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Sample records for sustainable polish generic

  1. Generic types of competitive strategies in the polish retail industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarczyk, B.; Stefanska, М.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to indicate the evolution of competitive strategies implemented by retail chains (particularly foreign ones) on the Polish market. The basic incentive to choose them is aiming at achieving competitive advantage on international and global scale. Generic strategies defined by M. Porter – strategies of cost leadership, product differentiation and focus constitute the theoretical background for the discussion. Work is funded by the NCN grant based on the decision number D...

  2. Exploring the opinions and experiences of patients with generic substitution: a representative study of Polish society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Generics have the potential to contain drug therapy costs; successful implementation of generic substitution policy largely depends on consumers' willingness to choose generics. This study aims to analyse the opinions, experiences and preferences of Polish patients towards generic medicines. The study was performed in Poland. The survey was conducted in June 2013 by means of face-to-face interviews. Respondents were drawn from the general population according to a population structure. The study covered a representative sample of 1,000 Poles; the results can be generalized to apply to the Polish population at large. Fifty-two percent of respondents declared to be more often choosing generics, twenty-three percent did not have any specific preferences, and twenty-five percent were more willing to choose brand-name medicines. Past experience with cheaper generic medicines, secondary or lower education, low income and residence in specific regions of Poland were all significantly associated with an increased willingness to choose generics. Respondents' attitudes towards generics were mostly influenced by the opinions of doctors and pharmacists. According to respondents, attitudes towards generics among doctors, pharmacists, family and friends, and in the mass media were mostly positive. There was no relationship between the preference of respondents for generics and factors such as their age, life stage, gender, household size or urban/rural locality. As a result of substituting a brand-name drug with its generic equivalent, 72 % of respondents reported that they had not noticed any difference in drug effectiveness; 21 % had experienced a reduced effectiveness of treatment or increased side effects at least once; and 7 % claimed the generic worked better. The majority of respondents who used cheaper substitutes claimed that generics represented good or very good quality. The study demonstrates that, when choosing medicines, Poles rely mainly on the opinions of their

  3. Philosophy of Sustainable Development, Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to awake awareness of the term "sustainable development" and show that the very term is not understood in a unilateral way. A discrepancy of perception and thus understanding of the notion of sustainability blurs its meaning. Numerous scholars and researchers use the term sustainable or sustainability to…

  4. Strategies for sustainable development of the Polish electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiczek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The key features of sustainable development of the Polish electric power industry are discussed. Priorities and limitations for changes and power demand forecasts are described. Results of least-cost planning for existing power plants' modernization and generation expansion with environmental impacts are presented. The least-cost strategy is given by the optimal upgrades of older plants until year 2002 and by expansion of gas-fired units. The limited availability of gas after 2010 will lead to the construction of new coal-fired plants. For the next planning process, an integrated resource planning methodology is proposed, which includes dynamic optimization of supply and demand side options. Innovative mechanisms are shown to overcome barriers of development like long-terms contracts and decentralization of the power system planning process. (author)

  5. The Role of Generic Competence and Professional Expertise in Legal Translation. The Case of English and Polish Probate Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goźdź-Roszkowski Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to demonstrate how the concept of generic competence (primarily intended for monolingual specialized communication could be extended to address important issues in translating legal texts. First, generic competence is discussed against the backdrop of the related concept of translation competence. Then, a case study is presented which examines a closely related set of documents employed by the professional community of lawyers (represented by an English solicitor and Polish advocate engaged in the specialist domain of probate law (legal process related to the estate of a deceased person. It is argued that both generic competence and professional expertise should be included in the range of competencies required for the translator of legal texts.

  6. Analysis of Spanish generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold G; Simoens, Steven

    2014-06-01

    The use of generic medicines in Spain is traditionally low compared to other European countries, despite efforts of the Spanish government in the past. This paper provides a perspective on the Spanish generic medicines retail market and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. The Spanish government's focus on prices of generic medicines (e.g., mandatory price cuts, reference price set at the lowest level) have made them amongst the lowest in Europe. In our opinion, this combination of continuous pressure on prices and limited diffusion of generic medicines may undermine the long-term sustainability of the Spanish generic medicines retail market. The unique experience in Spain shows the impact of demand-side policies on the use of generic medicines. Because a sustainable generic medicines retail market is important to maintain future competition in the off-patent medicines market, this perspective paper rounds off with recommendations to increase its sustainability.

  7. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper.

  8. Technical report for generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can be dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C

  9. Perspectives of Education for Sustainable Development--Understanding and Introducing the Notion in Polish Educational Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla, Malgorzata; Berlinska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an analysis of formal educational documents in the context of the sustainable development notion. This goal was realised by an analysis of the National Curriculum Framework documents from 2002 in comparison with the newest document from 2008. In addition, seven teaching programmes were analysed. On the grounds…

  10. Teachers' Values Related to Sustainable Development in Polish and Latvian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switala, Eugeniusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the results of the research on highlighting values related to sustainable development in Poland and Latvia by secondary school teachers and to compare two models by the use of action research. The research is presented as a process of identifying values mainly from the point of view of social development which is…

  11. A generic systematic to support bibliometric research illustrated for the performance evaluation of sustainable development issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Kurman Merlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The question that arises in this work is how to select a theoretical structure scientifically justified to a research. Thus, this exploratory and descriptive study aims to present and illustrate a structured process (ProKnow-C for selecting papers on performance evaluation oriented to issues concerning sustainable development. From the proposed process, it was mentioned the following results: identification of seven key words for search, identification of four databases of abstracts and full texts aligned with the research theme, selection of 9123 articles dealing with the theme; structured filtering of the 9123 selected articles from the databases in 13 scientific articles, which resulted in the theoretical underpinning for research on performance appraisal oriented to sustainable development issues. Subsequently, it was identified the bibliometric profile of the bibliography portfolio selected, highlighting the keywords, authors, journal articles and the articles of the portfolio and the portfolio of bibliographic references for the last three. Considering the results, it was argued that the proposed process was robust, since it achieved the goal of identifying and selecting relevant publications for the study, to gather scientific content aligned to the subject that the research sought to address.

  12. A generic methodology for the design of sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes using superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    Global warming and other environmental concerns are fueling increased focus on sustainability resulting in new and stringent guidelines, especially with regard to emissions [1]. Greenhouse gases are prevalent and among harmful emissions that are targeted to be reduced; carbon dioxide (CO2...... of feedstock [4], in this case carbon dioxide. This stage contains three steps, each incorporating relevant methods and tools. First, with the help of user specifications, the problem is specified. Then, the processing routes linking feed and product are represented via a superstructure. This is performed....... This database contains information on the raw material (including different carbon dioxide emission conditions), the products and the reactions linking these. With this help of the database it is possible to quickly compare utilization processes for a specific problem as the information is easily accessible...

