WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable ruminant production

  1. Forage use to improve environmental sustainability of ruminant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, J; Janzen, H H; Kroebel, R; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-08-01

    Ruminants raised for meat and milk are important sources of protein in human diets worldwide. Their unique digestive system allows them to derive energy and nourishment from forages, making use of vast areas of grazing lands not suitable for arable cropping or biofuel production and avoiding direct competition for grain that can be used as human food. However, sustaining an ever-growing population of ruminants consuming forages poses a dilemma: while exploiting their ecological niche, forage-fed ruminants produce large amount of enteric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Resolving this quandary would allow ruminants an expanded role in meeting growing global demands for livestock products. One way around the dilemma is to devise forage-based diets and feeding systems that reduce methane emissions per unit of milk or meat produced. Ongoing research has made significant strides toward this objective. A wider opportunity is to look beyond methane emissions alone and consider all greenhouse gas emissions from the entire livestock-producing system. For example, by raising ruminants in systems using forages, some of the methane emissions can be offset by preserving or enhancing soil carbon reserves, thereby withholding carbon dioxide from the air. Similarly, well-managed systems based on forages may reduce synthetic fertilizer use by more effective use of manure and nitrogen-fixing plants, thereby curtailing nitrous oxide emissions. The potential environmental benefits of forage-based systems may be expanded even further by considering their other ecological benefits, such as conserving biodiversity, improving soil health, enhancing water quality, and providing wildlife habitat. The quandary, then, can be alleviated by managing ruminants within a holistic land-livestock synchrony that considers not only methane emissions but also suppression of other greenhouse gases as well as other ecological benefits. Given the complexity of such systems, there likely are no singular

  2. Dry season feeds and feeding: a threat to sustainable ruminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of dry season feeds and feeding as a threat to sustainable production of ruminant animal production in Nigeria. The concept of dry season nutrition and challenges posed on ruminant production such as reduction in general performance of animal, increased susceptibility to diseases, reduction in palatability and ...

  3. dry season feeds and feeding: a threat to sustainable ruminant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fertilizer/manure application and supplementation of poor forages with nutrient supplements as means of ameliorating the adverse ... sustainable production of ruminant animal products (wool, milk, meat, meat, hide and skin) and by-products (blood meal, bone ..... Possibilities of using bananas for the feeding of ruminants in ...

  4. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Quantifying water use in ruminant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, G; Ominski, K H; Beauchemin, K A; Pfister, S; Martel, M; McGeough, E J; Hoekstra, A Y; Kroebel, R; Cordeiro, M R C; McAllister, T A

    2017-05-01

    reproductive efficiency can also reduce the water footprint per unit product. However, given that feed production makes up the majority of water use by ruminants, research and development efforts should focus on this area. More research and clarity are needed to examine the validity of assumptions and possible trade-offs between ruminants' water use and other sustainability indicators.

  5. Small ruminant production in Turkey: highlighting in goat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sezen; Davran, Müge K; Güney, Okan

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the effects of structural, governmental and socio-economic conditions linked to small ruminant production, especially goat production. The number of small ruminants in Turkey fell from almost 51,530 in 1990, to 31,761 in 2007. In 1990, the number of small ruminants started to decrease due to structural, genetic and economic reasons such as a lack of state support policies, high costs of inputs, poor performance of local breeds, socio-economic conditions, and migration. In Turkey, the socio-economic and geographical structure make small ruminant production an important profession; it is also a significant source of income in rural regions. 35% of red meat and 12% of milk production is obtained from small ruminants. Although, Turkey has the highest goat population among its border and EU countries, ranks low with milk production. Reasons for the present situation are well evaluated; changes and tendencies in sheep and goat production as well as milk and meat production that are examined and associated with the population of Turkey are widely discussed. In addition, in order to improve the present situation, some technical and structural suggestions are mentioned.

  6. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    physiological homeostasis, animal welfare and productivity. Key words: Ruminants, monocarboxylates, monocarboxylate transporters, CD147. INTRODUCTION. Most mammals are herbivorous and are involved in the consumption of plant material high in structural carbo- hydrates. Consequently, these groups of animals ...

  7. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  8. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  9. Production and emission of methane and carbon dioxide by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Animal digestion is responsible for the production of both carbon dioxide and methane, while breathing produces only carbon dioxide. The author described the digestion mechanism of ruminants, explaining that they produce higher levels of methane and carbon dioxide than other animals. Fermentation stoichiometry of ruminants was also discussed along with the influence that diet has on methane production. It was noted that methane production can be decreased by increasing animal productivity, or by using ionophore antibiotics and long chain fatty acids. Test results from each of these methods have revealed side effects and none appears to be applicable for the time being. 10 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  10. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  11. Constraints to ruminant production in East Mamprusi District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was designed to identify species-specific constraints to ruminant production as perceived by animal owners in East Mamprusi District. The hypothesis was that the constraints to production as perceived by sheep, goat and cattle farmers were sufficiently different to warrant species-specific strategies being ...

  12. Status of small ruminant production in six selected communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the status of small ruminant production in some selected communities in Delta State vis-à-vis identifying the type of people involved in it; their response to modern livestock practices and determining factors affecting their stock size. Data were obtained from 90 respondents. Results of data analysis ...

  13. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Application of molasses-urea blocks to ruminant production in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes briefly the accomplishments of a Coordinated Research Program to increase ruminant productivity in Indonesia by the application of urea-molasses blocks. The technology is highly cost effective and readily accepted by farmers. Suggestions are made for a three-year follow-up project to investigate the productivity of ruminants fed with packaged rice straw. 6 photographs

  14. Effects of Plant Secondary Metabolites on Methane Production and Fermentation Parameters in In vitro Ruminal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Giuburunca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric fermentation process is of concern worldwide for its contribution to global warming. It is known that ruminant animals, due to natural fermentation process contribute substantially to the increase in methane production. Methanogenesis process represents besides its contribution to greenhouse gases emissions an energy loss to the animal. To reduce ruminal methane productions in an ecologically and sustainable way, many attempts have been initiated, such as: uses of chemicals additives or ionophore antibiotics, defaunation process or immunization against ruminal methanogenesis. In the last years, a new strategy has been evaluated whether plant secondary metabolites can be used as natural additives to reduce ruminal methane emissions. The present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of trans-cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric acids and catechin hydrate, four plant secondary metabolites (PSMs on methane production and fermentation in in vitro ruminal cultures. The four PSMs were added anaerobically in a 6 mM concentration to 100 ml serum bottles containing 500 mg grass hay as a substrate, 10 ml rumen fluid collected from a fistulated sheep before morning feeding and 40 ml 141 DSM culture medium. The bottles were incubated at 39 ̊C. After 24 h, the following variables were measured: total gas volume, pH, methane and volatile fatty acids (VFAs production. The results showed that caffeic (p = 0.058 and p-coumaric (p = 0.052 acids tended to decrease methane production in comparison to control but the decrease was not statistic significantly at α= 0.05. The other two PSMs had no significant effect on methane production. Addition of PSMs did not affected the total gas volume, the pH and VFAs profile (P>0.05 in relation to the control (no PSM added. In conclusion, caffeic and p-coumaric acids in 6 mM concentration showed some promising effects for decreasing ruminal methane emissions without affecting ruminal fermentation parameters but

  15. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: ruminant production and metabolic responses to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2012-06-01

    Heat stress compromises efficient animal production by marginalizing nutrition, management, and genetic selection efforts to maximize performance endpoints. Modifying farm infrastructure has yielded modest success in mitigating heat stress-related losses, yet poor production during the summer remains arguably the costliest issue facing livestock producers. Reduced output (e.g., milk yield and muscle growth) during heat stress was traditionally thought to result from decreased nutrient intake (i.e., a classic biological response shared by all animals during environmental-induced hyperthermia). Our recent observations have begun to challenge this belief and indicate heat-stressed animals employ novel homeorhetic strategies to direct metabolic and fuel selection priorities independently of nutrient intake or energy balance. Alterations in systemic physiology support a shift in carbohydrate metabolism, evident by increased basal and stimulated circulating insulin concentrations. Perhaps most intriguing given the energetic shortfall of the heat-stressed animal is the apparent lack of basal adipose tissue mobilization coupled with a reduced responsiveness to lipolytic stimuli. Thus, the heat stress response markedly alters postabsorptive carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism independently of reduced feed intake through coordinated changes in fuel supply and utilization by multiple tissues. Interestingly, the systemic, cellular, and molecular changes appear conserved amongst different species and physiological states. Ultimately, these changes result in the reprioritization of fuel selection during heat stress, which appears to be primarily responsible for reduced ruminant animal productivity during the warm summer months.

  16. Utilization of by-products in ruminant diets in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.; Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out with the objective of studying the nutritive value of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products, either alone or in combination with non-protein nitrogen, and the use of these by-products in ruminant diets. The intake and nutritive value of poor quality roughages and other by-products (cereal straw, peanut hulls and waste paper) were improved considerably by supplements that provide nitrogen (soybean meal or urea) and energy (barley grain). Partial replacement of soybean meal in diets of fattening lambs by urea was possible and dry mature sheep could be maintained on cereal straw diets supplemented with small quantities of barley grain, urea, minerals and vitamins. Silage was made from citrus peels or grape marc and poultry litter. It replaced successfully part of the concentrate mixture in the diets of lactating cows and growing heifers. (author)

  17. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  18. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  19. Management of Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle for Improved Production: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Hussain; Amjad Ul Islam; Surinder Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a well-recognized digestive disorder that is an increasing health problem in most dairy herds. Feeding diets high in grain and other highly fermentable carbohydrates to dairy cows increases milk production, but also increases the risk of SARA. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis is defined as periods of moderately depressed ruminal pH, from about 5.5 to 5.0. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis may be associated with laminitis and other health problems resulting in decreased...

  20. innovations adoption levels of small ruminant farmers in tolon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    ruminant farmers need to adopt innovations in order to promote and sustain small ruminant production. This paper .... innovations have been adopted by small ruminant farmers in the Tolon-Kumbungu District of the. Northern Region ..... to be able to carry out closed castration in their respective communities. As indicated in ...

  1. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...

  2. Measuring and modelling in-vitro gas production kinetics to evaluate ruminal fermentation of feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuvink, J.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of kinetic gas production measurements for the evaluation of ruminant feedstuffs have been examined. Present in-vitro methods were mostly end- point methods. There was a need for a kinetic in-vitro method that described ruminal fermentation, due to new

  3. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressley, T F; Hall, M B; Armentano, L E

    2011-04-01

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the hindgut of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total-tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates from the small intestine, hindgut acidosis can occur. Hindgut acidosis is characterized by increased rates of production of short-chain fatty acids including lactic acid, decreased digesta pH, and damage to gut epithelium as evidenced by the appearance of mucin casts in feces. Hindgut acidosis is more likely to occur in high-producing animals fed diets with relatively greater proportions of grains and lesser proportions of forage. In these animals, ruminal acidosis and poor selective retention of fermentable carbohydrates by the rumen will increase carbohydrate flow to the hindgut. In more severe situations, hindgut acidosis is characterized by an inflammatory response; the resulting breach of the barrier between animal and digesta may contribute to laminitis and other disorders. In a research setting, effects of increased hindgut fermentation have been evaluated using pulse-dose or continuous abomasal infusions of varying amounts of fermentable carbohydrates. Continuous small-dose abomasal infusions of 1 kg/d of pectin or fructans into lactating cows resulted in decreased diet digestibility and decreased milk fat percentage without affecting fecal pH or VFA concentrations. The decreased diet digestibility likely resulted from increased bulk in the digestive tract or from increased digesta passage rate, reducing exposure of the digesta to intestinal enzymes and epithelial absorptive surfaces. The same mechanism is proposed to explain the decreased milk fat percentage because only milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids were decreased. Pulse-dose abomasal fructan infusions (1 g/kg of BW) into steers resulted in watery feces, decreased fecal pH, and increased fecal VFA concentrations, without causing an

  4. Cork for sustainable product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.; Gil, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable Product Design is currently accepted as one of the most promising trends in the “Sustainable Development” movement. It is often seen as a facilitation tool to implement Sustainability in practice, by improving the life cycle and eco-efficiency of products, by promoting dematerialization

  5. Physiological adaptations of ruminants and their potential relevance for production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Clauss

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Herbivores face the dilemma that the level of feed intake is negatively related to factors that determine digestive efficiency, such as thoroughness of ingesta comminution by chewing, and retention of digesta in the digestive tract. Ruminants have evolved particular adaptations to solve this dilemma. Most ruminants share the characteristic of “digesta washing”: fluid moves through their digestive tract faster than particles, thus effectively washing very fine particles, such as bacteria, out of the digesta plug. As the forestomach is followed by auto-enzymatic digestion, this allows a continuous, increased harvest of microbes from the forestomach. True rumination only evolved twice, in the camelids and the true ruminants. These both evolved a density-dependent sorting mechanism based on physical separation of the digesta by the process of flotation and sedimentation, ensuring that the process of rumination is applied to large particles. Differences in this sorting mechanism might facilitate a faster digesta processing in true ruminants as compared with camelids. The hallmark of ruminant digestive anatomy is the omasum, in which the fluid required for both digesta washing and the reticular separation mechanism is re-absorbed. In ruminants of the tribe Bovini, the omasum has reached the largest size and this group has a particularly great forestomach fluid throughput. Increasing the degree of digesta washing even more should increase microbial harvest from the forestomach and reduce the susceptibility to acidosis. At the same time, it should result in a metabolic state of the microbiome more tuned towards biomass production and less towards methanogenesis. Enhancing the forestomach fluid throughput by selective breeding could represent a promising way to further advance the productivity of the ruminant digestive tract.

  6. Sustainability within product portfolio management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.B.; Bakker, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    On both a strategic level and a product level a lot is known on how to integrate sustainability aspects. On the intermediate level of product portfolio management this is not true. Here the strategic sustainability goals of a company need to be translated into products. A company wanting to innovate

  7. Utilization of steam treated agricultural by -product as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, M.; Rajput, N.; Lili, Z.; Su, Z.; Rui, Y.; Tian, W.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of animal food is a burning issue of the recent time, whereas the agricultural by -products are readily available to be used as ruminants feed. However, the low protein and digestibility are the hindrances in utilization of these low quality crop residues as a feed. In order to utilize rice straw as animal feed this study was conducted to investigate the influence of steam explosion treatment on its composition and in vitro degradability. The samples, I (untreated rice straw), II (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/ sub2/ steam pressure for 90 sec) and III (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/steam pressure for 120 sec) were prepared. The results revealed that the crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents of rice straw were improved after treatment with steam explosion in time dependent manner (P<0.05). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and organic matter (OM) were higher, while dry matter (DM) and ash contents were lower (P<0.05) in II as compared to group I and III; however, after increasing the time at same pressure these parameters decreased. Furthermore, group III showed higher concentration of propionate, acetate, butyrate, and total VFA (P<0.05). While, group I exhibited higher concentration of iso-butyrate and iso-valerate (P<0.05). The concentration of valeric acid and acetate to propionate ratio were not affected by steam explosion treatment. Moreover, group III showed the higher in vitro DM degradability, OM degradability, DNDF and gas production (P<0.05); while, lower DADF and pH (P<0.05) compared with groups I and II. These findings suggest that the steam explosion treatment at 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/ pressure for 120 sec, may be used to enhance the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. (author)

  8. The role of condensed tannins in ruminant animal production: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley D. Naumann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tannins represent one of the most abundant polyphenolic compounds in plants. Tannins exist as a multitude of chemically unique entities in nature. The most commonly occurring tannins are typically divided into two major classes based on chemical structure: hydrolysable (HT or condensed tannins (CT. Hydrolysable tannins are esters of gallic or ellagic acid linked to a polyol core, typically glucose. Condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins consist of flavan-3-ol subunits linked together to form oligomers and polymers. Both HT and CT are defined as astringent, medium-to-high-molecular weight polyphenolic compounds that characteristically bind and precipitate soluble proteins. The objective of this paper was to present recent advances in CT-ruminant interactions, the limitations associated with understanding and using CT in ruminant animal production, and future needs for research to further advance our knowledge of the role of CT in optimization of ruminant animal production. Condensed tannins pose some anti-nutritional problems to ruminants due to their astringent property that reduces feed intake and, consequently, animal performance. Ruminants can, however, tolerate CT by slowly adapting the ruminal microbes to the toxic effects of CT and by releasing CT-binding salivary proteins. The protein-binding ability of CT has some benefits to the ruminant due to complexes formed with essential amino acids, preventing their degradation in the rumen, but releasing them in the lower gut for absorption by the animal. Recent data have suggested increased N retention when CT is given to growing animals. There are potential benefits of using CT and HT for anthelmintic purposes due to their ability to inhibit egg hatching and larval motility of gastrointestinal nematode parasites, especially in small ruminants. Condensed tannins also bind to minerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn. Although studies with ruminants have been contradictory, it has

  9. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  10. Acidosis ruminal en bovinos lecheros: implicaciones sobre la producción y la salud animal - Ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle: implications for animal health and production

    OpenAIRE

    Granja Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Ribeiro Junior, Carlos Stefenson; Toro Gomez, Daniela Juliana; Rivera Calderón, Luis Gabriel; Machado, Mirela; Manrique Ardila, Adalberto

    2012-01-01

    Ruminal acidosis is a major problem in the production of cattle fed diets rich in concentrates, especially in cows of high milk production. During rumen acidosis rumen pH is depressed due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and the decline of the mechanisms responsible for rumen buffering. Among the main causes of acidosis include consumption of diets high in fiber carbohydrates and lack of effective fiber added to them. The increase in ruminal acidity and osmolality by the accumulati...

  11. Diets in methane emissions during rumination process in cattle production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2011-01-01

    The population of ruminants in the world is increasing, since its products constitute a source of protein of high nutritional value for the human population; nevertheless, this increase, will contribute in great proportion to the global warming and to the deterioration of the ozone layer, since between the subproducts of the ruminal fermentation, carbonic gas and methane are found. &e last one is produced by the anaerobic bacteria present in the rumen that di'erent types of substrata use,...

  12. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration), and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing), is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961-2010. Here "potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density" denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals) or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers). When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat), ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961-2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over 3%) per decade

  13. Towards Sustainable Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulku, M. Ali; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    Concern for unsustainable development has peaked, and promoting and devising sustainable production and consumption is vital. Therefore, via an analytical model, we examine the impact of modularity and consumer sensitivity to sustainability on the pricing decisions of two competing firms. Consider...... concept and practice in developing sustainable products and thereby in production, which, in turn, may enhance sustainable consumption. This study's findings have direct implications for reverse supply chain management, and firms should take these findings into account early in the product design phase....... an environmentally conscious (green) consumer who will buy one of two available, horizontally differentiated products: a modular product (M) manufactured by Firm M or a standard product (S) manufactured by Firm S. Firm M can take advantage of its modular production technology and product return policy...

  14. Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of large intestinal or hindgut fermentation in ruminant nutrition has received little research attention in recent decades. Though the contribution of the hindgut to total tract nutrient digestion is substantially less than the contribution from the rumen, hindgut fermentation impacts anima...

  15. BOARD-invited review : Quantifying water use in ruminant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legesse, G.; Ominski, K. H.; Beauchemin, K. A.; Pfister, S.; Martel, M.; McGeough, E. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Kroebel, R.; Cordeiro, M. R.C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of

  16. Linking Peripartal Dynamics of Ruminal Microbiota to Dietary Changes and Production Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Hooman; Tun, Hein M.; Cardoso, Felipe C.; Plaizier, Jan C.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Loor, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    During the peripartal period, proper acclimatization of rumen microorganisms to variations in nutritional management can facilitate the transition into lactation. This study characterized the temporal shifts in the composition and functional properties of ruminal microbiota during the periparturient period in dairy cows subjected to a typical two-tiered feeding management approach. Ruminal digesta samples from eight multiparous fistulated Holstein cows were collected on days −14, −7, 10, 20, and 28 relative to parturition. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed distinct clustering patterns between pre- and postpartal ruminal microbiota. During the prepartal period, when the voluntary dry matter intake was lower, we observed strikingly lower inter-animal variations in the composition of the ruminal microbiota. Genera Ruminococcus and Butyrivibrio, which are considered major fibrolytic rumen dwellers, were overrepresented in the prepartal rumen ecosystem. In contrast, increased postpartal voluntary DMI was associated with enrichment of bacterial genera mainly consisting of proteolytic, amylolytic, and lactate-producer species (including Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus). These, together with the postpartal enrichment of energy metabolism pathways, suggested a degree of acclimatization of the ruminal microbiota to harvest energy from the carbohydrate-dense lactation diet. In addition, correlations between ruminal microbiota and parameters such as milk yield and milk composition underscored the metabolic contribution of this microbial community to the cow's performance and production. PMID:28127294

  17. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  18. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  19. Physiological adaptation for milk production in desert ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkolnik, A.

    1981-08-01

    The authors have shown that the black goats herded by the Bedouins in the deserts of Israel can graze in sun-scorched conditions even when still 2 days walking distance from any water source. Upon their arrival at a water hole, they consumed volumes of water which were greater than 40% of their dehydrated body weight. After drinking, their body water content was 76% of body weight; after grazing for 4 days with no water, the water content of their body was still within the normal range for ruminants and their body solids were also well maintained. It was concluded that the amount of water consumed by the goats after grazing was not only sufficient to replenish the loss of water incurred by grazing, but to re-establish the body water content at a higher than normal level and thereby provide a water store. Using 51 Cr EDTA to measure the flow of liquid out of the reticulo-rumen, the authors showed that this increased from 73 ml/hr to 250 ml/hr between the 1st and 5th hour after drinking, but even by 5 hours after drinking over 80% of the volume consumed was still in the reticulo-rumen. It is suggested that the rumen plays a major role in the water economy of desert ruminants in that it provides an essential mechanism by which they can store water and circumvent the hazards likely to follow rapid rehydration. Similar findings were obtained in the wild ruminants mentioned above

  20. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  1. Is Danish venison production sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -ranging wildlife). In the recommendations for the New Nordic Diet, the Danish consumers are, among other recommendations advised to consume 35 % less meat, with more than 4 % of the consumed meat being venison (Meyer et al. 2011). This may be an impossible target. The “wild” ingredients in a modern diet are all...... it possible to compare the environmental impact of the six types of venison with farmed and industrially produced meat. Venison of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer and wild boar are compared with beef, pork and lamb production. Mallard and pheasant are compared with chicken production. Preliminary results...... suggest that red deer production is twice as sustainable as beef production, while wild boar production is half as sustainable as pork production. One challenge in the environmental analyses of venison is that hunting typically has other purposes than food production. These include the recreational value...

  2. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  3. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  4. Effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and methane production of a grass-legume diet in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of oilseeds to pasture-based ruminant diets has been shown to decrease enteric CH4 emissions. However, little research has directly compared the effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and Methane (CH4) production. A 4-unit continuous culture fermentor system was used to test 4 oil...

  5. Diets in methane emissions during rumination process in cattle production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The population of ruminants in the world is increasing, since its products constitute a source of protein of high nutritional value for the human population; nevertheless, this increase, will contribute in great proportion to the global warming and to the deterioration of the ozone layer, since between the subproducts of the ruminal fermentation, carbonic gas and methane are found. &e last one is produced by the anaerobic bacteria present in the rumen that di'erent types of substrata use, principally H2 and CO2. &e action of the bacteria producers of methane depends to a great extent on the type of substrata presented in the diet, and of the chemical and physical characteristics of the same one. &erefore, it is possible to diminish the e'ects that the productive systems of ruminants have on the environment, o'ering the animals nutritional alternatives that besides reducing the emission of methane to the atmosphere, will also reduce the energetic losses that for this concept it presents in the ruminants. In the present review the idea of using forages of the tropic that contain secondary metabolics that could concern the population of protozoan’s combined with forages of high nutritional value is presented and the idea of obtaining very good proved productive results is possible to simultaneously diminishes the gas emission of methane to the atmosphere

  6. Can collusion promote sustainable consumption and production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Spiegel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several competition authorities have taken public interest considerations, such as promoting sustainable consumption and production, into account in cartel proceedings.We show that when consumers value sustainable products and firms choose investments in sustainability before choosing output,

  7. Non-protein and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareque, A.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to (1) investigate mixtures of locally available feedstuffs, particularly agro-industrial by-products with or without non-protein nitrogen supplementation as production rations for local and imported breeds of ruminants, (2) formulate rations based on locally available feedstuffs which can be compounded either on a large scale or at the village level for local animals, (3) determine the nutritive value of some non-conventional feedstuffs in terms of their digestibility and their ability to promote microbial synthesis. Rice straw, constituting about 85% of the total available feed dry matter in Bangladesh, is considered a basal, or sometimes the sole, feed for ruminant animals. The efficiency of utilization of rice straw could be improved by adding non-conventional feed resources, such as azolla, banana plant, sweet potato leaves and other legumes and grasses. Rates of growth and feed efficiency by local animals were found to be higher in those fed with urea treated rice straw or bagasse, with or without the addition of concentrates, than in animals fed untreated straw. Rations were also found to be satisfactory when rice straw was fed in combination with urea, legumes such as cowpea hay, azolla and sweet potato leaves or concentrates. It is concluded that the utilization of rice straw by ruminants can be improved by suitable supplementation with non-conventional feed resources. Research is needed to evaluate the use of molasses as a feed ingredient for ruminants in Bangladesh. (author)

  8. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  9. Ruminal Methane Production on Simple Phenolic Acids Addition in in Vitro Gas Production Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane production from ruminants contributes to total global methane production, which is an important contributor to global warming. In this experiment, six sources of simple phenolic acids (benzoic, cinnamic, phenylacetic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at two different levels (2 and 5 mM added to hay diet were evaluated for their potential to reduce enteric methane production using in vitro Hohenheim gas production method. The measured variables were gas production, methane, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA. The results showed that addition of cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at 5 mM significantly (P p-coumaric > ferulic > cinnamic. The addition of simple phenols did not significantly decrease OMD. Addition of simple phenols tends to decrease total SCFA production. It was concluded that methane decrease by addition of phenolic acids was relatively small, and the effect of phenolic acids on methane decrease depended on the source and concentration applied.

  10. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration), and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing), is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961–2010. Here “potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density” denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals) or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers). When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat), ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961–2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over 3

  11. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Chang

    Full Text Available About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration, and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing, is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961-2010. Here "potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density" denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers. When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat, ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961-2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over

  12. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors

  13. PADRÃO DE FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL DE BOVINOS RECEBENDO PRODUTO HOMEOPÁTICO STANDARD OF FERMENTATION RUMINAL OF BOVINES RECEIVING HOMEOPATHIC PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Jacomini Abud

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho refere-se à avaliação de um produto homeopático, a partir de seu uso continuado e ação bioestimulatória sobre o padrão de fermentação ruminal de bovinos. Foram realizadas as seguintes determinações no fluido ruminal: a concentração hidrogeniônica (pH, a prova de redução do azul de metileno (PRAM, o tempo de sedimentação e flotação (TAS, a concentração dos ácidos graxos voláteis (AGVs e do nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3, a contagem de protozoários ciliados do rúmen, além da degradação in situ da matéria seca através de incubações. Compararam-se os tratamentos mediante a avaliação da inclusão do carbonato de cálcio (Ca ao suplemento e a comparação do carbonato de Ca ao produto homeopático. A suplementação com carbonato de Ca causou mudanças no pH e nas porcentagens molares dos ácidos graxos voláteis do fluido ruminal. Em razão da redução na concentração de N-NH3 no fluido ruminal observada duas horas após a alimentação, conclui-se que a suplementação com o produto homeopático alterou a atividade proteolítica da microbiota ruminal. Os demais parâmetros analisados não foram sensíveis à suplementação com produto homeopático.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Avaliação ruminal, bovinos, suplementação homeopática. The work mentions the evaluation of a homeopathic product, from its continued use and bio-stimulation action on the standard of ruminal fermentation of bovines. It was evaluated pH, methylene blue reduction (RAM, time of sedimentation activity (TAS, volatile fatty acid and ammoniac nitrogen concentration, counting of the ciliated protozoa in the rumen and in situ dry matter degradation at rumen. The treatments through the evaluation of the inclusion of carbonate of calcium (Ca with the supplement and of the comparison of carbonate of Ca had been compared with the homeopathic product. The supplementation with carbonate of Ca caused changes in pH and in the molar

  14. Feeding strategies for improving ruminant productivity in areas of fluctuating nutrient supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This publication contains the results of a five-year Coordinated Research Programme aimed at assisting animal nutritionists in tropical and subtropical developing countries in their efforts to develop feeding systems for ruminant livestock. The feeds available have been studied, as have ways in which these may be manipulated to improve the efficiency with which they are used by animals for productive processes. The sixteen papers presented at the final research Coordination Meeting are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Feeding strategies for improving productivity of ruminant livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The primary function of the FAO/IAEA Programme on Animal Production and Health is to improve the capability of animal production and veterinary institutes in developing countries to conduct research into solving the problems of low animal productivity. The main objective of the Advisory Group Meeting was to review recent developments in ruminant nutrition research and identify developments and techniques that could be of use to developing Member States to increase livestock productivity. The report contains papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Can Collusion Promote Sustainable Consumption and Production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Spiegel, Y.

    Several competition authorities consider the exemption of horizontal agreements among firms from antitrust liability if the agreements sufficiently promote public interest objectives such as sustainable consumption and production. We show that when consumers value sustainable products and firms

  17. CONSIDERATIONS IN UTILIZING BY-PRODUCT CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    By-product feeds provide a variety of carbohydrates that can vary greatly in their content, digestibility, and physical effects. Variation in the composition and quality of by-product feeds needs to be evaluated to assess whether the variation poses an acceptable risk for inclusion of small or larg...

  18. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  19. Prophylactic Modulation of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emitted from Ruminants Livestock for Sustainable Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    J. Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Major greenhouse gases (GHG) attributed to animal agriculture sector are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), either generated from enteric fermentation or manure. The abatement mechanism of rumen CH4 emission may be divided to direct and indirect suppression to methanogens in the rumen.The most significant strategy to mitigate ruminal CH4 emission in indirect manner is to promote alternative metabolic pathway to dispose of the reducing power, competing with methanogenesis for H2 uptake. Th...

  20. Prophylactic Modulation of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emitted From Ruminants Livestock for Sustainable Animal Agriculture (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, J

    2014-01-01

    Major greenhouse gases (GHG) attributed to animal agriculture sector are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), either generated from enteric fermentation or manure. The abatement mechanism of rumen CH4 emission may be divided to direct and indirect suppression to methanogens in the rumen.The most significant strategy to mitigate ruminal CH4 emission in indirect manner is to promote alternative metabolic pathway to dispose of the reducing power, competing with methanogenesis for H2 uptake. Th...

  1. Costs-Returns Analysis of Small Ruminant (Sheep) Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs-returns analysis. Results from the analysis revealed that a net returns of N1,942,400.00 was realized with N 33.72 made on every naira invested. Sheep production is a profitable farming business, with attractive net return on investment. This study also ...

  2. Methane Production of Different Forages in Ruminal Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Meale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses, 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs. After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05 within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

  3. Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyoung Jeon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By-products of pickled radish (BPR are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient. Results BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM and chloride (142 g/kg DM. On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %. The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at 20 °C (room temperature might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production. Conclusion The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.

  4. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  5. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Manipulation of the rumen to increase ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Leng, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Manipulation of the rumen should be undertaken with a view to optimizing the supply of specific nutrients to the host animal. Especially important are the volatile fatty acids (glucogenic and non-glucogenic), and dietary and bypass amino acids and lipids. The animal's requirement for these nutrients varies according to its physiological state (growing, pregnant or lactating), its health (disease or parasite load), previous dietary history and also the prevailing climatic conditions. Often the availability of total protein (amino acids) relative to oxidizable substrates (the protein/energy or P/E ratio) is the primary limitation to voluntary feed intake and to efficient use of absorbed nutrients. In these instances, the first objective should be to maximize the yield of microbial amino acids from the rumen by manipulations that increase the net efficiency of microbial synthesis, e.g. by altering methods of feed processing, supplementing with urea and minerals, or eliminating protozoa. Further improvements in the P/E ratio can be attained by supplementing the animal with a dietary protein source with good rumen bypass characteristics in order to provide additional amino acids for intestinal absorption. Other potential manipulations of the rumen include the use of chemicals to modify rumen fermentation patterns and supplementation with long chain fatty acids (LCFA) (as a dense source of energy supplying substrate) in rumen-inert forms (e.g. as Ca-LCFA). However, when energy dense dietary supplements are given, it may be necessary to include a bypass protein source to maintain the P/E ratio. Novel possibilities for manipulation include the use of molecular biology techniques to create microorganisms with enhanced production of enzymes that promote degradation of structural carbohydrates, or with an ability to secrete chemicals that are toxic to protozoa. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  8. Touchpoint : A Foundation for Sustainable Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Durgin, Ron; Grierson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of sustainable development and the urgent need for society to understand and address human impacts on socio-ecological systems. Emerging from this broad context, the concept of sustainable product development (SPD) represents an important strategy to steer human society towards sustainability. This thesis investigates strategies for integrating sustainability concepts, through organisational learning and stakeholder management, into a new product developme...

  9. Protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive

  10. Price strategies for sustainable food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Sustainable products often suffer a competitive disadvantage compared with mainstream products because they must cover ecological and social costs that their competitors leave to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to identify price strategies for sustainable products that

  11. Integrated fly management in European ruminant operations from the perspective of directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, Luc; Estrada-Peña, Augustin; Franc, Michel; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2015-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) in agriculture animals remains undeveloped as compared to IPM in crops. With respect to the range of external nuisance arthropods that may bother farm animals, development and implementation of systematic IPM strategies are difficult to carry out. However, recurrent outbreaks of blue tongue disease in sheep and cattle, the public threats regarding the prophylactic use of veterinary insecticides and the need to preserve the efficacy of available actives have to lead the reflexion on new control strategies for arthropod pests of livestock. A recent extension of EU regulation on the use of pesticides in crops provides an opportunity to compare IPM strategies and to suggest new lines of reflection for the control of nuisance pests in ruminants under European conditions. In this paper, actions suggested by the Annex III of the Directive 2009/128/CE on Sustainable Use of Pesticides and related National Action Plans from 28 member states of the EU were reviewed from an animal production perspective by a group of veterinary entomologists. Eight lines of action have been identified and thus challenged with respect to current husbandry practices in modern European ruminant operations. Many IPM strategies for crops were identified to be unsuitable for large animals. Suggestions for implementing tools, opportunities and constraint assessment, and needs for support were also discussed. Only control of pest development sites and monitoring of harmful organisms were considered achievable in the near future; both in conjunction with the use of topical insecticides. Complementary actions such as alternatives to chemical control require further researches and industrial development. Marketing of IGR-based feed additives would be of great interest, but development of new compounds for veterinary medicines is very unlikely with respect to the European regulatory environment and associated cost of development.

