasing demand. Qualifications for incentive mechanisms applied to investments in renewable energy should be developed. The impact of the private sector on the installation of new plants must also be increased by quickly completing the privatization process.

  6. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2006-11-07

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously.

  7. How federal health-care policies interface with urban and rural areas: a comparison of three systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracskay, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Global public health policies span national borders and affect multitudes of people. The spread of infectious disease has neither political nor economic boundaries, and when elevated to a status of pandemic proportions, immediate action is required. In federal systems of government, the national level leads the policy formation and implementation process, but also collaborates with supranational organisations as part of the global health network. Likewise, the national level of government cooperates with sub-national governments located in both urban and rural areas. Rural areas, particularly in less developed countries, tend to have higher poverty rates and lack the benefits of proper medical facilities, communication modes and technology to prevent the spread of disease. From the perspective of epidemiological surveillance and intervention, this article will examine federal health policies in three federal systems: Australia, Malaysia and the USA. Using the theoretical foundations of collaborative federalism, this article specifically examines how collaborative arrangements and interactions among governmental and non-governmental actors help to address the inherent discrepancies that exist between policy implementation and reactions to outbreaks in urban and rural areas. This is considered in the context of the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, which spread significantly across the globe in 2009 and is now in what has been termed the 'post-pandemic era'.

  8. Effects of land policy on hybrid rural-urban development patterns and resilience : A case study of the territorial development in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to provide planners and policy makers with a better understanding about potential impacts of land policy on the shaping of hybrid rural-urban development patterns and their effects on resilience enhancement of urban systems. It examines the impacts of diverse development policies

  9. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T

    2017-07-01

    Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatio, Samuel; Akweongo, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV) to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana. This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers' activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities. Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities at the community level.

  11. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Chatio

    Full Text Available The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana.This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers' activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data.Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities.Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities at the

  12. Sustainability of Italian budgetary policies: a time series analysis (1862-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Brady

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the sustainability of Italian public finances using a unique database covering the period 1862-2013. This paper focuses on empirical tests for the sustainability and solvency of fiscal policies. A necessary but not sufficient condition implies that the growth rate of public debt should in the limit be smaller than the asymptotic rate of interest. In addition, the debt-to-GDP ratio must eventually stabilize at a steady-state level. The results of unit root and stationarity tests show that the variables are non-stationary at levels, but stationary in first-differences form, or I(1. However, some breaks in the series emerge, given internal and external crises (wars, oil shocks, regime changes, institutional reforms. Therefore, the empirical analysis is conducted for the entire period, as well as two sub‐periods (1862‐1913 and 1947‐2013. Moreover, anecdotal evidence and visual inspection of the series confirm our results. Furthermore, we conduct tests on cointegration, which evidence that a long-run relationship between public expenditure and revenues is found only for the first sub-period (1862-1913. In essence, the paper’s results reveal that Italy have sustainability problems in the Republican age.

  13. Does the EU meet its policy objective of 'promoting sustainable use of arctic resources'? An analysis from the viewpoint of arctic energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A.; Hossain, Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    The EU started to develop its own Arctic policy in 2008. One of the three main objectives of this policy is the promotion of sustainable use of Arctic resources. "Sustainability" was also a focus of the 2011 resolution of the European Parliament as a guiding principle in developing European policies

  14. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan. Despite that approximately 70% of Pakistan's 160 million inhabitants living in rural villages, nearly 90% of the ICT-related infrastructure is installed in urban areas. ... Sustainable Development Policy Institute. Institution Country. Pakistan. Institution Website.