  13. THE CONSUMPTION OF BASIC PRODUCTION MEANS IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN RESPECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Jarecki

    2014-10-01

    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  14. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  15. Advanced techniques for computer-controlled polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinhaerl, Markus; Stamp, Richard; Pitschke, Elmar; Rascher, Rolf; Smith, Lyndon; Smith, Gordon; Geiss, Andreas; Sperber, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Computer-controlled polishing has introduced determinism into the finishing of high-quality surfaces, for example those used as optical interfaces. Computer-controlled polishing may overcome many of the disadvantages of traditional polishing techniques. The polishing procedure is computed in terms of the surface error-profile and the material removal characteristic of the polishing tool, the influence function. Determinism and predictability not only enable more economical manufacture but also facilitate considerably increased processing accuracy. However, there are several disadvantages that serve to limit the capabilities of computer-controlled polishing, many of these are considered to be issues associated with determination of the influence function. Magnetorheological finishing has been investigated and various new techniques and approaches that dramatically enhance the potential as well as the economics of computer-controlled polishing have been developed and verified experimentally. Recent developments and advancements in computer-controlled polishing are discussed. The generic results of this research may be used in a wide variety of alternative applications in which controlled material removal is employed to achieve a desired surface specification, ranging from surface treatment processes in technical disciplines, to manipulation of biological surface textures in medical technologies.

  16. Failures & generic recommendations towards the sustainable management of renewable energy projects in Sub-Saharan Africa (Part 2 of 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikejemba, Eugene C.X.; Schuur, Peter C.; Van Hillegersberg, Jos; Mpuan, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) generation is expected to become the main source of energy in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the next century. However, more often than not, the sustainability aspect of these projects is a characteristic that is not clearly defined in terms of projects implemented in SSA. The

  17. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  18. The development of the Sustainable Technology Balance Sheet: a generic technology assessment tool to assess the sustainability of renewable energy technologies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peach, W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available on Sustainable Development NPV Net Present Value NSF National Science Foundation OTA Office of Technology Assessment PIA Privacy Impact Assessments PPP Public-Private Partnership pTA Participatory Technology Assessment RA Risk Assessment... 2.1. The history and development of TA After the establishment of the USA Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in 1972, forms of formal energy technology assessment began to take shape. These were defined as a ?comprehensive form...

  19. Generic variation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel

    2009-01-01

    In modern Danish, a handful of pronouns may be used to refer to a generic referent. In recent decades, the second person singular pronoun du has gained ground, apparently in parallel to similar recent developments in other languages. Even though generic du may not be as old as the traditional...... generic pronoun man, it is not a new variant in Danish if we by “new” mean that it has come into existence within the last 30–40 years. To all appearances, it has been used before the influence from English became significant in the last part of the 20th century, and the generic du as such need therefore...... not be explained by contact with English, as often assumed. In order to study the spread of the generic use of du we analysed the use of pronouns with generic reference in a large sample of speakers, most of whom were recorded during sociolinguistic interviews twice – the first time in the period 1978...

  20. Metal polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal polishes are used to clean metals, including brass, copper, or silver. This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing metal polish. This article is for information only. DO NOT use ...

  1. Williamson Polishing & Plating Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson Polishing & Plating Co. Inc. was a plating shop located in the Martindale-Brightwood neighborhood of Indianapolis. The facility conducted job shop polishing and electroplating services. The vacant site contains a 14,651-square-foot building.

  2. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  3. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING AS A DETERMINANT OF THE PROCESS OF MAKING PURCHASE DECISIONS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF POLISH AND FRENCH YOUNG CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jerzyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of the idea of sustainable development largely depends on the way it is perceived and understood by consumers. Therefore, the article presents the fi ndings of a survey on consumers’ knowledge about sustainable packaging, in particular: the understanding of the idea of sustainable packaging in terms of sustainable development, consumers’ interest in the concept of sustainable packaging, as well as the sources of information about sustainable packaging. Numerous earlier studies showed that younger and better-educated consumers are more favourably disposed to this concept, so the research was restricted to young consumers. The respondents’ opinions were analysed from the point of view of the purchase decision process. The subject of the analysis was the signifi cance of particular characteristics of sustainable packaging for consumers. The research allowed for establishing fi ve characteristics of sustainable packaging which, according to the respondents, are the main criteria for the assessment and the comparison of products and packaging during shopping. Moreover, it turned out that in mature markets consumers display higher sensitivity to companies’ sustainable activities, including those related to packaging, which can be caused by the economic reasons (consumers are not very price-conscious.

  4. Polish Cartographical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Cartographical Review (PCR journal has been published in English four times a year since 2015. The journal is in open access and it is published by De Gruyter Open. It is edited by Polish scientists in collaboration with international experts.

  5. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  6. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  7. Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy

    2016-01-01

    Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...

  8. The generic article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2005-01-01

    We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences

  9. Generating generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Rodriquez, A.; Smeding, G.

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach to the generation of generic functions from user-provided specifications. The specifications consist of the type of a generic function, examples of instances that it should “match” when specialized, and properties that the generic function should satisfy. We use the

  10. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  11. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  12. Subjective Quality of Life of Polish, Polish-Immigrant, and Polish-American Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdes, Celia; Zych, Adam A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares subjective quality of life of elderly Poles living in Poland, and Polish immigrants and Polish-American ethnics living in Chicago as part of a secondary data analysis of a study initially conducted in Poland. Conclusions lend support to the idea that U.S.-born elderly people and elderly immigrants to the United States have a significantly…

  13. OVERCONSUMPTION AND DECONSUMPTION AS CONTEMPORARY MARKET TRENDS. POLISH CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jasiulewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marketers are trying t o meet contemporary market trends, such as overconsumption and sustainable consumption, that stand in opposition to each other. The article presents a review of the literature and the results of the research, conducted with the help of a questionnaire, regarding issues of contemporary consumer trends, such as overconsumption and deconsumption. An attempt was made to assess whether the behaviours of Polish consumers are a part of sustainable and responsible consumption trend, which has become increasingly noticeable in many developed market economies. The results of the study indicate that it is impossible to state clearly that Polish consumers do not consume in a sustainable way, although many of their behaviours indicate overconsumption. However, their behaviour in the market in some areas is consistent with the idea of deconsumption

  14. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  15. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  16. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  17. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  18. THE POLISH RECIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Spinu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six years ago the international community witnessed one of the most dramatic changes in economic systems. Naturally, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and its consequences were events difficult to judge and anticipate in their immediate aftermath. Today, we have gained a much more coherent perspective on their meaning. The political liberalization of Poland in 1989 and its transition to the market economy was generally perceived as the most successful of all post-communist countries. From 1990 to 2013, Poland experienced the most outstanding economic growth within the former communist bloc. It doubled its GDP in real terms and became the only country to experience economic growth during the financial crisis of 2008-09. However, the polish secret recipe lies in the "shock therapy" adopted at the beginning of the 90's. The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of the Balcerowicz's program in creating the basis for economic stability and growth through privatization, liberalization of foreign trade, monetary reform and an open economy. We will also review the impact of this unprecedented transformation in shaping a strong, market-oriented economy.