  12. Nitrogen fractionation of certain conventional- and lesser-known by-products for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mahesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins for ruminants are fractionated according to solubility, degradability and digestibility. In the present experiment, 11 vegetable protein meals and cakes used in ruminant nutrition were included with a main focus on determining various nitrogen (N fractions in vitro. Total N (N × 6.25 content varied from 22.98% (mahua cake to 65.16% (maize gluten meal, respectively. Guar meal korma contained the lowest and rice gluten meal had the highest acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; N × 6.25. Borate-phosphate insoluble N (BIN, N × 6.25 and Streptomyces griseus protease insoluble N (PIN; N × 6.25 were higher (P < 0.01 in maize gluten meal than in other feeds, whereas groundnut cake and sunflower cake had lower (P < 0.01 BIN, and PIN, respectively. Available N, calculated with the assumption that ADIN is indigestible, was maximum in guar meal korma and minimum in rice gluten meal. Furthermore, rapid and slowly degradable N (N × 6.25 was found to be higher (P < 0.01 in groundnut cake and coconut cake, respectively. Intestinal digestion of rumen undegradable protein, expressed as percent of PIN, was maximum in guar meal korma and minimum in rice gluten meal. It was concluded that vegetable protein meals differed considerably in N fractions, and therefore, a selective inclusion of particular ingredient is needed to achieve desired level of N fractions to aid precision N rationing for an improved production performance of ruminants.

  13. Modeling European ruminant production systems: facing the challenges of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipling, Richard Philip; Bannink, Andre; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    changes affect a range of economic and environmental variables at regional, national and European scales. Models at larger scales generally utilise more empirical approaches than those applied at animal, field and farm-scales and include assumptions which may not be valid under climate change conditions......Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse...... gas (GHG) emissions, while intensification of production has driven biodiversity and nutrient loss, and soil degradation. Modeling can offer insights into the complexity underlying the relationships between climate change, management and policy choices, food production, and the maintenance...

  14. A statistical study on consumer's perception of sustainable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Izvercian, Monica; Ivaşcu, Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability and sustainable concepts are quite often but not always used correctly. The statistical research on consumer's perception of sustainable products has tried to identify the level of knowledge regarding the concept of sustainability and sustainable products, the selected criteria concerning the buying decision, the intention of purchasing a sustainable product, main sustainable products preferred by consumers.

  15. Effects of supplementation frequency on the ruminal fermentation and enteric methane production of beef cattle grazing in tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of ruminal fermentation and enteric methane production in beef cattle subjected to different supplementation frequencies while grazing on Brachiaria brizanthacv. Marandu pastures. Nine cattle (325±65.7 kg BW fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in the ruminal fermentation study, and 12 cattle (399±32.6 kg BW were used in the enteric methane production study. The treatments included supplementation once daily, supplementation once daily except Saturdays and Sundays, or supplementation on alternate days. The supplementation was equivalent to 10 g kg−1 BW day−1 for all treatments. The design employed was completely randomized with three treatments and three replications. When all supplements were provided (day 1, no effects of supplementation frequency were observed on ruminal pH; concentration of NH3-N; concentration of acetic, propionic, or butyric acids; or total volatile fatty acids (VFA, but there were month effects. During the day on which only daily supplements were provided (day 2, significant differences were observed only on the molar concentration of acetic acid and total VFA; and month effects were noted on all variables. No significant differences were observed in ruminal fluid volume, dilution rate, N intake, bacterial N synthesis and enteric methane production among the studied supplementation frequencies. Differences were observed in the enteric methane production in the different months, with 85 g kg−1 of gross energy intake observed in September and 123 g kg−1 of gross energy intake observed in November. Lower supplementation frequency is a good option to lower labor costs with little or no consequences on ruminal fermentation characteristics and enteric methane production.

  16. In vitro gas production tests on irradiated-chicken feathers to estimate its nutritive value as feed for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.; De Vera, Azucena C.; Asaad, Celia O.; Ellana, Marivic M.

    2003-01-01

    Chicken feathers are a highly abundant agro-waste product containing high amount of protein from keratin. However, these are not practically utilized as animal feeds since they provide little, if any nutritional value due to low digestibility in its natural state. Using an in vitro fermentation approach, the ruminant feed potential of chicken feathers treated with gamma-radiation was estimated. Gas production within an incubation period of 96 hours was monitored and values were fitted in the rumen degradability model by McDonald and Orskov (1981). Radiation treatment which could induce depolymerization of chicken feather keratin allowed for the improvement in the nutritive value for ruminants by liberating an additional 7.2% in metabolizable energy (ME) (P<0.005) for ruminant livestock. However, increasing the absorbed dose to 50 kGy resulted in significantly lower energy value for the feather substrate possibility accrued from the induced protein-protein cross-linking phenomenon. (Authors)

  17. Modification of ruminal fermentation and methane production by adding legumes containing condensed tannins to an orchardgrass diet in continuous culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condensed tannins (CT) can alter ruminal fermentation and enteric methane (CH4) production in ruminants; however, research is lacking on how increased CT levels affect nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, bacterial protein synthesis, fatty acid (FA) profiles, protozoal popul...

  18. Folate promotes S-adenosyl methionine reactions and the microbial methylation cycle and boosts ruminants production and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja; Abbasi, Farzana; Wang, Lamei; Abd El Hack, Mohamed E; Swelum, Ayman A; Hao, Ren; Yao, Junhu; Cao, Yangchun

    2018-04-23

    Folate has gained significant attention due to its vital role in biological methylation and epigenetic machinery. Folate, or vitamin (B 9 ), is only produced through a de novo mechanism by plants and micro-organisms in the rumen of mature animals. Although limited research has been conducted on folate in ruminants, it has been noted that ruminal synthesis could not maintain folate levels in high yielding dairy animals. Folate has an essential role in one-carbon metabolism and is a strong antiproliferative agent. Folate increases DNA stability, being crucial for DNA synthesis and repair, the methylation cycle, and preventing oxidation of DNA by free radicals. Folate is also critical for cell division, metabolism of proteins, synthesis of purine and pyrimidine, and increasing the de novo delivery of methyl groups and S-adenosylmethionine. However, in ruminants, metabolism of B 12 and B 9 vitamins are closely connected and utilization of folate by cells is significantly affected by B 12 vitamin concentration. Supplementation of folate through diet, particularly in early lactation, enhanced metabolic efficiency, lactational performance, and nutritional quality of milk. Impaired absorption, oxidative degradation, or deficient supply of folate in ruminants affects DNA stability, cell division, homocysteine remethylation to methionine, de novo synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, and increases DNA hypomethylation, uracil misincorporation into DNA, chromosomal damage, abnormal cell growth, oxidative species, premature birth, low calf weight, placental tube defects, and decreases production and reproduction of ruminant animals. However, more studies are needed to overcome these problems and reduce enormous dietary supplement waste and impaired absorption of folate in ruminants. This review was aimed to highlight the vital role of folic acid in ruminants performance.

  19. CIRP Design 2012 Sustainable Product Development

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    During its life cycle, a product produces waste that is over 20 times its weight. As such it is critical to develop products that are sustainable. Currently product development processes lack high quality methods and tools that are empirically validated to support development of sustainable products. This book is a compilation of over forty cutting edge international research papers from the 22nd CIRP International Design Conference, written by eminent researchers from 15 countries, on engineering design process, methods and tools, broadly for supporting sustainable product development.   A variety of new insights into the product development process, as well as a host of methods and tools that are at the cutting edge of design research are discussed and explained covering a range of diverse topics. The areas covered include: ·Sustainable design and manufacturing, ·Design synthesis and creativity, ·Global product development and product life cycle management, ·Design for X (safety, reliability, manufactu...

  20. Short lecture series in sustainable product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2005-01-01

    Three lectures in sustainable product development models, methods and mindsets should give insight into the way of thinking about the environment when developing products. The first two lectures will guide you through: . Environmental problems in industry & life-cycle thinking . Professional...... methods for analysing and changing products’ environmental profiles . Sustainability as a driver for innovation...

  1. Developing a conceptual model of possible benefits of condensed tannins for ruminant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, L O; Ramírez-Restrepo, C A; Muir, J P

    2014-07-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants have compelled a wide range of research initiatives to identify environmental abatement opportunities. However, although such mitigations can theoretically be attained with feed additives and feeding strategies, the limited empirical evidence on plant extracts used as feed additives does not support extensive or long-term reductions. Nevertheless, their strategic use (i.e. alone or combined in a simultaneous or consecutive use) may provide not only acceptable CH4 abatement levels, but also relevant effects on animal physiology and productivity. Condensed tannins (CT) represent a range of polyphenolic compounds of flavan-3-ol units present in some forage species that can also be added to prepared diets. Methods to determine CT, or their conjugated metabolites, are not simple. Although there are limitations and uncertainties about the methods to be applied, CT are thought to reduce CH4 production (1) indirectly by binding to the dietary fibre and/or reducing the rumen digestion and digestibility of the fibre and (2) directly by inhibiting the growth of rumen methanogens. On the basis of their role in livestock nutrition, CT influence the digestion of protein in the rumen because of their affinity for proteins (e.g. oxidative coupling and H bonding at neutral pH) that causes the CT-protein complex to be insoluble in the rumen; and dissociate in the abomasum at pH 2.5 to 3.0 for proteolysis and absorption in the small intestine. CT may also reduce gastro-intestinal parasite burdens and improve reproductive performance, foetal development, immune system response, hormone serum concentrations, wool production and lactation. The objectives of this paper are to discuss some of the beneficial and detrimental effects of CT on ruminant production systems and to develop a conceptual model to illustrate these metabolic relationships in terms of systemic physiology using earlier investigations with the CT-containing legume Lotus

  2. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A; Hristov, A; Leão, M I

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical ruminal protozoa-suppressing agent and assess effects of protozoal suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In a pilot study, 6 lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a randomized complete-block design trial. Cows were fed a basal total mixed ration (TMR) containing (DM basis) 15% alfalfa silage, 40% corn silage, 30% rolled high moisture shelled corn, and 14% solvent soybean meal, and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) control, 2) 160 g/d of LA, or 3) 222 g/d of sodium laurate, which is equimolar to 160 g/d of LA, all given as a single dose into the rumen via cannulae before feeding. Both agents showed high antiprotozoal activity when pulse dosed at these amounts via ruminal cannulae, reducing protozoa by 90% (PLauric acid reduced ruminal ammonia concentration by 60% (P<0.01) without altering DMI. Both agents reduced ruminal total free AA concentration (P<0.01) and LA did not affect ruminal pH or total VFA concentration. In a large follow-up feeding trial, 52 Holstein cows (8 with ruminal cannulae) were used in a randomized complete-block design trial. Cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets and fed only that diet throughout the study. The TMR contained (DM basis) 29% alfalfa silage, 36% corn silage, 14% rolled high moisture shelled corn, and 8% solvent soybean meal. The 4 experimental diets were similar, except part of the finely ground dry corn was replaced with LA in stepwise increments from 0 to 0.97% of dietary DM, which provided (as consumed) 0, 83, 164, and 243 g/d of LA. Adding these amounts of LA to the TMR did not affect DMI, ruminal pH, or other ruminal traits, and milk production. However, LA consumed at 164 and 243 g/d in the TMR reduced the protozoal population by only 25% and 30% (P=0.05), respectively, showing that these levels, when added to the TMR, were not sufficient to achieve a concentration within the rumen that

  3. Prophylactic Modulation of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emitted from Ruminants Livestock for Sustainable Animal Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Takahashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major greenhouse gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture sector are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, either generated from enteric fermentation or manure. The abatement mechanism of rumen CH4 emission may be divided to direct and indirect suppression to methanogens in the rumen.The most significant strategy to mitigate ruminal CH4 emission in indirect manner is to promote alternative metabolic pathway to dispose of the reducing power, competing with methanogenesis for H2 uptake. This includes prebiotics and probiotics (mostly propionate enhancers which consume metabolic hydrogen (H2 compete with methanogens and abate rumen methanogenesis in indirect manner. With regard to mitigate GHG emissions from manure, such waste has been proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources through biogas plant. Furthermore, in advanced new biogas system, the ammonia stripping from digested slurry of livestock manure in biogas plant has been examined to apply to nitrogen recycling-options mitigating N2O emission. These options are: (1 ammonolysis on fiber-rich feedstuffs, (2 saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass to produce bio-ethanol, and (3 reformed hydrogen into NH3 fuel cell to generate electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM.

  4. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  5. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Oman, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom...) The gelatin must be imported for use in human food, human pharmaceutical products, photography, or some other use that will not result in the gelatin coming in contact with ruminants in the United...

  6. PRODUCTION OF HOMOLOGOUS LIVE ATTENUATED CELL CULTURE VACCINE FOR THE CONTROL OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS IN SMALL RUMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ASIM, A. RASHID, A. H. CHAUDHARY AND M. S. NOOR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibody response of a live-attenuated Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR cell culture vaccine was studied at Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, one group of five sheep and 5 goats each was vaccinated subcutaneously with 1 ml reconstituted PPR vaccine and second group of five sheep and 5 goats was inoculated with 1 ml saline solution. Blood samples were collected before and after vaccination, sera were obtained and analyzed for antibodies against PPR by competitive ELISA (cELISA. Findings suggested that antibody titres at day zero, 21 and 45 were 24.762 ± 2.69, 65.467 ± 2.29 and 83.012 ± 2.11 in sheep and 18.723 ± 2.27, 59.162 ± 1.53 and 72.176 ± 2.93 in goats, respectively. No untoward reactions were observed following vaccination. All vaccinated animals developed high titre of antibodies (PI>50.

  7. A short course in sustainable product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2005-01-01

    This short course in sustainable product development models, methods and mindsets is designed to fit into the Unical course on Engineering Design Methods. Three modules (called “seminars”) will guide you through . The demands for sustainable development . Professional methods for analysing...... and changing products’ environmental profiles . A new approach to product service system development, where the physical product becomes an incidental aspect in the final offering to the customer...

  8. Manipulating Protein Degradability in the Rumen to Support Higher Ruminant Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein is digested to a certain extent in the rumen causing decreases its potency as source of amino acids for the animal. Dietary protein should mostly reach the intestines where the protein digestion takes place and absorption occurs in the form of intact amino acids and subsequently becomes nutrient deposition in muscles or milk. The higher muscle or milk protein synthesis, the higher the protein in the products of animal, as long as energy for the metabolism is available. Strategies of feeding rumen degradable versus undegradable protein in ruminant have become a research interest for decades. Technologies of dietary protein protection to reduce its degradability in the rumen by heating, chelating or coating have been developed.

  9. Caprine nictitating membrane cell culture for production of small ruminants lentivirus antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Alana Aragão de Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Azevedo D.A.A., Araújo J.F., Sousa A.L.M. de, Dias R.P., Souza T.S. de, Andrioli A. & Pinheiro R.R. [Caprine nictitating membrane cell culture for production of small ruminants lentivirus antigen.] Produção de antí- geno de lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes através da cultura celular de membrana nictitante caprina. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:316-320, 2015. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, Fazenda Três Lagoas, Estrada Sobral/Jordão Km 4, Sobral, CE 62010-970, Brasil. E-mail: dalvaazevedo@outlook.com Small Ruminants lentivirus (SRLV belong to the Retroviridae family and is the etiologic agent of caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats and maedi-visna in sheep. Cells of the monocytic-phagocytic lineage are the main viral targets and infected hosts cannot develop a curative immune response. We evaluated whether nictitating membrane (NM cells can be cultivated in vitro and also whether it is a feasible system for SRLV antigen production for immunodiagnosis purposes. MN cells were collected from a SRLV negative animal and cultivated in minimal essential media supplemented with bovine fetal serum. Subcultures were inoculated with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV Cork strain, the supernatant was collected, clarified by centrifugation (3.400 g for 20 minutes, concentrated using the AMICON® system. Samples were subjected to agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID tests. MN cells presented satisfactory performance, were amenable to several subcultivation.

  10. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P dairy cows were fed the basal diet from 1 to 7 days (pre-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 6 and 7; the same cows then were fed 1.0 × 1011 cfu/day B. subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P probiotic for dairy cows.

  11. Transitioning Wood Furniture Products towards Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lei; Zhang, WeiGuang; Zhang, WeiQing

    2008-01-01

    Wood Furniture Products (WFPs) play a significant role in both the global economy and the transition of society towards sustainability. This paper begins with a brief description of the industry and highlights the current challenges and compelling measures of WFPs from a systems perspective through the lens of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and by applying backcasting from sustainability principles (SPs). An examination of the challenges and opportunities of WFPs i...

  12. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen, 2) to assess LA effects on production and ruminal metabolism, and 3) to determine the time needed for RP to reestablish themselves after LA is withdrawn from the diet of lactating dairy cows. In Exp. 1, 2 Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a split-plot design pilot study. Both cows consumed the same level of LA, starting with 0 g/d and increasing to 129, 270, and 438 g/d mixed into the diet. Diets were fed as total mixed ration (TMR) and contained (DM basis) 30% corn silage, 30% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. Lauric acid intake linearly decreased DMI (P = 0.03), RP numbers (P Lauric acid intake linearly increased ruminal valerate molar proportion (P = 0.02). A quadratic response of LA consumption was observed on total ruminal VFA concentration (P acid (TAA) concentration (P < 0.01), with minimum concentration at 270 g/d of LA intake. After withdrawing the greatest LA dose from the diet, RP returned to their original numbers in 12 d. In Exp. 2, 48 multiparous Holstein cows (8 with ruminal cannulae) were blocked by days in milk into 12 blocks of 4 cows (2 blocks of cannulated cows) and randomly assigned within replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to balanced dietary treatment sequences. Diets were fed as TMR and contained (DM basis) 36% corn silage, 29% alfalfa silage, and 35% concentrate, and LA intake levels were 0, 220, 404, and 543 g/d mixed in the TMR. In Exp. 2, LA linearly reduced RP (P < 0.01), ruminal ammonia (P < 0.01), and total free AA concentration (P < 0.01); however, dietary LA also linearly decreased DM intake (P < 0.01). Intake of LA linearly reduced ruminal total VFA concentration (P < 0.01); DM, OM, NDF, and CP digestibility (P < 0.01); and milk production and milk components (P < 0.01). Therefore

  13. Beef Production & Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, Jennifer; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  14. Supporting Sustainability and Personalization with Product Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Taps, Stig B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass Customization, Personalization and Co-creation (MCPC) are continuously being adopted as a competitive business strategy. Consumers as well as governments are at the same time applying pressure on companies to adopt a more sustainable strategy, consumers request greener products and governments...... apply rules for reuse and more eco-friendly manufacturing. There are several factors which could indicate that MCPC would not unify the support of a strategy for sustainability, however there are also factors which could increase the sustainability of products designed for MCPC. Modularization...... is a driver for MCPC and earlier research within product architecture has indicated that modularization could support sustainability. In this paper, work on the drivers for modularization with focus on sustainability and MCPC, will be presented. Several modularization methods and drivers are analyzed...

  15. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Methods The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con, 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW. Results The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the group receiving 100 mg/kg BW. Milk yields and the fat, protein and lactose of milk were unaffected by AFE, while the total solids content of milk reduced (p = 0.05 linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of the control group. Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein showed a tendency to increase (0.05ruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by AFE supplementation. Relative levels of the rumen microbe Ruminococcus flavefaciens tended to decrease (p = 0.09 quadratically, whereas those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a tendency to increase (p = 0.07 quadratically in response to AFE supplementation

  16. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  17. Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

  18. Sustainability impacts of building products: An assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates sustainability impacts of building products during production stage in developing countries. An analysis of literature is undertaken in order to establish current building product assessment methodologies and their relevance to developing country contexts. The review finds that many of these ...

  19. Effects of lauric and myristic acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Long, M; Heyler, K; Corl, B; Forster, R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of lauric (LA) and myristic (MA) acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in lactating dairy cows and to identify the FA responsible for the methanogen-suppressing effect of coconut oil. The experiment was conducted as a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Six ruminally cannulated cows (95±26.4 DIM) were subjected to the following treatments: 240 g/cow per day each of stearic acid (SA, control), LA, or MA. Experimental periods were 28 d and cows were refaunated between periods. Lauric acid reduced protozoal counts in the rumen by 96%, as well as acetate, total VFA, and microbial N outflow from the rumen, compared with SA and MA. Ruminal methane production was not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake was reduced 35% by LA compared with SA and MA, which resulted in decreased milk yield. Milk fat content also was depressed by LA compared with SA and MA. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content. All treatments increased milk concentration of the respective treatment FA. Concentration of C12:0 was more than doubled by LA, and C14:0 was increased (45%) by MA compared with SA. Concentration of milk FAC16 FA and MUFA were increased, by LA compared with the other treatments. In this study, LA had profound effects on ruminal fermentation, mediated through inhibited microbial populations, and decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat content. Despite the significant decrease in protozoal counts, however, LA had no effect on ruminal methane production. Thus, the antimethanogenic effect of coconut oil, observed in related studies, is likely due to total FA application level, the additive effect of LA and MA, or a combination of both. Both LA and MA modified milk FA profile significantly. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  1. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Gary L. Benson; James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Divisions 5 Conference in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11-15, 2003, focused on issues surrounding sustainable foest management and forest products research. As the conference title "Forest Products Research: Providing for Sustainable Choices" suggests, the purpose of the conference was to...

  2. Potential of Ruminant Feed with Appearance of In Vitro Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsoni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has many kinds of feedstuff with different qualities that can be used as ruminants feed. One way to evaluate it is analyzing the performance of the feed gas production value in vitro. Feed ingredients tested in this study were the flour of coffee hull, peanut hull, field grass, turn leaves, rice straw and fermented rice straw. Samples weighed 200 ± 5 mg, put into a 100 ml syringe glass, added 30 ml buffalo rumen liquor with bicarbonate buffer medium, then incubated in the water bath at 39 ° C for 48 hours. Neway software and random block design with 4 blocks are used to calculate the value of fitted gas and to analyze the variance. The variables measured were gas production 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, organic material degradable, gas production potential (a+b, gas production rate (k. The highest gas production 24, 48 and 72 hours from the field grass treatment (C was 36.33, 51.12 and 56.29 ml/200 mg DM but 96 hours of rice straw ie 59.60 ml/200 mg DM, while the lowest (24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of coffee skin (6.08, 7.77, 7.61, and 7.68 ml/200 mg DM respectively. The highest gas production potential of rice straw is 69.13 ml/200 mg DM and the lowest of coffee skin is 7.72 ml/200 mg BK. The highest percentage of gas production after 24 hours was obtained Turi leaves (D: 91.46% and the lowest rice straw (E: 41.22%. Rice straw can be suggested to be field grass substitution by processed again to reduce its crude fiber content, while the coffee and peanut hulls need further study, due to low gas production potential of 7.72 and 11.45 ml / 200 mg DM.

  3. Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Garry C; McNabb, Warren C

    2003-05-01

    Plant phenolic compounds are diverse in structure but are characterised by hydroxylated aromatic rings (e.g. flavan-3-ols). They are categorised as secondary metabolites, and their function in plants is often poorly understood. Many plant phenolic compounds are polymerised into larger molecules such as the proanthocyanidins (PA; condensed tannins) and lignins. Only the lignins, PA, oestrogenic compounds and hydrolysable tannins will be considered here. Lignins slow the physical and microbial degradation of ingested feed, because of resilient covalent bonding with hemicellulose and cellulose, rather than any direct effects on the rumen per se. The PA are prevalent in browse and are expressed in the foliage of some legumes (e.g. Lotus spp.), but rarely in grasses. They reduce the nutritive value of poor-quality diets, but can also have substantial benefits for ruminant productivity and health when improved temperate forages are fed. Beneficial effects are dependent on the chemical and physical structure, and concentration of the PA in the diet, but they have been shown to improve live-weight gain, milk yield and protein concentration, and ovulation rate. They prevent bloat in cattle, reduce gastrointestinal nematode numbers, flystrike and CH4 production. Some phenolic compounds (e.g. coumestans) cause temporary infertility, whilst those produced by Fusarium fungi found in pasture, silage or stored grains can cause permanent infertility. The HT may be toxic because products of their metabolism can cause liver damage and other metabolic disorders.

  4. "Clean, green and ethical" animal production. Case study: reproductive efficiency in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme B; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2006-02-01

    In response to changes in society and thus the marketplace, we need a vision for the future of our animal industries, including both on-farm and off-farm activities, that is "clean, green and ethical". Using small ruminants as a case study, we describe three "clean, green and ethical" strategies that farmers could use to improve reproductive performance. The first allows control of the timing of reproductive events by using socio-sexual signals (the "male effect") to induce synchronised ovulation in females. The second strategy, "focus feeding", is based on using short periods of nutritional supplements that are precisely timed and specifically designed for each event in the reproductive process (eg, gamete production, embryo survival, fetal programming, colostrum production). The third strategy aims to maximize offspring survival by a combination of management, nutrition and genetic selection for behaviour (temperament). All of these approaches involve non-pharmacological manipulation of the endogenous control systems of the animals and complement the detailed information from ultrasound that is now becoming available. Importantly, these approaches all have a solid foundation in reproductive biology. In several cases, they are currently used in commercial practice, but there is still room for improvement through both basic and applied research. Ultimately, these "clean, green and ethical" tools can be cost-effective, increase productivity and, at the same time, greatly improve the image of meat and milk industries in society and the marketplace.

  5. Graded substitution of grains with bakery by-products modulates ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradation, and microbial community composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Aditya, S; Kaltenegger, A; Klevenhusen, F; Petri, R M; Zebeli, Q

    2018-02-07

    A new segment of feed industry based on bakery by-products (BBP) has emerged. Yet, information is lacking regarding the effects of inclusion of BBP in ruminant diets on ruminal fermentation and microbiota. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gradual replacement of grains by BBP on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradation, and microbial community composition using the rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 42:58 (dry matter basis), but differed in the concentrate composition with either 45% cereal grains or BBP, whereby 15, 30, or 45% of BBP were used in place of cereal grains. The inclusion of increasing levels of BBP in the diet linearly enhanced ruminal degradation of starch from 84% (control) to 96% (45% BBP), while decreasing degradation of crude protein and fiber. The formation of methane was lowered in the 45% BBP diet compared with all other diets. Whereas the ammonia concentration was similar in the control and 15% BBP, a significant decrease was found in 30% BBP (-23%) and 45% BBP (-33%). Also, BBP feeding shifted fermentation profile toward propionate at the expense of acetate. Moreover, isobutyrate linearly decreased with increasing BBP inclusion. Bacterial 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq (Microsynth AG, Balach, Switzerland) sequencing revealed a decreased microbial diversity for the 45% BBP diet. Furthermore, the replacement of cereal grains with BBP went along with an increased abundance of the genera Prevotella, Roseburia, and Megasphaera, while decreasing Butyrivibrio and several OTU belonging to Ruminococcaceae. In conclusion, the inclusion of BBP at up to 30% of the dry matter had no detrimental effects on pH, fiber degradability, and microbial diversity, and enhanced propionate production. However, a higher replacement level (45%) impaired ruminal fermentation traits and fiber degradation and is not recommended. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association

  6. Dietary sources and their effects on animal production and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has been an important component in the integrated farming systems in developing countries. It serves in a paramount diversified role in producing animal protein food, draft power, farm manure as well as ensuring social status-quo and enriching livelihood. Ruminants are importantly contributable to the well-being and the livelihood of the global population. Ruminant production systems can vary from subsistence to intensive type of farming depending on locality, resource availability, infrastructure accessibility, food demand and market potentials. The growing demand for sustainable animal production is compelling to researchers exploring the potential approaches to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG emissions from livestock. Global warming has been an issue of concern and importance for all especially those engaged in animal agriculture. Methane (CH4 is one of the major GHG accounted for at least 14% of the total GHG with a global warming potential 25-fold of carbon dioxide and a 12-year atmospheric lifetime. Agricultural sector has a contribution of 50 to 60% methane emission and ruminants are the major source of methane contribution (15 to 33%. Methane emission by enteric fermentation of ruminants represents a loss of energy intake (5 to 15% of total and is produced by methanogens (archae as a result of fermentation end-products. Ruminants׳ digestive fermentation results in fermentation end-products of volatile fatty acids (VFA, microbial protein and methane production in the rumen. Rumen microorganisms including bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores are closely associated with the rumen fermentation efficiency. Besides using feed formulation and feeding management, local feed resources have been used as alternative feed additives for manipulation of rumen ecology with promising results for replacement in ruminant feeding. Those potential feed additive practices are as follows: 1 the use of plant extracts or plants containing

  7. Urea plus nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws enhances degradation and reduces methane production in in vitro ruminal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiumin; Wang, Min; Rong, Wang; Zhiyuan, Ma; Donglei, Long; Hongxiang, Mao; Jiangnan, Wen; Bernard, Lukuyu A; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-04-10

    Urea pretreatment of straw damages fiber structure while nitrate supplementation of ruminal diets inhibits enteric methane production. The study examined the combined effects of these treatments on ruminal substrate biodegradation and methane production using an in vitro incubation system. Rice and wheat straws were pretreated with urea (40 g kg -1 of straw dry matter, DM) and urea + ammonium nitrate (34 + 6 g kg -1 of DM, respectively), and each straw (control, urea, urea+nitrate) was used in batch culture incubations in 3 replications (runs). Urea pretreatment increased (P < 0.05) neutral-detergent solubles (NDS) content (+17%) and in vitro DM degradation of rice straw, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws had higher (P < 0.05) NDS content, in vitro DM degradation and propionate molar proportion, and lower (P < 0.05) acetate to propionate ratio and lower methane production with a decline of methanogens, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment combines positive effects of urea pretreatment and nitrate supplementation, and can be a potential strategy to improve ruminal biodegradation, facilitate propionate production and reduce methane production from lignified straws. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainable Aluminum and Iron Production

    OpenAIRE

    Beheshti, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium recycling requires 95% less energy than primary production with no loss of quality. The Black Dross (BD) produced during secondary aluminium production contains high amounts of water-soluble compounds, therefore it is considered as a toxic waste. In the present work, salt removal from BD by thermal treatment has been investigated in laboratory scale. The optimum conditions for treatment were established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size....

  9. The Effect of Monensin or Protexin on Gas Production Parameters of Alfalfa and Barley in the Ruminal Fungi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid sobhanirad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the legislation of European Union has prohibited the use of growth-promoting antibiotics such as: monensin, there is an interest in alternatives to manipulate the rumen fermentation. The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feeds is banned in Europe due to having potential risks such as the spread of antibiotic resistance genes or the contamination of milk or meat with antibiotic residues. Recently, probiotics have been increasingly evaluated to replace or facilitate reductions in the use of antibiotics. Thus, the aim of this study was investigating the comparison of antibiotic (sodium monensin and probiotic (protexin on the gas production parameters and organic matter digestibility of feedstuffs (alfalfa hay, barley grain, and alfalfa+ barley mixture Materials and Methods Experimental treatments were included control (basal feeds without additive, basal feeds supplemented with sodium monensin or protexin probiotic at levels of 500 or 1000 mg per kg of DM in a rumen fungi culture. Ruminal fluid was collected from two fistulated sheep (49.5±2.5 kg and all samples were withdrawn 2 h after the morning ration had been consumed. Collected ruminal contents were strained through four layers of cheesecloth and brought immediately to the laboratory. To have a pure ruminal fungi culture, whole ruminal fluid was centrifuged at 1000 g for 10 min and added 0.100 mg/ml antibacterial agent (streptomycin sulfate, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol (14, 35. Gas production technique was used to detect the fermentation parameters of the treatments (16.Three parallel syringes of each treatment were prepared in this experiment. To measure the total gas production (A and the rate of gas production (c, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of treatments until 120 h. Gas production was measured directly from the volume of the syringes at 0, 3, 6, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Statistical analysis of data

  10. Is rumination time an indicator of methane production in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Difford, Gareth; Lassen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    . An ideal indicator trait must, in addition to express genetic variation, have a strong correlation with the trait of interest. Our aim was to estimate individual level and phenotypic correlations between rumination time (RT), CH4 production (CH4P) and DMI, as to determine if RT could be used...... as an indicator trait for CH4P and DMI. Data from 343 Danish Holstein cows were collected at the Danish cattle research center, for a period of approximately three years. The dataset consisted of 14,890 records for DMI; 12,835 for RT; and 6,693 for CH4P. Data was divided in primiparous cows only (PP...... RT and both CH4P and DMI were close to zero, regardless of lactation stage and dataset (PP or MP). However, CH4P and DMI were highly correlated, both across lactation stages and datasets. In conclusion, RT is unsuitable to be used as an indicator trait for either CH4 production or DMI. Our study...

  11. Sustainability and democracy in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2005-01-01

    The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generated...... a proposal for a democratic legitimate concept of sustainable bread production...

  12. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ is multi-dimensional, encompassing economic, environmental, social, and institutional governance aspects. The theoretical framework for this article on sustainability in poultry production is built on this multi-dimensional understanding...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...... of the concept, acknowledging that it is complex and contested. It is challenging to analyse or discuss the sustainability of one single sector within agriculture, because this sector is part of a global food system, and a systems approach is necessary. This article gives examples of elements which link to one...

  13. Ruminal degradation kinetics of protein foods by in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of carbohydrates and nitrogen fractions, as well as, determination their carbohydrates digestion rates in soyben meal (SM, crambe meal (CM, radish meal (RM, wet brewery residue (WBR and dehydrated silkworm chrysalis (SCD were accomplished. The kinetics parameters of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and B2 fraction were estimated using cumulative gas production technique. Among the foods studied there was considerable variation in chemical composition. The crambe meal was the only food that did not present synchronism between carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions. In this food there was predominance of A+B1 carbohydrates fractions and B1+B2 nitrogen compounds fraction, and for the other predominated B2 carbohydrate fraction and B1+ B2 nitrogen compounds fraction. There were differences among the digestive kinetic parameters for all foods. The greater participation in gas production due to non-fibrous carbohydrates was found in the crambe meal and oilseed radish meal. The fermentation of fibrous carbohydrates provided higher gas volume in the wet brewery residue and in the soybean meal, however, the soybean meal was food with higher total gas volume. Non fibrous carbohydrates degradation rates of wet brewery residue and dehydrated silkworm chrysalis were far below the limits of degradation of this fraction. Due to the parameters obtained by the cumulative gas production, the soybean meal was the best food, however, all others have potential for use in animal nutrition. The cumulative gas production technique allows the estimative of degradation rates and provides further information about the ruminal fermentation kinetics of foods.

  14. Consumer product innovation and sustainable design

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises some findings of a book titled 'Consumer Product Innovation and Sustainable Design'. The book was inspired by the author's archive of the (UK) Consumers’ Association publication, Which? that provides a unique written and pictorial record of the technological and design evolution of consumer products marketed in Britain from 1957 to the present.\\ud \\ud The core of the book comprises case studies of six consumer product classes – bicycles, washing machines, electric lamps,...