  15. The Globalized Landscape: Rural Landscape Change and Policy in the United States and European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassauer, J.I.; Wascher, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    While some rural areas draw increasing populations to their landscape amenities and some are changed by the long reach of metropolitan sprawl, agriculture defines, and dominates rural landscapes. Amenity characteristics and ecological services of many rural landscapes occur in the context of

  16. Perception of drinking water safety and factors influencing acceptance and sustainability of a water quality intervention in rural southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Mark Rohit; Nagarajan, Guru; Sarkar, Rajiv; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar

    2015-07-30

    Acceptance and long-term sustainability of water quality interventions are pivotal to realizing continued health benefits. However, there is limited research attempting to understand the factors that influence compliance to or adoption of such interventions. Eight focus group discussions with parents of young children--including compliant and not compliant households participating in an intervention study, and three key-informant interviews with village headmen were conducted between April and May 2014 to understand perceptions on the effects of unsafe water on health, household drinking water treatment practices, and the factors influencing acceptance and sustainability of an ongoing water quality intervention in a rural population of southern India. The ability to recognize health benefits from the intervention, ease of access to water distribution centers and the willingness to pay for intervention maintenance were factors facilitating acceptance and sustainability of the water quality intervention. On the other hand, faulty perceptions on water treatment, lack of knowledge about health hazards associated with drinking unsafe water, false sense of protection from locally available water, resistance to change in taste or odor of water and a lack of support from male members of the household were important factors impeding acceptance and long term use of the intervention. This study highlights the need to effectively involve communities at important stages of implementation for long term success of water quality interventions. Timely research on the factors influencing uptake of water quality interventions prior to implementation will ensure greater acceptance and sustainability of such interventions in low income settings.

  17. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith

    2017-08-01

    In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.

  19. The Water Demand of Energy: Implications for Sustainable Energy Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Madani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With energy security, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development as three main motives, global energy policies have evolved, now asking for higher shares of renewable energies, shale oil and gas resources in the global energy supply portfolios. Yet, concerns have recently been raised about the environmental impacts of the renewable energy development, supported by many governments around the world. For example, governmental ethanol subsidies and mandates in the U.S. are aimed to increase the biofuel supply while the water footprint of this type of energy might be 70–400 times higher than the water footprint of conventional fossil energy sources. Hydrofracking, as another example, has been recognized as a high water-intensive procedure that impacts the surface and ground water in both quality and quantity. Hence, monitoring the water footprint of the energy mix is significantly important and could have implications for energy policy development. This paper estimates the water footprint of current and projected global energy policies, based on the energy production and consumption scenarios, developed by the International Energy Outlook of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The outcomes reveal the amount of water required for total energy production in the world will increase by 37%–66% during the next two decades, requiring extensive improvements in water use efficiency of the existing energy production technologies, especially renewables.

  20. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  1. Rural Electrification Efforts Based on Off-Grid Photovoltaic Systems in the Andean Region: Comparative Assessment of Their Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we comparatively assess the sustainability of rural electrification efforts based on off-grid solutions in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural. We found that Ecuador and Chile have consistently failed to ensure mechanisms for the operation and maintenance of the deployed off-grid systems, which has made these solutions in poor Chilean and Ecuadorian communities inevitably unsustainable. Although Peru has adopted a cross-tariff scheme, the Peruvian case shows that ensuring the funding of off-grid PV solutions is not enough. Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation (local values and lifestyles are constantly disregarded and most of the projects have been designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has often led to project failures and payment defaults. However, although each country has its particular challenges, we found that the three Andean countries have consistently neglected the importance of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure, which in turn significantly compromised the rural electrification effort in these countries.

  2. Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Brazilian Rural Territorial Development Policy: A Study of Território Meio Oeste Contestado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecchio, Andréia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The territory ‘Meio Oeste Contestado’, located in Santa Catarina, Brazil, was created in 2003, after the implementation of the rural territorial development policy of the government of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010. This article analyzes how social and political relations were established and administered in the territory; how the disputes between different actors and interests were dealt with; the ideas and interpretations that were at stake; and what territorial rules and regulations were established for the negotiation and conciliation between the different social actors. In general, we observe that the ideas that the territorial actors have about public policies for rural territorial development differ from those of the federal government. The main interest of the different actors in the territority is to raise more financial resources for the local organizations and municipalities in the territory due to the fragile nature of the different territorial institutions.