  19. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  20. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  1. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  2. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  3. Efficient polishing of aspheric optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Piscotty, M.A.; Nguyen, N.Q.; Landram, C.S.; Ng, L.C.

    1997-04-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop, evaluate, and optimize novel designs for a polishing tool intended for ultra-precise figure corrections on aspheric optics with tolerances typical of those required for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography. This work may lead to an enhanced US industrial capability for producing optics for EUV, x-ray and, other high precision applications. LLNL benefits from developments in computer-controlled polishing and the insertion of fluid mechanics modeling into the precision manufacturing area. Our accomplishments include the numerical estimation of the hydrodynamic shear stress distribution for a new polishing tool that directs and controls the interaction of an abrasive slurry with an optical surface. A key milestone is in establishing a correlation between the shear stress predicted using our fluid mechanics model and the observed removal footprint created by a prototype tool. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to remove 25 nm layers of optical glass in a manner qualitatively similar to macroscopic milling operations using a numerically- controlled machine tool. Other accomplishments include the development of computer control software for directing the polishing tool and the construction of a polishing testbed.

  4. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  5. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  6. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  7. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  8. The generic strategy trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1992-01-01

    Management experts claim that for a company to thrive, it must concentrate on a single generic strategy--on one thing it does better than its rivals. But specialization also has its disadvantages. The author suggests that a broader, mixed approach may be preferable.

  9. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  10. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  11. Generic Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); M. van Regenmortel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there are two market models for valuation and risk management of interest rate derivatives, the LIBOR and swap market models. In this paper, we introduce arbitrage-free constant maturity swap (CMS) market models and generic market models featuring forward rates that span

  12. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  13. of some generic characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-06-12

    Jun 12, 1986 ... The new species is closest to Homopholis fascists of East Africa and Ethiopia Some generic characters are discussed. 'n Nuwe geitjie-spesie, Homopholis mulleri, van Noord-Transvaal (Suid-Afrika), word beskryf. Dit word met die ander twee spesies van die genus in Afrika vergelyk. Die nuwe spesie is ...

  14. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  15. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  16. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... structures and light scattered from scratches....

  17. Generic safety documentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  18. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  19. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  20. Are biosimilars really generics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop

    2010-04-01

    Ever since the formation of the first biotechnology company almost three decades ago, more than 150 biopharmaceutical products have been marketed across the globe. The oldest of these biotechnology-derived products are now at the end of their patent lives, as a result of which, the development of 'biosimilars' is increasing. The review highlights aspects in which biosimilars differ from generic drugs. The active substance of a biosimilar medicine is similar to the one of the biological reference medicine; however, biosimilars differ from generics of pharmacological drugs in aspects like size and complexity of the active substance, and the nature of the manufacturing process. The manufacture of a biopharmaceutical product is complex and involves several isolation and purification steps. These procedures are proprietary to the manufacturer of the originator product and hence even minor changes in production can have serious implications in terms of safety and efficacy of the product. Biosimilars should not be brought to market using the same procedure applied to generics, and existing and future regulation should prevent inappropriate and automatic substitution of a biosimilar for a reference biopharmaceutical product.

  1. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  3. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF POLISH HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  A household’s fi nancial security is essential for the satisfaction of the needs and wants of its members, both communal and individual. It constitutes a kind of foundation for all of a household’s fi nancial decisions that impact its standard of living. The article aims to assess the level of fi nancial security of Polish households in 2005–2013. The research draws on data from Genworth Index, HBS conducted by the Central Statistical Offi ce (GUS and Social Diagnosis (Diagnoza społeczna overseen by the Social Monitoring Council. The study shows that Poland is characterized by a low level of fi nancial security relative to other European countries, especially Western and Scandinavian. More than three-quarters of Polish households experience fi nancial problems and exhibit both a low propensity to save, and low savings rates.

  4. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  5. Earnings Management in Polish Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeszczyński, Janusz; Gajdka, Jerzy; Schabek, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of the investigation of a phenomenon known as "earnings management'' (EM) among the companies listed on the Polish stock market. The distribution of earnings per share (EPS) for the stocks around the threshold value of "zero" and the threshold of "recent performance" was analyzed in the period of years 1997-2010. Moreover, the changes of earnings for the stocks, which are suspected to manipulate their earnings, were also investigated. The results, which indicate as...

  6. LOVE in English and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Brożyna Reczko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available LOVE in English and Polish The paper presents a sample contrastive analysis of the linguistic picture of love in English and Polish. The material used in the survey is drawn from lexicographic data, including the British National Corpus and Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego [National Corpus of Polish]. The paper focuses on the similarities and differences in conceptualizing the abstract concept of love in the English and Polish languages. An analytical method, developed by Bartmiński and associates, serves as the theoretical basis for the reconstruction of the linguistic picture of the world.   MIŁOŚĆ w języku angielskim i polskim Niniejszy artykuł to próba kontrastywnego porównania językowego obrazu świata MIŁOŚCI w języku angielskim i polskim. Materiał badawczy pochodzi głównie ze źródeł leksykograficznych: słowników oraz korpusów (Narodowego Korpusu Języka Polskiego oraz z korpusu języka angielskiego British National Corpus. Celem badania było poszukiwanie podobieństw i różnic w konceptualizacji MIŁOŚCI w tych dwóch językach. Metoda badawcza została zaczerpnięta z prac J. Bartmińskiego i dotyczy rekonstrukcji językowego obrazu świata różnych pojęć.

  7. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  8. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2017-11-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting [1][2] for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness ( 1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions. Recent discussions indicate possible extensions of the extreme light weight technology to alternative materials such as Zerodur or Silicon Carbide.

  9. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  10. An Overview of Polish Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Cynarski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the revival of Polish martial arts from the perspectives of cultural sociology, the sciences of physical culture, and the humanistic theory of martial arts. The Polish Martial Arts (Polskie Sztuki Walki are a subject still requiring serious scientific examination, even in Poland. There are few works concerning the history of Polish weapons, and most only describe techniques for wielding specific types of edged weapons. Nevertheless, there is a large group of enthusiasts trying to restore and cultivate the old Polish tradition, a tradition with heavy emphasis on the art of fencing. The author knows many of the people and facts presented here, from personal observation and from direct participation in these arts. As a disciple of the late Master Yoshio Sugino (10th-dan Kobudo Katori Shinto-ryu, he fought against the Polish saber champion, and he has taken part in joint exhibitions of Polish and Japanese fencing.

  11. The tourism attractiveness of Polish libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.

  12. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  13. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  14. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  15. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  16. History of Polish gastrointestinal radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanik, A

    2003-12-01

    As early as several days after the publication of the information concerning Roentgen's discovery the first radiological examinations were performed in Poland. The new method was immediately introduced into medical practice, including gastroenterology. In that pioneer period the most important works were those by Walery Jaworski who was the first man in the world to perform an X-ray of gall stones as well as the stomach with the use of a contrast medium. In its more-than-a-hundred-year history Polish gastrointestinal radiology has attempted not only to catch up with the world science, but it also has made a considerable contribution to its development.