  15. Nuclear energy for sustainable Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that hydrogen as an universal energy carrier could play increasingly important role in energy future as part of a set of solutions to a variety of energy and environmental problems. Given its abundant nature, hydrogen has been an important raw material in the organic chemical industry. At recent years strong competition has emerged between nations as diverse as the U.S., Japan, Germany, China and Iceland in the race to commercialize hydrogen energy vehicles in the beginning of 21st Century. Any form of energy - fossil, renewable or nuclear - can be used to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen production by nuclear electricity is considered as a sustainable method. By our presentation we are trying to evaluate possibilities for sustainable hydrogen production by nuclear energy at near, medium and long term on EC strategic documents basis. The main EC documents enter water electrolysis by nuclear electricity as only sustainable technology for hydrogen production in early stage of hydrogen economy. In long term as sustainable method is considered the splitting of water by thermochemical technology using heat from high temperature reactors too. We consider that at medium stage of hydrogen economy it is possible to optimize the sustainable hydrogen production by high temperature and high pressure water electrolysis by using a nuclear-solar energy system. (author)

  16. Production of Biogas from Organic Fruit Waste in Anaerobic Digester using Ruminant as The Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic waste, fruit waste and vegetable waste are the best substrate to produce biogas. Waste management system for producing biogas can be used as a solution with the waste problem by converting the wastes into biogas. This study is expected to review of the effect of substrate type and substrate composition for the volume of biogas produced. In this study, materials consist of fruit wastes (oranges, apples, papayas, and tomatoes, cow ruminant, urea, cow dung, Na2CO3 buffer, NH4HCO3 buffer, and distilled water with variations of the substrate materials, F/ W, and the buffer types. The addition of cow manure and Na2CO3 buffer with 1:2 of F/W, production of biogas is greater than variable which is used NH4HCO3 buffer and without the addition of cow dung. Variables with addition of cow dung with 1:1 of F/W and using Na2CO3 buffer, the result is greater than the variable using the same buffer but without the addition of cow dung and variables with 1:1 of F/W with the addition of cow dung and Na2CO3 buffer and variables with the same feed and without the addition of cow dung produce more biogases than variable which is the using NH4HCO3 buffer, 1:1 of F/W and without the addition of cow dung.

  17. Estimating the production losses due to cystic echinococcosis in ruminants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Savaş; Yalçin, Cengiz

    2009-08-26

    The aim of this study was to estimate the production losses due to cystic echinococcosis (CE) in cattle, sheep and goats in Turkey. For this purpose, official records and previously published data in the literature were used. The weighted mean prevalence rates of the disease were calculated to be 7.4% in cattle, 46.3% in sheep and 10.9% in goats. The financial losses were estimated in US$ at 2008 current prices under expected (mean value), optimistic (mean value lowered by 10%), and pessimistic (mean value increased by 10%) scenarios. The production losses in an infected ruminant were estimated as US$ 139.2 (125.3-153.2, under optimistic-pessimistic scenarios) for cattle, US$ 13.7 (12.3-15.1) for sheep, and US$ 13.9 (12.5-15.3) for goats. The nation-wide annual losses due to CE were estimated as US$ 32.4 million (26.2-39.1) for cattle, US$ 54.1 million (43.8-65.5) for sheep and US$ 2.7 million (2.2-3.3) for goats. The nation-wide production losses due to CE in Turkey in 2008 were calculated as US$ 89.2 million (72.2-107.9). The results of this study may provide information to assist decisions of the policy makers in prioritising the allocation of scarce resources in controlling animal diseases in Turkey. However, alternative disease control-eradication programmes and cost-benefit analyses of them are needed for the future studies of this kind to provide better decision support in this area.

  18. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  19. Nature tourism: a sustainable tourism product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Martínez Quintana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature tourism has emerged in the tourism field as a result of a logical evolution in line with public policies and academic research. After negative outcomes from traditional models first raised the alarm, the entire sector has tried to foster local development based on models of responsibility and sustainability. This article revises key concepts of nature – based tourism and shows new tendencies and the perception of cultural landscapes that are seen as tourism products. Finally, it concludes by analysing new tendencies to foster alternative nature – based tourism. It also presents a planning proposal based on a responsible and sustainable tourism model to guarantee a sustainable tourism product within the natural and cultural heritage context.

  20. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  1. Is Danish Venison Production Environmentallly Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik

    .8 % of their meat as venison, and the consumption is very unevenly distributed; most hunters keep the main portion for themselves. A total of 2.6 million wild animals are reported shot by hunters each year in Denmark, and the possibility for increasing Danish venison production is limited, considering sustainable...... nature conservation at the limited area not already occupied by buildings and roads or exploited by agriculture. The assumption that commercially produced venison is more environmentally sustainable than comparable industrial meat is rejected by the analyses in this report. Production of wild boar......The guidelines for New Nordic Diet recommends that Danes reduce their consumption of meat by 35 %, and take 4 % of their meat as venison, since venison is presumed to be healthier, more palatable and more environmentally sustainable than meat from domestic animals. Presently Danes consume only 0...

  2. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Mawengkang, Herman; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J

    2013-01-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  3. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman

    2013-04-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  4. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  5. Sustainability impacts of building products: An assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    include other building product assessment methodologies. This aspect makes it particularly relevant to developing countries where there is a strong interest in using construction and related industries to create beneficial social and economic impacts such as job creation and training. Keywords: sustainability, building ...

  6. Water and small ruminant production A água e a produção de pequenos ruminantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is a nutrient of extreme importance for animals and must be considered vital in any rearing phase. The increasing scarcity of this precious natural resource has concerned different segments of society in order to find solutions for rational and sustainable use of this nutrient. Small ruminants, especially sheep and goats, have social and economic importance due to their great ability in adapting to adverse environmental conditions and using water efficiently. Thus, they might be a good alternative to mitigate the climate change effects and to generate foreign exchange and improving life condition in many places of the world. The concept of water productivity for livestock production is relatively new and there are few studies in the world, especially in Brazil. More researches and new technologies for water use in livestock production are indispensable.A água é um nutriente extremamente importante na vida dos animais e deve ser considerada como vital em qualquer fase da criação. A escassez crescente deste precioso recurso natural tem provocado reações de diferentes segmentos da sociedade na busca de soluções de uso racional e sustentável deste nutriente. Os pequenos ruminantes, especialmente os ovinos e caprinos, são partes importantes da vida econômica e social de muitas nações pela sua ampla capacidade de adaptação às condições adversas do ambiente e boa eficiência no uso da água, podendo ser uma das boas alternativas de mitigação dos efeitos das mudanças climáticas, gerando divisas e melhoria das condições de vida em muitas regiões do mundo. O conceito de produtividade de água para a produção animal é relativamente novo e ainda são recentes e escassos os estudos existentes no mundo e em particular no Brasil. A realização de mais pesquisas e a geração de novas tecnologias de uso da água na produção animal, hoje mais do que nunca tornam-se imprescindíveis.

  7. Sustainable biomass production on Marginal Lands (SEEMLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Federica; Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable biomass production on Marginal Lands (SEEMLA) The main objective of the H2020 funded EU project SEEMLA (acronym for Sustainable Exploitation of Biomass for Bioenergy from Marginal Lands in Europe) is the establishment of suitable innovative land-use strategies for a sustainable production of plant-based energy on marginal lands while improving general ecosystem services. The use of marginal lands (MagL) could contribute to the mitigation of the fast growing competition between traditional food production and production of renewable bio-resources on arable lands. SEEMLA focuses on the promotion of re-conversion of MagLs for the production of bioenergy through the direct involvement of farmers and forester, the strengthening of local small-scale supply chains, and the promotion of plantations of bioenergy plants on MagLs. Life cycle assessment is performed in order to analyse possible impacts on the environment. A soil quality rating tool is applied to define and classify MagL. Suitable perennial and woody bioenergy crops are selected to be grown in pilot areas in the partner countries Ukraine, Greece and Germany. SEEMLA is expected to contribute to an increasing demand of biomass for bioenergy production in order to meet the 2020 targets and beyond.

  8. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  9. Sustainable solutions: developing products and services for the future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charter, Martin; Tischner, Ursula

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Martin Charter, The Centre for Sustainable Design, UK, and Ursula Tischner, econcept, Germany part 1: 1. Background to Sustainable Consumption and Production...

  10. Sustainability Assessment Model in Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Omar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Faster and more efficient development of innovative and sustainable products has become the focus for manufacturing companies in order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. Furthermore, consumers, investors, shareholders and even competitors are basing their decisions on what to buy or invest in, from whom, and also on what company report, and sustainability is one of a critical component. In this research, a new methodology of sustainability assessment in product development for Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of green project management, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This method will help design engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable design concept evaluation, enable them to make better-informed decisions before finalising their choice and consequently create value to the company or industry. The new framework is expected to provide an alternative to existing methods.

  11. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  12. Transitions in Sustainable Product Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    , this research area has expanded considerably; from a bunch of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to make products better recyclable into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number......By the early 1990s, sustainable product innovation (or ecodesign, or Design for environment) had gained sufficient critical mass in academic research to be identified as a distinct research area. In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media...... of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, which together provide a historic account of how academic research into sustainable product innovation had matured. In conclusion, a number of possible future transitions or extensions of the research area are discussed....

  13. Soil management practices for sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalos, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)

  14. Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

  15. Sustainability and democracy in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2005-01-01

    The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generat...... a proposal for a democratic legitimate concept of sustainable bread production......The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generated...

  16. Challenging the sustainability of micro products development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2006-01-01

    Environmental aspects are one of the biggest concerns regarding the future of manufacturing and product development sustainability. Furthermore, micro products and micro technologies are often seen as the next big thing in terms of possible mass market trend and boom. Many questions are raised...... regarding the impact of size for recycling or environment. Indeed micro production is often seen as environmental friendly thanks to the small amount of material used. Such a statement can be misleading. In this article EcoDesign or Design for Environment (DFE) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA...

  17. The effect of parasitism on nutrient metabolism and productivity in small ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinbamijo, O.O.

    1994-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in small ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the effects of trypanosomiasis on feed intake,

  18. Effects of Lecithin on Some Nutritive, Productive and Ruminal Indices in Young Fattening Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Voia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to determine the measure in which 100 g/head/day lecithin has an effect on the ruminal parameters and growth indices in lambs during the fattening process, compared to a normal ration which consisted of alfalfa hay and a concentrates mixture. Experiment was carried out on two experimental groups (n=10 of fattening Turcana lambs, from 138 to 176 days of age and an average weight of 28 kg. For the same level of feed consumption, lecithin improves the average daily gain by 14.85%, while the consumption rate for proteins and energy was 12.9% lower. Following lecithin administration the number of ruminal bacteria increasd to 4.52 x 108 cfu/ml ruminal fluid compared to the average of 3.68 x 107 cfu/ml for the control diet. Lecithin has as effect the reduction of the protozoa number by 168,944/ml ruminal fluid and the species are less diversified.

  19. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  1. Sustainability of cosmetic products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Pereira, Neila

    2009-09-01

    The most recent research in the area of cosmetics to sustainability has focused on obtaining formulations rich in nontraditional oils and butters from seeds and fruits native to Brazilian tropical flora. These have contributed to aggregate value for the raw materials and involvement of small farms forming rural production in Brazil, since the plants are cultivated in preservation areas sponsored by companies who are partners in the Government Program for Brazilian Sustainability. Given that the oils extracted from seeds have the potential to replace these cutaneous constituents, it has been verified that new products of strong commercial impact show an increasing tendency to incorporate in their formulas the oils of plants grown in Brazilian soil.

  2. Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussana, J F; Tallec, T; Blanfort, V

    2010-03-01

    grassland C sequestration has a strong potential to partly mitigate the GHG balance of ruminant production systems. However, as soil C sequestration is both reversible and vulnerable to disturbance, biodiversity loss and climate change, CH4 and N2O emissions from the livestock sector need to be reduced and current SOC stocks preserved.

  3. Towards Sustainable Production of Formic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulushev, Dmitri A; Ross, Julian R H

    2018-03-09

    Formic acid is a widely used commodity chemical. It can be used as a safe, easily handled, and transported source of hydrogen or carbon monoxide for different reactions, including those producing fuels. The review includes historical aspects of formic acid production. It briefly analyzes production based on traditional sources, such as carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane. However, the main emphasis is on the sustainable production of formic acid from biomass and biomass-derived products through hydrolysis and oxidation processes. New strategies of low-temperature synthesis from biomass may lead to the utilization of formic acid for the production of fuel additives, such as methanol; upgraded bio-oil; γ-valerolactone and its derivatives; and synthesis gas used for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons. Some technological aspects are also considered. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...... of non-renewable resources over regional impacts like acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone to more local impacts like ecotoxicity and physical impacts like land use, to allow judging on the overall environmental sustainability of the biodiesel and to support identification of the main...

  5. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO 2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  6. Sustainability Performance of an Italian Textile Product

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Lenzo; Marzia Traverso; Giovanni Mondello; Roberta Salomone; Giuseppe Ioppolo

    2018-01-01

    Companies are more and more interested in the improvement of sustainability performance of products, services and processes. For this reason, appropriate and suitable assessment tools supporting the transition to a green economy are highly necessary. Currently, there are a number of methods and approaches for assessing products’ environmental impact and improving their performances; among these, the Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) approach has emerged as the most comprehensive and effective to achi...

  7. Criteria Assessment Model for Sustainable Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    The instability in today's market and the ever increasing and emerging demands for mass customized and hybrid products by customers, are driving companies and decision makers to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their product development process. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points in product development. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. This has led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. In this paper, a new integrated design concept evaluation based on fuzzy-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) is presented, and it also attempts to incorporate sustainability practices in assessing the criteria. Prior to Fuzzy-TOPSIS, a new scale of “Weighting criteria” for survey process is developed to quantify the evaluation criteria. This method will help engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable product development. Case example from industry is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the new integrated method provides an alternative to existing methods of design concept evaluation.

  8. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  9. THE IMPACT OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN ANIMAL PRODUCTS OF RUMINANTS ON THE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE OF POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedžad Gradaščević

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Activity concentration of 238U, 226Ra and 40K were analyzed in samples of milk, meat, cow cheese and sheep cheese from the areas of three municipalities: Livno, Kakanj and Hadzici for the purpose of assessment of the annual effective dose by ingestion of animal products of ruminants. Burned samples of milk and meat from cow and sheep were measured by modified gamma spectrometry method. High resolution HPGe detector with additional electronic equipment had been used for that purpose. All results were calculated on the fresh weight basis. Obtained results for samples of cow milk were in ranges: 0.010 – 0,020 -1 for 238U; 0.014 – 0.060 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 37.2 – 67.5 Bq kg-1 for 40K. Sheep milk showed the following ranges of obtained results: 0,007 – 0.033 Bq kg-1 for 238U; 0.010 – 0.045 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 30.7 – 73.3 Bq kg-1 for 40K. Levels of observed radionuclides (38U, 226Ra and 40K in samples of cow cheese were moving between 0.010 – 0.070, 0.01 – 0.10, and 27.3 – 58.9 Bq kg-1. Activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra and 40K in samples of cow meat were: 0.010 – 0.023 Bq kg-1; 0.018 – 0.060 Bq kg-1 and 66.2 – 96.9 Bq kg-1, respectively. Levels of 238U, 226Ra and 40K in samples of sheep meat were: 0.010 – 0.024 Bq kg-1; 0.014 – 0.035 Bq kg-1 and 65.2 -99.5 Bq kg-1, respectively. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion of observed samples were in range 0.055 – 0.064 mSv. Obtained results indicated acceptable levels of investigated natural radionuclides as well as correct radiation-hygienic status of animal products of ruminants from selected municipalities. Estimated annual effective doses for ingestion of animal products of ruminants were in the range of world average values. Key words: natural radionuclides, ruminants, effective dose.

  10. Climate change and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges we face in the twenty-first century is to sustainably feed nine to ten billion people by 2050 while at the same time reducing environmental impact (e.g. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity loss, land use change and loss of ecosystem services). To this end, food security must be delivered. According to the United Nations definition, 'food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. At the same time as delivering food security, we must also reduce the environmental impact of food production. Future climate change will make an impact upon food production. On the other hand, agriculture contributes up to about 30% of the anthropogenic GHG emissions that drive climate change. The aim of this review is to outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture, the mitigation measures available within agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and outlines the very significant challenge of feeding nine to ten billion people sustainably under a future climate, with reduced emissions of GHG. Each challenge is in itself enormous, requiring solutions that co-deliver on all aspects. We conclude that the status quo is not an option, and tinkering with the current production systems is unlikely to deliver the food and ecosystems services we need in the future; radical changes in production and consumption are likely to be required over the coming decades.

  11. Cyanobacteria: Promising biocatalysts for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, Cory J; Ungerer, Justin; Wangikar, Pramod P; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2018-04-06

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes showing great promise as biocatalysts for the direct conversion of CO 2 into fuels, chemicals, and other value-added products. Introduction of just a few heterologous genes can endow cyanobacteria with the ability to transform specific central metabolites into many end products. Recent engineering efforts have centered around harnessing the potential of these microbial biofactories for sustainable production of chemicals conventionally produced from fossil fuels. Here, we present an overview of the unique chemistry that cyanobacteria have been co-opted to perform. We highlight key lessons learned from these engineering efforts and discuss advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Effect of Maillard reaction products on ruminal and fecal acid-resistant E. coli, total coliforms, VFA profiles, and pH in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, J J; Drouillard, J S; Thippareddi, H; Phebus, R K; Coetzer, C M; Kerr, K D; Lambert, D L; Farran, T B; Montgomery, S P; LaBrune, H J

    2004-04-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Angus-cross steers (362 kg) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine effects of supplementing Maillard reaction products (MRP) on acid-resistant E. coli and coliform populations. Steers were fed roughage-based diets supplemented (DM basis) with either 10% soybean meal (SBM), 10% nonenzymatically browned SBM (NESBM), or 10% SBM top-dressed with 45 g of a lysine-dextrose Maillard reaction product (LD-MRP). Equal weights of dextrose, lysine hydrochloride, and deionized water were refluxed to produce the LD-MRP. The NESBM was manufactured by treating SBM with invertase enzyme, followed by heating to induce nonenzymatic browning. Steers were allowed slightly less than ad libitum access to diets fed twice daily and were adapted to their respective treatments within 10 d. On d 11, ruminal and fecal samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after feeding from each of the steers and transported to the laboratory for microbial analysis. Ruminal samples and feces were analyzed for pH and VFA, and both ruminal fluid and feces were tested for acid-resistant E. coli and total coliforms by incubating samples in tryptic soy broth adjusted to pH 2, 4, and 7. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations did not differ among treatments. The molar proportion of ruminal acetate was higher (P coliforms than steers that received SBM. No differences were observed for ruminal E. coli and total coliforms at pH 2 and 7. Fecal pH was lower (P coliforms at pH 2 and 7 did not differ among treatments. Dietary MRP had limited effectiveness at decreasing acid-resistant coliforms in the rumen and feces of cattle. Acid resistance in coliforms may depend on protein availability.

  13. The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany

    2014-01-01

    the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production......, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep...... throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle...

  14. Invited review: ruminating conscientiously: scientific and socio-ethical challenges for US dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2011-02-01

    Despite the predominantly positive depictions of dairy production, public concern about farm animal production practices in the United States is currently higher than at any point in recent history. Many standard industry practices, including some used by the US dairy industries, are increasingly challenged not just on scientific grounds, but also on ethical grounds. Concerns include the environmental impacts and sustainability of modern farm animal production practices, food safety and security, and the increasingly complex issue of animal welfare. As the impetus increases to achieve broad stakeholder engagement in discussions of US food policy, understanding and addressing the ethical concerns associated with contemporary dairy production is critically important to ensure the industry's autonomy and long-term viability. Animal welfare assessment or accountability tools such as the Ethical Matrix or Campbell's Ethics Assessment Process can provide a structured, transparent method of making appropriate ethical choices about the care and welfare of farm animals that are also scientifically grounded. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  16. Sustainability Performance of an Italian Textile Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Lenzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Companies are more and more interested in the improvement of sustainability performance of products, services and processes. For this reason, appropriate and suitable assessment tools supporting the transition to a green economy are highly necessary. Currently, there are a number of methods and approaches for assessing products’ environmental impact and improving their performances; among these, the Life Cycle Thinking (LCT approach has emerged as the most comprehensive and effective to achieve sustainability goals. Indeed, the LCT approach aims to reduce the use of resources and emissions to the environment associated with a product’s life cycle. It can be used as well to improve socio-economic performance through the entire life cycle of a product. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, Life Cycle Costing (LCC and Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA are undoubtedly the most relevant methodologies to support product-related decision-making activities for the extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, distribution, use, reuse, maintenance, recycling and final disposal. While LCA is an internationally standardized tool (ISO 14040 2006, LCC (except for the ISO related to the building sector and S-LCA have yet to attain international standardization (even if guidelines and general frameworks are available. The S-LCA is still in its experimental phase for many aspects of the methodological structure and practical implementation. This study presents the application of LCA and S-LCA to a textile product. The LCA and S-LCA are implemented following the ISO 14040-44:2006 and the guidelines from UNEP/SETAC (2009, respectively. The functional unit of the study is a cape knitted in a soft blend of wool and cashmere produced by a textile company located in Sicily (Italy. The system boundary of the study includes all phases from cradle-to-gate, from raw material production through fabric/accessory production to the manufacturing process of the

  17. A Review on the Role of Chromium Supplementation in Ruminant Nutrition-Effects on Productive Performance, Blood Metabolites, Antioxidant Status, and Immunocompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Habibian, Mahmood; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2018-01-01

    , Cr supplementation improved dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition of dairy cows in the early, mid, or late stage of lactation. Also, in some studies, performance of growing animal, immune response, and some blood parameters responded positively to Cr supplementation. In conclusion...... microminerals is important. Chromium (Cr) is one of the important micronutrients which plays an important role in metabolism of ruminants. Experimental studies have found that Cr could change performance, immune responses, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and antioxidant status in dairy cows. In some studies......, the effects of Cr supplementation on performance of ruminants are inconsistent; however, its long-term effects on health, productivity, immune system, and antioxidant activity of ruminants still need to be investigated....

  18. Effect of nitroethane, dimethyl-2-nitroglutarate and 2-nitro-methyl-propionate on ruminal methane production and hydrogen balance in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin C; Huwe, Janice K; Smith, David J; Stanton, Thaddeus B; Krueger, Nathan A; Callaway, Todd R; Edrington, Thomas S; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2010-07-01

    Ruminal methanogenesis is considered a digestive inefficiency that results in the loss of 2-12% of the host's gross energy intake and contributes nearly 20% to the United States annual CH(4) emissions. Presently, the effects of the known CH(4) inhibitor, nitroethane, and two synthetic nitrocompounds, dimethyl-2-nitroglutarate and 2-nitro-methyl-propionate, on ruminal CH(4) production and fermentation were evaluated in vitro. After 24 h incubation at 39 degrees C under 100% CO(2), ruminal fluid cultures treated with 2.97 or 11.88 mumol ml(-1) of the respective nitrocompounds produced > 92% less CH(4) (P < 0.05) than non-treated controls. Quantification of fermentation end-products produced and H(2) balance estimates indicate that fermentation efficiencies were not compromised by the nitro-treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduct....... In conclusion, molecular breeding approaches are dealt with in a way allowing a critical biological assessment and enabling the scientific community and public to put genetic engineering of ornamental plants into a perspective regarding their usefulness in plant breeding........ This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed......, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors...

  20. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D M; Galindo, F A; Murgueitio, E

    2013-11-22

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people working there. Conservation need not just involve tiny islands of natural vegetation in a barren world of agriculture, as there can be great increases in biodiversity in farmed areas. Herbivores, especially ruminants that consume materials inedible by humans, are important for human food in the future. However, their diet should not be just ground-level plants. Silvopastoral systems, pastures with shrubs and trees as well as herbage, are described which are normally more productive than pasture alone. When compared with widely used livestock production systems, silvopastoral systems can provide efficient feed conversion, higher biodiversity, enhanced connectivity between habitat patches and better animal welfare, so they can replace existing systems in many parts of the world and should be further developed.

  1. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  2. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  3. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration

  4. Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gede Suparta Budisatria, I.

    2006-01-01

    Small ruminants are an important but neglected resource in developing countries. Small ruminant production systems are complex. The multiple goals related to small ruminants, combined with the complexity of their management, and the resources and social arrangements involved, make small ruminants

  5. Duurzaamheid en grondstoffen voor diervoeding = Sustainability and feed commodity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Bos, J.F.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study creates a preliminary framework to judge the sustainability of production of agricultural commodities for the purpose of animal nutrition. Criteria are selected according to the economic, societal and ecological dimensions of sustainability.

  6. Challenges for Marketers in Sustainable Production and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, C.; Alevizou, P.; McDonald, S.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the biggest issues facing today’s global society, sustainability cuts across all areas of production and consumption and presents challenges for marketers who attempt to understand and incorporate sustainability in their everyday practices [1–3]. [...

  7. 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the important programmatic outcomes from the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was the adoption of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP) on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP).

  8. Towards sustainable parasite control practices in livestock production with emphasis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrioud, A Nari

    2011-08-04

    Endo and ectoparasites of domestic ruminants directly or indirectly contribute to reduce sustainability affecting food security in subsistence or small scale farming systems, food safety (food borne diseases and pesticide residues), environment (pesticides, pollution and ecotoxicity) and farmer's equity (limited or uneven access to relevant technical information/training). This is especially true for some regions of Latin America where there still are huge areas of natural grazing land for cattle, sheep and goats. Sustainable parasite control is not an absolute concept given the different regions and productive systems of the world and therefore, could have different levels of adoption and impact on farmers. This article develops a conceptual framework to better understand where each region or country is situated in terms of attaining a reasonable increase in animal production while preserving sustainability. Within this context the capacity to prioritize the target parasite species for control according to local epidemiology and production systems, the early diagnosis and monitoring of parasite resistance as well as the availability of well trained field professionals acquire a major role, creating an enabling environment for present and future decision support system approaches. Until new and different means of controlling parasites become available; the challenge is to utilize Good Animal Husbandry Practices and Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) principles in a pragmatic way allowing the rational use of pesticides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainable Production Line Evaluation Based on Evidential Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhexuan Zhou; Yajie Dou; Jianbin Sun; Jiang Jiang; Yuejin Tan

    2017-01-01

    Many production line imbalances have been observed in the pursuit of higher profits. A sustainable production line, also called balanced, leads to lower costs, good production environments, and green manufacturing. A decision analysis method, such as production line evaluation, is often employed to help decision makers make sustainable decisions. In this study, a sustainable decision-making model is proposed for the evaluation of engine manufacturing. To solve uncertainties in manufacturing i...

  10. Achieving sustainable biomass conversion to energy and bio products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    The present effort in to maximize biomass conversion-to-energy and bio products is examined in terms of sustain ability practices. New goals, standards in practice, measurements and certification are needed for the sustainable biomass industry. Sustainable practices produce biomass energy and products in a manner that is secure, renewable, accessible locally, and pollution free. To achieve sustainable conversion, some new goals are proposed. (Author)

  11. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    CTE. The most remarkable finding in this study was that cows fed CTE-supplemented diets had decreased ruminal ammonia-N and MUN concentrations, indicating that less ruminal N was lost as ammonia because of decreased degradation of crude protein by rumen microorganisms in response to CTE supplementation. Therefore, supplementation of CTE in lactation dairy diets may change the route of N excretion, having less excretion into urine but more into feces, as it had no effect on N utilization efficiency for milk production. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MARKET SUCCESS FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Fleith de Medeiros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates dimensions and factors that according to the perception of business managers drive the market success of environmentally sustainable products. Initially, publications related to new products introduced to the market (with or without environmental focus were evaluated. Four complementary dimensions were identified as responsible for proper performance: (i Market Knowledge, (ii Interfunctional Collaboration, (iii Knowledge Integration Mechanisms, and (iv Generative Learning. Considering the above, an exploratory study following a qualitative approach was conducted with managers that work in the Brazilian market. For the choice of the respondents, some characteristics were considered, such as growth in the sector of activity where the organization works, and the area that they manage. Results lead to the validation and ranking of the factors and dimensions mentioned in the literature. They also allowed the identification of new factors as: technological domain, competitive price, quality, company's brand, and payback. Moreover, considering the variables described and the relationships established among them, it was inferred that technological domain can be considered as a dimension. This suggestion is based on the respondents' perception concerning "technological domain", such as: specialized people, research budget, and also budget for facilities and equipment. The study also shows deeper difference among practice areas than among sectors. Based on the list of factors that was generated, new studies are recommended to measure the impact of the factors and dimensions on the success of green products.

  13. Soil quality: key for sustainable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mocali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years several definitions of “soil quality” have been advanced, but among them the most appreciated is “the ability of soils to interact with the ecosystem in order to maintain the biological productivity, the environmental quality and to promote animal and vegetal health” as defined by Doran and Parkin in 1994. Many researchers place more emphasis on its conceptual meaning for land planning and farm management, while others consider that definition to be worth nothing in order to understand soil properties and the concept of soil quality looks like the concept of “to be suitable for”. For this reason a definition of “soil use” is needed. The food quality is characterized by several properties: the healthiness and the nutritional value, the amount of the production, the typicalness and organoleptic properties, etc.. A lot of these properties depend on environmental quality and, in particular, on soil quality. In fact soil represents the natural substrate for growth and productivity of most of the plants that live on the Hearth because they get all the essential nutritional elements from it for their own development; consequently each nutritional element present into the soil as bioavailable form for the plants is potentially destined to entry in the animal (and human food chain. In the quality process of food productive process it will be important to assure the best soil quality as possible, without any unwanted element (which will not be discussed in this note and with the right amount of fertility elements in order to guarantee the best production. In this paper the relationships between soil quality, soil biodiversity and crop sustainability will be discussed. Finally the concept of soil “biota” as nodal point for the environment regulation and the application of the indicators for soil quality will be discussed.

  14. Structural model for sustainable consumption and production adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Mangla, Sachin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns are becoming important in the implementation of sustainability in industrial contexts. In this sense, this study uniquely focuses on developing a structural model to evaluate the sustainable consumption and production adoption drivers...... and to improve sustainability aspects in the supply chain scenario under uncertain environments. Initially, fourteen drivers related to sustainable consumption and production adoption were selected from the literature and expert feedback. Then, the grey based Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory....... “Governmental policies and regulations to develop sustainable consumption and production focused system” and “Management support, dedication and involvement in sustainable consumption and production implementation” have been found as the most influencing drivers and “Gaining the market edge and improving...

  15. Globally sustainable manganese metal production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelstein, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The "cradle to grave" concept of managing chemicals and wastes has been a descriptive analogy of proper environmental stewardship since the 1970s. The concept incorporates environmentally sustainable product choices-such as metal alloys utilized steel products which civilization is dependent upon. Manganese consumption is related to the increasing production of raw steel and upgrading ferroalloys. Nonferrous applications of manganese include production of dry-cell batteries, plant fertilizer components, animal feed and colorant for bricks. The manganese ore (high grade 35% manganese) production world wide is about 6 million ton/year and electrolytic manganese metal demand is about 0.7 million ton/year. The total manganese demand is consumed globally by industries including construction (23%), machinery (14%), and transportation (11%). Manganese is recycled within scrap of iron and steel, a small amount is recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Recycling rate is 37% and efficiency is estimated as 53% [Roskill Metals and Minerals Reports, January 13, 2005. Manganese Report: rapid rise in output caused by Chinese crude steel production. Available from: http://www.roskill.com/reports/manganese.]. Environmentally sustainable management choices include identifying raw material chemistry, utilizing clean production processes, minimizing waste generation, recycling materials, controlling occupational exposures, and collecting representative environmental data. This paper will discuss two electrolytically produced manganese metals, the metal production differences, and environmental impacts cited to date. The two electrolytic manganese processes differ due to the addition of sulfur dioxide or selenium dioxide. Adverse environmental impacts due to use of selenium dioxide methodology include increased water consumption and order of magnitude greater solid waste generation per ton of metal processed. The use of high grade manganese ores in the electrolytic process also

  16. Quantification of ruminal microbiota and production of methane and carbonic dioxide from diets with inclusion of glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the liquid-associated bacteria and protozoa of the rumen and to evaluate the potential of in vitro production of gases CH4 and CO2 of diets with inclusion of glycerin for sheep. Two diets were formulated with a roughage:concentrate ratio of 20:80, according to the presence or absence of glycerin: G0 - control, without glycerin; and G10 - 10% glycerin as part of the concentrate. To quantify the liquid-associated bacteria and protozoa from the rumen and production of CH4 and CO2 gases, a completely randomized design was used. The diets had no effect (P>0.05 on production and composition of liquid-associated protozoa and bacteria from the rumen of lambs. Likewise, a (P>0.05 diet effect was not observed on production of CH4 and CO2 in vitro, which presented average concentrations of 24.55mL/g MS and 51.52mL/g MS, respectively. The use of 10% glycerin did not alter production or composition of ruminal microflora, and moreover, did not negatively impact the production of CH4 and CO2 gases in vitro.