  3. Sustainable Soil Management: Its perception and the need for policy intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Kassam, Amir; González-Sánchez, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    As stated in the strategic objectives of the Global Soil Partnership "healthy soils and sustainable soil management are the precondition for human well-being and economic welfare and therefore play the key role for sustainable development". Although the functional properties of a healthy soil are well understood, in practice it is easily overlooked what is necessary to achieve and sustain healthy agricultural soils. This contribution intends: to discuss the concept of sustainable soil management in agricultural production with regard to soil health, and to highlight its importance in the achievement of both Sustainable Development Goals and the 4 per mille objectives, as well as for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In Europe, soil and the need for its conservation and stewardship gained visibility at the beginning of this century during the discussions related to the Soil Thematic Strategy. This higher level of awareness concerning the status of Europe's soils led to the introduction of soil conservation standards into the cross-compliance mechanism within the 1st Pillar of CAP. These standards were applied through the definition of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs) which are compulsory for all farmers receiving direct payments, and in the last CAP reform in 2014, through the introduction of additional Greening Measures in Pilar 1. Despite these measures and the claim of some writers that they already contributed to significantly reducing soil erosion, the EC Joint Research Centre still reports water erosion in Europe amounting to almost one billion tonnes annually. Regarding soil conservation, soil carbon stocks or the provision of additional ecosystem services, measures called for in GAEC 4 (Minimum soil cover), in GAEC 5 (Minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil erosion), and in GAEC 6 (Maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices, …), give the impression that a lot is being

  4. Striving for Sustainable Development and the Coordinating Role of the Central Government: Lessons from Swedish Housing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Söderholm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations in the past. In this article we explore the strategies of the Swedish central government in implementing a social housing policy in the mid-20th century. The policy was successfully implemented in that it resulted in the rapid expansion and modernisation of the Swedish apartment stock in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and acute housingshortages and poor housing standards were overcome. The main lesson learned from the Swedish case study is the critical role of the central government in implementation throughthe strategic coordination of policy aims, instruments, stakeholders and interests throughout the implementation process. Although the central government could have used hard, almost authoritarian policy instruments to force the realisation of the new policy, it mainly used soft policy tools and focused on coordination. In the contemporary networked governance setting, the central government, like no other player, still has the potential to guide and coordinate implementation processes for the realization of sustainable housing visions.

  5. Sustaining visceral leishmaniasis elimination in Bangladesh - Could a policy brief help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Fitzpatrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has made significant progress towards elimination of visceral leishmaniasis, and is on track to achieve its target of less than one case per 10,000 inhabitants in each subdistrict in 2017. As the incidence of disease falls, it is likely that the political capital and financial resources dedicated towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis may decrease, raising the prospect of disease resurgence. Policy memos may play a crucial role during the transition of the elimination plan from the 'attack' to the 'consolidation' and 'maintenance' phases, highlighting key stakeholders and areas where ongoing investment is crucial. An example of a policy brief is outlined in this paper. The background to the current elimination efforts is highlighted, with emphasis on remaining uncertainties including the impact of disease reservoirs and sustainable surveillance strategies. A stakeholder map is provided outlining the current and projected future activities of key bodies. Identification of key stakeholders subsequently frames the discussion of three key policy recommendations in the Bangladeshi context for the transition to the consolidation and maintenance phases of the elimination program. Recommendations include determining optimal vector control and surveillance strategies, shifting the emphasis towards horizontal integration of disease programs, and prioritising remaining research questions with a focus on operational and technical capacity. Achieving elimination is as much a political as a scientific question. Integrating the discussion of key stakeholders with policy priorities and the research agenda provides a novel insight into potential pathways forwards in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh and in the rest of the Indian subcontinent.