  17. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-01-01

    In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinat...

  18. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  19. ECOLOGICAL IDEAS IN POLISH ARCHITECTURE - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena SZPYTMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of ecological architecture appear more and more often in Poland. There are two approaches to eco-design: high-tech and low-tech. High-tech focuses on the use of the latest technological solvings. These means are often used in newly designed commercial buildings, such as the first Polish office building which uses passive technology, built in Katowice, in Euro-Centrum Science and Technology Park. It is intended especially for companies focusing on energy observance issues. Low-tech is usually used in small-scale buildings (for example a cottage in Jartypory village, and is focused on the use of inexpensive, traditional technologies and the daily conscious management of natural resources. Thinking about the impact on the environment and principles of sustainable development is also present in urban planning. In Siewierz, near Katowice, Poland’s first eco-village is being built, with full infrastructure, high-quality residential buildings, shops, offices and hotels. The range of applied solutions will allow residents for the economical exploitation of these buildings.

  20. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębik Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  1. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic

  2. ECONOMIC REASONS FOR GENERIC CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Kutishenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many generic medicines appear in the pharmaceutical market now. However, they are not always completely comparable with original drugs on efficacy and safety. In this article pharmacoeconomical estimation of some generics and original drugs was performed on example of therapeutic equivalency studies.

  3. Sexual activity of Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Izdebski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15-49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company - TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI) interviews were carried out. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15), and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction). There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage) promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  4. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  5. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  6. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  7. Societal value of generic medicines beyond cost-saving through reduced prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the added societal value of generic medicines beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. In addition, an observational case study will document the impact of generic entry on access to pharmacotherapy in The Netherlands and an illustrative exercise was carried out to highlight the budget impact of generic entry. A narrative literature review was carried out to explore the impact of generic medicines on access to pharmacotherapy, innovation and medication adherence. Data from the Medicines and Medical Devices Information Project database in The Netherlands were used for the case study in which the impact of generic medicine entrance on the budget and the number of users was calculated as an illustrative exercise. Generic medicines have an additional societal value beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. Generic medicines increase access to pharmacotherapy, provide a stimulus for innovation by both originator companies and generic companies and, under the right circumstances, have a positive impact on medication adherence. Generic medicines offer more to society than just their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. As such, governments must not focus only on the prices of generic medicines as this will threaten their long-term sustainability. Governments must therefore act appropriately and implement a coherent set of policies to increase the use of generic medicines.

  8. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  9. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...

  10. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinational companies are paying special attention to Millennials and trying to hire them before competitors will do so. As a part of this paper, an author will describe corporate politics and practices on Thomson Reuters and BNY Mellon examples. Within this work, an author is also discussing key features and differences between this generation and Millennials parent’s generation. Additionally, there is a reference to corporate social responsibility concept and work-life balance issues.

  11. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatonski Witold

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined two main hypotheses: a Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (≥ 20 cigarettes a day when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of 'current' smoking (some days and everyday among the Polish immigrants. Methods Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545 completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July–August, 2007. The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484. Results Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0% among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4% among the general Irish population (p 24 months were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64 of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  12. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  13. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  14. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  15. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  16. Broad sustainability versus sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueting, R.; Reijnders, L.

    2002-01-01

    The notion sustainability has many definitions and interpretations, which are not always in favor of the development of sustainability. Therefore, a narrow definition of sustainability is required [nl

  17. Super-polishing of Zerodur aspheres by means of conventional polishing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jaroslav; Klepetková, Eva; Pošmourný, Josef; Šulc, Miroslav; Procháska, František; Tomka, David; Matoušek, Ondřej; Poláková, Ivana; Šubert, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quest to find simple technique to superpolish Zerodur asphere (55μm departure from best fit sphere) that could be employed on old fashion way 1-excenter optical polishing machine. The work focuses on selection of polishing technology, study of different polishing slurries and optimization of polishing setup. It is demonstrated that either by use of fine colloidal CeO2 slurry or by use of bowl-feed polishing setup with CeO2 charged pitch we could reach 0.4nm RMS roughness while removing <30nm of surface layer. This technique, although not optimized, was successfully used to improve surface roughness on already prepolished Zerodur aspheres without necessity to involve sophisticated super-polishing technology and highly trained manpower.

  18. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GARZALI

    This should make the polish remains as discrete solid particles held mechanically within the leather. This work intends to explore the use of polyethylene pigment in the production of shoe polish. The shoe polish produced will be applied alongside shoe polish from carbon black (CI black Pigment 7) on finished black leather ...

  19. Frequency of Spiritual/Religious Practices in Polish Patients with Chronic Diseases: Validation of the Polish Version of the SpREUK-P Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure a wide spectrum of organized and private religious, spiritual, existential and philosophical practices, the SpREUK-P (SpREUK is the German language acronym of “Spirituality/Religiosity and Coping with Illness” questionnaire was developed as a generic instrument. To account for the fact that institutional religiosity declines, not only in Europe, and to explore the alternative use of various existing esoteric and spiritual resources, the instrument also addresses non-religious forms of spiritual practices. Previously, it was tested in a more secular context and was found to be of relevance for atheistic/agnostic individuals. Now we intended to apply the instrument to 275 Polish individuals with chronic diseases (100% Catholics, 74% women, mean age 56 ± 16 years. The factorial structure of the SpREUK-P’s Polish version was similar to the primary version, but lacked an exclusive “spiritual (mind-body practices” subscale. Factor analysis revealed four main factors, which would explain 67% of the variance, i.e., religious practices (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90, humanistic practices (alpha = 0.87, existentialistic practices (alpha = 0.80 and gratitude/awe (alpha = 0.80. The correlation pattern underlines construct validity. Interestingly, in Polish individuals, existentialistic practices did not significantly differ between religious and non-religious individuals (nor between men and women, while all other forms of spiritual practices did differ significantly.

  20. New Environmental Practices in Polish Production Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five case studies in Poland, the paper discusses, how a specific environmental policy influences the firms? industrial environmental practices. The study illustrates, how the Polish environmental policy, dominated by environmental charges on emissions, is extremely effective in improving...

  1. Electro Polishing of Niobium Cavities at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Matheisen, A; Morales, H; Petersen, B; Schmoekel, M; Steinhau-Kühl, N

    2004-01-01

    At DESY a facility for electro polishing (EP) of the super conducting (s.c.) TESLA/TTF cavities have been built and is operational since summer 2003. The EP infrastructure is capable to handle single-cell structures and the standard TESLA/ TTF nine-cell cavities. Several electro polishing processes have been made since and acceleration voltage up to 40 MV/m have been reached in nine cell structures. We report on measurements and experiences gained since 2003 as well as on handling procedures developed for the preparation of electro polished resonators. Specific data like heat production, variation of current density and bath aging will be presented. Another important point for reproducible results is the quality control of the electro polishing process. First quality control steps to be implanted in the EP procedure for large-scale production will be described.