  17. Affordability for sustainable energy development products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clean cookstoves that also generate electricity improve affordability. • Excel spreadsheet model to assist stakeholders to choose optimum technology. • Presents views for each stakeholder villager, village and country. • By adding certain capital costs, affordability and sustainability are improved. • Affordability is highly dependent on carbon credits and social understandings. - Abstract: Clean burning products, for example cooking stoves, can reduce household air pollution (HAP), which prematurely kills 3.5 million people each year. By careful selection of components into a product package with micro-finance used for the capital payment, barriers to large-scale uptake of products that remove HAP are reduced. Such products reduce smoke from cooking and the lighting from electricity produced, eliminates smoke from kerosene lamps. A bottom-up financial model, that is cognisant of end user social needs, has been developed to compare different products for use in rural areas of developing countries. The model is freely available for use by researchers and has the ability to assist in the analysis of changing assumptions. Business views of an individual villager, the village itself and a country view are presented. The model shows that affordability (defined as the effect on household expenses as a result of a product purchase) and recognition of end-user social needs are as important as product cost. The effects of large-scale deployment (greater that 10 million per year) are described together with level of subsidy required by the poorest people. With the assumptions given, the model shows that pico-hydro is the most cost effective, but not generally available, one thermo-acoustic technology option does not require subsidy, but it is only at technology readiness level 2 (NASA definition) therefore costs are predicted and very large investment in manufacturing capability is needed to meet the cost target. Thermo-electric is currently the only

  18. Modeling the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cows based on the responses of ruminal pH and milk fat production to composition of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Dijkstra, J; Tafaj, M; Steingass, H; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop practical models to assess and predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in high-yielding dairy cows. We used quantitative methods to analyze relevant research data and critically evaluate and determine the responses of ruminal pH and production performance to different variables including physical, chemical, and starch-degrading characteristics of the diet. Further, extensive data were used to model the magnitude of ruminal pH fluctuations and determine the threshold for the development of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Results of this study showed that to minimize the risk of SARA, the following events should be avoided: 1) a daily mean ruminal pH lower than 6.16, and 2) a time period in which ruminal pH is fiber (peNDF) or the ratio between peNDF and rumen-degradable starch from grains in the diet increased up to 31.2 +/- 1.6% [dry matter (DM) basis] or 1.45 +/- 0.22, respectively, so did the daily mean ruminal pH, for which a asymptotic plateau was reached at a pH of 6.20 to 6.27. This study also showed that digestibility of fiber in the total tract depends on ruminal pH and outflow rate of digesta from reticulorumen; thereby both variables explained 62% of the variation of fiber digestibility. Feeding diets with peNDF content up to 31.9 +/- 1.97% (DM basis) slightly decreased DM intake and actual milk yield; however, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were increased, resulting in greater milk energy efficiency. In conclusion, a level of about 30 to 33% peNDF in the diet may be considered generally optimal for minimizing the risk of SARA without impairing important production responses in high-yielding dairy cows. In terms of improvement of the accuracy to assessing dietary fiber adequacy, it is suggested that the content of peNDF required to stabilize ruminal pH and maintain milk fat content without compromising milk energy efficiency can be arranged based on grain or starch sources included in the diet

  19. [Anthelmintic resistance in ruminants: development, diagnostics, and procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Pfister, Kurt

    2017-08-10

    Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, but also in cattle and horses, is now found worldwide. The reason for increasing anthelmintic resistance is, in particular, the extensive use of all the anthelmintic agents available on the market. A non-targeted use leads to the selection of naturally occurring resistance genes within parasite populations. The most practical method for evaluating the efficacy of an anthelmintic is the fecal egg-count reduction test. To reduce the rate of anthelmintic resistance development, the available active substances must be applied less and in a targeted manner. When applying targeted (selective) treatment, part of the herd is left untreated. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the animals that require treatment for health or economic reasons. To decide on anthelmintic treatment, findings can be collected from single animals or from a group of animals in a herd. To determine which groups of animals are to be treated within a herd (targeted treatment), pooled fecal samples (cattle and small ruminants), serum pepsinogen concentration (cattle), or Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in the bulk milk (cattle) can be analyzed. For individual animal (targeted selective) treatment, criteria including fecal egg count (cattle and small ruminants), conjuctival color as an indicator for infection with Haemonchus contortus (FAMACHA ® , small ruminants), body condition in adult animals (small ruminants), weight gain in juvenile animals (cattle and small ruminants), and the consistency of the feces (small ruminants) are used. These decision criteria can also be combined to enhance the informative value. Furthermore, an efficacy test of the anthelmintics used should be performed regularly at the beginning of the pasture season. During the pasture season, a low infection pressure should be maintained by pasture management strategies. The goal of sustainable parasite management is the reduction of anthelmintic

  20. Sustainable Product Indexing: Navigating the Challenge of Ecolabeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S. Golden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing scientific evidence that improving the sustainability of consumer products can lead to significant gains in global sustainability. Historically, environmental policy has been managed by bureaucracies and institutions in a mechanistic manner; this had led to many early successes. However, we believe that if policy concerning product sustainability is also managed in this way, negative unintended consequences are likely to occur. Thus, we propose a social-ecological systems approach to policy making concerning product sustainability that will lead to more rapid and meaningful progress toward improving the environmental and social impacts of consumer products.

  1. Protection of sunflower seed and sunflower meal protein with malic acid and heat: effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Jorge Leonardo; Carro, Maria Dolores; Alvir, Maria Remedios; González, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Combined malic acid-heat treatments of protein supplements have been shown to reduce ruminal protein degradation, but there is no information on their possible influence on ruminal fermentation and methane emissions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) with malic acid and subsequent drying at 150°C for 1 (MAL1) or 3 h (MAL3) on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane emission using ruminal fluid from sheep as inoculum. Compared with untreated samples, the MAL3 treatment reduced (P 0.05) total volatile fatty acid production for any feed. This treatment also increased (P methane production (by 15.5% and 11.3%, respectively) and ammonia-N concentrations (by 26.5% and 14.5%, respectively). The MAL1 treatment was effective in reducing both ammonia-N concentrations and methane emissions without depressing SS and SM fermentation, but more research is needed to formulate environmentally cleaner diets for ruminants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Nutritional strategies for ruminants fed on local feed supplemented with molasses multi-nutrient blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)

  3. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  6. Sustainable Production Line Evaluation Based on Evidential Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhexuan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many production line imbalances have been observed in the pursuit of higher profits. A sustainable production line, also called balanced, leads to lower costs, good production environments, and green manufacturing. A decision analysis method, such as production line evaluation, is often employed to help decision makers make sustainable decisions. In this study, a sustainable decision-making model is proposed for the evaluation of engine manufacturing. To solve uncertainties in manufacturing industries while maintaining lower costs and an efficient production environment, evidential reasoning is used in order to evaluate the sustainable production line effectively. First, uncertainties in the engine production line and deficiencies in the existing methods for evaluating the sustainable production line are analyzed. Then, evidential reasoning evaluation of the sustainable engine production line model is proposed and an example is presented; to be specific, the analysis of three production line plans is conducted using evidential reasoning, and plan P3 is found to be the best. Finally, a FlexSim simulation is used to prove the feasibility of evidential reasoning evaluation, verifying its suitability for achieving sustainable production line evaluation.

  7. Emerging sustainable/green cleaning products: health and environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Mehmet Cihan; Işik, Ercan; Ulu, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development aims to bring a new perspective to our lives without compromising customer needs and quality. Along with sustainable development many innovative solutions came out. One of them is sustainable green cleaning products and techniques. Today, emissions from conventional cleaning products may cause severe health and environmental issues. Especially sick building syndromes such as eye, skin and respiratory irritations are main health effects of them. They may also contrib...

  8. Labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of innovative projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makai, P.; Cramm, J.M.; Grotel, M. van; Nieboer, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of a national quality program that sought to stimulate efficiency gains through increased labor productivity while maintaining quality through implementing small-scale innovation projects. DESIGN: Longitudinal

  9. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  10. Sustainable production and consumption in a regional policy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main challenges regions face in sustainable development is changing their production and consumption patterns. This paper focuses on the role of regional government in sustainable production and consumption polices, one of the specific topics in the framework of the European Regional

  11. Nature-Inspired Design : Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability.

  12. Product-Service Sustainability Assessment in Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzini, Margherita; Germani, Michele; Marilungo, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Product-Service Ecosystems; International audience; New directions in modern industry are creating distributed virtual enterprises and pushing companies towards service-enhanced products. Both trends converge when a Virtual Manufacturing Enterprise (VME) is created to provide product-service solutions. At the same time, sustainability is a crucial aspect for industrial networks. This paper proposes a methodology to assess the sustainability of Product-Service Systems (PSS) in a VME by...

  13. Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminant products form an important part of the human diet. The demand for ruminant products is expected to increase due to the increase in the size of the human population and its increasing wealth. The production of ruminant meat and milk is associated with a relatively large environmental impact

  14. Sustainability Product Properties in Building Information Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Pset_Material_Sustainability_US ThermalResistance Thermal resistance of the element, hr-CuFt-F/Btu (K-Cu m/W) 0 hr-CuFt-F/Btu Pset_Material_Sustainability_US Asphalt ...Model Checker, the sustainable information properties associated with the toilet fixture were visible by selecting the “Private 1.6 LPF” folder in...Performance - Required to be a minimum of 30% better than ASH RAE 90.1-2004 - The key strategies for conserving energy include energy efficiency in

  15. Recent Advances in Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rüştü Kutlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most industrialized animal production branches of ruminant production successfully requires a blending of theoretical knowledge of nutritional principles with practical stockmanship, maintaining health and dealing with numbers. It is well known that high yielding, dairy cows, require balanced diet with adequate nutrients for yielding. This is not provided with only a few feedstuffs. Milk production in dairy cows is related to the improvements in genetic merit of farm animals and also developments in feed science, feed technology and animal nutrition. In particular, feeds and feed technology studies associated with sustainability, economical perspectives and product quality in the last decade have been in advance. In the present work, recent advances in feed sources and feed technology, minerals (macro and trace minerals , vitamins and amino acids, feed additives (antibiotics alternative growth stimulants, rumen modulator, organic acids, antioxidants, enzymes, plant extracts, nutrition-products (meat-milk-progeny quality and functional food production (milk, meat nutrition-reproduction, nutrition-animal health, nutrition-environmental temperature, nutrition-global warming were evaluated.

  16. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  17. State-of-the-art production, conservation and transfer of in-vitro-produced embryos in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognié, Yves; Poulin, Nati; Locatelli, Yann; Mermillod, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Today, although not efficient enough to replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production for small ruminants is a platform for new reproductive technologies, such as embryo sexing, transgenesis and cloning. The in vitro embryo-production system developed for sheep and goats is more efficient now than 15 years ago, but could still be improved. Laparoscopic collection of oocytes in live animals treated with gonadotrophin indicates a promising future for the application of this technology to genetic improvement programmes. Oocyte maturation in defined medium with epidermal growth factor and cysteamine appears as efficient as oocyte maturation in follicular fluid-supplemented medium and allows future study of the effect of other factors involved in the cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from these species. Further efforts have to be made to standardise the semen-capacitating process and to improve the quality and freezability of in-vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The optimisation of IVP procedures for deer species has required the study of the seasonal variation of oocyte competence and the development of a specific methodology to allow the culture of embryos up to the blastocyst stage.

  18. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    A major constraint to animal production in developing countries is poor nutrition due to inadequate or fluctuating nutrient supply. This results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Microbial cells formed as a result of rumen degradation of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions are a major source of protein for ruminants. They provide the majority of the amino acids that the host animal requires for tissue maintenance, growth and production. In roughage-fed ruminants, micro-organisms are virtually the only source of protein. Therefore, a knowledge of the microbial contribution to the nutrition of the host animal is essential to developing feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant production. While this factor has been recognized for many years, it has been extremely difficult to determine the microbial protein contribution to ruminant nutrition. The methods generally used for determining microbial protein production depend on the use of natural microbial markers such as RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DAPA (diamino-pimelic acid) or of isotopes 35 S, 15 N or 32 P. However, these methods involve surgical intervention such as post-rumen cannulation and complex procedures that require accurate and quantitative information on both digesta and microbial marker flow. A calorimetric technique using enzymatic procedures was developed for measuring purine derivatives (PD) in urine under a Technical Contract. With knowledge of the amount of PD excreted in the urine, the microbial protein supply to the host animal can be estimated. The principle of the method is that nucleic acids leaving the rumen are essentially of microbial origin. The nucleic acids are extensively digested in the small intestine and the resulting purines are absorbed

  19. Proposal of environmental indicators of sustainability for ruminant pastoral production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Nahed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es la continuación de un estudio previo presentado por los autores en el Seminario FAO-CIEHAM (Organización para laAgricultura y la Alimentación- Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos celebrado en Sevilla, España, en 2005, en el cual se realizó un análisis preliminar acerca del uso de los indicadores de la FAO-CIEHAM para evaluar la sustentabilidad de granjas con pequeños rumiantes. El artículo que se presenta ofrece una lista de 48 indicadores ambientales genéricos, adaptada a las granjas con pequeños rumiantes con relación a ocho aspectos: prácticas agrícolas, suelo, agua, paisaje, energía, residuos, bienestar animal y biodiversidad. Se necesita trabajo adicional para completar y perfeccionar esta lista, la cual se ha obtenido a partir de la consulta a expertos y de una revisión de metodologías existentes.

  20. Spelling the Domain of Sustainable Product Innovation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    Bringing scientific disciplines together is increasingly seen as a factor that can strengthen a particular scientific research approach. This has in particular been noted for the field of sustainable product innovation, which builds on disciplines such as Environmental Systems Analysis, Product...... Development, Product Design, Engineering, Economics and Business Administration, Consumer research and Operations management. With so many scientific fields forming the backbone of sustainable product innovation research, it is no surprise that relevant research furthering sustainable product innovation...... is done within various scientific domains. This observation fuels discussions on the need to define what is to be regarded as part of the sustainable product innovation (SPI) research domain, and what is not. In order to answer this question it is necessary to focus not only on topics, but also...

  1. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dätwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products.

  2. A Review on the Role of Chromium Supplementation in Ruminant Nutrition-Effects on Productive Performance, Blood Metabolites, Antioxidant Status, and Immunocompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Habibian, Mahmood; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2018-03-28

    With the increase in the global herd, the use of metabolic modifiers has become an important area for many researchers looking for a supraphysiological diet to improve production parameters. For improving the performance of high yielding cows, the optimal balance of all nutrients including microminerals is important. Chromium (Cr) is one of the important micronutrients which plays an important role in metabolism of ruminants. Experimental studies have found that Cr could change performance, immune responses, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and antioxidant status in dairy cows. In some studies, Cr supplementation improved dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition of dairy cows in the early, mid, or late stage of lactation. Also, in some studies, performance of growing animal, immune response, and some blood parameters responded positively to Cr supplementation. In conclusion, the effects of Cr supplementation on performance of ruminants are inconsistent; however, its long-term effects on health, productivity, immune system, and antioxidant activity of ruminants still need to be investigated.

  3. Late production of CXCL8 in ruminant oro-nasal turbinate cells in response to Chlamydia abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doull, L; Wattegedera, S R; Longbottom, D; Mwangi, D; Nath, M; Glass, E J; Entrican, G

    2015-11-15

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is an important cause of ovine abortion worldwide. There are reports of abortions in cattle, but these are very rare compared to the reported incidence in sheep. The bacterium is transmitted oro-nasally and can establish a sub-clinical infection until pregnancy, when it can invade the placenta and induce an inflammatory cascade leading to placentitis and abortion. Early host-pathogen interactions could explain differential pathogenesis and subsequent disease outcome in ruminant species. In this study, we assessed the ability of sheep and cattle oro-nasal turbinate cells to sense and respond to C. abortus infection. The cells expressed toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. In response to C. abortus infection, both ovine and bovine turbinate cells produce CXCL8 mRNA and protein late in the bacterial developmental cycle, but do not produce IL-1β or TNF-α. The UV-inactivated bacteria did not elicit a CXCL8 response, suggesting that intracellular multiplication of the bacteria is important for activating the signalling pathways. The production of innate immune cytokines from cattle and sheep turbinate cells in response to C. abortus infection was found to be largely similar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  5. Introduction--the Socially Sustainable Egg Production project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Thompson, P B

    2011-01-01

    The social and political pressure to change egg production from conventional cage systems to alternative systems has been largely driven by the desire to provide more behavioral freedom for egg-laying hens. However, a change of this magnitude can affect other components of the production system and may result in unintended outcomes. To understand this issue, a Socially Sustainable Egg Production project was formed to 1) conduct a holistic and integrated systematic review of the current state of knowledge about various aspects of sustainable egg production, and 2) develop a coordinated grant proposal for future extramural funding based on the research priorities identified from the review. Expert study groups were formed to write evidence-based papers in 5 critical sustainability areas: hen health and welfare, economics, food safety and quality, public attitudes, and environmental impacts. These papers were presented as the PSA Emerging Issues Symposium on Social Sustainability of Egg Production at the 2010 Poultry Science Association meeting.

  6. Beef Production and Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, J.; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  7. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants...

  8. Transition towards Sustainable Solutions: Product, Service, Technology, and Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nasiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the horse industry can be considered as an important industry in European countries and has a major role in agricultural industry throughout the world. Although today the diversity of the horse-related companies provides new markets and business opportunities, there are also some sustainable issues which needs to be addressed. Therefore, this study contributes to this research gap by reviewing the concept of sustainability and existing approaches to find sustainable solutions for companies. These sustainable approaches can be applied to products, services and technologies as well as business models, such as the product-service-system (PSS, circular economy (CE and industrial symbiosis (IS. Although there seems to be a growing understanding of sustainable approaches and their role in sustainable development, there is a lack of research at the empirical level regarding the types of sustainability approaches (i.e., technologies, services, products and business models that evolve in specific industries. The empirical data in this research have been collected from a cross-section of Finnish horse industry operators to determine how willing companies are to exploit approaches to sustainable solutions, as well as what the existing sustainable solutions are in this industry. The response rate of this study is approximately 24 percent, including 139 received valid responses among the sample of 580 operators.

  9. Methane and carbon dioxide ratio in excreted air for quantification of the methane production from ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This technical note presents a simple, fast, reliable and cheap method to estimate the methane (CH4) production from animals by using the CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in air near the animals combined with an estimation of the total CO2 production from information on intake of metab......This technical note presents a simple, fast, reliable and cheap method to estimate the methane (CH4) production from animals by using the CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in air near the animals combined with an estimation of the total CO2 production from information on intake...

  10. Challenges for Marketers in Sustainable Production and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Oates

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the biggest issues facing today’s global society, sustainability cuts across all areas of production and consumption and presents challenges for marketers who attempt to understand and incorporate sustainability in their everyday practices [1–3]. [...

  11. Sustainable protein production and consumption : pigs of peas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; Boer, de J.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Protein Production and Consumption: Pigs or Peas? is a book that presents and explores the PROFETAS programme for development of a more sustainable food system by studying the feasibility of substituting meat with plant based alternatives. The emphasis is on improving the food system by

  12. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  13. Sustainable Production of Chemicals--An Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissen, Marco

    2012-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a very general term and the question arises how to specify it within daily laboratory work. In this regard, appropriate metrics could support a socially acceptable, ecological and economic product development. The application of metrics for sustainability should be strengthened in education, because they do not belong…

  14. Labour productivity as a factor of sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Elena BALU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania aims at reducing the economic and social gaps to the EU developed Member States. This requires an economic sustainable growth. An increased labour productivity is one of the main factors of competitiveness at national level and of sustainable economic development.

  15. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation of forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous...

  16. Nutritional diversity of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.G. Azevêdo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven by-products were collected from regions throughout Brazil. Chemical composition, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were determined with the objective of grouping by-products with similar nutritional characteristics. The by-products belonging to group one (G1 presented the highest content of neutral detergent fiber exclusive of ash and nitrogenous compounds [aNDFom(n] and lowest energy content, with 42.5% and 38.8% of IVNDFD and TDN, respectively. A new cluster analysis was carried in order to better characterize G2 by-products, six subgroups (SGs were established (SG1 to SG6. SG1 by-products had the highest and the lowest values for lignin and TDN, respectively. SG2 by-products had the highest aNDFom(n value, with TDN and IVNDFD values greater than 600 and 700g/kg, respectively, and crude protein (CP value below 200g/kg in dry matter (DM. Among all the subgroups, SG3 had the highest TDN (772g/kg and IVNDFD (934g/kg values and the lowest lignin (23g/kg in DM value. The ether extract was what most influenced the hierarchical establishment of residual grouping in SG4. SG5 by-products had the highest concentration of non-fibrous carbohydrate. Different from the other subgroups, SG6 by-products had the highest value of available CP.

  17. How "Sustainability" is Changing How We Make and Choose Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl O' Brien

    2006-07-01

    What does Sustainability mean, and why should people in the thermophysical properties business care? This paper will describe sustainability in the context of product development, which is where much of the buzz is currently being generated. Once described, it will discuss how expectations for Sustainability are changing product lines, and then discuss the controversial issues now emerging from trying to measure Sustainability. One of the most organized efforts in the U.S. is the U.S. Green Building Council revolutionizing how the built environment is conceptualized, designed, built, used, and disposed of - and born again. The appeal of the US Green Building Council is that it has managed to checklist how to "do" Sustainability. By following this checklist, better described as a rating system, a more Sustainable product should be achieved. That is, a product that uses less energy, less water, is less noxious to the user, and consumes fewer resources. We care because these Sustainable products are viewed as preferable by a growing number of consumers and, consequently, are more valuable. One of the most interesting aspects of the Sustainability movement is a quantitative assessment of how sustainable a product is. Life Cycle Assessment techniques (not to be confused with life cycle economic costs) developed since the early 1990s are gaining ground as a less biased method to measure the ultimate "bad" consequences of creating a product (depletion of natural resources, nutrification, acid rain, air borne particulates, solid waste, etc.). For example, one assertion is that these studies have shown that recycling can sometimes do more environmental harm than good.

  18. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustainable product strategy. The level of sustainability is determined by the trade-off between profitability and costs occurred and if more consumers value sustainable products, the firm will increase its sustainable level and get a higher profit. This is because of a combination effect of an increasing marginal profit and demand expansion. Moreover, the model has been further extended to address a situation where the firm could manage consumer segmentation. Depending on parameter settings, the firm may target different consumer segments and there is always a threshold of cost for managing consumer segments. When converting regular consumers to be environmentally conscious is not costly, the firm will convert all consumers to be environmentally conscious with great efforts; otherwise, the firm will convert part of consumers to be environmentally conscious.

  19. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... resulting segments. Results for the three continents point out that general sustainability attitudes relate to citizens' attitudes towards pig farming only for specific small-sized social groups. However, what the large majority of respondents think in their role as citizens related to pig production did....... This study therefore provides valuable insights to policymakers and practitioners for improvements in an integrated management of food chains to meet consumer sustainability-related expectations better....

  20. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... resulting segments. Results for the three continents point out that general sustainability attitudes relate to citizens' attitudes towards pig farming only for specific small-sized social groups. However, what the large majority of respondents think in their role as citizens related to pig production did....... This study therefore provides valuable insights to policymakers and practitioners for improvements in an integrated management of food chains to meet consumer sustainability-related expectations better....

  1. Sustained attention in language production: An individual differences investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meyer, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it has long been assumed that most linguistic processes underlying language production happen automatically, accumulating evidence suggests that these processes do require some form of attention. Here we investigated the contribution of sustained attention: the ability to maintain alertness

  2. Sustainable evolution of product line infrastructure code

    OpenAIRE

    Patzke, T.

    2011-01-01

    A major goal in many software development organizations today is to reduce development effort and cost, while improving their products' quality and diversity by developing reusable software. An organization takes advantage of its products' similarities, exploits what they have in common and manages what varies among them by building a product line infrastructure. A product line infrastructure is a reuse repository that contains exactly those common and variable artifacts, such as requirements...

  3. setting sustainable standards for biofuel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Table 1: Energy Production and Consumption in Nigeria, 2012. Energy source. Production. (in percentages). Consumption. (in percentages). Combustible renewable and waste. 84.9. 82. Oil products. 7.06. 13. Natural gas. 5.44. 4. Crude oil. 2.23. -. Hydroelectric. 0.36. 1. Other renewables. 0. 0. Nuclear. 0. 0. Coal and peat.

  4. Effects of total replacement of soybean meal and corn on ruminal fermentation, volatile fatty acids, protozoa concentration, and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of total replacement of soybean meal and corn with triticale and faba bean or field pea on rumen fermentation, protozoa counts, and gas production of lactating ewes. A total of 30 Sicilo-Sarde ewes were randomly allocated into three groups and were fed 1.8 kg drymatter of oat hay plus 500 g of one of three concentrates: the first concentrate (CS was mainly composed of soybean meal, corn, and barley; the second (TFB was formed by triticale and faba bean; and the third (TFP was composed of triticale and field pea. The type of concentrate did not affect ruminal pH or ammonia nitrogen concentration (P  >  0.05. The individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids showed a significant interaction between the type of concentrate and sampling time (P  <  0.05, except for Butyric and Isobutyric acids. Within a post-feeding time, the pattern of evolution of total volatile fatty, acetic, and propionic acids differed significantly at 2 h post feeding (P  <  0.05, while butyric and valeric acid changed at 0 and 4 h post feeding. The type of concentrate affected the total number of ciliate protozoa and the Isotricha species (P  <  0.05, whereas Entodinium, Ophryoscolex, and Polyplastron were similar among concentrates (P  >  0.05. The cumulative gas production from the in vitro fermentation, the time of incubation, and their interaction was affected by concentrate (P  <  0.001. The substitution of soybean meal and corn in the concentrate with faba bean or field peas and triticale might maintain rumen parameters of dairy ewes.

  5. Impact of Charcoal Production on the Sustainable Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the impact of charcoal production on the sustainable development of Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Specifically, it examines the method of production of charcoal, identifies the basis for involvement in charcoal production; analyzes the socio-economic impact of charcoal on rural ...

  6. Gender Role in Sustainable Palm Oil Production in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    palm oil production entails the analysis of male and female, issues concerning the part both play in production of ... to modern processing equipment; examine roles across gender in sustainable production of palm oil; ... the same in Cameroon where the level of education are basically primary school leavers and junior high ...

  7. Economic sustainability of sheabutter production in Kwara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of sheabutter has the economic potentials in sustaining income generation for rural dwellers. The potentials of shea nuts productivity could only be achieved when technical efficiency of the processing becomes relevant. The study examines the patterns, efficiency and productivity of processing harvested shea ...

  8. Effects of partial replacement of dietary starch from barley or corn with lactose on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid absorption, nitrogen utilization, and production performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisa, G E; Gorka, P; Penner, G B; Berthiaume, R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-04-01

    In cows fed diets based on corn-alfalfa silage, replacing starch with sugar improves milk production. Although the rate of ruminal fermentation of sugar is more rapid than that of starch, evidence has been found that feeding sugar as a partial replacement for starch does not negatively affect ruminal pH despite increasing diet fermentability. The mechanism(s) for this desirable response are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing barley or corn starch with lactose (as dried whey permeate; DWP) on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and source of starch (barley vs. corn) and level of DWP (0 vs. 6%, DM basis) as treatment factors. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal function, SCFA absorption, and N utilization. Dry matter intake and milk and milk component yields did not differ with diet. The dietary addition of DWP tended to increase ruminal butyrate concentration (13.6 vs. 12.2 mmol/L), and increased the Cl(-)-competitive absorption rates for acetate and propionate. There was no sugar effect on minimum ruminal pH, and the duration and area when ruminal pH was below 5.8. Minimum ruminal pH tended to be lower in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn (5.47 vs. 5.61). The duration when ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 tended to be shorter (186 vs. 235 min/d), whereas the area (pH × min/d) that pH was below 5.8 was smaller (47 vs. 111) on the corn than barley diets. Cows fed the high- compared with the low-sugar diet had lower ruminal NH3-N concentration. Feeding the high-sugar diet tended to increase apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter and organic matters and increased apparent total-tract digestibility of fat. Apparent total-tract digestibility of N tended to be greater in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn

  9. New Sustainable Tourism Product Development for Russian Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Racheeva, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable tourism is a new concept for tourism sector; it is tourism that reduces negative tourism impacts and brings benefits instead. The current problem of sustainable tourism is lack of attractive tourism products. Their development is crucial since customers seek for experiences at a destination. Russians are an important segment for Finnish tourism, therefore their consumer behaviours has to be studied. The aim of this research is to find how to develop a tourism product for susta...

  10. Design for Sustainability: Current Trends in Sustainable Product Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Crul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Design for Sustainability (D4S concept outlines methodologies for making sustainable improvements (social, economic and environmental to products by applying elements of life cycle thinking. D4S builds on the work of ecodesign to include economic and social concerns, and its methodology includes both incremental and radical innovation. The United Nations Environment Programme and the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, in concert with key partners, work to support, illustrate, and diffuse targeted D4S demonstration efforts, including the European Commission-funded Cleaner Production for Better Products project in Vietnam, that are needed to change unsustainable consumption and production patterns.

  11. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  12. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  13. Structural features of condensed tannins affect in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUYEN, N. T.; FRYGANAS, C.; UITTENBOGAARD, G.; MUELLER-HARVEY, I.; VERSTEGEN, M. W. A.; HENDRIKS, W. H.; PELLIKAAN, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of condensed tannin (CT) structural properties, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization), percentage of cis flavan-3-ols and percentage of prodelphinidins in CT extracts on methane (CH 4 ) production and fermentation

  14. Structural features of condensed tannins affect in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N.T.; Fryganas, C.; Uittenbogaard, G.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of condensed tannin (CT) structural properties, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization), percentage of cis flavan-3-ols and percentage of prodelphinidins in CT extracts on methane (CH4) production and

  15. Productivity assessments in small ruminant improvement programmes : a case study of the West African dwarf goat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the

  16. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  17. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool......The growing concerns about the global warming and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have led to an increase in the interest to produce fuel from biomass and from the fact that such fuels can relieve the reliance on imported oil and price. To this end, numerous production facilities are being set up...

  18. Case Study: Sustainable Greener Military Chemical Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    energy, etc) • Both EO’s – LCA – Green Procurement FRCSW Drivers EPA Defined Environmental Performance Characteristics 1. Materials Hazard Factors...Environmentally Friendly • EPEAT ( Electronic ) Environmental Criteria (51) • Environmental Technology Verification • Federal Energy Management Program...FEMP) Audio/Video, Office, Major Appliances • Energy Star Products (FEMP) Equipment, HVAC, Electronics , Office, Lighting, Food • Low VOC Products

  19. Microbial production of lysine from sustainable feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhihao; Grishkova, Maria; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Lysine is produced in a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum. And even though production strains have been improved for decades, there is still room for further optimization.......Lysine is produced in a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum. And even though production strains have been improved for decades, there is still room for further optimization....

  20. MODERN METHODOLOGIES TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalâc Catalin Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper brings into the light several methodologies used today inside the companies to organize their process in order to respond to continuously evolving and changing customer behavior. It follows the historical timeline from the moment when production was a simple craft to the moment where mass production has been transformed in mass customization.

  1. Nitrate and sulfate: Effective alternative hydrogen sinks for mitigation of ruminal methane production in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijderveld, S M; Gerrits, W J J; Apajalahti, J A; Newbold, J R; Dijkstra, J; Leng, R A; Perdok, H B

    2010-12-01

    Twenty male crossbred Texel lambs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design experiment to assess the effect of dietary addition of nitrate (2.6% of dry matter) and sulfate (2.6% of dry matter) on enteric methane emissions, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, rumen microbial composition, and the occurrence of methemoglobinemia. Lambs were gradually introduced to nitrate and sulfate in a corn silage-based diet over a period of 4 wk, and methane production was subsequently determined in respiration chambers. Diets were given at 95% of the lowest ad libitum intake observed within one block in the week before methane yield was measured to ensure equal feed intake of animals between treatments. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous. Methane production decreased with both supplements (nitrate: -32%, sulfate: -16%, and nitrate+sulfate: -47% relative to control). The decrease in methane production due to nitrate feeding was most pronounced in the period immediately after feeding, whereas the decrease in methane yield due to sulfate feeding was observed during the entire day. Methane-suppressing effects of nitrate and sulfate were independent and additive. The highest methemoglobin value observed in the blood of the nitrate-fed animals was 7% of hemoglobin. When nitrate was fed in combination with sulfate, methemoglobin remained below the detection limit of 2% of hemoglobin. Dietary nitrate decreased heat production (-7%), whereas supplementation with sulfate increased heat production (+3%). Feeding nitrate or sulfate had no effects on volatile fatty acid concentrations in rumen fluid samples taken 24h after feeding, except for the molar proportion of branched-chain volatile fatty acids, which was higher when sulfate was fed and lower when nitrate was fed, but not different when both products were included in the diet. The total number of rumen bacteria increased as a result of sulfate inclusion in the diet. The number of methanogens was reduced when nitrate was

  2. Tear production, intraocular pressure and conjunctival bacterial flora in selected captive wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvapil, Pavel; Pirš, Tina; Slavec, Brigita; Luštrik, Roman; Zemljič, Tadej; Bártová, Eva; Stranjac, Bojana; Kastelic, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of tear production (Schirmer's tear test, STT) and measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) were performed in a population of captive wild ungulates in a Slovenian ZOO during routine annual health check. In total, 10 fallow deer (Dama dama), 25 mouflons (Ovis aries musimon), 20 alpine ibexes (Capra ibex), and three alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were included in the study. Tear production was performed by Schirmer's tear test, IOP was measured with an applanation tonometer, and ophthalmological examination was conducted with slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Conjunctival swabs were taken and submitted for aerobic bacteriology and for detection of Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma spp. tested by PCR. Average tear production (in mm/min) was 17.8 ± 3.16 for fallow deer, 17.9 ± 3.87 for mouflons, and 11.7 ± 3.87 for ibexes. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP, in mm Hg) was 14.1 ± 2.48 for fallow deer, 14.9 ± 2.20 for mouflons, and 13.1 ± 2.43 for ibexes. For chamois, average tear production and IOP were 14.5 ± 3.0 and 10.2 ± 2.5, respectively; this is the first record of STT I and IOP in chamois. Bacteriological swabs were positive for bacteria in 100% of the fallow deer, 56% of mouflons, 35% of ibexes, and 100% of chamois. Gram-positive bacteria were predominant. Moraxella spp., Chlamydia spp., and Mycoplasma spp. were not detected. The reported values were obtained in animals under manual restraint only to be applicative in similar conditions. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Sustainability of animal production systems: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, M

    1996-06-01

    The question of sustainability of agricultural production and the use of natural resources has become a popular topic. Most scientists agree that current systems are generally non-sustainable. Current rates of resource extraction will lead us to a depleted earth in the future. Sustainability is defined in many ways. For this paper sustainability should be considered the overlap of what is wanted and what is ecologically possible. Attempts have been made to place a quantitative measure on sustainability. However, it should be considered a trajectory or goal, a direction that guides constructive change, rather than a single quantitative measure. Research and extension personnel may have to take a broader look at their efforts and expand their knowledge base in order to address the issue of sustainable production systems. Both natural events and those caused by humans bring about changes in production potential that require shifts in management. Uncertainty and change should be incorporated into adaptive management strategies. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to confront these issues. Animal scientists need to formulate management systems that are environmentally compatible or face restrictive legislation that will force change. Members of the American Society of Animal Science seem to agree: efficient and sustainable use of natural resources appears in the draft of the Strategic Plan of the Society, and a poll of members revealed that environmental concerns about animal agriculture was a primary issue facing animal scientists.

  4. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Analysis of knowledge, attitude and practices of small ruminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge, skills and attitude of small ruminant farmers were studied to determine their training needs. Socio-economic characteristics of the small ruminant farmers, their knowledge, skills and attitude in small ruminant production were evaluated alongside their training needs. A multi-stage random sampling technique ...

  6. Reductive biotransformation of xenobiotics by the sheep ruminal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta de Pérez, O; Bernacchi, A S; Díaz de Toranzo, E G; Castro, J A

    1992-04-01

    1. Sheep ruminal content was able to reduce nitro groups from nitrobenzene and azo groups from dimethylamino-azobenzene. 2. Results might be of interest in relation to ruminants exposed to environmental chemicals via oral route. 3. Biotransformation of xenobiotics in rumen might give to deleterious products appearing later in meat and/or milk or harming the ruminant itself.

  7. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION PACKAGES FOR ORGANIC TURMERIC

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, Eagan; Shanthi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), a perennial rhizomatous herb has been regarded as an important spice in Asian cuisine. India is called as the “Spice bowl of the world” as it produces variety of spices with quality. Though India leads in production of turmeric, but average productivity is very low due to imbalanced and suboptimal dose of chemical fertilizers, organic manure, bio – fertilizers and micronutrients (Kandiannan and Chandragiri, 2008). Since, turmeric is a nutrient responsive crop and ...