  6. Exploring cultural connectedness in the sustainability of rural community tourism development in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Taylor; Marcella Daye; Moya Kneafsey; Hazel Barrett

    2014-01-01

    El enfoque de la investigación sobre la sostenibilidad del turismo rural comunitario en Jamaica a menudo gravita hacia los componentes económicos, ambientales, políticos y de gestión. Este estudio etnográfico explora cómo dos grupos distintivos- Charles Tow Marrons, descendientes de los esclavos combatientes de la resistencia y Seaford Town Germans, descendientes de trabajadore contratados en Alemania-están explotando su cultura por medio del turismo rural comunitario a la moda nuevas fuentes...

  7. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  8. Cultivating sustainable development? An analysis of the Brazilian public policy for biodiesel within the context of sustainable development and environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucciardi Garcez, C.A.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the Brazilian public policy related to biodiesel within the context of sustainable development and environmental management. Biofuels have been steadily increasing in popularity on a global scale. Brazil, a country that boasts abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a world leader in the production of biofuels. In order to verify biodiesel's potential to contribute to sustainable development, it is necessary to analyze the biofuel in a larger social, environmental, and economic context. The methodology applied to this study included a brief review of the evolution of the concept of sustainable development and instruments of environmental management, which served as a basis to evaluate the policy documents and data relating to the policy's implementation. Although the implementation is still within its initial stage, significant weakness has been found in the policy. One consequence is the domination of soy as a primary material for biodiesel. Other weaknesses identified are related to the Selo (''certification of a socially inclusive fuel'') to promote social inclusion, as well as a lack of support for family-based agriculture to aggregate value to the primary material that they produce. (auth)

  9. Bioenergy systems sustainability assessment & management (BIOSSAM) guidance portal for policy, decision and development support of integrated bioenergy supply interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, WHL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available % of the water resources; reduce the ability to farm; intensify flooding and fires; cause erosion, destruction of rivers, siltation of dams and estuaries; reduce water quality; and can cause a mass extinction of indigenous biodiversity. The cost... sustainability goals. ? Screen bioenergy options for sustainability based on technical, economic, social, environmental and governance criteria. ? Implement the appropriate bioenergy interventions in an integrated manner. ? Monitor the bioenergy policies...

  10. Publishing Sustainability Research Visually: A Film about the Opportunities and Challenges of a Rural Entrepreneurship Initiative in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Ness

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have witnessed a large increase in the number of publications on sustainability challenges over the past decade. One important characteristic of the research is with the wide variety of actors that can make use of the results. Sustainability knowledge is often not only relevant for those in academia or policy-making circles, but it can also be useful for decision-makers in a diversity of societal facets and sectors. It is therefore essential that the sustainability research community have access to a diversity of knowledge dissemination outlets, including those that extend beyond the traditional, and often inaccessible, academic publishing realms. One positive development over the past decade in sustainability research reaching broader audiences has been the proliferation of open access publication outlets. The alternative has provided greater access to scientific articles to almost anyone with an Internet connection. But, is this medium of knowledge dissemination sufficient? Are there additional channels that sustainability researchers can use to broadcast knowledge to even broader user groups?

  11. An interpretive summary of the 1997 conference on policies for fostering sustainable transportation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    T.R. Lakshmanan, director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, offered the following definition from the Bruntland Commission: ``Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations.`` The technologies and policies that received the most attention would provide per-unit-of-service reduction of three kinds of social costs (external costs, in economist`s terminology) with respect to light duty transportation. The main factors to be reduced were oil use, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. Undesirable side effects of continually expanding transportation activity, including congestion and habitat loss, were also discussed. The conference included debate about priorities among these five categories of social cost, about which organizations should take action to achieve the reductions needed in each, and about what specific actions these organizations should take.