  2. Semiological analysis of Polish theater posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikolić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the application of semiological analysis to theater posters made by two Polish authors, the paper uncovers signs, meanings, codes and specifics of the „Polish school of poster-making“ and contemporary Polish posters. Aside from this, I suggest a methodological framework for studying the issue of coding and shaping a theater poster as a culturally specific form of visual communication. The aesthetic and semiotic outlook of the Polish theater posters which were chosen is analyzed using the semiological method which highlights their differences and similarities. By pointing out the system of codes through the examples given here, a graphic designer is informed about the existence and the possibilities of a more systematic approach to shaping a theater poster.

  3. Report on Polish Public Libraries 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek-Michalska, Bożena; Szatkowska, Olga

    2001-01-01

    Report is an overview of polish public libraries, services to a variety of communities, it also provides statistics, n explanation of the funding policy for public libraries in Poland and information about the governance of public libraries in the country.

  4. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  5. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  6. Interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies:

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  7. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  8. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  9. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  10. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  11. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  12. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  13. Polishing for glass ceramics: which protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara da; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de; Pagani, Clovis; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Silva, Eduardo Galera da

    2014-07-01

    The execution of adjustments on ceramic restorations is sometimes necessary for either correction of occlusion and/or inadequate contours or esthetical improvements. Clinically, the surfaces undergo weariness through fine grinding diamond burs which remove the superficial glazing layer. Several materials for ceramic polishing have been used in an attempt to reach a satisfactory surface smoothness. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review on different polishing protocols of several dental ceramics. This is a literature review performed through scientific articles published between 2004 and 2012, indexed in MEDLINE, PubMed and Scielo databases. The study selected and analyzed a total of 20 relevant articles that evaluated different types of ceramics, polishing treatment and surface roughness. After an extensive literature review, this study observed: 1 - after the rupture of the glazing layer due to the adjustments of the restorations, the best choice for the polishing of the surface will depend on the type of ceramics used; 2 - glazing procedure provide excellent results regarding to the superficial smoothness; however, if reglazing is impossible, either abrasive rubber cups/points or sandpaper discs followed by the use of diamond polishing pastes results in a satisfactory superficial smoothness; 3 - clinical studies that take into account the behavior of the protocols polishing are scarce and should be encouraged; 4 - the large number of variables influence the final outcome of polishing should be considered. The necessity in standardization of methodologies to enable a comparison among researches. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  15. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  16. APS 3D: a new benchmark in aspherical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Daniel; Mikulic, Dalibor; Veit, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The APS 3D system performs polishing and form correction in one step in order to reduce overall process time, reduce the number of polishing steps required and eliminate the need for highly skilled operators while providing a repeatable polishing process. This new 3D Polishing system yields better surface quality, and a better slope error, automatically determining the optimum speeds, feed rates and polish pressures to achieve a deterministic process based on the required quality parameters input by the operator. The process flow is always the same to ensure consistent quality and target quality values are defined before polishing begins.

  17. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  18. GENERIC model for multiphase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    GENERIC is a nonequilibrium thermodynamic formalism in which the dynamic behavior of a system is described by a single compact equation involving two types of brackets: a Poisson bracket and a dissipative bracket. This formalism has proved to be a very powerful instrument to model the dynamic

  19. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  20. Material removal mechanisms in abrasive vibration polishing of complex molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, E.; Riemer, O.; Schulte, H.

    2010-10-01

    Optical and medical industries are demanding a large variety of optical elements exhibiting complex geometries and multitude opto-functional areas in the range of a few millimeters [1]. Therefore, mold inserts made of steel or carbides must be finished by polishing for the replication of glass and plastic lenses [2]. For polishing theses complex components in the shape of localized cavities or grooves the application of rotating polishing pads is very limited. Established polishing processes are not applicable, so state of the art is a time consuming and therefore expensive polishing procedures by hand. An automated process with conventional polishing machines is impossible because of the complex mold insert geometry. The authors will present the development of a new abrasive polishing process for finishing these complex mold geometries to optical quality. The necessary relative velocity in the contact area between polishing pad and workpiece surface is exclusively realized by vibration motions which is an advantage over vibration assisted rotating polishing processes. The absence of rotation of the pad opens up the possibility to machine new types of surface geometries. The specific influence factors of vibration polishing were analyzed and will be presented. The determination of material removal behavior and polishing effect on planar steel samples has shown that the conventional abrasive polishing hypothesis of Preston is applicable to the novel vibration polishing process. No overlaid chemical material removal appears.

  1. Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Žmigrodzki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a lexicographical project involving the development of the newest general dictionary of the Polish language: the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN]. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Polish Language at the Polish Academy of Sciences and carried out in collaboration with linguists and lexicographers from several other Polish academic centres. The paper offers a brief description of the genesis of the project and the scope of information included in the dictionary, the organisation of work, the life of the dictionary on the Web as well as the plans for the future.

  2. Surface Roughness and Gloss of Actual Composites as Polished With Different Polishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Chemin, P; Piaia, P P; Ferracane, J L

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (μm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (pGrandio when polished with Sof-Lex and Filtek Z250 and Opallis when polished with Enhance. Gloss was influenced by the composites (p<0.0001), the polishing systems (p<0.0001), and the interaction between them (p<0.0001). The one-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The interaction between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.

  3. Proceedings Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody

  4. Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

  5. Comparison of Generic Drug Reviews for Marketing Authorization between Japan and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Appleton, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Generic drugs are assuming an increasingly important role in sustaining modern healthcare systems, as the cost of healthcare, including drug usage, is gradually expanding around the world. To date, published articles comparing generic drug reviews between different countries are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine generic drug reviews in Japan and Canada. We surveyed generic drug reviews from Japan and Canada and compared the following points: general matter (application types, type of partial change or Supplement to an Abbreviated New Drug Submission, application and approval numbers, review period, application format, review report, responsibility for review), bioequivalence studies for solid oral dosage forms, and bioequivalence guidelines, guidance, or basic principles regarding various dosage forms. This survey described the many similarities and differences in generic drug reviews between the two countries and points that should be improved to promote better generic drug reviews. In particular, regulations for the definition of the same or different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are similar for both authorities. The results clarified the future challenges of generic drug reviews, and the differences highlighted by this survey will be important considerations for the future. This is the first article to present and discuss the details of generic drug reviews between Japan and Canada.

  6. 76 FR 69294 - Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors to...

  7. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing draft Generic Letter 2011-XX, ``Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk...

  8. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  9. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  10. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    The polishing process is essential for the surface generation of machine tooling components in advanced manufacturing. While robot assisted polishing is faster and more consistent than manual polishing, it can still consume a significant part of ma- chining time and operator presence time...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder form...