  8. Production of a ruminant protein supplement by anaerobic fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.A.; Erdman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In studies initiated to develop simple and efficient procedures for the production of feed supplements, it was shown that the filtrate from feedlot wastes diluted with water and filtered could be fermented under anaerobic conditions by mixed rumen bacteria, Lactobacilli, or natural microflora from the feedlot wastes to produce a protein-rich feed supplement. The filtrate is low in carbohydrate and therefore supplemental carbohydrate in the form of whey, molasses, starch from potato processing wastes, or corn starch is necessary. Rigid anaerobic conditions need not be maintained nor must aseptic conditions be observed. (JSR)

  9. Effects of feeding forage soybean silage on milk production, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Mustafa, A. F.; Seguin, P.

    2008-01-01

    and AS constituted 72% of the forage in each diet, with corn silage constituting the remaining 28%. Twenty Holsteins cows in early lactation were used in a switchback design. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation...... parameters and in vivo total tract nutrient utilization. Relative to AS, SS contained 15, 28, and 25% more neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein, respectively. Dry matter intake (23.5 vs. 25.1 kg/d) and milk yield (35.5 vs. 37.2 kg/d) were lower for cows fed SS than for those fed.......8 vs. 3.6%) and milk urea nitrogen concentrations (15.6 vs. 14.3 mg/dL) compared with cows fed AS. Ruminal pH was lower, whereas ruminal NH3-N concentration was greater in cows fed SS than in cows fed AS. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were...

  10. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  11. Sustainable development of production in Russia: an informative aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyaev Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of the problems of introduction of the concept of sustainable development of production at modern enterprises. The paper substantiates the necessity of application of this concept at enterprises, gives reasons hindering this process. In addition, the analysis of the notion of sustainable development of production, wherein this process is represented as development of production by means of rational and economical use of resources oriented to provision of a long-term competitive advantage, was conducted in the paper. Moreover, the paper presents the basic principles of successful introduction of the concept of sustainable development of production. By the example of Toyota Company the benefits, which can be derived by an enterprise from application of this concept, were shown.

  12. Systematic Computer-Aided Framework for Sustainable Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Kalakul, Sawitree

    for CAPD, including the accuracy of the property estimation, molecular structure generation, inclusion of sustainability, process and application targets and needs in the problem formulation. CAPD has been widely utilized for the synthesis of several types of products, such as solvents, polymers, fuels...... and environmental impact. In step (3), the CAPD formulation is converted into a mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) by set-up of constraints, objective and boundaries defined in step (2). In step (4), the MINLP is solved through a decomposed approach [3]. The decomposed approach breaks down the MINLP problem...... and formulated products [2]. However, for product design problems where the process needs and sustainability possess demanding constraints, the complexity of the problem is increased as the relation between product property, sustainability and process criteria is difficult to mathematically define. In this work...

  13. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...... comprises economic, environmental and social aspects. The impacts on and trade-offs between the different dimensions of sustainability are discussed, and combined with aspect of product quality. Furthermore, we identify the important planning decisions in relation to production and distribution and organise...... these in a decision hierarchy. Based on these discussions, decision support models based on mixed-integer linear programming are developed for the planning tasks on the tactical level, including decision-making on packaging options and delivery structures. The resulting models can be used to support production...

  14. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT DESIGN AND EXAMPLES OF LEATHER MATERIAL RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÜRLER KARAMAN Deniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many garments made of leather, end up in landfills as waste following the end of its useful life. However, in the flow of production of a leather product, intense energy, chemicals, high volumes of water are consumed. This means that the carbon footprint and environmental loads are high. There are many research activities related to the recycling of textile products, and recycling chains, in this regard famous clothing brands have been organizing grand campaigns. In order to assess the case for leather products that have an important place in the ready-to-wear segment, one should ask the following questions: “How do the big companies and brands in this sector participate in the environmental movement? And importantly, what are the best attempts to recycle leather products? What can be done about the future of leather products recycling and innovative sustainable designs?” when considering sustainable design using recycled leather from end-of-life leather products. In this study, examples of innovative best practices, which were adopted by new brands for recycling and reuse of various types of waste, in order to perform a sustainable product design were presented with the attempt of clarifying aforementioned questions. These new initiatives and practices can develop a novel perspective for academicians and professionals engaged in the field of leather and fashion design, and the concept of sustainable design can be introduced to wider masses.

  15. Sustainability, environmental, and safety aspects in the production of biocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank

    Future product design requires sustainbale processes and may with great benefit prtially be based on composites made from agricultural by-products. the EU project Biocomp addressed the manufacturing and the parallel assessment of the world wide sustainability of such an approach as well...

  16. Bioeconomic Sustainability of Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The use of marginal land (ML) for lignocellulosic biofuel production is examined for system stability, resilience, and eco-social sustainability. A North American prairie grass system and its industrialization for maximum biomass production using biotechnology and agro-technical inputs is the focus of the analysis. Demographic models of ML biomass…

  17. Improving environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production in 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a

  18. Knowledge Productivity for Sustainable Innovation: Social Capital as HRD Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Corry; van der Klink, Marcel; Roentgen, Uta; Curfs, Emile; Boshuizen, Henny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of a conceptual model on relations between organisational innovation, knowledge productivity and social capital. It explores processes of knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation and associated HRD implications in knowledge intensive organisations, taking the perspective that…

  19. Knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation: social capital as HRD target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlen, Corry; Van der Klink, Marcel; Roentgen, Uta; Curfs, Emile; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of a conceptual model on relations between organisational innovation, knowledge productivity and social capital. It explores processes of knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation and associated HRD implications in knowledge

  20. Healthy and Sustainable Horticulture Production in the Central Andes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy and Sustainable Horticulture Production in the Central Andes. Horticultural production in mid-altitude Andean valleys uses substantial amounts of highly hazardous and mutagenic pesticides. But, it is a growing source of income for farm families and fresh vegetables for metropolitan markets. Preliminary research ...

  1. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to financial support was limited due to lack of collateral and high production risk where farmers' production is solely based on natural and unreliable rainfall patterns and therefore unsustainable. Strategies to improve food security should receive priority to support sustainable resource management, increase access ...

  2. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    benefits, a reduction of nitrate leaching equivalent to 23,000 tonnes N annually was estimated. This is approximately the reduction required by the WFD for Denmark. Even though much more organic matter will be mobilized for biorefining, soil carbon levels are estimated to be largely unchanged...... production into grass production. Grasses and legumes have higher contents of protein with better quality (high lysine and methionine contents) than grain and seed crops. Thus, substituting imported soya bean protein with protein extracted from perennial grasses is an interesting option....

  3. Sustainable biodiesel production by catalytic reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter outlines the properties of biodiesel as renewable fuel, as well as the problems associated with its conventional production processes. The synthesis via fatty acid esterification using solid acid catalysts is investigated. The major challenge is finding a suitable catalyst that is

  4. Trait rumination, depression, and executive functions in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Clara A; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2015-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Trait Rumination, Depression, and Executive Functions in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  6. Sustainable Palm Oil Production For Bioenergy Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wai Kiat

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergy supply chain is formed by many parts which from the raw material, biomass feedstock until the distribution and utilisation. The upstream activity is always managed in a sustainable way in order to be capable enough to support the downstream activity. In this dissertation, the sustainable production of palm oil is focused and researched through problem identification and solving by using the operation management perspective and practices. At first, the global biomass industry is st...

  7. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  8. 36 CFR 223.219 - Sustainable harvest of special forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sustainable harvest of....219 Sustainable harvest of special forest products. (a) Sustainable harvest levels. Prior to offering... product's sustainable harvest level. A special forest product's sustainable harvest level is the total...

  9. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  10. Effects of sulfur and monensin concentrations on in vitro dry matter disappearance, hydrogen sulfide production, and volatile fatty acid concentrations in batch culture ruminal fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D R; Dilorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; May, M L; Quinn, M J; Homm, J W; Galyean, M L

    2010-04-01

    Effects of monensin (MON) and S on in vitro fermentation and H(2)S production were evaluated in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 2 ruminally cannulated steers were adapted (>14 d) to a 75% concentrate diet [steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based], and ruminal fluid was collected approximately 4 h after feeding. Substrate composed (DM basis) of 85.2% SFC, 9% alfalfa hay, 5% cottonseed meal, and 0.8% urea was added with ruminal fluid and buffer to sealed 125-mL serum bottles to allow for gas collection. A Na(2)SO(4) solution was added to yield S equivalent to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% of substrate DM, and MON was included at 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/L of culture volume. Bottle head-space gas was analyzed for H(2)S. No MON (P = 0.29) or MON x S interaction (P = 0.41) effects were detected for H(2)S production. Increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and the acetate:propionate ratio (A:P), and linearly increased (P 21 d) to a 75% concentrate diet (SFC base) that contained 15% (DM basis) wet corn distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) and MON at 22 mg/kg of DM. In vitro substrate DM was composed of 75.4% SFC, 15% WDGS, 9% alfalfa hay, and 0.6% urea, and S and MON concentrations were the same as in Exp. 1. No effects of MON (P = 0.93) or the MON x S interaction (P = 0.99) were noted for H(2)S production; however, increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and A:P and linearly increased (P molar proportions were evident with MON regardless of S concentration.

  11. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, G.

    2012-09-15

    In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)

  13. Recent Advances and Challenges towards Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourmentza, Constantina; Plácido, Jersson; Venetsaneas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals production is a critical matter that research teams around the globe are focusing on nowadays. Polyhydroxyalkanoates represent one of the biomaterials of the future due to their physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...... polyhydroxyalkanoate production are presented and discussed, covering key steps of their overall production process by applying pure and mixed culture biotechnology, from raw bioprocess development to downstream processing....

  14. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, William E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-14

    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  15. Sustainable production program in the Mexican mining industry: occupational risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zavala Reyna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Speaking of mining and sustainability sounds contradictory, as the environmental impact generated by resource extraction is well known. However, there are mining companies that are working to be safe and environmentally friendly. An example of this is presented in this study aimed at identifying occupational risks generated by the activities of a small-scale gold and silver mine located in northwestern Mexico. The methodology followed was a Sustainable Production Program (SPP based on a continuous cycle of five steps in which the tools of cleaner production and pollution prevention are adapted. As a result of this project, it was possible to implement SPP activities: training for workers, use of personal protective equipment and adequate handling of chemicals. As a conclusion, it was verified that SPP application helped this mining company move towards sustainable patterns of production.

  16. From life cycle assessment to sustainable production: Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jeswiet, Jack; Alting, Leo

    2005-01-01

    the sustainability challenge to our societies is discussed, and it is concluded that industry must include not only the eco-efficiency but also the product's environmental justification and the company ethics in a life cycle perspective in order to become sustainable. In the outlook it is concluded that current......The paper reviews the current state of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) introducing the central elements of the methodology and the latest developments in assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts along the product chain. The central role of LCA in Integrated Product Policy (IPP...... drivers seem insufficient to create a strong move of particularly the small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of sustainability, and the need for stronger legislation and particularly for education and attitude building among future citizens and engineers is identified....

  17. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology.

  18. Sustainable Product Development Through a Life-Cycle Approach to Product and Service Creation (Keynote speech)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    . These two schools of environmental re-search practice are mirrored in the way in which industry approaches environmental problems. Since the definition in 1987 of Sustainable Development [2] efforts have been made to relate the goals and ideals of sustainabil-ity to the domain of product development, thus...... adding new dimensions, such as social and moral values, to the original agenda of environmental improvement. The redefinition of the role of the product developer, from environmentally conscious product de-veloper to sustainably aware product developer has led to new insights into the way in which...... products are developed and used ¿ and to where environmental effects occur in the lifetime of a product. The role of the product developer is thus more complex in relation to sustainability, as the focus for improvement of a product may not (and very often does not) lie in the physical artefactual...

  19. Sustainable consumption and production in the food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Increased globalization and a growing world population have a great impact on the sustainability of supply chains, especially within the food industry. The way food is produced, processed, transported, and consumed has a great impact on whether sustainability is achieved throughout the whole food...... supply chain. Due to the complexity that persists in coordinating the members of food supply chain, food wastage has increased over the past few years. To achieve sustainable consumption and production (SCP), food industry stakeholders need to be coordinated and to have their views reflected...... in an optimized manner. However, not much research has been done concerning the influence of stakeholders and supply chain members’ coordination in the food industry's SCP context. To facilitate the theory development for SCP, in this work, a short literature review on sustainable supply chain management...

  20. Combination effects of nitrocompounds, pyromellitic diimide, and 2-bromoethanesulfonate on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation of a grain-rich feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan-Feng; Yang, Hong-Jian

    2012-01-11

    An L(16) (4(5)) orthogonal experimental design was used to evaluate combination effects of nitroethane (0-15 mM), 2-nitroethanol (0-15 mM), 2-nitro-1-propanol (0-15 mM), pyromellitic diimide (0-0.07 mM), and 2-bromoethanesulfonate (0-0.05 mM) on in vitro ruminal fermentation of a grain-rich feed. In vitro dry matter disappearance was adversely affected by these inhibitors, while cumulative gas production was not affected. Volatile fatty acid production was increased by nitroethane and 2-bromoethanesulfonate in a dose-dependent manner and was decreased by 2-nitroethanol and pyromellitic diimide. All inhibitor treatments increased the molar acetate proportion, while decreasing proportions of propionate and butyrate; hydrogen recovery was decreased by 36.9-45.2%; and methane production was reduced by 95.2-99.2%. The methanogenesis inhibition ranked: nitroethane > 2-nitroethanol > 2-nitro-1-propanol > 2-bromoethanesulfonate > pyromellitic diimide; combined concentrations of 5, 5, 5, 0.02, and 0.03 mM, respectively, gave the optimal inhibiting efficiency. These results may provide a reference to develop effective mitigation of methane emission from ruminants.

  1. Improving the sustainability of global meat and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Andrew M

    2017-02-01

    Global demand for meat and dairy products has increased dramatically in recent decades and, through a combination of global population growth, increased lifespan and improved economic prosperity in the developing world will inevitably continue to increase. The predicted increases in livestock production will put a potentially unsustainable burden on global resources, including land for production of crops required for animal feed and fresh water. Furthermore, animal production itself is associated with greenhouse gas production, which may speed up global warming and thereby impact on our ability to produce food. There is, therefore, an urgent need to find methods to improve the sustainability of livestock production. This review will consider various options for improving the sustainability of livestock production with particular emphasis on finding ways to replace conventional crops as sources of animal feeds. Alternatives, such as currently underutilised crops (grown on a marginal land) and insects, reared on substrates not suitable for direct consumption by farm animals, represent possible solutions. Coupled with a moderation of excessive meat consumption in wealthier countries, such strategies may secure the long-term sustainability of meat and milk production and mitigate against the adverse health effects of excessive intake.

  2. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - Nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entwistle, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    Within the project ''Application of Isotopes and radiation to increasing agricultural production'' a mission was spent in Indonesia. This travel report provides details on the progress of studies on the effects of urea-molasses block food supplements on growth and milk production in cattle, sheep and goats and on reproduction in goats. Also discussed is the use of iodine-125 radioimmunoassay procedures to monitor progesterone levels. 4 tabs

  3. Sustainability in product development: a proposal for classification of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Flores Magnago

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The product development is a process that addresses sustainability issues inside companies. Many approaches have been discussed in academy concerning sustainability, as Natural Capitalism, Design for Environment (DfE and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, but a question arises: which is indicated for what circumstance? This article aim is the proposition of a classification, based on a literature review, for 15 of these approaches. The criteria were: (i approach nature, (ii organization level, (iii integration level in Product Development Process (PDP, and (iv approach relevance for sustainability dimensions. Common terms allowed the establishment of connections among the approaches. As a result the researchers concluded that, despite they come from distinct knowledge areas they are not mutually excludent, on the contrary, the approaches may be used in a complementary way by managers. The combined use of complementary approaches is finally suggested in the paper.

  4. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... models can be selected by operations managers depending on the manufacturer's motivation to improve service levels. We have also proposed an algorithm for determining optimum values of the decision variables for these sustainable economic production quantity models. Finally, the formulated models...

  5. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entwistle, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains summarized data on the effects of urea-molasses block (UMB) food supplements in dairy and beef cattle, sheep and goats in Java. In addition to improvements in growth and milk production, UMB supplements cause a significant enhancement of ovulation rate and hence fecundity in sheep and goats. Similar data for dairy cattle are not yet available. 5 tabs

  6. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Moll; F. Pierie; J. Broekhuijsen; prof. dr. Wim van Gemert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a

  7. The role of moral leadership for sustainable consumption and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkhuyzen, O.M.; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an adequate understanding of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) involves a mature consciousness of the interdependence between ourselves and the rest of our human family and its habitat. The principles, the actions and the vision that form the basis for SCP are

  8. Socioeconomic constraints to sustainable cocoyam production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    Socioeconomic constraints to sustainable cocoyam production in the Lake Victoria Crescent. Serem, A. K.1, Palapala, V.2, Talwana, H.4, Nandi, J. M. O.3, Ndabikunze, B5 and Korir, M. K.1. 1Moi University, Department of Economics and Agricultural Resource Management,. P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya. 2Masinde ...

  9. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  10. Innovation platform: A tool for sustainable rice production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture plays a key role in Ghana's economy and that of sub Saharan Africa. Transforming agriculture in Ghana is key to increasing farm output, reducing poverty, ensuring environmental sustainability and reducing food insecurity. Linear transfer of technology addressing productivity, marketing and policy underlies the ...

  11. Sustainable Intensified Process Retrofit for the Production of MDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    Process intensification (PI) is a means by which processes can be made more efficient and sustainable at different levels, the unit operations, functional and phenomena levels. Therefore PI can be used for making process improvements at the functional level for the production of an important...

  12. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25% by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental well-being. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be utilized to enhance yields of staple crops, incre...

  13. Genomics for food safety and sustainable animal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlizius, B.; Wijk, van H.J.; Merks, J.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing concern in society about the safety of animal-derived food, the health and welfare of farm animals and the sustainability of current animal production systems. Along farm animal, breeding genomics may contribute to a solution for these concerns. The use of genomic analysis tools,

  14. A Landscape Vision for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstock production for biofuel and other bioproducts is poised to rejuvenate rural economies, but may lead to long-term degradation of soil resources or other adverse and unintended environmental consequences if the practices are not developed in a sustainable manner. This presentation will examin...

  15. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    .. Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  16. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  17. textile and fashion production skills for sustainable development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    On the basis of Nigeria's rich, vibrant and viable traditional textile and fashion industry vis-à-vis the need to keep Niger Delta youths out of violence, this paper this paper argues that imparting former militants with skills and techniques in textile design and production is a sustainable way to develop the region by keeping the ...

  18. The role of moral leadership for sustainable production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkhuyzen, O.M.; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The principles, the actions and the vision that form the basis for sustainable production and consumption (SCP) are not unknown, but there is a considerable gap between knowledge and action, and behavioural incentives are not sufficient for system change. In this paper we explore a key missing

  19. Business-driven innovations towards more sustainable chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Jongen, M.; Zwetsloot, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to gain an understanding of business-driven innovations towards more sustainable chemical products and processes. A case study was undertaken to assess and analyse the experiences of five different companies. These companies varied in size from small to a

  20. Genetically modified organisms and sustainable crop production: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Mozumdar, Lavlu; Islam, Mohammad; Saha, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Fighting against global hunger in the adverse climatic condition is a major concern of the governments around the globe. The pace of population growth is overwhelmingly defeating the growth in crop production. In this context, introduction of GMO is emerging as a probable solution for sustainable crop production. However, such developments are not beyond criticism. This paper assesses and evaluates the prospects and challenges of introduction of GMO in a global perspective. Experiences of GM ...

  1. Plant Genetic Resources for sustainability of agro industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchetta, Loretta; Del Fiore, Antonella; Di Giovanni, Barbara; Santi, Chiara; Valentina, Tolaini; Tronci, Carlo; Paodavi, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The recovery, the characterization and conservation of agro biodiversity are priority objectives of the European Union as part of strategies to preserve resources Genetic considered fundamental for sustainable development, community support, to encourage a balanced economic growth. ENEA has been involved for several years in the development of methodologies aimed at enhancing Local germplasm that can be of aid for the cultivation choices, for innovation of traditional production systems and for better use of the final product. [it

  2. INSPIA project: European Index for Sustainable and Productive Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Tarradas, Paula; Jesús González-Sánchez, Emilio; Gómez-Ariza, Manuel; Rass, Gerard; Gardette, Sophie; Whitmore, Gavin; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The concept of sustainable development has evolved from a mere perception for the protection of the environment, to a holistic approach, seeking to preserve not only the environment, but also to achieve sustainability in economics and social wellbeing. Globally, there is a major challenge to face in the agricultural sector: to produce more food, feed and other raw materials to satisfy the increasing demand of a growing population, whilst also contributing to economic prosperity, climate change mitigation / adaptation, social wellbeing and preserving natural capital such as soil, water, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nowadays, conventional approaches to agriculture are under threat. A more productive and resource efficient agriculture that integrates natural resource protection into its approach will help to meet all these challenges, enabling us to have more of everything - more food, more feed, more non-food crops, more biodiversity and natural habitats - while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, INSPIA is an innovative approach that has worked since 2013 towards demonstration that sustainable productive agriculture is possible thanks to the implementation of a host of best management practices (BMPs) capable of delivering the above achievements. The purpose on INSPIA is to make visible with European decision makers that a sustainable and productive agricultural model exists in a small scale in Europe and that wider dissemination is possible with enabling legislation. INSPIA is demonstrating sustainable agriculture through the implementation of BMPs and the measurement and monitoring of a set of defined indicators (economic, social and environmental ones). INSPIA promotes sustainable practices that protect biodiversity, soils and water and contribute towards maintaining ecosystems services. This holistic sustainable system of productive agriculture is based on the combination of Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Integrated Pest

  3. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Edward Martinus Wilhelmus Utrecht University

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  4. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  5. Role of varieties in sustainable rice production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman Omar; Saad Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of Malaysians. Rice production in Malaysia is concentrated in granary areas, which are provided with irrigation facilities. There is no plan to increase the size or the number of these granary areas, thus productivity per unit area must be increased to sustain the current level of self-sufficiency. Variety determines the potential productivity; environment and crop management determine how much of this potential is realized. Crop management is very important, as any drop in the level of management will effect productivity. However there are characteristics / factors that can be incorporated into varieties which can buffer the effect of environment and crop management. Pests and diseases can result in severe yield loss and lead to non-sustainable production. Varietal resistance to some of these diseases can be incorporated into rice varieties. Active breeding to incorporate rice resistance to blast, PMV (tungro), bacterial blight and brown planthopper is being currently carried out Factors that determine or justify the active breeding status are: importance of Oe pests diseases, resistance sources and the availability of efficient screening procedure. Sheath blight is also an important disease in direct seeded crops as it can cause severe yield loss, but good resistant sources are not available for incorporation and the screening procedure is also not very efficient. Biotechnologists are working hard to introduce resistance from other crops and also develop other resistance mechanisms for sheath blight. Water, shortage or excess, is a major cause of non-sustainable production. The breeding of short-term varieties can overcome water problems or shortages. Negative interaction between varietal characteristics and environment do occur. Finally farmers have to decide which factors of the environment cannot be easily controlled, and choose the correct varieties in order to achieve sustainable production. (Author)

  6. Sustainable consumption and production strategy for South African construction products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of green building principles and the rollout of energy efficiency regulations for buildings are not sufficient to align the environmental performance of South African construction products with the requirements for environmental...

  7. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  8. Integrating nutrient bioavailability and co-production links when identifying sustainable diets: How low should we reduce meat consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangui Barré

    Full Text Available Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system.The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability.Diet optimization with linear and non-linear programming was used to design, for each gender, three modeled diets departing the least from the mean observed French diet (OBS while reducing by at least 30% the diet-related environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, acidification: i in the nutrition-environment (NE model, the fulfillment of recommended dietary allowances for all nutrients was imposed; ii in the NE-bioavailability (NEB model, nutritional adequacy was further ensured by accounting for iron, zinc, protein and provitamin A bioavailability; iii in the NEB-co-production (NEB-CP model, two links between co-produced animal foods (milk-beef and blood sausage-pork were additionally included into the models by proportionally co-constraining their respective quantities. The price and environmental impacts of individual foods were assumed to be constant.'Fruit and vegetables' and 'Starches' quantities increased in all modeled diets compared to OBS. In parallel, total meat and ruminant meat quantities decreased. Starting from 110g/d women's OBS diet (168g/d for men, total meat quantity decreased by 78%, 67% and 32% for women (68%, 66% and 62% for men in NE, NEB and NEB-CP diets, respectively. Starting from 36g/d women's OBS diet (54g/d for men, ruminant meat quantity dropped severely by 84% and 87% in NE

  9. Integrating nutrient bioavailability and co-production links when identifying sustainable diets: How low should we reduce meat consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Tangui; Perignon, Marlène; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Micard, Valérie; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Darmon, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability. Diet optimization with linear and non-linear programming was used to design, for each gender, three modeled diets departing the least from the mean observed French diet (OBS) while reducing by at least 30% the diet-related environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, acidification): i) in the nutrition-environment (NE) model, the fulfillment of recommended dietary allowances for all nutrients was imposed; ii) in the NE-bioavailability (NEB) model, nutritional adequacy was further ensured by accounting for iron, zinc, protein and provitamin A bioavailability; iii) in the NEB-co-production (NEB-CP) model, two links between co-produced animal foods (milk-beef and blood sausage-pork) were additionally included into the models by proportionally co-constraining their respective quantities. The price and environmental impacts of individual foods were assumed to be constant. 'Fruit and vegetables' and 'Starches' quantities increased in all modeled diets compared to OBS. In parallel, total meat and ruminant meat quantities decreased. Starting from 110g/d women's OBS diet (168g/d for men), total meat quantity decreased by 78%, 67% and 32% for women (68%, 66% and 62% for men) in NE, NEB and NEB-CP diets, respectively. Starting from 36g/d women's OBS diet (54g/d for men), ruminant meat quantity dropped severely by 84% and 87% in NE and

  10. Potential of sustainable biomass production systems in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, M.A.; Hussey, M.A.; Wiselogel, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Biomass production for liquid fuels feedstock from systems based on warm-season perennial grasses (WSPG) offers a sustainable alternative for forage-livestock producers in Texas. Such systems also would enhance diversity and flexibility in current production systems. Research is needed to incorporate biomass production for liquid fuels, chemicals, and electrical power into current forage-livestock management systems. Our research objectives were to (i) document the potential of several WSPG in diverse Texas environments for biomass feedstock production, (ii) conduct fundamental research on morphological development of WSPG to enhance management for biomass feedstock production, (iii) examine current on-farm production systems for opportunities to incorporate biomass production, and (iv) determine feedstock quality and stability during storage

  11. Effects of different fresh-cut forages and their hays on feed intake, digestibility, heat production, and ruminal methane emission by Boer x Spanish goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, R; Animut, G; Patra, A K; Detweiler, G D; Wells, J E; Varel, V H; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L

    2012-08-01

    Twenty-four yearling Boer × Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of different forages, either fresh (Exp. 1) or as hay (Exp. 2), on feed intake, digestibilities, heat production, and ruminal methane emission. Treatments were: 1) Sericea lespedeza (SER; Lespedeza cuneata), a legume high in condensed tannins (CT; 20% and 15% in fresh forage and hay, respectively), 2) SER supplemented with polyethylene glycol (SER-PEG; 25 g/d), 3) alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a legume low in CT (ALF), and 4) sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor), a grass low in CT (GRASS). Experiments were 22 d, which included 16 d for acclimatization followed by a 6-d period for fecal and urine collection, and gas exchange measurement (last 2 d). Intake of OM was 867, 823, 694, and 691 g/d (SEM = 20.1) with fresh forage, and 806, 887, 681, and 607 g/d with hay for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively (SEM = 46.6). Apparent total tract N digestion was greater for SER-PEG vs. SER (P forage (46.3%, 66.5%, 81.7%, and 73.2%; SEM = 1.71) and hay (49.7%, 71.4%, 65.4%, and 54.8% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 1.57). Intake of ME was similar among treatments with fresh forage (8.24, 8.06, 7.42, and 7.70 MJ/d; SEM = 0.434) and with hay was greater for SER-PEG than ALF (P forage (P forage (6.6, 8.3, 9.4, and 9.2%; SEM = 0.64) and hay (4.3, 4.9, 6.4, and 6.7% for SER, SER-PEG, ALF, and GRASS, respectively; SEM = 0.38). In summary, methane emission in this short-term experiment was similar between a legume and grass low in CT as fresh forage and hay. The CT in SER markedly decreased N digestibility and elicited a moderate decline in ruminal methane emission. Supplementation with PEG alleviated the effect of CT on N digestibility but not ruminal methane emission, presumably because of different modes of action. In conclusion, potential of using CT-containing forage as a means of decreasing ruminal methane emission requires further study, such as with longer feeding periods.

  12. Processing of biowaste for sustainable products in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Shruti Harnal; Hansen, Anders Cai Holm; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy, feed, food, and other products in a sustainable way. One way to mitigate the negative effects of providing these local eco-services is to convert biomass – instead of petroleum or natural gas – into a variety of food, feed...... biowaste into a new resource for sustainable products. Our group is involved in developing strains and microbial fermentation processes for these bioconversions......., biomaterials, energy and fertilizer, maximizing the value of the biomass and minimizing the waste. This integrated approach corresponds to the biorefinery concept and is gaining attention in many parts of the world (Kam & Kam 2004). Energy, food and feed production is the driver for development in this area...

  13. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    associated with the development and implementation of a su stainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow...... and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production.......With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes...

  14. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...... is the combination of numerical and narrative simulation and can be used as a tool to support strategic decisions regarding different scenarios. The use of this method promotes an ongoing iterative process to constantly clarify points of uncertainty and enhance adaptability in order to promote a sustainable process....

  15. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  16. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  17. Evaluating in vitro dose-response effects of Lavandula officinalis essential oil on rumen fermentation characteristics, methane production and ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadeghari, Shahin; Malecky, Mostafa; Dehghan Banadaky, Mehdi; Navidshad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Four in vitro experiments (Exp.) were conducted to evaluate lavender essential oil (LEO) effects at 0 (control), 250 (low dose), 500 (medium dose), 750 and 1000 µL per L (high doses) of incubation medium on rumen gas production kinetics (Exp.1), ruminal digestibility and fermentation (Exp.2), methane production (Exp.3) and rumen acidosis (Exp.4). The asymptote of gas production (A) increased quadratically (p < 0.001), but the lag phase (L) increased (p = 0.003), and gas production rate (µ) decreased linearly (p = 0.031) with increasing dose of LEO. A linear and quadratic effect (p < 0.01) was observed for the gas produced after 24 hr of incubation (GP24). In vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD) and in vitro true organic matter degradability (IVTOMD) both decreased linearly (p < 0.01), but microbial biomass (MB) and partitioning factor (PF) changed quadratically with increasing doses of LEO (p < 0.05). A cubic effect was observed for total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations (p < 0.05). Acetate molar percentage decreased (p = 0.004), whereas those of butyrate and valerate increased linearly (p < 0.05) with LEO dosage. The molar percentage of propionate increased by 10.60 and 12.00% at low and medium doses of LEO, respectively. Methane production decreased by 11.00 and 44.00 to 60.00% at medium and high doses of LEO (p < 0.05), respectively. Lavender essential oil decreased also ruminal pH at all included doses (p < 0.05), intensifying rumen acidosis. These results revealed a dose-dependent selective effect (stimulatory at low and medium, and inhibitory at high doses) of LEO on rumen fermentation.

  18. Recent Advances and Challenges towards Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmentza, Constantina; Plácido, Jersson; Venetsaneas, Nikolaos; Burniol-Figols, Anna; Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Reis, Maria A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals production is a critical matter that research teams around the globe are focusing on nowadays. Polyhydroxyalkanoates represent one of the biomaterials of the future due to their physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Designing efficient and economic bioprocesses, combined with the respective social and environmental benefits, has brought together scientists from different backgrounds highlighting the multidisciplinary character of such a venture. In the current review, challenges and opportunities regarding polyhydroxyalkanoate production are presented and discussed, covering key steps of their overall production process by applying pure and mixed culture biotechnology, from raw bioprocess development to downstream processing. PMID:28952534

  19. Recent Advances and Challenges towards Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmentza, Constantina; Plácido, Jersson; Venetsaneas, Nikolaos; Burniol-Figols, Anna; Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-06-11

    Sustainable biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals production is a critical matter that research teams around the globe are focusing on nowadays. Polyhydroxyalkanoates represent one of the biomaterials of the future due to their physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Designing efficient and economic bioprocesses, combined with the respective social and environmental benefits, has brought together scientists from different backgrounds highlighting the multidisciplinary character of such a venture. In the current review, challenges and opportunities regarding polyhydroxyalkanoate production are presented and discussed, covering key steps of their overall production process by applying pure and mixed culture biotechnology, from raw bioprocess development to downstream processing.

  20. Innovation for sustainable egg production: realigning production with societal demands in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, S.F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Bos, A.P.; Elzen, B.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an innovation trajectory for sustainability in egg production in The Netherlands in the period 2002-2012. In the approach as well as in the analyses, insights from scientific disciplines that have studied transformations towards sustainability were adopted. Central stage is the

  1. Effect of replacing corn with brown rice in a total, mixed, ration silage on milk production, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effects of substituting corn grain with brown rice (BR) grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on milk yield, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) balance. The TMR silages were made from the ensiling of TMR containing (dry matter basis) 50.1% forage in rice silage and corn silage combination, and 49.9% concentrate. The grain portion of the diets contained 31.2% steam-flaked corn, 31.2% steam-flaked BR or an equal mixture of corn and BR. Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat, protein and lactose yields. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The urinary N excretion decreased linearly (P excretion. Our results indicate that steam-flaked BR is a suitable replacement for steam-flaked corn in dairy cow diets, and that it can be included in rations to a level of at least 31.2% of dry matter without adverse effects on milk production, when cows were fed rice silage and corn silage-based diets. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Ruminal silage degradability and productivity of forage and grain-type sorghum cultivars Degradabilidade ruminal das silagens e produtividade de cultivares de sorgo de tipo forrageiro e granífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Resende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Forages for feeding dairy cows should conciliate the potential for high dry matter yield per unit area, maximizing animal stocking rate, with high nutritive value, which enables decreasing the amount of concentrate feedstuffs per milk unit produced. Eighteen sorghum cultivars were cultivated 0.70 m apart and with 12 plants per linear meter. Plants harvested at the milk-to-dough stage were ensiled in the laboratory. Eleven agronomic and chemical traits were evaluated. Silage samples were incubated in situ and the effective ruminal dry matter degradation (DEF was calculated assuming a fractional passage rate of -0.04 h-1. Dry matter yield was 13.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± S.D. t ha-1. The neutral detergent fiber content was 50.3 ± 3.8 and the DEF was 48.8 ± 2.8% (dry matter basis. The average sorghum DEF was 84% of the DEF of a composite sample of 60 corn hybrids simultaneously cultivated, ensiled and ruminally incubated. The 12 forage-type cultivars were taller, more productive, had higher fiber content and lower DEF than the 6 grain and dual purpose-type cultivars. The acid detergent fiber content had the greatest correlation with DEF (r= -0.64. The linear model correlating DEF with productivity was: DEF=54.694 - 0.4449 x t of dry matter ha-1 (r²=0.14. Although there are cultivars that show high productivity and digestibility, it seems to be difficult to conciliate the maximum nutritive value with the maximum productivity of the sorghum crop.Forrageiras para alimentação de vacas leiteiras devem conciliar a alta produção de matéria seca por área, maximizando a taxa de lotação animal, com o alto valor nutritivo, capaz de reduzir a necessidade de alimentos concentrados por litro de leite produzido. Dezoito cultivares de sorgo foram cultivados com espaçamento de 0,70 m e 12 plantas por metro linear. As plantas colhidas ao atingirem o estádio leitoso-pastoso foram ensiladas em laboratório. Onze características agronômicas e químicas foram

  3. Integrating Emotional Attachment and Sustainability in Electronic Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lobos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current models for Information and Communication Technology (ICT products encourage frequent product replacement with newer versions that offer only minor incremental improvements. This pattern, named planned obsolescence, diminishes user experience and shortens product lifespan. This paper presents the conceptual basis for a two-part integrated approach to combating planned obsolescence in ICT devices. First, design for emotional attachment, which creates products that users enjoy, value, and use for longer. Second, technological adaptability, which anticipates product upgrades and repairs as new technologies emerge. A model interdisciplinary design course in industrial design and sustainability, also described herein, trains students to apply this approach to create innovative ICT products with smaller environmental footprints.