  12. Leadership for Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Areas: Bridging Personal and Institutional Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Padt, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid transformations offer new challenges for rural regions to invent new pathways for development. For many, an obvious choice is to set out on the path towards economic growth and to compete with other regions for global, mobile capital and labor. There is however an increasing awareness that in

  13. Institutional Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Resources Management: Changing the rules of the game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaria Guerra, J.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to critically examine the state of the art of institutional innovation and to identify the theories of action informing it in rural research and development (R&D) organisations.The study was carried out in three cases. The selected case studies are different in their

  14. Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to Myanmar's rural poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newcombe, Alex; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar's rural population has very low access to electricity, mainly due to low disposal income and the remoteness of communities. This paper attempts to test the potential applicability of Grameen Shakti-Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), which is a Bangladeshi public private p...

  15. The glue that holds the community together? Sport and sustainability in rural Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the author's research in northwest Victoria, Australia, this essay examines the forms of capital that are created in and through rural sport as well as the processes of social inclusion and exclusion that structure access to social networks and to the resources these networks contain. In

  16. Turning points towards sustainability: integrative science and policy for novel (but real landscape futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social and environmental change. However, these regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability, ecosystem health through to larger scales of biospheric functioning. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. These are, in essence, complex social-ecological systems intertwined in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Over time, the cycles of complex social-ecological systems also reach crossroads, which might be crisis points at which future options are no longer available (possibly because of resource degradation or loss, or turning points where opportunities arise when it is easier to change direction towards more sustainable activities. This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a holistic integration through close engagement with residents and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative high-risk ‘on-ground’ experimental models to ‘learn by doing’. In the final analysis, each project has characteristically, however, sought to integrate through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and corporately, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  17. Perspective: Improving Nutritional Guidelines for Sustainable Health Policies: Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio; Agostoni, Carlo; Astrup, Arne; Brighenti, Furio; Cook, Robert; Folco, Emanuela; Fontana, Luigi; Gibson, Robert A; Guerra, Ranieri; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ioannidis, John Pa; Jackson, Ann S; Klurfeld, David M; Makrides, Maria; Mathioudakis, Basil; Monaco, Alessandro; Patel, Chirag J; Racagni, Giorgio; Schünemann, Holger J; Shamir, Raanan; Zmora, Niv; Peracino, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    A large body of evidence supports the notion that incorrect or insufficient nutrition contributes to disease development. A pivotal goal is thus to understand what exactly is appropriate and what is inappropriate in food ingestion and the consequent nutritional status and health. The effective application of these concepts requires the translation of scientific information into practical approaches that have a tangible and measurable impact at both individual and population levels. The agenda for the future is expected to support available methodology in nutrition research to personalize guideline recommendations, properly grading the quality of the available evidence, promoting adherence to the well-established evidence hierarchy in nutrition, and enhancing strategies for appropriate vetting and transparent reporting that will solidify the recommendations for health promotion. The final goal is to build a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic biomarkers, food quality and intake frequency, lifestyle variables such as physical activity, and environmental variables including one's microbiome profile. There is a strong and urgent need to develop a successful commitment among all the stakeholders to define novel and sustainable approaches toward the management of the health value of nutrition at individual and population levels. Moving forward requires adherence to well-established principles of evidence evaluation as well as identification of effective tools to obtain better quality evidence. Much remains to be done in the near future. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  19. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION OF LEADER PROGRAM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy is an important component of the Common Agricultural Policy. LEADER is an innovative approach to rural development policy in the European Union to improve the quality of life in rural areas. LEADER is a very effective way to support "smart" and to increase "sustainable" and "inclusive" rural areas, encouraging rural territories to explore new ways to become competitive, to capitalize at maximum their assets and overcome difficulties encountered, encouraging the socio-economic factors to collaborate in order to produce quality goods and services in their local area

  20. Sustaining N'dama cattle for the resource-poor farmers in the Gambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , rural poverty and climate change. This study assesses the genetic improvement, sustainable production, utilization and conservation of this breed of cattle in order to strengthen them through relevant technical strategies and policy measures.