  12. Comparison of ceria nanoparticle concentrations in effluent from chemical mechanical polishing of silicon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzera, Larry; Mader, Brian; Ellefson, Mark; Eldridge, Jess; Loper, Steve; Zabasajja, John; Qian, Julie

    2014-11-18

    This work measured and compared the effluent from the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of silicon dioxide using ceria slurry and ceria fixed abrasive. CMP waste streams were tested for total solids, cerium, silicon, and 6 nm to 20 μm diameter particles. The concentration of cerium and total solids in the effluent were very different for the two polishes studied. The fixed abrasive polish produced 94% less CeO2 emissions per SiO2 removed. The higher ceria levels in the slurry effluent are associated with 99-279 nm particles, and attributed to ceria abrasive. The lower concentration of ceria in the effluent from the fixed abrasive process is due to the lower wear rate of mineral from the fixed abrasive, compared to the more environmentally mobile mineral in the slurry. These results support the "bonded" nature of the abrasive particles in fixed abrasive polishing and are relevant to sustainability strategies that seek to reduce particle emissions in surface conditioning technology.

  13. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  14. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  15. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  16. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components r...

  17. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  18. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  19. Chemical mechanical glass polishing with cerium oxide: Effect of selected physico-chemical characteristics on polishing efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Henych, Jiří; Tolasz, Jakub; Milde, D.; Opletal, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 362, SEP (2016), s. 114-120 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical mechanical polishing * Ceria-based polishing powders * Polishing efficienc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2016

  20. Sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, Naim H. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Al Gobaisi, Darwish; Carvalho, Maria G. [International Foundation for Water Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cumo, Maurizio [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    The paper presents an overview of sustainable energy development and is aimed to emphasize the important aspects relevant to this activity. A short introduction, related to the present energy outlook with a survey of available data, is presented. This gives the possibility to assess the motivation for a sustainable energy development. Special attention is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its generic meaning. In this respect, particular attention is devoted to the discussion of different aspects of sustainability in the present world. In order to present an engineering approach to the sustainable development, attention is devoted to the review of sustainability criterions as they have to be introduced in the future products. The main emphasis is given to review a potential development in the energy engineering science which may lead to a sustainable energy development. Seven major areas are listed with specific problems and their relevance to the sustainable energy development. This includes the following areas: energy resources and development: efficiency assessment; clean air technologies; information technologies; new and renewable energy resources; environment capacity; mitigation of nuclear power threat to the environment. The education system is the milestone for any economic development. In this respect, sustainable energy development will require special attention to be devoted to the new development of the education system. The distance learning education system is envisages as the potential option for the knowledge dissemination of the new energy technologies. (Author)

  1. Teaching sustainability in engineering solutions as a generic bachelor course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Ejlertsen, Marina

    2013-01-01

    in improving their environmental performance and in which they could do some empirical work. Several sub-projects were suggested and 5 were chosen: heating, water use/supply, use of electronics, cleaning, and ventilation. Similarly in 2013 they worked with DTU Campus service who defined a number of projects...

  2. STUDY OF POLISHING AISI 316L WITH STRUCTURED ABRASIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François GOOSSENS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Finishing process like polishing is usually used to obtain high quality mechanical surface characteristics such as texture and roughness. These operations are mainly handmade and need highly trained operators thus limiting their repeatability and profitability. To optimize the industrialization of the polishing process, it is therefore necessary to modelize the process to built efficient parameter database. The aim of this study is to characterise the polishing of 316L stainless steel with structured abrasive belts. The geometric data of the belts are given, and we then propose a model to determine material removal. An experimental test bench is set up to test this model and characterise the polishing process in terms of forces. It produces samples for different polishing conditions. The different polished surfaces are then analyzed thanks to the roughness and the wettability. Using experimental designs, we are able to validate the proposed model and identify the parameters that influence a polishing operation.

  3. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  4. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Constance; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Hasenclever, Lia; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  5. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Meiners

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. SIGNIFICANCE: In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  7. Generic behaviours in impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sator, N.; Mechkov, S.; Sausset, F. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UMR CNRS 7600, 75 - Paris (France); Mechkov, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lab. de Physique Statistique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-02-15

    From atomic nuclei to supernovae, including plates and rocks, every cohesive system can be broken into fragments, provided that the deposited energy is sufficiently large compared to its cohesive energy. We present a simple numerical model for investigating the general properties of fragmentation. By use of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the impact fragmentation of a solid disk of interacting particles with a wall. Regardless of the particular form of the interaction potential, the fragment size distribution exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent that increases logarithmically with the energy deposited in the system, in agreement with experiments. We expect this behaviour to be generic in fragmentation phenomena. (authors)

  8. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    . Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  9. Generic thin-shell gravastars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios avanzados del I.P.N., A.P. 14-700,07000 México, DF (Mexico); Lobo, Francisco S.N., E-mail: prado@msor.vuw.ac.nz, E-mail: nmontelongo@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-03-01

    We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.

  10. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  11. Cross-flow filtration with different ceramic membranes for polishing wastewater treatment plant effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsi, Ali; Hammer Jensen, Sofie; Roslev, Peter

    Nowadays the need for sustainable water treatment is essential because water shortages are increasing. Depending on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent constituents, the effluent cannot be simply discharged to environment because it contains toxic ions and organic micropollutants which...... are harmful for aquatic organism. A possible strategy to avoid this is to polish the effluent by membrane processes. Different ceramic membranes were studied to test their ability to remove inorganic and organic compounds from the effluent. Hence, various active layers such as mesoporous TiO2 (average nominal...... efficient (Fig. 3). NO3- rejection was to some extent a logarithmic function of membranes’ permeability. The results showed that γ-alumina membrane can be the optimum choice to polish the WWTP effluent compare to the others based on the membrane permeability and selectivity. Bioassays with Daphnia magna...

  12. SPECTRAL METHODS IN POLISH EMOTIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Powroźnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the issue of emotion recognition based on Polish emotional speech signal analysis was presented. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. Speech signal has been processed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The inputs for ANN were information obtained from signal spectrogram. Researches were conducted for three different spectrogram divisions. The ANN consists of four layers but the number of neurons in each layer depends of spectrogram division. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom. The averange effectiveness of emotions recognition was about 80%.

  13. Polish 2012 growth references for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Grajda, Aneta; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata; Swiąder, Anna; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2013-06-01

    Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is an essential part of child care. The aim of this paper is to provide updated growth references for Polish preschool children and to assess how well children in Poland match or diverge from the World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards/references and recent German height-for-age references. The height-, weight-, body mass index-for-age, and weight-for-height references were constructed with the LMS method using data from a recent, large, population-representative sample of 4,941 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years (the OLA study). In the case of boys, the third, 50th, and 97th height percentiles of new Polish and German references overlap almost completely, whereas the WHO growth standards/references percentiles are systematically lower. In the case of girls, comparison between the new Polish and German height references showed conformity on the third and 50th percentile, whereas body height values of the WHO standards/references are shorter. Polish children aged 3 to 6 years from for the nation representative sample, had significantly greater than zero mean z scores of height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age and weight-for-height, relative to the WHO growth standards/references. The number of children in the sample with height-for-age below -2 SD was significantly lower than expected and number of children with height-for-age above +2 SD was significantly higher than expected. The OLA study growth references can be recommended as national references for preschool children in Poland.