  4. Sustainable Production of Asphalt using Biomass as Primary Process Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    is the heating and drying of aggregate,where natural gas, fuel oil or LPG is burned in a direct-fired rotary dryer. Replacing this energy source with amore sustainable one presents several technical and economic challenges, as high temperatures, short startuptimes and seasonal production variations are required......The production of construction materials is very energy intensive and requires large quantities of fossil fuels.Asphalt is the major road paving material in Europe and is being produced primarily in stationary batch mixasphalt factories. The production process requiring the most energy...... is further evaluated during hours without asphalt production.The challenges of having varying seasonal production can be solved by this integration of the production unitto the utility system. The results show the economic and technical feasibility of using biomass for processheating in the asphalt factory...

  5. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Malene Vesterager; Nadeau, E.; Johansson, B. E. O.

    2015-01-01

    of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data...... in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT...... related to daily RT. Rumination time in minutes per kilogram of DMI was negatively related to milk yield and protein percentage, but positively related to milk fat percentage....

  6. SOIL ECOLOGY AS KEY TO SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, G B

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable production of food, feed and fiberwarrants sustainable soil management and crop protection. The tools available to achieve this are both in the realm of the plants and of the soil, with a key role for plant-soil interactions. At the plant level we have vast knowledge of variation within plant species with respect to pests and diseases, based on which we can breed for resistance. However, given that systems evolve this resistance is bound to be temporarily, hence also other strategies are needed. Here I plea for an integrative approach for sustainable production using ecological principles. Ecology, the study of how organisms interact with their environment, teaches us that diversity promotes productivity and yield stability. These effects are thought to be governed through resource use complementarity and reduced build-up of pests and diseases both above- and belowground. In recent years especially the role of soil biotic interactions has revealed new insights in how plant diversity and productivity are related to soil biodiversity and the functions soil biota govern. In our grassland biodiversity studies we found that root feeders can promote plant diversity and succession without reducing plant community productivity, this illustrates the role of diversity to maintain productivity. Also diversity within species offers scope for sustainable production, for example through awareness of differences between plant genotypes in chemical defense compounds that can attract natural enemies of pests aboveground- and belowground thereby providing plant protection. Plant breeding can also benefit from using complementarity between plant species in the selection for new varieties, as our work demonstrated that when growing in species mixtures plant species adapt to each other over time such that their resource acquisition traits become more complementing. Finally, in a recent meta-analysis we show that earthworms can stimulate crop yield with on average 25%, but

  7. The Nutrient Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill’s By-product Processed with Amofer Technology as Ruminant Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE By-product derived from palm oil plantation and mill is very potential for energy and protein source for ruminant feed. However, it is still underutilized due to low content of crude protein (CP with high crude fiber (CF. Ammoniation or fermentation technology could optimize the quality of by-product by increasing digestibility, reducing CF and increasing CP content. The objective of this research was to determine the nutrient and potency value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product applied with amofer technology for ruminant feed. Sample was prepared in two methods: 1 sample without amofer application, 2 sample with amofer application under anaerobic method and incubated for 18 days. Ammoniation was carried out by adding urea of 3% from the total material and then incubated for nine days. At the ninth day, some microorganisms starter i.e. cellulolytic, amillolytic and proteolytic were added by 1% of the total material. Proximate analysis was carried out in laboratory to examine the nutrient value. The crude protein content at each part of feed material before and after amofer treatment was follow: palm midrib: 3.16%:17%; palm leaves 6.53%:26.51%; empty fruit bunch 7.01%:1673%; palm pressed fiber 5.56%:16.00%. While the crude fiber at each part of feed material was: palm midrib 37.85%:30.86%; palm leaves 30.39%:24.41%; EFB 40.22%:34.98%; PPF 50.39%: 41.70%. The application of amofer could increase the amount of feed material (ton/ha/y: dry matter (DM 14.82:15.89; CP 0.79:2.87; total digestible nutrient (TDN 7.63:8.5. Moreover, amofer application could also increase the nutrient content of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product by increasing CP and reducing CF. This increasing was also followed by the increasing of DM, CP, and TDN which indicated that those feed sources were recommended as ruminant feed material /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal

  8. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control.

  10. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  11. A crop production ecology (CPE) approach to sustainable production of biomass for food, feed and fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Conijn, J.G.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid increase in demand for agricultural products for food, feed and fuel, concerns are growing about sustainability issues. Can agricultural production meet the needs of increasing numbers of people consuming more animal products and using a larger share of crops as fuel for transport,

  12. Hedgerow benefits align with food production and sustainability goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael F. Long

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoring hedgerows, or other field edge plantings, to provide habitat for bees and other beneficial insects on farms is needed to sustain global food production in intensive agricultural systems. To date, the creation of hedgerows and other restored habitat areas on California farms remains low, in part because of a lack of information and outreach that addresses the benefits of field edge habitat, and growers' concerns about its effect on crop production and wildlife intrusion. Field studies in the Sacramento Valley highlighted that hedgerows can enhance pest control and pollination in crops, resulting in a return on investment within 7 to 16 years, without negatively impacting food safety. To encourage hedgerow and other restoration practices that enhance farm sustainability, increased outreach, technical guidance, and continued policy support for conservation programs in agriculture are imperative.

  13. MARKETING PROGRAMS FOR GREEN PRODUCTS IN ACHIEVING ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CĂPĂȚÎNĂ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores one dimension of green marketing programs: their potential application as a solution in achieving and maintaining the ecological sustainability on global market. We examine the necessity to develop and launch green products which can respond to environment degradation as a treatment against this phenomenon. This paper is structured in three sections: the first section is related to a clear delimitation and a better understanding of terms; the second one is an overview of the literature about ecological sustainability; the third section is the most relevant part of this paper because is trying to shape a framework of marketing programs for the development of green products, considering the decisions related to marketing mix elements. Even if green marketing programs make sense, current understanding of how managers can start to develop or transform their marketing efforts is far from comprehensive; therefore, this study is addressed to this knowledge gap.

  14. Brachypodium distachyon genomics for sustainable food and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Michael W; Garvin, David F; Vogel, John P

    2010-04-01

    Grass crops are the most important sources of human nutrition, and their improvement is centrally important for meeting the challenges of sustainable agriculture, for feeding the world's population and for developing renewable supplies of fuel and industrial products. We describe the complete sequence of the compact genome of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) the first pooid grass to be sequenced. We demonstrate the many favorable characteristics of Brachypodium as an experimental system and show how it can be used to navigate the large and complex genomes of closely related grasses. The functional genomics and other experimental resources that are being developed will provide a key resource for improving food and forage crops, in particular wheat, barley and forage grasses, and for establishing new grass crops for sustainable energy production. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Julian I; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-05-02

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land.

  16. Bridging new product development with sustainable supply chain management practices

    OpenAIRE

    Naghi Ganji, Elmira; Shah, Satya; Coutroubis, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method linking new product development (NPD) strategies and the supply chain management practices considering sustainability approaches. The paper highlights the first stage of research study through current literature and a critical review which are based on a systematic approach by gathering a set of structured data as inputs of research findings. Using a descriptive research method and qualitative analysis, the study involves Boeing Company’s evaluation of Dream...

  17. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V.; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-01-01

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land. PMID:23636397

  18. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal differing in rumen-undegradable protein content on ruminal fermentation and gas production kinetics using 2 in vitro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, E M; Monteiro, H F; Silva, L G; Benedeti, P D B; Daniel, J L P; Shenkoru, T; Broderick, G A; Faciola, A P

    2017-07-01

    Previous research indicated that there were significant differences in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) among canola meals (CM), which could influence the nutritional value of CM. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of feeding CM with different RUP contents on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and microbial growth using a dual-flow continuous culture system (experiment 1) and (2) evaluate ruminal gas production kinetics, in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility, and methane (CH 4 ) production of soybean meal (SBM) and CM with low or high RUP in the diet or as a sole ingredient using a gas production system (experiments 2 and 3). In experiment 1, diets were randomly assigned to 6 fermentors in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. The only ingredient that differed among diets was the protein supplement. The treatments were (1) solvent-extracted SBM, (2) low-RUP solvent-extracted CM (38% RUP as a percentage of crude protein), and (3) high-RUP solvent-extracted CM (50% RUP). Diets were prepared as 3 concentrate mixtures that were combined with 25% orchardgrass hay and 15% wheat straw (dry matter basis). Experiments 2 and 3 had the same design with 24 bottles incubated 3 times for 48 h each. During the 48-h incubation, the cumulative pressure was recorded to determine gas production kinetics, in vitro OM digestibility, and CH 4 production. In experiment 1, N flow (g/d), efficiency of N use, efficiency of bacterial N synthesis, total volatile fatty acids (mM), and molar proportion of acetate, propionate, and isobutyrate were not affected by treatments. There were tendencies for a decrease in ruminal NH 3 -N and an increase in molar proportion of butyrate for the SBM diet compared with both CM diets. The molar proportion of valerate was greater in both CM diets, whereas the molar proportion of isovalerate and total branched-chain volatile fatty acids was lower for the CM diets compared with the SBM diet. In experiments 2 and 3, the SBM

  19. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Herrgård, Markus J

    2013-09-01

    With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes associated with the development and implementation of a sustainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow models that explore the ecological impacts of all economic activities. Research efforts that attempt to connect the models at different scales have been limited. Here, we review a number of existing modeling approaches and their applications at the scales of metabolism, bioreactor, overall process, chemical industry, economy, and ecosystem. In addition, we propose a multi-scale approach for integrating the existing models into a cohesive framework. The major benefit of this proposed framework is that the design and decision-making at each scale can be informed, guided, and constrained by simulations and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ergonomics and sustainability in the design of everyday use products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness.

  1. Roles of conceptus secretory proteins in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa; Thatcher, William W

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction in ruminant species is a highly complex biological process requiring a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling and regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia and transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph, also known as the secretome, that are required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation by the elongating conceptus. Pregnancy recognition signaling as related to sustaining the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea, is required to sustain the functional life-span of corpora lutea for production of progesterone which is essential for uterine functions supportive of implantation and placentation required for successful outcomes of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur in ruminants due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. The endocrine status of the pregnant ruminant and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The challenge is to understand the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in humans and animals and to use that knowledge to enhance fertility and reproductive health of ruminant species in livestock enterprises.

  2. Roles of Conceptus Secretory Proteins in Establishment and Maintenance of Pregnancy in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller W. Bazer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in ruminant species is a highly complex biological process requiring a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling and regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia and transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph, also known as the secretome, that are required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation by the elongating conceptus. Pregnancy recognition signaling as related to sustaining the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea, is required to sustain the functional life-span of corpora lutea for production of progesterone which is essential for uterine functions supportive of implantation and placentation required for successful outcomes of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur in ruminants due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. The endocrine status of the pregnant ruminant and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The challenge is to understand the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in humans and animals and to use that knowledge to enhance fertility and reproductive health of ruminant species in livestock enterprises.

  3. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  4. Exploring Organizational Antecedents for Sustainable Product Development for International Tour Operating Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    The development of sustainable products or services is defined by Maxwell as the process of making products or services in a more sustainable way (production) throughout their entire life cycle, from conception to the end-of-life (Maxwell & van der Vorst, 2003). Essentially, sustainable products...

  5. The sustainable management of a productive natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier

    This paper examines an industry whose economic activity uses a natural capital on which its profit also relies. When such a productive natural capital has a limited capacity to recover from its exploitation, a free market tends to over-exploit it, calling for public intervention. The analysis...... is relevant, among other examples, to the case of naturebased tourism. I study the sustainable management of a productive natural capital: the conditions under which its exploitation generates maximum long-run social benefits; the various ways in which a regulator can implement such an exploitation; the rent...

  6. Water footprints of cities - indicators for sustainable consumption and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Döll, P.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Hauser, S.; Siebert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as sustainability indicators, relating the consumption of goods like food to the amount of water necessary for their production and the impacts of that water use in the source regions. We further developed the existing water footprint methodology, by globally resolving virtual water flows from production to consumption regions for major food crops at 5 arcmin spatial resolution. We distinguished domestic and international flows, and assessed local impacts of export production. Applying this method to three exemplary cities, Berlin, Delhi and Lagos, we find major differences in amounts, composition, and origin of green and blue virtual water imports, due to differences in diets, trade integration and crop water productivities in the source regions. While almost all of Delhi's and Lagos' virtual water imports are of domestic origin, Berlin on average imports from more than 4000 km distance, in particular soy (livestock feed), coffee and cocoa. While 42% of Delhi's virtual water imports are blue water based, the fractions for Berlin and Lagos are 2 and 0.5%, respectively, roughly equal to the water volumes abstracted in these two cities for domestic water use. Some of the external source regions of Berlin's virtual water imports appear to be critically water scarce and/or food insecure. However, for deriving recommendations on sustainable consumption and trade, further analysis of context-specific costs and benefits associated with export production will be required.

  7. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  8. Relay cropping as a sustainable approach: problems and opportunities for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Mohsin; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Hussain, Saddam; Cerdà, Artemi; Ashraf, Umair

    2017-03-01

    Climate change, soil degradation, and depletion of natural resources are becoming the most prominent challenges for crop productivity and environmental sustainability in modern agriculture. In the scenario of conventional farming system, limited chances are available to cope with these issues. Relay cropping is a method of multiple cropping where one crop is seeded into standing second crop well before harvesting of second crop. Relay cropping may solve a number of conflicts such as inefficient use of available resources, controversies in sowing time, fertilizer application, and soil degradation. Relay cropping is a complex suite of different resource-efficient technologies, which possesses the capability to improve soil quality, to increase net return, to increase land equivalent ratio, and to control the weeds and pest infestation. The current review emphasized relay cropping as a tool for crop diversification and environmental sustainability with special focus on soil. Briefly, benefits, constraints, and opportunities of relay cropping keeping the goals of higher crop productivity and sustainability have also been discussed in this review. The research and knowledge gap in relay cropping was also highlighted in order to guide the further studies in future.

  9. Fragile Social Norms: (Un Sustainable Exploration of Forest Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources is a central problem in the international agenda. The particular case of Amazon forest is at the top on the international environmental debate. Two related problems are keys to be considered in the discussion of sustainable development in this region. First the predatory use of the natural resources of the forest mainly timber and genetic resources. Second the recognition of the existence of a population of around 20 million inhabitants in the region defined as “Legal Amazon Area”, aiming the improvement on the living conditions, enhancement of income level and acceleration of development. How to match both objectives is a puzzle faced by the present generation.The region is populated by initiatives of international non-governmental-organizations, most of them carrying good intentions but lacking the necessary knowledge on local formal and informal institutions to find ways to reach sustainable development. The result is the accelerated process of natural resources depletion, and social disorganization. The case of the production of Brazilian Nuts stands as a corollary of the lack of an institutional structure of property rights that does not provide incentives for sustainable development. The opposite effect is being observed as a result of the fragility of observable institutional arrangements.The case provides the counterfactual for the analysis of Ostrom (1990; 2008, where she presents virtuous cases of sustainable exploration of natural resources, mostly based on informal but solid institutions.

  10. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture.

  11. Stable isotope approach to fission product element studies of soil-to-plant transfer and in vitro modelling of ruminant digestion using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Paul; Owen, L.M.W.; Crews, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    A stable isotope approach has been used to investigate two aspects of the behaviour of fission product elements in the environment and food chains using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Limits of detection (dry mass LODs) of 0.053 mg kg -1 for Sr, 0.011 mg kg -1 for Cs and 0.084 mg kg -1 for Ce were low enough to allow the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors for soft fruit and the application of the approach to an in vitro model of ruminant digestion. The multi-element measurement capability of ICP-MS also permitted the analysis of selected nutrients, including zinc, in in vitro experiments. (author)

  12. Sustainable biomass production for energy in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, K.K.C.K.; Rathnasiri, P.G.; Sugathapala, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    The present study concentrates mainly on the estimation of land availability for biomass production and the estimation of sustainable biomass production potential for energy. The feasible surplus land area available for bioenergy plantation is estimated assuming two land availability scenarios (Scenarios 1 and 2) and three biomass demand scenarios (IBD Scenario, SBD Scenario and FBD Scenario). Scenario 1 assumes that 100% of the surplus area available in base year 1997 will be suitable for plantation without considering population growth and food production and that 75% of this surplus land is feasible for plantation. Scenario 2 assumes that future food requirement will grow by 20% and the potential surplus area will be reduced by that amount. The incremental biomass demand scenario (IBD Scenario) assumes that only the incremental demand for biomass in the year 2010 with respect to the base year 1997 has to be produced from new plantation. The sustainable biomass demand scenario (SBD Scenario) assumes that the total sustainable supply of biomass in 1997 is deducted from the future biomass demand in 2010 and only the balance is to be met by new plantation. The full biomass demand scenario (FBD Scenario) assumes that the entire projected biomass demand of the year 2010 needs to be produced from new plantation. The total feasible land area for the scenarios IBD-1, 1BD-2, SBD-1, SBD-2, FBD-1 and FBD-2 are approximately 0.96, 0.66, 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respectively. Biomass production potential is estimated by selecting appropriate plant species, plantation spacing and productivity level. The results show that the total annual biomass production in the country could vary from 2 to 9.9 Mt. With the production option (i.e. 1.5 mx1.5 m spacing plantation with fertilizer application) giving the highest yield, the total biomass production for energy under IBD Scenario would be 9.9 Mt yr -1 for Scenario 1 and 6.7 Mt yr -1 for Scenario 2. Under SBD Scenario, the

  13. Sustainable biomass production for energy in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, K.K.C.K.; Rathnasiri, P.G.; Sugathapala, A.G.T. [Moratuwa Univ., Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2003-11-01

    The present study concentrates mainly on the estimation of land availability for biomass production and the estimation of sustainable biomass production potential for energy. The feasible surplus land area available for bioenergy plantation is estimated assuming two land availability scenarios (Scenarios 1 and 2) and three biomass demand scenarios (IBD Scenario, SBD Scenario and FBD Scenario). Scenario 1 assumes that 100% of the surplus area available in base year 1997 will be suitable for plantation without considering population growth and food production and that 75% of this surplus land is feasible for plantation. Scenario 2 assumes that future food requirement will grow by 20% and the potential surplus area will be reduced by that amount. The incremental biomass demand scenario (IBD Scenario) assumes that only the incremental demand for biomass in the year 2010 with respect to the base year 1997 has to be produced from new plantation. The sustainable biomass demand scenario (SBD Scenario) assumes that the total sustainable supply of biomass in 1997 is deducted from the future biomass demand in 2010 and only the balance is to be met by new plantation. The full biomass demand scenario (FBD Scenario) assumes that the entire projected biomass demand of the year 2010 needs to be produced from new plantation. The total feasible land area for the scenarios IBD-l, IBD-2, SBD-l, SBD-2, FBD-l and FBD-2 are approximately 0.96, 0.66, 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respectively. Biomass production potential is estimated by selecting appropriate plant species, plantation spacing and productivity level. The results show that the total annual biomass production in the country could vary from 2 to 9.9 Mt. With the production option (i.e. 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing plantation with fertilizer application) giving the highest yield, the total biomass production for energy under IBD Scenario would be 9.9 Mtyr{sup -l} for Scenario 1 and 6.7 Mtyr{sup -l} for Scenario 2. Under SBD Scenario

  14. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecosystem services along with its concomitant rural social organization has been sustained in the region for over 1000 years. However, the system has been gradually decreasing in extent since the 19th century and its rate of decline has accelerated since the 1980s. The causes of this decline have been traced in descending order of importance to land managment choices, spatial factors and environmental factors. In addition, past studies have shown that there is an optimum livestock support capacity for maintaining the health of the montado agroecosystem. In this study, we used the results of an emergy evaluation of a cattle farm as part of a montado agroecosystem to examine the effects of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the viability of both cattle rearing and the long term regional sustainability of montado agroecosystems. We found that the CAP and its two pillars for providing subsidies, (1) Common Market Organization (CMO) and (2) Rural Development Policy (RDP) are complex and take into account many aspects of prices and markets for particular products, e.g., beef and veal (CMO) and sustainable rural development, e.g., silvopastoral agroecosystems (RDP). How

  15. Sustainable rice production in the Muda area of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Nai Kin; Foong Kam Chong; Kamarudin Dahuli

    2002-01-01

    The Green Revolution has generated both positive as well as negative effects on the rice agroecosystem in the Muda area. The major obstacles to sustainable rice production are water shortage, natural hazards, disease epidemics, pest outbreaks, urban and industrial development, as well as structural changes in the farming community. The Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA) has adopted a proactive approach in addressing these problems. The improvement in management in the Muda area comprises the following strategies: i) Improvement in water use efficiency through intensification of tertiary irrigation systems, ii) Optimisation of drainage water utilisation through recycling, iii) Establishment of a Management Information System to support operational decisions, iv) Conservation of catchment vegetation for sustainable water resources, v) Implementation of Integrated Pest Management programmes, vi) Mobilisation of farmers in dynamic group activities, vii) Integration of farmers participatory experiments in the extension programmes. The above mentioned approaches have contributed to the attainment of high cropping intensity yield enhancement, and sustainability of rice production in the Muda area. (Author)

  16. Sustainable Energy Production - Facing up to our Common Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondevik, Kjell Magne [Prime Minister (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    With this presentation the Norwegian Prime Minister opened the conference, the Offshore Northern Seas Conference, an important meeting place for the oil and gas industry. Today, sustainable development, the environment and human rights are vital issues that politicians and the petroleum industry have included on their agendas. The end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s mark the beginning of a new era in terms of de regulated markets and a growing concern about the Earth`s capacity to sustain a growing population and the present production and consumption patterns. This shift in political and economic practices has promoted far-reaching institutional changes and a rapid spread of capital, information and skills and an unprecedented integration of the world economy. Energy demand over the next 25 years will depend on fossil fuels, but renewable energy will become increasingly more important. The environmental issues discussed are (1) the local impact of production, distribution and use of fossil fuels, (2) the limited availability of fossil fuels and (3) the impact of the emission of greenhouse gases. The Prime Minister then discusses issues of human rights in sustainable development

  17. Sustainable Energy Production - Facing up to our Common Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondevik, Kjell Magne

    1998-01-01

    With this presentation the Norwegian Prime Minister opened the conference, the Offshore Northern Seas Conference, an important meeting place for the oil and gas industry. Today, sustainable development, the environment and human rights are vital issues that politicians and the petroleum industry have included on their agendas. The end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s mark the beginning of a new era in terms of de regulated markets and a growing concern about the Earth's capacity to sustain a growing population and the present production and consumption patterns. This shift in political and economic practices has promoted far-reaching institutional changes and a rapid spread of capital, information and skills and an unprecedented integration of the world economy. Energy demand over the next 25 years will depend on fossil fuels, but renewable energy will become increasingly more important. The environmental issues discussed are (1) the local impact of production, distribution and use of fossil fuels, (2) the limited availability of fossil fuels and (3) the impact of the emission of greenhouse gases. The Prime Minister then discusses issues of human rights in sustainable development

  18. Leucaena leucocephala IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros-Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a common situation in extensive ruminant production systems in tropical countries to have low production indicators due to nutrient deficiencies in the diet. An economic alternative to increase animal production is the incorporation of legumes (fodder and fruits in the diet. This review, presents an analysis of the positive and negative effects of Leucaena leucocephala consumption by ruminants, with particular emphasis on the secondary compound mimosine. Leucaena due to its high nutrient content, rumen by-pass protein supply and its possible effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas (attributed to tannins has become one of the legumes most commonly used in ruminant feeding practices. However, in countries where leucaena has been introduced, its use is still limited to levels below 30% inclusion in the diet, due to the secondary compound mimosine and its isomers (3,4 and 2,3 DHP, which can induce toxicity, even when animals are inoculated with rumen fluid containing the bacteria Synergistes jonesii reported as responsible for degrading these compounds in the rumen. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, ruminants consuming leucaena can tolerate more than 50% inclusion in the diet, without having a negative impact on production, attributed intake to mimosine and its isomers. We conclude that in animals not adapted, the intake would be limited to low inclusion levels (less than 30% inclusion in the diet, mainly because of mimosine and its derivatives. The decrease in intake or diet digestibility seem to better explain the reduction in methane production, however, in vivo studies are required to clearly establish the mechanism of action. It has been reported the presence of different bacteria to S. jonessi that would have the ability to degrade mimosine and its derivatives, however, the activity of these bacteria and its effectiveness must be confirmed in vivo.

  19. Cork Design : A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study Cork Design: A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation comprises the systematic implementation of sustainable product innovation within the Portuguese cork sector, through action research. Cork is a natural, recyclable, non-toxic, and renewable resource,

  20. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2017-01-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance

  1. Sustainable production and consumption, an assessment for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalbers, T.; Brink, C.; Drissen, E.; Faber, A.; Nijdam, D.; Rood, T.; Vringer, K.; Wilting, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, climate change and loss of biodiversity are among the key issues in relation to global sustainable development. The Netherlands is tightly embedded in a global network of economic relations as well as environmental effects: domestic consumption and production patterns affect environmental pressure not only within the country, but also abroad. This report explores the nature and quantity of economic and environmental embedding of the Netherlands in the world. Following from surveys, support for policy measures is identified and explored. It concludes by the notion that sustainability problems have an increasingly global character, but that the inverse is also true: it makes sense to take up responsibilities to improve the environment in other parts of the world

  2. Artificial photosynthesis for sustainable fuel and chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyung; Sakimoto, Kelsey K; Hong, Dachao; Yang, Peidong

    2015-03-09

    The apparent incongruity between the increasing consumption of fuels and chemicals and the finite amount of resources has led us to seek means to maintain the sustainability of our society. Artificial photosynthesis, which utilizes sunlight to create high-value chemicals from abundant resources, is considered as the most promising and viable method. This Minireview describes the progress and challenges in the field of artificial photosynthesis in terms of its key components: developments in photoelectrochemical water splitting and recent progress in electrochemical CO2 reduction. Advances in catalysis, concerning the use of renewable hydrogen as a feedstock for major chemical production, are outlined to shed light on the ultimate role of artificial photosynthesis in achieving sustainable chemistry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  4. Physicochemical Characteristics, in Vitro Fermentation Indicators, Gas Production Kinetics, and Degradability of Solid Herbal Waste as Alternative Feed Source for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kisworo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study the nutrient and secondary metabolite contents of solid herbal wastes (SHW that were preserved by freeze drying, sun drying and silage, as well as to analyze their effects on in vitro fermentation indicators i.e., gas production kinetics and degradability of solid herbal waste. Physical and chemical properties on three forms of SHW (sun dry, freeze dry, and silage were characterized and then an in vitro gas production experiment was performed to determine the kinetics of gas production, methane production, NH3, microbial protein, and SHW degradability. Polyethylene glycol (PEG was added to the three treatments to determine the biological activity of tannins. Results showed that all three preparations of SHW still contained high nutrient and plant secondary metabolite contents. Gas production, methane, NH3, microbial protein, in vitro degradability of dry matter (IVDMD and organic matter (IVDOM of SHW silage were lower (P<0.05 compared to sun dry and freeze dry. These results were apparently due to the high content of secondary metabolites especially tannin. It can be concluded that solid herbal wastes (SHW can be used as an alternative feed ingredients for ruminants with attention to the content of secondary metabolites that can affect the process of fermentation and digestibility in the rumen.

  5. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. Assistive products and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbutt, Emma; Brodmann, Rebecca; Borg, Johan; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Khasnabis, Chapal; Horvath, Robert

    2016-11-29

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have placed great emphasis on the need for much greater social inclusion, and on making deliberate efforts to reach marginalized groups. People with disabilities are often marginalized through their lack of access to a range of services and opportunities. Assistive products can help people overcome impairments and barriers enabling them to be active, participating and productive members of society. Assistive products are vital for people with disabilities, frailty and chronic illnesses; and for those with mental health problems, and gradual cognitive and physical decline characteristic of aging populations. This paper illustrates how the achievement of each of the 17 SDGs can be facilitated by the use of assistive products. Without promoting the availability of assistive products the SDGs cannot be achieved equitably. We highlight how assistive products can be considered as both a mediator and a moderator of SDG achievement. We also briefly describe how the Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology (GATE) is working to promote greater access to assistive products on a global scale.

  7. Application of Bacterial Laccases for Sustainable Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lörcher, Samuel; Koschorreck, Katja; Shipovskov, Stepan

    for a number of special applications, such as disposable implantable power suppliers for medical sensor-transmitters and drug delivery/activator systems and self-powered enzyme-based biosensors; and they do offer practical advantages of using abundant organic raw materials for clean and sustainable energy...... production. Progress in enzyme biotechnology and electrochemistry enables now construction of biofuel cells exploiting a wide spectrum of enzymes wired to electrodes, able of prolonged for up to several months function.1-3 One of the most attractive designs exploits direct electronic communication between...

  8. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  9. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  10. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  11. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  12. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Shariff, M.

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  13. Making Sustainable Consumption and Production the Core of Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Akenji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that sustainable consumption and production (SCP should play a prominent role in the formulation and implementation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs and discusses how this could be practically done. Unsustainable patterns of consumption and production have been declared the primary cause of environmental deterioration. This was clearly recognized already at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (or the Rio Summit in 1992; and this recognition has been reconfirmed in all high-level sustainability meetings since then. SCP aims to change these patterns; it is a policy agenda for addressing the root causes of our ecological predicament, while, at the same time, providing for human wellbeing and prosperity. Drawing from international agreements, practical policy experience and research from a range of disciplines, the paper provides a clarifying framework for scientifically robust, policy-relevant and practical goal-setting for SCP within the SDGs. Special attention is given to how SCP in the SDGs can create synergies with other international policy initiatives. The paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of two possible options for reflecting SCP in the SDGs framework: (i SCP as a stand-alone goal; and (ii SCP as a cross-cutting objective, embedded within relevant goals. While these two options are not necessarily mutually exclusive, given the competing number of issues for prioritization and the fact that a 10-Year Framework of Programs on SCP has also recently been established, it is hardly foreseeable that both options can be realized. The paper further proposes a set of basic principles for SCP at the global level and makes recommendations towards the formulation of indicators supporting SCP objectives in the SDGs.

  14. Keeping up with Sustainability : A Qualitative Study of Business Models and Sustainable Product Design in Design companies

    OpenAIRE

    Björnström, Marina; Grahn, Stina

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the impact of sustainability in the world, and to encourage organizations to engage in sustainable behavior across their processes and consider the whole product lifecycle, The European Commission (European Commission, 2017) has created an action plan for this. There are many ways for companies to engage in sustainability, whether it is through the business model where they can add demands on, for example the suppliers, or if it is through choosing a materi...

  15. Food and animal characteristics relevant to the prediction of forage consumption and nutrient use in productive ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, J.D.; Eayres, H.; Emmans, G.C.; Hou, X.Z.; Illius, A.W.; Jessop, N.S.; Matthewman, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    A general model is presented of the relationships between animal and food characteristics which help lead to predictions of food consumption and animal performance. It is an important part of this scheme that equal weight is given to the description of food and animal characteristics. The results of some experiments are given suggesting that ruminants can select between feeds to meet their nutrient needs and that, in growing animals, the physical capacity to bite is an important determinant of grazing efficiency and ecology. Studies with growing lambs of the energetic efficiency of growth suggest that variation in the energy cost of protein accretion may be a more important determinant of overall energetic efficiency of growth than is conventionally supposed. In lactating animals that also exercise, milk protein and lactose yields fall during exercise and this effect is difficult to counteract by protein and/or starch supplementation of straw diets. Studies of forage substitution by supplements have not revealed differences in substitution rate with age in sheep. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Targeted flock/herd and individual ruminant treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, F; Jackson, F

    2012-05-04

    In Europe, most nematodoses are subclinical involving morbid rather than mortal effects and control is largely achieved using anthelmintics. In cattle, the genera most associated with sub-optimal performance are Ostertagia and Cooperia whereas in sheep and goats, subclinical losses are most often caused by Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus. In some regions, at certain times, other species such as Nematodirus and Haemonchus also cause disease in sheep and goats. Unfortunately, anthelmintic resistance has now become an issue for European small ruminant producers. One of the key aims of the EU-funded PARASOL project was to identify low input and sustainable approaches to control nematode parasites in ruminants using refugia-based strategies. Two approaches to optimise anthelmintic treatments in sheep and cattle were studied; targeted treatments (TT) - whole-group treatments optimised on the basis of a marker of infection e.g. faecal egg count (FEC), and targeted selected treatment (TST) - treatments given to identified individuals to provide epidemiological and/or production benefits. A number of indicators for TT and TST were assessed to define parasitological and production-system specific indicators for treatment that best suited the regions where the PARASOL studies were conducted. These included liveweight gain, production efficiency, FEC, body condition score and diarrhoea score in small ruminants, and pepsinogen levels and Ostertagia bulk milk tank ELISA in cattle. The PARASOL studies confirmed the value of monitoring FEC as a means of targeting whole-flock treatments in small ruminants. In cattle, bulk milk tank ELISA and serum pepsinogen assays could be used retrospectively to determine the levels of exposure and hence, in the next season to optimise anthelmintic usage. TST approaches in sheep and goats examined production efficiency and liveweight gain as indicators for treatment and confirmed the value of this approach in maintaining performance and

  17. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  18. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and In vitro Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-Omi

    2014-07-01

    Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin's activity in the rumen.

  19. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McGlone, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary More pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. Making production systems and practices more sustainable will benefit the animals, the planet and people. A system is presented by which production practices are evaluated using a sustainability matrix. The matrix shows why some practices are more common in some countries and regions and the impediments to more sustainable systems. This method can be used to assess the sustainability of production practices in the future wher...