  14. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  15. Polish Martial Law: The Crisis of Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Roman Catholic Church continued to exist, and a comparatively liberal cultural policy was in place, which continued a legitimate practice of most of...intervention. Their answers verify that for most Poles the fear 29 of losing sovereignty and Polish culture to Russian aggression overshadows all else, even...they going in? They did not,” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/ docs/ Historia -Jachranka%20-%20Stan

  16. The Polish Cyborg. A Reflection on the Relationship between Man and Machine in Early Polish Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ranocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Far from being enthusiastic “modernolatry” of Italian futurism, Polish futurism demonstrates an attitude of ambivalence toward modernity. This is particularly evident in the Polish approach to that very synecdoche of modernity which is the machine. In his essay of 1923, the leader of the group, Bruno Jasieński, compares the fetishistic cult of the machine, which characterizes the Italian approach, with the utilitarian one of the Russians, exemplified by a quote from Majakovskij. To these two propositions, as a sort of Hegelian synthesis, he adds a Polish one consisting in the conception of the machine as a prosthesis, a continuation of the human body. Thereby he introduces an idea later known as “cyborg”. The category of cyborg is also useful to understand the work of another today almost forgotten Polish writer of the Twenties, Jerzy Sosnkowski. He was the author of a short novel, A Car, You and Me (Love of Machines, in which a whole chapter concerns the chief character’s dystopian nightmare wherein machines take control over the world. The third section of the essay deals with the idea of man a machine – an old, 18th century conception, which became actual anew in the 20th century and whose traces we can find among others in a well-known poem by Tytus Czyżewski. Thirty years before N. Wiener, Polish modernists seem to have sensed the social, political and anthropological implications of the mechanization of work.

  17. Characterization and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on air polishing dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotake; Inatomi, Michitomo; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    Air polishing is known as an effective and time saving tooth cleaning method. However, this method increased surface roughness and bacterial adhesion on dentin surface. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine Streptococcus mutans adhesion on dentin surface after air polishing as compared to the conventional method. The dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm) were polished by a rubber cup with polishing material (Polishing) and air-polished by 25 μm glycine (G25), 65 μm glycine (G65), and 65 μm sodium bicarbonate (NHC65) microparticles. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a laser electron microscope. The amount of adhered S. mutans was quantified using a resazurin reduction assay (alamarBlue(®)). The Ra of G25 and G65 was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than that of NHC65 and greater than that of Polishing. However, there was no significant difference in S. mutans adhesion among Polishing, G25, and G65, while NHC65 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher S. mutans adhesion. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, air polishing using glycine microparticles conditioned S. mutans adhesion on dentin surface in a similar fashion than the conventional method, and less than air polishing using sodium bicarbonate microparticles.

  18. Generic medicines and generic substitution: contrasting perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M

    2015-12-15

    The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic

  19. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Güler, Eda; Yücel, Ali Cağin; Ertaş, Ertan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme). Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd), polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP), polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover) (PdB), and combinations of these (PdPB) were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C). The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DeltaE*) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (alpha=0.05). The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme). The posterior (Filtek P60) and universal (Filtek Z250) composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme) and universal (Quadrant LC) composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  20. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  1. PROBLEM OF GENERIC REPLACEMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main differences between original and generic drugs as well as registration criteria for generics are described. Possible reasons of discrepancy in bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs are reviewed. The examples of such a discrepancy as a result of comparative clinical trails (enalapril maleate are discussed. Approaches to planning of comparative trails on drug therapeutic equivalence are presented. 

  2. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  3. Advanced space optics development in freeform optics design, ceramic polishing, rapid and extreme freeform polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyl, R.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper Safran-Reosc wants to share with the space community its recent work performed in the domain of space optics. Our main topic is a study about the advantages that freeform optical surfaces can offer to advanced space optics in term of compactness or performances. We have separated smart and extreme freeform in our design exploration work. Our second topic is to answer about the immediate question following: can we manufacture and test these freeform optics? We will therefore present our freeform optics capability, report recent achievement in extreme aspheric optics polishing and introduce to the industrialisation process of large off axis optics polishing for the ESO Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror segments. Thirdly we present our R-SiC polishing layer technology for SiC material. This technique has been developed to reduce costs, risks and schedule in the manufacturing of advanced SiC optics for Vis and IR applications.

  4. The long-term effectiveness of generic adult fixed-dose combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Treatment with generic adult FDC for HIV-infected Ugandan children led to sustained clinical, immunologic and virologic response during 96 weeks of ART. Early initiation of ART is key to achieving virological success. Key words: Children, HIV, antiretroviral treatment, Sub-Saharan Africa, fixed dose ...

  5. Hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish Zone of the Baltic Sea - an overview of Polish achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jasińska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a general overview of Polish experience and achievements with regard to hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea. The first work started already at the end of the sixties when the first 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models were set up. With the development of numerical methods and increasing computational power a number of 1D, 2D and 3D models were set up and tested. Global, regional and local models cover the most important water bodies,i.e. the Pomeranian Bay - Szczecin Lagoon and Gulf of Gdansk - Vistula Lagoon systems.

  6. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....

  7. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. This action is necessary...

  8. The wear of polished and glazed zirconia against enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyavula, Sridhar; Lawson, Nathaniel; Lawson, Nathaniel; Cakir, Deniz; Beck, Preston; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O

    2013-01-01

    The wear of tooth structure opposing anatomically contoured zirconia crowns requires further investigation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the roughness and wear of polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed zirconia against human enamel antagonists and compare the measurements to those of veneering porcelain and natural enamel. Zirconia specimens were divided into polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed groups (n=8). A veneering porcelain (Ceramco3) and enamel were used as controls. The surface roughness of all pretest specimens was measured. Wear testing was performed in the newly designed Alabama wear testing device. The mesiobuccal cusps of extracted molars were standardized and used as antagonists. Three-dimensional (3D) scans of the specimens and antagonists were obtained at baseline and after 200 000 and 400 000 cycles with a profilometer. The baseline scans were superimposed on the posttesting scans to determine volumetric wear. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) post hoc tests (α=.05) Surface roughness ranked in order of least rough to roughest was: polished zirconia, glazed zirconia, polished then reglazed zirconia, veneering porcelain, and enamel. For ceramic, there was no measureable loss on polished zirconia, moderate loss on the surface of enamel, and significant loss on glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia. The highest ceramic wear was exhibited by the veneering ceramic. For enamel antagonists, polished zirconia caused the least wear, and enamel caused moderate wear. Glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia showed significant opposing enamel wear, and veneering porcelain demonstrated the most. Within the limitations of the study, polished zirconia is wear-friendly to the opposing tooth. Glazed zirconia causes more material and antagonist wear than polished zirconia. The surface roughness of the zirconia aided in predicting the wear of the opposing dentition

  9. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  10. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  11. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  12. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  13. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  14. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  15. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)