  20. Pro and cons of targeted selective treatment against digestive-tract strongyles of ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabaret J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of resistance to anthelmintics among gastrointestinal nematodes and the desire for lower input agriculture have promoted the idea that targeted selective treatment (treating the animals in need of such a treatment and only them could be a sustainable solution for controlling internal parasites of ruminants. The pros are the slowing of resistance prevalence, lower residues of anthelmintics in meat and milk, and lower cost; the cons are the difficulty and time spent on selecting animals in need of treatment and the possibility of lower production. Using actual experiments and modelling we show that targeted selective treatment can be used to sustainably control gastrointestinal nematode infections in flock.

  1. PRODUCTION AND MARKETABILITY OF CONVENTIONAL, SUSTAINABLE AND ORGANIC PRODUCED TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean BAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agricultural production is denoted by high levels of chemisation, strait specialised production, high yields and low costs per production unit, however this production causes risky interventions, which could affect negatively on environment and human health Research results indicate possibilities for growing vegetables in alternative systems, less risky for environment with satisfying economic success. The aim of this research was to determine economic success of organic, sustainable and conventional production of tomato in the Mediterranean area of Republic Croatia. Bianual research was conducted during 2002/2003. During vegetation we examined parameters of growth, marketable yields and costs for materials, work and machinery which are used in economic analysis. Economical analysis of tomatoes production indicate worst results in organic production system. Loses in tomatoes organic production were consequences of two main factors: lower marketed yield and equal product price for all three production types. Lower yields in organic production were expected, therefore bad financial results were caused by mainly low market prices, which do not validate quality and food safety. Therefore financial success is preconditioned by higher market validation, which can be obtained through market analysis and product development. Consumer awareness about organic agriculture is still very weak and this point requires further attention. The link between organic agriculture and the environment/nature protection is missing too. The purchase of organic food is influenced by the level of information and knowledge of consumers with reference to these products. Doubts about the truthfulness and significance of some data were raised by main places where organic food is purchased, since an excessive greatest limitations are high prices and a low level of information to consumers. Current standard of life of most Croatian consumers does not permit them to

  2. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic engineering, a hope for sustainable biofuel production: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paudel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of recently developed genetic engineering tools in combination with organisms that have the potential to produce precursors for the production of biodiesel, promises a sustainable and environment friendly energy source. Enhanced lipid production in wild type and/or genetically engineered organisms can offer sufficient raw material for industrial transesterification of plant-based triglycerides. Bio-diesel, produced with the help of genetically modified organisms, might be one of the best alternatives to fossil fuels and to mitigate various environmental hazards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10644 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 311-323

  4. Negative global phosphorus budgets challenge sustainable intensification of grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattari, S.Z.; Bouwman, A.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090428048; Rodríquez, R. Martinez; Beusen, A.H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109357302; van Ittersum, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands provide grass and fodder to sustain the growing need for ruminant meat and milk. Soil nutrients in grasslands are removed through withdrawal in these livestock products and through animal manure that originates from grasslands and is spread in croplands. This leads to loss of soil

  5. Negative global phosphorus budgets challenge sustainable intensification of grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattari, S.Z.; Bouwman, A.F.; Martinez Rodríguez, R.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Ittersum, Van M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands provide grass and fodder to sustain the growing need for ruminant meat and milk. Soil nutrients in grasslands are removed through withdrawal in these livestock products and through animal manure that originates from grasslands and is spread in croplands. This leads to loss of soil

  6. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment for Sustainability Improvements: A Case Study of High-Density Polyethylene Production in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Hannouf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA is a still relatively new technique. One of its main application challenges is interpreting the three dimensions of its results in combined fashion. This paper presents the first attempt at an integrated solution-oriented approach in the LCSA, while simultaneously interpreting the results of the three assessments in a combined fashion toward improving the sustainability performance of product systems. It is based on a case study of high-density polyethylene (HDPE production in Alberta, Canada. The methodology is characterized by five steps: (1 goal and scope definition; (2 inventory analysis; (3 impact assessment; (4 interpretation where the results of the three tools of LCSA are presented and an integrated analysis of the sustainability results following the strong sustainability model and using the Driver–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR framework, is conducted to propose sustainability improvements for the case study product; (5 discussion and conclusion. The integrated approach developed was able to propose some sustainability improvement proposals along the life cycle of HDPE. Yet, challenges exist in interpreting the interrelationships between the three assessment results. Moving from comparative integrated assessment approach in LCSA to solution-oriented approach still faces challenges. This work highlighted some of the research tasks that need more focus from the LCSA community to demonstrate how LCSA can contribute to sustainable development by improving the sustainability performance of product systems.

  7. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bheekhee, H.; Hulman, B.; Boodoo, A.A.; Ramnauth, R.K.; Lam Heung Yuen, R.; Fakim, R.; Dobee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  8. Strategi Pengelolaan Usaha Jasa Rumah Pemotongan Hewan Ruminansia Secara Berkelanjutan (MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE RUMINANT-CATTLE SLAUGHTERHOUSE (RC-S SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Dewi Dyah Maharani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled cattle slaughtering may result in reduce water quantity and quality, number of cattle, and product of animal origin that does not fit the criteria of safety-healthy-whole-halal. The research objective was to analyze and measure important variables which might be required in developing a modelas well as to formulate strategic plans for managing sustainable abattoir services. Analysis methods used in this study were: Multidimensional Scaling (MDS or rap-slaughterhouse, Monte Carlo Analysis, and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the analysis showed that the important variables were, i.e.: water availability and animal health status (ecological dimension; willingness to conduct hygienic and sanitation procedures at business scale level, service business orientation, availability of animal and slaughtering schedule management (economical dimension; workers safety and security (sociological dimension, noncompliance of the use of infrastructure by managers, workers and service users; lack off ulfillment of the requirements of the building frame (dimension regulations; and processing technology (technological dimension. The priority strategic analysis concluded that supply services of product of animal origin is eligible to be considered as components required in the food security program through the development and renovation program of effective slaughter houses. ABSTRAK Pemotongan hewan yang tidak terkendali mengakibatkan penurunan ketersediaan jumlah dan mutu air, hewan, dan pangan asal ternak yang tidak sesuai kriteria aman-sehat-utuh-halal (ASUH. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis dan mengukur peubah-peubah penting yang diperlukan untuk menyusun model dan merancang rencana strategik pengelolaan usaha jasa rumah pemotongan hewan ruminansia secara berkelanjutan. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS atau rap-slaughterhouse, Monte Carlo, dan Analytical Hierarchy Process. Hasil analisis

  9. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  10. 77 FR 10939 - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Sustainable Product Procurement Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Bio... sustainable products help to increase our energy security and independence. The Federal Government, with...Preferred program. It is one of the key elements in my efforts to promote sustainable acquisition throughout...

  11. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  12. Animal welfare towards sustainability in pork meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Antonio; Fàbrega, Emma; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Dalmau, Antoni

    2015-11-01

    Animal welfare is an important pillar of sustainability in meat production and is associated with other aspects of this concept, such as animal health, productivity, food safety, food quality and efficiency from a cost of production perspective. These interactions are present at all stages of the production cycle, from the beginning of the animals' farm life until their slaughter. On farm, some of the main welfare issues are related to neonatal mortality and low level of sensory input, which are likely to engender stereotypes and injurious behaviours, such as tail-biting. Pre-slaughter handling refers to the interaction between humans and animals prior to and during transport and at slaughter. Strategies to reduce pre-slaughter stress will benefit carcass and meat quality, being the training of stockpeople one of the most cost-effective policies to improve animal welfare. These strategies include also the implementation of standard monitoring procedures to detect signs of consciousness after stunning, before sticking and during bleeding until death occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term sustainability of bio-components production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souček Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels play an increasingly important role in motor fuel market. The list of biofuels (bio-components in accordance with EU legislations contains a number of substances not widely used in the market. Traditionally these include: fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, in the Czech Republic methyl ether of rape seed oil and bioethanol (also ethyl terc. buthyl ether ETBE, based on bioethanol. The availability and possible utilizations of bio-component fuels in Czech Republic and Serbia are discussed. Additional attention is paid on the identification of the possibilities to improve effectiveness of rape seeds cultivation and utilization of by-products from FAME production (utilization of sew, rape-meal and glycerol which will allow fulfilment of the sustainability criteria for the first generation biofuels. The new approaches on renewable co-processing are commented. The concept of 3E (emissions, energy demand, and economics is introduced specifying three main attributes for effective production of FAME production in accordance with legal compliances. Bio-components price change is analyzed in comparison to the price of motor fuels, identifying possible (speculative crude price break-even point at the level of 149-176 USD/bbl at which point bio-fuels would become economically cost effective for the use by refiners.

  14. Considerations for sustainable influenza vaccine production in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra

    2016-10-26

    Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The value of anticoccidials for sustainable global poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadykalo, Stefanie; Roberts, Tara; Thompson, Michelle; Wilson, Jeff; Lang, Marcelo; Espeisse, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a self-limiting disease that is universally present in poultry operations, causing extensive damage to the intestinal lining of the bird. Global economic losses from coccidiosis are estimated to be $3 billion per year. In-feed anticoccidial use has been the predominant form of coccidiosis control. However, due to widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of anticoccidials and the potential impact on human, animal, and environmental health. To investigate the benefits, risks, and alternatives to anticoccidial use, a comprehensive review of recent literature was conducted. Several live vaccines are available, which, when used in combination with anticoccidials, have been shown to help restore sensitivity of infective parasites. However, their use has been limited because of increased cost; increased susceptibility to bacterial enteritis; challenges with consistent application; and slow development of immunity. Various alternative feed products are available, but do not have a direct anticoccidial effect, and few studies have demonstrated consistent field efficacy of these products. Consumer and environmental safety of anticoccidials is monitored and assessed by governing bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of current evidence to indicate that bacterial resistance poses a public health concern. The findings from this review indicate that in the absence of alternatives, poultry production is optimized by using anticoccidials, benefiting all three pillars of sustainability, including social (bird health, welfare, and food safety), economic (production efficiency), and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of Unpalatable Forages by Ruminants: The Influence of Experience with the Biophysical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Distel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection. In this process, ruminants can become better adapted to the habitat where they are reared. Moreover, experiential learning provides flexibility in diet selection, which is critical for changing foraging environments. Learned associations between unpalatable and palatable foods, if ingested in appropriate amounts, sequence, and close temporal association, induce the development of preference for the former type of food. In this way, a more uniform use of resources can be achieved from the landscape level down to the individual plant, with the associated benefits to ecosystem integrity and stability. Ruminants can also learn the medicinal benefits of ingesting foods with toxins (e.g., condensed tannins and saponins with antiparasitic properties. This knowledge on behavioural processes can be translated into behavioural applications that provide low-cost solutions to many challenges that producers face in managing sustainable livestock production systems.

  17. Reflection on the role of the Dutch government in sustainable supply chains. New phase in the transition of sustainable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, W.; Kok, M.; Van Oorschot, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on an exploratory study which analyses some of the earliest multi-actor sustainable supply chain governance systems in order to answer the key research questions: Which strategies and instruments do governments - national and supranational - apply in advancing sustainable production and consumption in global supply chains; and What is known about the effectiveness of these strategies and instruments? The study focuses on two supply chains with the longest history of addressing imports from developing countries (tropical timber and coffee). These two supply chains are compared with two supply chains that are gaining increasing attention: - cocoa and tea. The study shows that the two most 'mature' global sustainable supply chains are market led in issuing voluntary certification and that buying certified products is starting to become mainstream and increasingly effective. The sustainable supply chains for tea and cocoa are more recent developments but may develop faster because of the lessons learnt in sustainable supply chains developed earlier. [nl

  18. Developing and commercializing sustainable new wood products : a process for identifying viable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon A. Enk; Stuart L. Hart

    2003-01-01

    A process was designed to evaluate the sustainability and potential marketability of USDA Forest Service patented technologies. The process was designed and tested jointly by the University of North Carolina, the University of Michigan, Partners for Strategic Change, and the USDA Forest Service. Two technologies were evaluated: a fiber-based product and a wood fiber/...

  19. Biogeochemical research priorities for sustainable biofuel and bioenergy feedstock production in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero T. Gollany; Brian D. Titus; D. Andrew Scott; Heidi Asbjornsen; Sigrid C. Resh; Rodney A. Chimner; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Luiz F.C. Leite; Ana C.C. Ferreira; Kenton A. Rod; Jorge Hilbert; Marcelo V. Galdos; Michelle E. Cisz

    2015-01-01

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demand on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustainability related to biomass production. Biomass production systems...

  20. Contributions of roots and rootstocks to sustainable, intensified crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter J; Atkinson, Christopher J; Bengough, A Glyn; Else, Mark A; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Harrison, Richard J; Schmidt, Sonja

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable intensification is seen as the main route for meeting the world's increasing demands for food and fibre. As demands mount for greater efficiency in the use of resources to achieve this goal, so the focus on roots and rootstocks and their role in acquiring water and nutrients, and overcoming pests and pathogens, is increasing. The purpose of this review is to explore some of the ways in which understanding root systems and their interactions with soils could contribute to the development of more sustainable systems of intensive production. Physical interactions with soil particles limit root growth if soils are dense, but root-soil contact is essential for optimal growth and uptake of water and nutrients. X-ray microtomography demonstrated that maize roots elongated more rapidly with increasing root-soil contact, as long as mechanical impedance was not limiting root elongation, while lupin was less sensitive to changes in root-soil contact. In addition to selecting for root architecture and rhizosphere properties, the growth of many plants in cultivated systems is profoundly affected by selection of an appropriate rootstock. Several mechanisms for scion control by rootstocks have been suggested, but the causal signals are still uncertain and may differ between crop species. Linkage map locations for quantitative trait loci for disease resistance and other traits of interest in rootstock breeding are becoming available. Designing root systems and rootstocks for specific environments is becoming a feasible target.

  1. Parasitic Gastroenteritis (PGE) Complex of Domestic Ruminants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitic gastro-enteritis (PGE) is a major health problem and thus the main constraint on the profitable production of domestic ruminants in Nigeria. An annual loss of 60 million Naira due to the disease in domestic ruminants has been estimated. Parasitic gastro-enteritis is a complex of diseases involving several nematode ...

  2. Cationization of Alpha-Cellulose to Develop New Sustainable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papermaking has been using high quantities of retention agents, mainly cationic substances and organic compounds such as polyamines. The addition of these agents is related to economic and environmental issues, increasing contamination of the effluents. The aim of this work is to develop a cationic polymer for papermaking purposes based on the utilization of alpha-cellulose. The cationization of mercerized alpha-cellulose with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC is governed by a pseudo-second-order reaction. The initial amorphous fraction of cellulose is reacted with CHPTAC until the equilibrium value of nitrogen substitution is reached. Nitrogen is incorporated as a quaternary ammonium group in the polymer. Also, the kinetic constant increased with decreasing crystallinity index, showing the importance of the previous alkalization stage. The use of modified natural polysaccharides is a sustainable alternative to synthetic, nonbiodegradable polyelectrolytes and thus is desirable with a view to developing new products and new processes.

  3. Air and water qualities around small ruminant houses in Central Java - Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Murti, T.W.; Baliarti, E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general concern that livestock can have a profound effect on the environment, also in smallholder production systems. This paper presented the impact of small ruminants on the quality of air and water in and around small ruminant houses. In total, 27 small ruminant houses from the three

  4. Ensuring sustained ACT production and reliable artemisinin supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olliaro Piero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This paper reviews recent trends in the production, supply and price of the active ingredients as well as finished ACT products. Production and cost data provided in this paper are based on an ongoing project (Artepal. Stability data are derived from a development project on rectal artesunate. Discussion The artemisinin raw material and its derivatives appear to be very stable compared to the finished products. Supply of artemisinin changed in May 2004 when the Global Fund shifted financial support to qualified countries from chloroquine or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to an ACT for treatment of malaria. First, there was a sudden shortage of the starting material, and short term scarcity led to a steep rise in API price: it increased dramatically in 2004, from $350 per kg to more than $1000. Second, there was a parallel increase in the number of companies extracting artemisinin from 10 to 80 between 2003 and 2005 in China, and from 3 to 20 in Vietnam. Commercial cultivation began also in East Africa and Madagascar. A steady and predictable demand for the crop can eliminate such wide fluctuations and indirectly contribute to price stability of the herb, the API and ACT. With appropriate mechanisms to reduce those fluctuations, the cost of artemisinin might decrease sustainably to US$ 250–300 per kg. Conclusion Today the global health community is facing the risk of another cyclical swing with lower demand feeding into reduced planting of A. annua and, thereafter, a new shortage of the raw material and higher API prices. International donors, the largest purchasers for ACTs could better coordinate their activities, in order to guarantee purchase of ACTs and consequently of API with manufacturers. In parallel, the base of quality producers of APIs and finished ACT products needs to be broadened. While the ACT programme is still in its early stages, the consequences of another wave of artemisinin and ACT shortages would

  5. Ensuring sustained ACT production and reliable artemisinin supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Pilloy, Jacques; Olliaro, Piero; Gomes, Melba

    2007-09-15

    This paper reviews recent trends in the production, supply and price of the active ingredients as well as finished ACT products. Production and cost data provided in this paper are based on an ongoing project (Artepal). Stability data are derived from a development project on rectal artesunate. The artemisinin raw material and its derivatives appear to be very stable compared to the finished products. Supply of artemisinin changed in May 2004 when the Global Fund shifted financial support to qualified countries from chloroquine or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to an ACT for treatment of malaria. First, there was a sudden shortage of the starting material, and short term scarcity led to a steep rise in API price: it increased dramatically in 2004, from $350 per kg to more than $1000. Second, there was a parallel increase in the number of companies extracting artemisinin from 10 to 80 between 2003 and 2005 in China, and from 3 to 20 in Vietnam. Commercial cultivation began also in East Africa and Madagascar.A steady and predictable demand for the crop can eliminate such wide fluctuations and indirectly contribute to price stability of the herb, the API and ACT. With appropriate mechanisms to reduce those fluctuations, the cost of artemisinin might decrease sustainably to US$ 250-300 per kg. Today the global health community is facing the risk of another cyclical swing with lower demand feeding into reduced planting of A. annua and, thereafter, a new shortage of the raw material and higher API prices. International donors, the largest purchasers for ACTs could better coordinate their activities, in order to guarantee purchase of ACTs and consequently of API with manufacturers. In parallel, the base of quality producers of APIs and finished ACT products needs to be broadened.While the ACT programme is still in its early stages, the consequences of another wave of artemisinin and ACT shortages would permanently discredit it and impede any progress in rolling malaria back.

  6. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60......% of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has...

  7. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  8. Knowledge and technologies for sustainable intensification of food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Richard

    2010-11-30

    Knowledge and technologies will always continue to be developed, as they have always, to bring new efficiencies to plant breeding and crop production, which suffer from many constraints and inefficiencies. These constraints need to be overcome throughout the world to help increase the rate of improvements in food production and intensify production on less land. The recent discoveries and technical innovations that are revealing the full complement of genes in crops, the ability to define genetic variation and use DNA markers to follow chromosome segments with known functions through breeding programmes are leading to new efficiencies in breeding. The ability to isolate and redesign genes and transfer them into different plants also offers the breeder solutions to several key limitations. These benefits are described together with some of the current issues associated with the use of transgenes. Generation after generation can look forward to new knowledge and technologies, many of which we cannot know at present, and thus there is no reason to be despondent about meeting future goals, if the right decisions and investments are made globally and locally. These decisions include putting optimal use of land at the top of the world agenda to sustain both the planet and an adequate quality of life for mankind. As always has been the case, more investments are urgently required into the dissemination of successful technologies in crop breeding and production, into teaching and training as well as into innovative research. Failure to invest adequately in innovative technologies will leave future decision-makers and citizens with fewer options and greatly enhance the risks for mankind and a healthy planet. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Metabolic Engineering toward Sustainable Production of Nylon-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Stefan C H J; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Ninaber, Dennis K; Kolen, Karin P A M; Knutova, Julia; Suir, Erwin; Schürmann, Martin; Raemakers-Franken, Petronella C; Müller, Monika; de Wildeman, Stefaan M A; Raamsdonk, Leonie M; van der Pol, Ruud; Wu, Liang; Temudo, Margarida F; van der Hoeven, Rob A M; Akeroyd, Michiel; van der Stoel, Roland E; Noorman, Henk J; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Trefzer, Axel C

    2016-01-15

    Nylon-6 is a bulk polymer used for many applications. It consists of the non-natural building block 6-aminocaproic acid, the linear form of caprolactam. Via a retro-synthetic approach, two synthetic pathways were identified for the fermentative production of 6-aminocaproic acid. Both pathways require yet unreported novel biocatalytic steps. We demonstrated proof of these bioconversions by in vitro enzyme assays with a set of selected candidate proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. One of the biosynthetic pathways starts with 2-oxoglutarate and contains bioconversions of the ketoacid elongation pathway known from methanogenic archaea. This pathway was selected for implementation in E. coli and yielded 6-aminocaproic acid at levels up to 160 mg/L in lab-scale batch fermentations. The total amount of 6-aminocaproic acid and related intermediates generated by this pathway exceeded 2 g/L in lab-scale fed-batch fermentations, indicating its potential for further optimization toward large-scale sustainable production of nylon-6.

  10. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James; Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Herrero-Davila, Lorenzo; Moity, Laurianne

    2016-12-29

    Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  11. A Resource Sharing Mechanism for Sustainable Production in the Garment Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mass customization, the traditional garment production model needs to be optimized to have a more sustainable structure. To meet demand for flexibility, low-cost, and high-efficiency, an innovative resource sharing mechanism was proposed in this paper to form a new sustainable type of garment production. Different from the individual production in traditional models, the new mechanism involves resources being shared among various manufacturers. The tradeoff between positive and negative effects of the proposed mechanism is a key issue for sustainable production. In the present study, an overall sustainable index, integrating four production performance indicators, was defined on the basis of an Analytical Network Process to assess various production scenarios. According to the discrete-event simulation results of the different scenarios, we found that garment manufacturers could obtain comprehensive improvements in sustainable production by implementing the proposed resource sharing mechanism under the threshold of an increasing production failure rate.

  12. Designing sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply chains in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dondè, Giulia; Trienekens, Jacques; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Due to the intensive use of natural resources in food production in Brazil and the consequent air and water pollution, sustainable production is high on the agenda of businesses and policy makers. This paper designs sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply

  13. Life cycle assessment and sustainability analysis of products, materials and technologies. Toward a scientific framework for sustainability life cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt; Guinée, Jeroen B.

    There are many approaches to study the environmental and sustainability aspects of production and consumption. Some of these reside at the level of concepts, e.g., industrial ecology, design for environment, and cleaner production. Other approaches are based on the use of quantitative models, e.g.,

  14. Evaluation of Torrefied Bamboo for Sustainable Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.; Pels, J.; Fryda, L.; Zwart, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production. Bamboo presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. Up to date, there are no studies on fuel properties of the bamboo specie Guadua angustifolia. Bamboo is a difficult fuel and most thermal conversion processes have stringent fuel specifications, which are challenging to fulfil with biomass streams. Bamboo is tenacious and fibrous which makes it difficult and expensive to grind. Furthermore, the characteristics with regard to handling, storage and degradability are not favourable for biomass in general. The thermal pre-treatment torrefaction is a promising upgrading technology that can enhance the fuel quality by addressing these issues. During torrefaction, biomass is heated to 250-320C in the absence of oxygen. At the end of the process the material is milled and compressed into pellets. In this way, the biomass becomes easy to grind, more hydrophobic and has a high energy density. Alternatively, wet torrefaction (Torwash) allows for combined torrefaction and washing of the feedstock. Wet torrefaction, a form of hydro-thermal treatment, in addition to dry torrefaction removes salts and minerals from biomass, improving even more the quality of the product. This is in particular interesting for feedstock containing significant amounts of undesirable alkali components for combustion or gasification, as is the case of bamboo. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of Guadua angustifolia as a fuel for heat and power applications. The results of biomass fuel properties and characteristics and quality improvement via dry and wet torrefaction are assessed. Torrefaction clearly shows the improvement of fuel properties and grindability of biomass. Wet-torrefied Guadua angustifolia is chemically an attractive fuel, with favourable fuel properties, e.g. the results showed a 98% of alkali removal, and the

  15. Building reactor operator sustain expert system with C language integrated production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Qin; Hu Shouyin; Wang Ruipian

    2002-01-01

    The development of the reactor operator sustain expert system is introduced, the capability of building reactor operator sustain expert system is discussed with C Language Integrated Production System (Clips), and a simple antitype of expert system is illustrated. The limitation of building reactor operator sustain expert system with Clips is also discussed

  16. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Ethanol produced from pretreatment and microbial fermentation of biomass has great potential to become a sustainable transportation fuel in the near future. First generation biofuel focus on starch (from grain) fermentation, but in the present study that is regarded as a too important food source. In recent years 2nd generation technologies are developed utilizing bulk residues like wheat straw, woody materials, and corn stover. However, there is a need for integrating the biomass starting point into the energy manufacturing steps to secure that bioenergy is produced from local adapted raw materials with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Produced crops can be transformed into a number of useful products using the concept of biorefining, where no waste streams are produced. An advantage of intercropping is that the intercrop components composition can be designed to produce a medium (for microbial fermentation) containing all essential nutrients. Thereby addition of e.g. urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be avoided. Intercropping, defined as the growing of two or more species simultaneously on the same area of land, is a cropping strategy based on the manipulation of plant interactions in time and space to maximize growth and productivity. Cereal-legume intercropping data from field trials show the possibility to improve the use of nitrogen resources, because the non fixing species (e.g. wheat) efficiently exploits soil mineral N sources while at the same time atmospheric N from the N{sub 2}-fixing species (e.g. pea) enter the cropping system reducing the need for N fertilizer application. Nitrogen fertilization is responsible for more than 85 % of the greenhouse gas emissions from wheat grain production in Denmark. Increase of fertilizer N supply promotes the growth of wheat and results in a decreased pea N accumulation and a different proportion of intercrop components. Intercropping introduce a dynamic change of plant

  17. A Mathematical Programming Approach to the Optimal Sustainable Product Mix for the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha M. Galal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concerns about the environment and the depletion of natural resources are the main drivers for the growing interest in sustainability. Manufacturing operations are frequently considered to have an adverse effect on the environment. Hence, the sustainable operation of manufacturing facilities is a vital practice to ensure sustainability. The aim of this paper is to find the optimum product mix of a manufacturing facility to maximize its sustainability. A mixed integer non-linear programming model is developed to specify the product mix in order to maximize a proposed sustainability index (SI of a manufacturing facility. The sustainability index comprises the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainability in a weighted form using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The model results allow the identification of the prospective improvements of manufacturing sustainability.

  18. 'Sustainable chemical production' - A review of the 7th Symposium of Fribourg 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Division 'Industrial Chemistry' of the Swiss Chemical Society organizes periodically a two-day event for the post-graduate education of its members. This event is known as the Freiburger Symposium. This year it focussed on sustainable chemical production. The twelve talks covered the following aspects: ethical needs for sustainability standards, the required, attained, and yet to be attained sustainability goals in chemical industry. Diverse case studies showed the highly developed awareness about the sustainability issue within the chemical community. (author)

  19. Sustainable energy consumption and production - a global view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernes, H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper gives a global view of sustainable energy consumption and production both in developed and developing countries. There is a need of replacing fossil fuel sources with renewable energy at a speed parallel to the depletion of the oil and gas sources. According to the author, the actual growth in developing countries` use of oil, coal and other sources of energy has almost tripled since 1970. Future population growth alone will spur a further 70% jump in energy use in 30 years, even if per capita consumption remains at current levels. For the OECD countries, energy use rose one fifth as much as economic growth between 1973 and 1989. Countries like China and India, and other developing countries, have huge coal reserves and energy needs. Policy makers have to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels, energy technologies and stricter environmental standards. Life cycle analyses can contribute to the development of overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced by more than 60% in order to stabilize the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. 8 refs.

  20. GM crops, the environment and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Today, over 7.1 billion people rely on the earth's resources for sustenance, and nearly a billion people are malnourished, their minds and bodies unable to develop properly. Globally, population is expected to rise to more than 9 billion by 2050. Given the combined pressures of human population growth, the rapidly growing desire for increased levels of consumption, and the continued use of inappropriate technologies, it is not surprising that humans are driving organisms to extinction at an unprecedented rate. Many aspects of the sustainable functioning of the natural world are breaking down in the face of human-induced pressures including our individual and collective levels of consumption and our widespread and stubborn use of destructive technologies. Clearly, agriculture must undergo a redesign and be better and more effectively managed so as to contribute as well as possible to feeding people, while at the same time we strive to lessen the tragic loss of biodiversity and damage to all of its productive systems that the world is experiencing. For GM crops to be part of the solution, biosafety assessments should not be overly politically-driven or a burdensome impedance to delivering this technology broadly. Biosafety scientists and policy makers need to recognize the undeniable truth that inappropriate actions resulting in indecision also have negative consequences. It is no longer acceptable to delay the use of any strategy that is safe and will help us achieve the ability to feed the world's people.

  1. Climatic impacts of managed landscapes for sustainable biofuel feedstocks production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Kravchenko, A. N.; Hamilton, S. K.; Jackson, R. D.; Thelen, K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable production of biofuels cannot be achieved without multiple-use landscapes where food, feed, and fuel can be co-produced without environmental harm. Here we use field level measurements in seven biofuel feedstock production systems grown under similar climatic conditions, but on different soils in two Midwestern (USA) states to understand their relative climatic impacts. We studied annual corn stover, and 6 perennial ecosystems including three polycultures: successional vegetation, restored prairie and a 3-species grass mix; and 3 monocultures: poplar, switchgrass, and miscanthus. All studied ecosystems were grown in replicated plots on moderately fertile soils of SW Michigan and highly fertile soils of central Wisconsin. We measured components of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances over 6 years. On the fertile soil perennial monocultures had GHG emission reductions potentials of 53% relative to fossil fuels, while polycultures had 64% reduction; corn stover had an 84% emissions reduction. Net sequestration ranged from 0.6 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 (successional vegetation) to 3.1 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1, (corn stover). Among feedstocks produced on less fertile soils, perennial monocultures had GHG emissions reduction of 80%, and polycultures had emission reduction of 54%; miscanthus and poplar exhibited the largest sequestration potentials of 5.9 and 3.9 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 respectively, while polycultures sequestered less then 1.0 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 on average and corn stover was intermediate with 1.4 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1. All studied systems averaged energy production of 30 GJ ha-1 yr-1, except miscanthus (71 GJ ha-1 yr-1) and successional vegetation (20 GJ ha-1 yr-1). Our results inform the design of multiple-use landscapes: more fertile soils could produce food and feed with residuals collected for bioethanol production and more marginal soils could be used for various poly- or mono-cultures of purpose grown biofuel feedstocks but with differential climate benefits.

  2. Organic Zinc as Feed Additive for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprijati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential micro mineral required by ruminants and is a component of over 300 enzymes which play important role in the metabolisms of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Recently, the chemical and biotechnology processes have been developed for synthesizing organic Zn. Organic Zn is the product of a chelating process of dissolved Zn anorganic salts with amino acids or hydrolyzed protein. The utilization of organic Zn as feed additive in ruminants diets tends to increase, due to the absorption of Zn in the organic form is more effective than the inorganic form. This paper reviewes the research from comparative studies of inorganic and organic Zn on the growth, production and reproduction in ruminants. The studies found that the supplementation of organic Zn improved nutrient digestibility, growth, feed efficiency, milk production, Zn retention and absorption, production and reproductive performances of ruminants. However, a little variation response was found due to different degrees of chelating on Zn incorporation of amino acids or hydrolyzed protein.

  3. Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Hongyan; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Chaochun; Ma, Wenqi; Huang, Chengdong; Zhang, Weifeng; Mi, Guohua; Miao, Yuxin; Li, Xiaolin; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Jianchang; Wang, Zhaohui; Ye, Youliang; Guo, Shiwei; Lu, Jianwei; Huang, Jianliang; Lv, Shihua; Sun, Yixiang; Liu, Yuanying; Peng, Xianlong; Ren, Jun; Li, Shiqing; Deng, Xiping; Shi, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Zhiping; Tang, Li; Wei, Changzhou; Jia, Liangliang; Zhang, Jiwang; He, Mingrong; Tong, Yanan; Tang, Qiyuan; Zhong, Xuhua; Liu, Zhaohui; Cao, Ning; Kou, Changlin; Ying, Hao; Yin, Yulong; Jiao, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qingsong; Fan, Mingsheng; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2018-03-01

    Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance. First, we conducted field trials across China’s major agroecological zones to develop locally applicable recommendations using a comprehensive decision-support program. Engaging farmers to adopt those recommendations involved the collaboration of a core network of 1,152 researchers with numerous extension agents and agribusiness personnel. From 2005 to 2015, about 20.9 million farmers in 452 counties adopted enhanced management practices in fields with a total of 37.7 million cumulative hectares over the years. Average yields (maize, rice and wheat) increased by 10.8–11.5%, generating a net grain output of 33 million tonnes (Mt). At the same time, application of nitrogen decreased by 14.7–18.1%, saving 1.2 Mt of nitrogen fertilizers. The increased grain output and decreased nitrogen fertilizer use were equivalent to US$12.2 billion. Estimated reactive nitrogen losses averaged 4.5–4.7 kg nitrogen per Megagram (Mg) with the intervention compared to 6.0–6.4 kg nitrogen per Mg without. Greenhouse gas emissions were 328 kg, 812 kg and 434 kg CO2 equivalent per Mg of maize, rice and wheat produced, respectively, compared to 422 kg, 941 kg and 549 kg CO2 equivalent per Mg without the intervention. On the basis of a large-scale survey (8.6 million farmer participants) and scenario analyses, we further demonstrate the potential impacts of implementing the enhanced management practices on China’s food security and

  4. Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Hongyan; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Chaochun; Ma, Wenqi; Huang, Chengdong; Zhang, Weifeng; Mi, Guohua; Miao, Yuxin; Li, Xiaolin; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Jianchang; Wang, Zhaohui; Ye, Youliang; Guo, Shiwei; Lu, Jianwei; Huang, Jianliang; Lv, Shihua; Sun, Yixiang; Liu, Yuanying; Peng, Xianlong; Ren, Jun; Li, Shiqing; Deng, Xiping; Shi, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Zhiping; Tang, Li; Wei, Changzhou; Jia, Liangliang; Zhang, Jiwang; He, Mingrong; Tong, Yanan; Tang, Qiyuan; Zhong, Xuhua; Liu, Zhaohui; Cao, Ning; Kou, Changlin; Ying, Hao; Yin, Yulong; Jiao, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qingsong; Fan, Mingsheng; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2018-03-15

    Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance. First, we conducted field trials across China's major agroecological zones to develop locally applicable recommendations using a comprehensive decision-support program. Engaging farmers to adopt those recommendations involved the collaboration of a core network of 1,152 researchers with numerous extension agents and agribusiness personnel. From 2005 to 2015, about 20.9 million farmers in 452 counties adopted enhanced management practices in fields with a total of 37.7 million cumulative hectares over the years. Average yields (maize, rice and wheat) increased by 10.8-11.5%, generating a net grain output of 33 million tonnes (Mt). At the same time, application of nitrogen decreased by 14.7-18.1%, saving 1.2 Mt of nitrogen fertilizers. The increased grain output and decreased nitrogen fertilizer use were equivalent to US$12.2 billion. Estimated reactive nitrogen losses averaged 4.5-4.7 kg nitrogen per Megagram (Mg) with the intervention compared to 6.0-6.4 kg nitrogen per Mg without. Greenhouse gas emissions were 328 kg, 812 kg and 434 kg CO 2 equivalent per Mg of maize, rice and wheat produced, respectively, compared to 422 kg, 941 kg and 549 kg CO 2 equivalent per Mg without the intervention. On the basis of a large-scale survey (8.6 million farmer participants) and scenario analyses, we further demonstrate the potential impacts of implementing the enhanced management practices on China's food security and

  5. Depressive rumination alters cortisol decline in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Depressive rumination - a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressive Rumination Alters Cortisol Decline in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Depressive rumination – a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) – is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD. PMID:24835412

  7. Dry fractionation for sustainable production of functional legume protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteins gain increasing interest as part of a sustainable diet. Because plant materials not only contain protein, they are generally isolated via an energy intensive wet fractionation. This review discusses dry fractionation as an alternative and more sustainable route for producing

  8. Multidimensional sustainability assessment of solar products : Educating engineers and designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, S.F.J.; Bakker, C.A.; Verwaal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008 the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at the TU Delft hosts the minor Sustainable Design Engineering. The minor has been highly useful as a platform to pilot new ways of teaching engineering for sustainable development. Instead of having students make life cycle assessments and

  9. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  10. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R.; Meyer, Antje S.; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed. PMID:26335441

  11. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Gross, Katherine L; Robertson, G Philip

    2013-01-24

    Legislation on biofuels production in the USA and Europe is directing food crops towards the production of grain-based ethanol, which can have detrimental consequences for soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate pollution, biodiversity and human health. An alternative is to grow lignocellulosic (cellulosic) crops on 'marginal' lands. Cellulosic feedstocks can have positive environmental outcomes and could make up a substantial proportion of future energy portfolios. However, the availability of marginal lands for cellulosic feedstock production, and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, remains uncertain. Here we evaluate the potential for marginal lands in ten Midwestern US states to produce sizeable amounts of biomass and concurrently mitigate GHG emissions. In a comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years, we found that successional herbaceous vegetation, once well established, has a direct GHG emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops (-851 ± 46 grams of CO(2) equivalent emissions per square metre per year (gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1))). If fertilized, these communities have the capacity to produce about 63 ± 5 gigajoules of ethanol energy per hectare per year. By contrast, an adjacent, no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotation produces on average 41 ± 1 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year and has a net direct mitigation capacity of -397 ± 32 gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1); a continuous corn rotation would probably produce about 62 ± 7 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year, with 13% less mitigation. We also perform quantitative modelling of successional vegetation on marginal lands in the region at a resolution of 0.4 hectares, constrained by the requirement that each modelled location be within 80 kilometres of a potential biorefinery. Our results suggest that such vegetation could produce about 21 gigalitres of ethanol per year from

  12. Proceedings of the Frontis workshop on fresh herbage for dairy cattle : the key to a sustainable food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    Product quality and a sustainable food chain of ruminant products are largely determined by animal nutrition, in which forage is the major feed source. Forages and grasslands play a unique role in agriculture because they contribute through animals to our food supply and to the abatement of

  13. Sustainability of livestock production systems : a comparing conventional and organic livestock husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production systems are needed to feed the larger, more urban, richer and older world population in 2050. Quantitative information about the sustainability performance of existing livestock production systems can aid the debate of which actions could be developed and

  14. Influential Factors and Strategy of Sustainable Product Development under Corporate Social Responsibility in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adopt the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR to explore the intention of sustainable product development in Taiwan, as well as leading to the creation of influential factors that affect corporate sustainable product development intention. In this research, the induction analysis was conducted to understand the implementation of sustainable product development, and this was supplemented with questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews to evaluate developmental intention. In addition, principal component analysis was used for factor analysis and content analysis in the 6 W expression method, leading to the creation of the influential factors. The research results have demonstrated that the factors affecting the intention of corporate sustainable product development include having a sustainable design and a development purpose, a corporate development purpose, sustainable development concepts, a sustainable design value, a sustainability concept, and a manufacturing process quality. For sustainable product development, corporate social responsibility needs to be most concerned with the added value of products, regulation requirements, and accommodation of the industrial chain, costs, and quality.

  15. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ahmadzadeh; R. Salamatdoustnobar; N. Maheri-Sis; M. Taher-Maddah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas pro...

  16. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher-Maddah, M; Maheri-Sis, N; Salamatdoustnobar, R; Ahmadzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds.

  17. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes: I-selection goals and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.

  18. Current status for gastrointestinal nematode diagnosis in small ruminants: where are we and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sarah Jane Margaret; Sandeman, Mark; Gonzalez, Jorge; Piedrafita, David

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites pose a significant economic burden particularly in small ruminant production systems. Anthelmintic resistance is a serious concern to the effective control of GIN parasites and has fuelled the focus to design and promote sustainable control of practices of parasite control. Many facets of sustainable GIN parasite control programs rely on the ability to diagnose infection both qualitatively and quantitatively. Diagnostics are required to determine anthelmintic efficacies, for targeted treatment programs and selection of animals for parasite resistant breeding. This review describes much of the research investigated to date to improve the current diagnostic for the above practices which is based on counting the number of parasite eggs in faeces.

  19. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Improving the reproductive performance of large and small ruminants in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercoe, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This document reports the activities of the expert during a three-week mission to Thailand to discuss work aimed at increasing the reproductive efficiency of cattle and buffaloes. In addition the expert assessed the potential for the introduction of hormonal assays to increase productivity in goats. Discussions focussed on the techniques used, the increase in understanding of the reproductive status of the cattle and buffaloes in the region, the impact of the findings on husbandry, breeding and management priorities, the usefulness of the progesterone test and on what additional research is required

  20. Is the hydrogen production from biomass technology really sustainable? Answer by Life Cycle Emergy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    in China. According to the results of sensitivity analysis, two implications are obtained for enhancing the sustainability of hydrogen from corn stalks: one is developing innovative agricultural system to reduce the consumption of nitrogenous fertilizer and phosphate, and another is to improve the yield......The Sustainability performance of biomass-based hydrogen is in debate. This study aims at using Emergy Theory to investigate the sustainability hydrogen production from corn stalks by supercritical water gasification, all the inputs including renewable resources, non-renewable resources, purchased.......8303 and the emergy index of sustainability (ESI) which is a measure of the sustainability of a product, a process or a service is 0.1996. Therefore, it is not sustainable in the long term perspective for hydrogen production from corn stalks by supercritical water gasification in the current situation of Huaibei city...

  1. Self-Sustaining Crop Production Unit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's goals to explore deep space through manned missions requires development of self-sustaining life support systems. A diverse team from Freight Farms, Inc. have...

  2. Choosing the right platform for the right product: Sustainable production of chemicals in microbial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrgard, Markus

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a new non-profit research center focused on sustainable production of biochemicals and therapeutic proteins using microbial and mammalian cell factories. The work at CFB is organized around an iterative loop where cell factories...... are taken through four stages: 1) In silico design and data analysis, 2) genome engineering, 3) characterization and high throughput screening, and 4) omics based systems analysis. However, before entering this loop, significant two significant decisions need to be made. First, the choice of what products...... should be made should be made considering biological, technical, economic, and ecological factors. Second, the choice which platform strains will be used to develop production hosts should be made based on characterization of both metabolic and process tolerance traits of strains. I will discuss the role...

  3. Sustainable product development through a life-cycle approach to product and service creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2005-01-01

    possibilities to the company, ranging from the re-invention of core business, through gaining customer loyalty, expanding the customer base, and importantly, to the possibility of removing some of the traditional environmental problems connected to the consumption behaviour of users. PSS is new as an industrial...... of stakeholders, both in- and outside of the company, in order to deliver an augmented product to the customer in a satisfactory manner – and to be able to sustain this satisfaction throughout the whole company-customer relationship. We can prepare ourselves for a significant change in the way that traditional...... product manufacturing companies deliver their product to their customers – especially in the western world, where companies no longer can expect to compete on a global market with respect to cost, quality or time. It is our hypothesis, that if carried out correctly (aided by professional methods...

  4. Sustainability analysis in petroleum production facilities; Analise de sustentabilidade em instalacoes de producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Jose Marcos Leite [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Adriano [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The global sustainability aspects are discussed and a method for sustainability analysis in oil and gas production surface facilities is presented. The proposed method requires a multidisciplinary viewpoint and considers social, economic and environmental sustainability aspects during the early design programming and planning phases. Traditionally, Feasibility (Technical and Economical), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and risk (Hazop) analysis are performed separately. On the other hand, the proposed methodology merges economical, environmental and social sustainability analysis; which allows deciding the most globally sustainable scenario. A checklist containing global sustainability aspects (Economical, Social, Environmental, Health, Safety, etc.) and a qualitative analysis of these aspects is suggested. The first step for applying the proposed method consists in checking the aspects and the corresponding suggestions for improving the global sustainability. Secondly, the impact of each aspect on sustainability is verified. Finally, the most important aspects are selected and different scenarios are simulated allowing choosing the most sustainable scenario. The results and conclusions are then presented in a Global Sustainability Report. The proposed analysis was applied to study the sustainability of a small offshore platform design. In this case study, several aspects that could potentially improve sustainability were identified. The simulated scenarios showed that some critical aspects contributed decisively to the global sustainability. These critical aspects are not easily identified if only the traditional economical, environmental and risk analysis are applied. (author)

  5. Quiet sustainability: Fertile lessons from Europe's productive gardeners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, J.; Jehlička, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 148-157 ISSN 0743-0167 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Quiet sustainability * Sustainable development * Sharing Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 2.036, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016713000454

  6. Application of natural seaweed modified mortar for sustainable concrete production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M. N. I.; Zularisam, A. W.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii (gel) and Gracilaria Sp. modified mortar on the properties of sustainable concrete was investigated. Pre-experiment and main-experiment was conducted to carry out this study. Pre-experiment was conducted to study the compressive strength of the sustainable concrete. The main-experiment studied the compressive and splitting strength. Results showed that seaweed modified mortar yielded satisfactory compressive and splitting strength of 30 MPa and 5 MPa at 28 days.

  7. Antimicrobial effects of hops (Humulus lupulus) beta-acid on the growth and ammonia production of caprine ruminal hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goats and other ruminants require the symbiotic microbes that live in the rumen to digest fiberous plant tissues. However, some rumen microbes impede animal health and performance. The hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) catabolize nutitionally important amino acids, and produce ammonia (NH3). ...

  8. Effects of different fresh-cut forages and their hays on feed intake, digestibility, heat production, and ruminal methane emission by Boer x Spanish goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer (87.5%) × Spanish wethers (32.5 ± 0.36 kg body weight) were used in a 32-day experiment to assess effects of frequency of feeding condensed tannin (CT)-containing Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) on ruminal methane emission. Fresh SL (15.3% CT) was fed at 1.3 time...

  9. peste des petits ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Diallo A, Minet C, Le Goff C, Berhe G, Albina E, Libeau. G, Barrett T (2007). The threat of peste des petits ruminants: progress in vaccine development for disease control. Vaccine. 25:5591–5597. Esuruoso GO (1995). The practice of preventive veterinary medicine in a devastated national economy. Being the text of an.

  10. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was

  11. Reduction of ruminant methane emissions - a win-win-win opportunity for business, development, and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R. [Appropriate Technology International, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes research efforts of The Global Livestock Producers Program (GLPP) in establishing self-sustaining enterprises for cost-effective technologies (i.e., animal nutrition and genetic improvement) and global methane emissions reductions in developing world nations. The US Environmental Protection Agency has funded several studies to examine the possibilities of reducing ruminant methane emissions in India, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Brazil. The results of the studies showed that: (1) many developing countries` production systems are inefficient, and (2) great potential exists for decreasing global methane emissions through increasing animal productivity. From this effort, the GLPP established livestock development projects in India, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, and is developing projects for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Brazil. The GLPP has developed a proven methodology for assessing ruminant methane and incorporating methane emissions monitoring into viable projects.

  12. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  13. A REVIEW: A MODEL of CULTURAL ASPECTS for SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Ghazali,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Product design stages are important to consider critically in production. Generally, product design that shall be created by designer, should consider what the customer wants and needs. Nowadays issues, product design does not only consider the “wants and needs” of user, but also how the design can be created by embedding sustainability aspects in the product. Culture is also one of the important aspects which need to be considered in product design as culture affects the way users respond to the product. This paper aims to develop a new model for design development, in which the aspects of culture are incorporated into sustainable product design. By reviewing the existing literature, the authors attempt to identify the gaps of the existing papers, which illustrate how culture affects sustainable product design. Recent papers have only shown that culture influences product design, but they do not explore sustainability and the culture aspects in product design. Due to these gaps, it is therefore important to create a model which will assist designers to elicit sustainable product design based on cultural aspects. In summary, designers need to reflect on the “wants and needs” of users. The framework presented in this paper can be integrated into designers’ and companies’ decision-making during product design development.

  14. Exploring Organizational Antecedents for Sustainable Product Development for International Tour Operating Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    The development of sustainable products or services is defined by Maxwell as the process of making products or services in a more sustainable way (production) throughout their entire life cycle, from conception to the end-of-life (Maxwell & van der Vorst, 2003). Essentially, sustainable products...... the life cycle of the product or service, from raw materials to discharged waste, so that unnecessary consumption of resources and generation of wastes are avoided. More advanced concepts such as product-service systems and needs-oriented-service systems aim to reduce impacts from the production...... and the use phase, or even at the end-of-life phase of a product (Mont, 2002; Roy, 2000). New and under development, the area of product-service systems is increasingly gaining acceptance from companies (Manzini & Jégou, 2003)....

  15. DYNAMICS OF THE RUMINAL FERMENTATION IN SHEEP FEEDING WITH RATION CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CASHEW BY-PRODUCTS (Anacardium occidentale Efecto de la inclusion en los níveles crescentes del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. en la dinámica de la fermentacion ruminal de ovinos DINÂMICA DA FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL EM OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE COPRODUTOS DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cláudio Rogério

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of cashew by-product (Anacardium occidentale L. on the ammoniac nitrogen concentrations (N-NH3, pH and vollatile fatty acids concentrations (VFA of the ruminal fluid, in sheep that received diets containing the cited by-product. Twenty male, entire sheep had been distributed in four treatments with different levels of cashew by-product inclusion (zero; 19%; 38%; 52% in a randomized block design, in a split-plot project, having in the parcels the diets and the sub-parcels the times of collection (zero, two, five, eight hours after-feeding with five replications. PH was remained inside of the normal standards cited by same literature in the raised cashew by-product inclusions. Diets with zero and 52% had gotten the biggest concentrations of N-NH3. The molar ratio of the AGV in the ruminal liquid in the diets with cashew by-product was typical of rich diets in voluminous. The relation acetate: propionate was not affected by the inclusion of the cashew by-product. The inclusion of the cashew by-product in up to 19 % of the dietary total presented better resulted in that it says respect to the parameters analyzed in this work.

    KEY WORDS: Ammoniac nitrogen, Ovis aries, pH, parameters ruminate, ruminants, volatile fatty acids.

    El estudio apunto evaluar la inclusión del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale en la concentración de nitrogeno amoniacal (N-NH3, el pH y las concentraciones de los acidos grasos vollatiles (AGV en el liquido ruminal de ovinos Exclusion of dietary sodium bicarbonate from a wheat-based diet: effects on milk production and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepel, L; Hayirli, A

    2011-01-01

    Milk production, rumen fermentation, and whole-tract apparent nutrient digestibility in response to feeding 20% steam-rolled wheat with or without sodium bicarbonate were evaluated in 12 Holstein cows averaging 165±16 DIM. Cows were fed 1 of 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing either 0 or 0.75% sodium bicarbonate on a DM basis for 21 d in a crossover design. Rumen fluid samples were obtained 18 times during the last 2 d of each period, and fecal samples were collected on 12 occasions from d 18 to 21 of each period. Removal of sodium bicarbonate from the diet did not affect DMI (21.0 kg/d), yields of milk (30.8 kg/d), or milk components (1.16, 1.01, and 1.40 kg/d for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, and NDF did not differ between the 2 treatments (75.3, 76.6, 67.2, and 63.6%, respectively). The mean rumen pH was 6.24 and was not affected by excluding sodium bicarbonate from the diet. Rumen NH3-N (12.31 mg/dL) and lactic acid (3.63 mM) concentrations were not different, whereas total volatile fatty acids concentration tended to increase when sodium bicarbonate was present in the diet (110 vs. 116 mM). However, average concentrations of the individual volatile fatty acids, as a proportion of total volatile fatty acids, were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, dairy cow diets can include up to 20% steam-rolled wheat without the need for added sodium bicarbonate as long as the diets are formulated to meet the fiber requirements of the cow. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalba Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences, and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being.

  17. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  18. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  19. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  1. Aesthetic Sustainability - Product Design and Sustainable Usage, by Kristine H. Harper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2017-01-01

    As the window for action against irreversible climate changes is narrowing, Harper offers timely and practical advice on how, as designers and consumers, we can take responsibility for creating a sustainable future. Though informed by a deep understanding of the complexities of aesthetics...

  2. Sustainable use of Brackish water for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Iqbal, M.; Subhani, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The good quality surface-water is not sufficient to meet the crop water requirement for potential crop production. To augment the inadequate supplies of good quality water the only alternative is the use of poor quality , ground water. To explore sustainable use of brackish water a study was conducted in Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia South, Bahawalnagar, Punjab during the year 1998-99 to 2000-2001 with the objective to evaluate the impact of different irrigation treatments on physical and chemical properties of soil and crops yield. The experiment was conducted on farmer's field with his collaboration. The initial soil pH was about 8.0 while ECe and SAR ranged between 2.0 to 4.1 dS m/sup -/1 and 7.1 to 15.1 (mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/)1/2, respectively with sandy loam texture. The brackish water used for irrigation had ECiw, SAR and RSC between 5.6 to 6.7 dS m/sup -/1, 15.1 to 16.4 (mmolc L/sup -1/sup 1/2/ and 1.52 to 1.64 (mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/.The crops tested were wheat during Rabi and cotton during Kharif season. The treatments tested were: irrigation with canal water (T/sub 1/), canal water during Rabi and drainage water during Kharif (T/sub 2/), drainage water for two years and canal water for one season(T/sub 3/); and drainage water for three years + application of gypsum at the rate of 25% of CWR and thereafter canal water for one season(T 4). Fertilizers were applied at the rate of 120-60-50 N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K20 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively in the form of urea, diammonium phosphate and sulfate of potash. Crops irrigated with drainage water visualized yield reduction depending upon the share of drainage water in the irrigation delta. Application of gypsum provided reasonable check against salinity build-up with brackish water irrigation besides a nominal boost of 3 and 5% in yield of wheat and cotton, respectively over comparable treatment of year-round brackish water irrigation lacking gypsum application. Drainage water in alternate arrangement of seasonal

  3. Interdependence of Agricultural Production and Environment and the Road to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curić Jasmina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.

  4. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McGlone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons. This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger. This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  5. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  6. Fermentação ruminal e produção de metano em bovinos alimentados com feno de capim-tifton 85 e concentrado com aditivos Ruminal fermentation and methane production of cattle fed Tifton 85 grass hay and concentrate with additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Rivera Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do uso de monensina, complexo de leveduras, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e aminoácidos no consumo de matéria seca e nutrientes, na estimativa da digestibilidade ruminal, nos parâmetros de fermentação ruminal (pH, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal e de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta, na população de protozoários e na produção de metano. Foram utilizados seis bovinos e com peso corporal de 530 ± 15 kg, recebendo complexo de leveduras, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e aminoácidos (5 g/dia; monensina (5 g/dia; caulim (5 g/dia, usado como controle adicionado à dieta composta de feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.; e concentrado, na relação 80:20. O delineamento experimental adotado para análise do consumo e da digestibilidade foi o de blocos completos casualizados e, para análise dos parâmetros ruminais e da produção de metano, o de parcelas subdivididas. O consumo foi influenciado pelo uso de monensina na dieta, mas não diferiu entre os aditivos. As digestibilidades da matéria seca e dos nutrientes não foram influenciadas pelo fornecimento dos aditivos. A relação acetato:propionato nos animais alimentados com a dieta com monensina foi menor que naqueles que receberam o complexo de leveduras e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e aminoácidos, diminuindo a perda de energia na forma de metano. O pH e a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal foram adequados para o crescimento bacteriano. A concentração de metano não é alterada pelo uso dos aditivos testados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of monensin, yeast complex, unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids on dry matter and nutrient intake, total and partial digestibility and ruminal parameters of ruminal fermentation (pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration and short chain fatty acids, the protozoa population and methane production. Six castrated steers, body weight 530 ± 15 kg were used, receiving yeast complex

  7. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  8. Understanding the motivational perspectives of sustainability: A case of biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pereira Querol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the expectations and visions of the actors involved in sustainable innovations, only the societal, motivational perspective is usually considered. The fact that local actors may have different multi-motivations is typically overlooked. The aim of this study is to examine and understand the multi-motivational perspectives in a sustainable production project. First, we introduce the concept of the object and analyze the case of a biogas production project as a mediating activity for making swine production more sustainable. We argue that the object of the activity, as manifested in motivational perspectives, shapes the way in which biogas production (BP systems are implemented. The article concludes by discussing how the concept of object can be used to explore the actual and future possibilities of using artifacts for increasing the sustainability of production.

  9. Use of human waste in sustainable crop production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... avoid the disadvantage of conventional fertilizer is the use of human waste. The plant nutrient in both urine and excreta come from arable fields and thus should be recycled as fertilizers to support sustainability and retain fertility of the soil. Urine acts very fast and is very rich in nitrogen. Policy on the use of the technology ...

  10. Sustainability evaluation of high value-added products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the authors present a brief overview of the methods that are presently in use for evaluating sustainability. They discuss more deeply the pros and cons of the various methods, with a strong focus on the LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) method. Given is an overview of the available literature

  11. Managing product returns to achieve supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaharudin, Mohd Rizaimy; Govindan, Kannan; Zailani, Suhaiza

    2015-01-01

    returns management as part of a comprehensive sustainability effort. The study is exploratory in nature based on five case studies of participating manufacturers in the automotive, and electrical and electronics industry in Malaysia. The interview results reveal that the five participating companies...

  12. Sustainable mushroom production in Africa: A case study in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated a sustainable alternative to grow crops using organic wastes as biofertilizers. Fresh fish waste (FFW) and cooked fish waste (CFW) mixed with sawdust from Tryplochyton scleroxylon wood species (Wawa) were made into compost heaps. Control compost from rice bran (CRB) was also prepared.

  13. Session B6 Management for sustainable use — Forage production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rangeland animal farming requires a continual supply of adequate quality forage to a) sustain animal output targets, b) facilitate flexibility to vary reproductive cycle dates for continuity of offtake, c) avoid enforced sale dates and d) alleviate the need to overgraze. The integration of herbaceous and/or woody forage to ...

  14. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well.

  15. Sustainable transition of electronic products through waste policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    regimes are described and analyzed together with the underlying regulatory principle of extended producer responsibility, which has guided the design of the directive. Conflicting interpretations of sustainability, in combination with a simplistic understanding and agency introduced from the top-down, has...

  16. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    significant role in the sustainable development of elastomers with special reference to polybutadiene rubber. Keywords. Elastomers; catalysis; tyres and ... polymer known to mankind and its first use was as an eraser.1 Apparently, the name ... and sticky depending upon the environmental condi- tions. Charles Goodyear,1 ...

  17. Addition of potassium carbonate to continuous cultures of mixed ruminal bacteria shifts volatile fatty acids and daily production of biohydrogenation intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T C; Bridges, W C; Harrison, J H; Young, K M

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported a 0.4 percentage unit increase in milk fat of lactating dairy cattle when dietary K was increased from 1.2 to 2% with potassium carbonate. Because milk fat yield has been associated with ruminal production of certain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, 2 studies were conducted to determine if increasing potassium carbonate in the rumen would alter patterns of fermentation and biohydrogenation. In experiment 1, 5 dual-flow continuous fermenters were injected just before each feeding with a 10% (wt/wt) stock potassium carbonate solution to provide the equivalent of 1.1 (K1), 2.2 (K2), and 3.3 (K3) % of diet dry matter (DM) as added K. One of the remaining fermenters received no K (K0) and the last fermenter (NaOH) was injected with adequate NaOH stock solution (10%, wt/wt) to match the pH observed for the K3 treatment. For experiment 2, 6 dual-flow continuous fermenters were used to evaluate 6 treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial to examine 2 levels of soybean oil (0 and 3.64% of diet DM) and added K at 0, 1.6, and 3.3% of diet DM. In both experiments, fermenters were fed 55 to 57 g of DM/d of a typical dairy diet consisting of 1:1 forage (10% alfalfa hay and 90% corn silage) to concentrate mix in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1630 h, and fed the respective diets for 10-d periods. Potassium carbonate addition increased pH in both experiments. Acetate:propionate ratio and pH in experiment 1 increased linearly for K0 to K3. Acetate:propionate ratio was lower for NaOH compared with K3 but the pH was the same. The trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA production rates (mg/d) increased linearly from K0 to K3, but K3 and NaOH did not differ. Production of trans-10 18:1 decreased and that of trans-10,cis-12 tended to decrease from K0 to K3, but production of trans-10,cis-12 CLA remained high for NaOH. Addition of K to the cultures in experiment 2 decreased propionate and increased acetate and acetate:propionate ratio for the 0% fat diet but

  18. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kholif

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum with spent rice straw (SRS of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control, 0.25 (SRS25 and 0.45 (SRS45 (w/w, DM basis of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis. The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241 and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021 compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01 digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002 and CP (p = 0.0005 than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001 for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001 concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148, creatinine (p = 0.0150, glucose (p = 0.0002 and cholesterol (p = 0.0016. Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05 milk (p = 0.0330 and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290 yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373 with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

  19. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using in vitro gas production technique. ... According to results of this study, it seems that DTP could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition. Key words: Nutritive value, gas production, tomato pomace, short chain fatty acid, ...

  20. [EHEC carriage in ruminants and probiotic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forano, Evelyne; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bertin, Yolande; Martin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga-Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that cause human outbreaks which can lead to a severe illness such as haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), particularly in young children. The gastrointestinal tract of cattle and other ruminants is the principal reservoir of EHEC strains and outbreaks have been associated with direct contact with the farm environment, and with the consumption of meat, dairy products, water and fruit or vegetable contaminated with ruminant manure. Several outbreaks occurred these last years in France. In Brazil, although STEC carriage in ruminants is important, human cases due to EHEC are fairly rare. In order to reduce EHEC survival in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and thus limit contamination of food products, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms underlying EHEC persistence in this ecosystem with the aim of developing nutritional or ecological strategies. The effect of probiotics has been tested in vitro on the growth and survival of EHEC strains and in vivo on the animal carriage of these strains. Various studies have then shown that lactic bacteria or non-pathogenic E. coli strains were able to limit EHEC fecal shedding. In addition, understanding EHEC physiology in the ruminant gut is also critical for limiting EHEC shedding. We found that EHEC O157:H7 is able to use ethanolamine and mucus-derived sugars as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Thus, these substrates represent an ecological niche for EHEC and their utilization confers a competitive growth advantage to these pathogens as they use them more rapidly than the bacteria belonging to the resident intestinal microbiota. Understanding EHEC metabolism and ecology in the bovine intestinal tract will allow proposing probiotic strains to compete with EHEC for nutrients and thus decrease the sanitary risk. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  1. Fostering change to sustainable consumption and production: an evidence based view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Emmert, S.B.; Charter, M.; Vezzoli, C.; Sto, E.; Munch Andersen, M.; Geerken, T.; Tischner, U.; Lahlou, S.

    2008-01-01

    This "Note from the field," is an edited version of a policy brief summarizing the key findings from the first half of the Sustainable Consumption Research Exchange network (SCORE!) for the policy programs in the field of sustainable consumption and production (SCP). We recommend a framework for

  2. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM LOW INPUT FARMING IN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    de Prada, Jorge D.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Shah, Farhed A.

    2003-01-01

    The tradeoff between short-term agricultural productivity and sustainability is examined with a statistical analysis of evidence from low input agriculture in Argentina. Estimation results show that more intensive land use, corporate leasing of land, and larger farm size are likely to increase current revenues, but at the cost of sustainability.

  3. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Meyer, A.S.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon

  4. How Cities Think: Knowledge Co-Production for Urban Sustainability and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischa Muñoz-Erickson; Clark Miller; Thaddeus Miller

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and transforming how cities think is a crucial part of developing effective knowledge infrastructures for the Anthropocene. In this article, we review knowledge co-production as a popular approach in environmental and sustainability science communities to the generationof useable knowledge for sustainability and resilience. We present knowledge systems...

  5. Maturity-based approach for the development of environmentally sustainable product/service-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their substantial potential for enabling increased environmental performance, product/service-systems (PSS) are not intrinsically environmentally sustainable. In order to ensure increased environmental performance, PSS best practices should be integrated with ecodesign best practices, from...... and integrated. The proposed approach has the potential to enable the development of environmentally sustainable PSS offerings....

  6. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators: an application to egg production sytems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    1. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators (SI) is an effective way to make sustainable development measurable. The egg production sector was used as a case study to illustrate this approach. 2. The objective was to select SI for economic, ecological and societal issues, and to analyse

  7. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities

  8. Sustainable Product Innovation : The Importance of the Front-End Stage in the Innovation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    With an overpopulated planet, hungry for electricity and resources, sustainability will be one of the biggest challenges in the future. Present production and consumption patterns are causing serious environmental and human problems and cannot be sustained in a world with rising human aspirations.

  9. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  10. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Gun Roh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  11. Socio-cultural sustainability of pig production: Citizen perceptions in the Netherlands and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boogaard, B.K.; boekhorst, L.J.S.; Oosting, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Many sustainability studies of animal production consider three pillars: the economic, environmental and socio-cultural. Farmers and animal scientists tend to put most emphasis on the economic and environmental pillar and largely ignore the socio-cultural pillar. Socio-cultural sustainability...... refers to social perceptions of animal farming, including social appreciations and concerns of animal production systems. Integration of social demands and values in the production sector is a prerequisite to justify animal production within a society. The objective of the present study was therefore...... to gain further insights into socio-cultural sustainability of pig production. Many citizens may not know what contemporary pig production actually entails. To give people a real life experience with pig production, we conducted farm visits with citizen panels with 18 respondents in the Netherlands and 8...

  12. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB

  13. Preparing the way for mainstream sustainable product design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Lofthouse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that there is a need to prepare undergraduate design students to be responsible practitioners when they enter the workplace. The multi-faceted approach adopted by the Design School at Loughborough University to achieve this is presented. The paper outlines and reflects on the differences between the idealistic environment provided within an educational setting and the actual situation in the design industry, where there is little evidence of mainstream sustainable design practice. The paper concludes that it is valuable to provide students with a range of skills that support sustainable design thinking, even if they are not currently required by the design industry because doing so turns the students into informed individuals with the potential to lead the next generation of design practitioners.

  14. The Evolution of Sustainability Perceptions in Mass-Market Products

    OpenAIRE

    Plata, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Planet Life Economy Foundation (PLEF) is an Italian non-profit organization constituted in 2003 by managers and entrepreneurs from the mass-market industry. The perceptions of the sustainability of industrial brands (IB) and private labels (PL) are deepened according to consumer online opinions. The analysis conducted by WEB Research Srl (Gian Marco Stefanini) and Chase Rossman focuses on the outdoor clothing company "Patagonia" and its proprietary stores.

  15. Heterogeneous catalysis for sustainable biodiesel production via esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adam F; Bennett, James A; Manayil, Jinesh C; Wilson, Karen

    2014-11-21

    Concern over the economics of accessing fossil fuel reserves, and widespread acceptance of the anthropogenic origin of rising CO2 emissions and associated climate change from combusting such carbon sources, is driving academic and commercial research into new routes to sustainable fuels to meet the demands of a rapidly rising global population. Here we discuss catalytic esterification and transesterification solutions to the clean synthesis of biodiesel, the most readily implemented and low cost, alternative source of transportation fuels to meet future societal demands.

  16. First or second generation biofuel crops in Brandenburg, Germany? A model-based comparison of their production-ecological sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.C.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed and compared the production-ecological sustainability of first and second generation biofuel production systems in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. Production ecological sustainability was defined by a limited set of sustainability indicators including net energy yield per hectare, GHG

  17. Improving Buffalo Milk Production to Sustain the Production of Dadih by Small Farmers in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp buffalo which is found in many Asian regions is mainly raised for meat and draft purposes. However, in West Sumatera, it is also milked and the milk is mostly consumed as “dadih“, a well known traditional product from this area. Dadih is actually a product made from fresh buffalo milk, which is kept in bamboo tube for about 2-3 days under room temperature, without any application or addition of bacteria starter although the end product of this fermentation contains various bacteria, mould and khamir. As the natural fermented milk product, dadih is white in colour and the curd texture like tofu, tastes like yoghurt, and it is generally served as a complementing meal in some traditional occasion as well as delicacy from West Sumatera. Dadih is highly nutritive product, protein and fat contents are higher than those of yoghurt, rich in amino acids and bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp. and low in cholesterol. The raw material for dadih is limited due to the low productivity of fresh buffalo milk which is generally collected for about 0.5 – 2.0 litres/head/day. The effort in sustaining “dadih product“ is directed to the improving the management of the buffalo condition particularly those in lactating period. Feeding improvement is recommended in order to provide an adequate milk for raising its calf and to be milked for making dadih and to support the optimal reproductive activity of the buffalo dam. In future, the assessment on “dadih“ should also include the packaging improvement which can improve and prolong the storage time for the benefit of marketing purposes.

  18. Modeling the transition towards a sustainable energy production in developing nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiam, Djiby-Racine; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    The paper investigates how renewable technologies could promote the transition towards a sustainable energy production in developing nations. Based on two different developing nations in terms of economic, technological and institutional structure: South Africa and Senegal, we implemented scenarios

  19. Chick quality control: a key to sustainable poultry production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chick's quality and made recommendations for quality control of the products for the sustainability of the poultry industry in Nigeria. Keywords: Chick quality, assessment methods, poultry industry, Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol.

  20. The design of Eco Board Games as an umbrella approach to sustainable product design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    The multidisciplinarity and quickly broadening scope of sustainable product design education provide incentives for experimentation with different pedagogical techniques. One of these, involving the development of eco board games, has been used at both the Technical University Denmark...