  16. Brand vs generic adverse event reporting patterns: An authorized generic-controlled evaluation of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A

    2017-11-01

    Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  18. Competence of Irish and Polish Teachers in the Opinions of Young Polish Immigrants in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, Ireland has experienced the arrival of immigrants from various countries from all over the world including Poland. The Polish came to Ireland with their families including children of school age obliged to attend compulsory education. These children have attended schools dissimilar from the ones they are accustomed to in their home…

  19. Wind Directions in the Polish Tatras,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-26

    The study of anemometric conditions in the iatra Aoun- tains with the usually available observation data presents a rather difficult problem for two...year are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 1. Analysis of the anemometric conditions in the Polish Ta- tras and at 2odhale, on the basis of the observational...Vol. 29, 1947. 9. Milata, W. "The Foehn," Wierchy, Vol. 20, 1950. 10. Orlicz, M. " Anemometric Conditions on Peaks in the 2atras," Wiad. Sluzhby Hydro

  20. Polish students' opinion about medicinal cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Rafał; Masternak, Sebastian; Pająk, Michał; Parszewska, Katarzyna; Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Mazur Rafał, Masternak Sebastian, Pająk Michał, Parszewska Katarzyna, Skórzyńska-Dziduszko Katarzyna. Polish students’ opinion about medicinal cannabis. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(9):233-242. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.894710 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4839 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26....

  1. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 22553 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... Generic drug facilities, certain sites, and organizations identified in a generic drug submission are... active pharmaceutical ingredients and certain other sites and organizations that support the manufacture...

  3. The Evaluation of Efficiency of Polish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to recognize the efficiency of Polish agriculture. We have studied data from Main Statistical Office (MSO and compared the efficiency in the years 2000–2010. The data proved that the efficiency of Polish agriculture improved in the analyzed period. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables we introduced these into the regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (nominal prices of land, X2 (land prices expressed in dt, X3 (inflation, X4 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X5 (balance of trade and X6 (GDP. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (gross output, Y2 (intermediate consumption, Y3 (gross value added. Multiple regression was used to measure the impact of macroeconomic factors on global production of agriculture. The strongest impact on gross value added had: X4 (investment in agriculture and horticulture and X4 (trade balance. Poland is a member of European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy has improved the situation in agriculture. There are about 2 100 000 farms in Poland but only 300 000–400 000 are producing for the market. Other farms have social functions and are place for work for rural inhabitants.

  4. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status (li...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland.......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns...

  5. Farmers' pensions and the Polish economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanis, J G

    1983-04-01

    The Polish Government, in 1977, inaugurated a new pension program that made old-age and invalidity benefits available for the first time to most farmers in that country. The evolution and eventual failure of that program were closely intertwined with a growing national economic crisis, manifested in widespread popular unrest and culminating in emergence of the Solidarity movement. The farmers' pension program was originally presented as both a social security measure and a vehicle for improving agricultural efficiency. The economic situation was expected to benefit as farms of older owners were passed to younger, presumably more efficient, successors, with the state sometimes acting as intermediary. A further step to bind the social security concept to agricultural efficiency came through relating the pension amount to the quantity of produce the individual farmer sold to the state over a number of years. The failure of these provisions and other unpopular features of the new program was aggravated by inflation and continuing deterioration of the Polish economy.

  6. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  7. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  8. Generic Local Hamiltonians are Gapless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-12-01

    We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.

  9. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  10. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  11. Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sosnowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian Modern Polish and Russian are characterized by some features which demonstrate an increasing level of analitism. In the process of transformation from synthetic to analytical language, a crucial role is played by prepositional units. In this research, analitism is understood in a traditional way as a morphological and syntactic phenomenon. The fact that the synthetic structure of a language may, in some conditions, turn into an analytical one, as happened in the case of Bulgarian and Macedonian, has been intriguing linguists ever since, and has made me attempt to answer the question: What is the condition of modern Polish and Russian, which are languages with a rich literary tradition and solid grammatical norms, which belong to a group of synthetic languages? The analytical tendencies in morphology include the following: a decrease in the number of cases in all inflected parts of speech; a more frequent use of uninflected nouns and adjectives; the growing importance of nouns with common gender, and, in particular, the use of forms of masculine gender to depict feminine gender; differences in expressing collectiveness in a group of nouns (using collective meaning for forms that have singular meaning; substituting case forms with prepositions; substituting case forms with subordinate clauses; substituting case forms with “helper” words. Analytical tendencies in the area of numeral functioning include: substituting inflected forms of ordinal numerals with cardinal ones; the gradual disappearing inflection of numerals; confusing the forms of noun cases after numerals; the disappearing declination of collective numerals; displacing other cases with so-called simple cases; changing the syntactical position which the numeral should be inflected in; abandoning the declination of first elements of collective numerals. During the study of analytic tendencies in morphology, it was necessary to examine

  12. Global Citizenship Education in School Curricula. A Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present global citizenship education from a Polish perspective. Analyzing the issue, the first part of this paper presents the development of citizenship education, followed by the current status of global citizenship education in Polish schools. In the second part of the study I draw attention to national curricula…

  13. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyethylene pigment was generated from “pure water sachets” (one of the major environmental nuisance today) and used in the formulation of shoe polish using paraffin wax, white spirit, turpentine oil, and nitrocellulose. The polish was found to exhibit similar wrinkle resistance, inferior gloss, rub resistance; resistance to ...

  14. Polish anthropology on the eve of the new millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdowski, Zbigniew

    1999-01-01

    Author summarizes the main achievements of Polish anthropology in the 20th century, presents the main research problems of this discipline in contemporary Poland and points at the potential dangers which may be faced by Polish anthropology in the forthcoming years.

  15. Influence of melt treatments and polished CVD diamond coated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performances of the turning inserts (uncoated and polished CVD diamond coated) were evaluated in machining Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys under dry environment using a lathe. The polished CVD diamond coated insert outperformed the uncoated cutting insert which suffered from sizeable edge buildup leading to ...

  16. Social Obstacles Towards Success of Pupils in Polish Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakielska, Zofia

    In 1973, the Polish Minister of Education ordered objective competitions at the primary school level in the fields of Polish studies, Russian language, and math. In order to determine whether such subject competitions were justified and if they contributed equally to the development of interests and abilities among the rural and urban and…

  17. Etymology in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article offers an insight into etymological information provided in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish (Pol. Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN, WSJP PAN). The dictionary and the rules of producing the entries are briefly presented. These rules influence the way of working on etymology within ...

  18. The Czechoslovak-Polish Club in Brno (1925–1939)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-64 ISSN 1803-6546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Polish solidarity * Czechoslovak-Polish relations * Brno * associations * Interwar Period Subject RIV: AB - History

  19. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three generic brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its......The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...

  20. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honglin

    The concept of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was examined for finishing sapphire. In this study sapphire was used as a model system for oxide ceramics. The removal rates were determined by weight loss. Surface quality and structure were characterized with surface probe microscopy (SPM). Polishing experiments were designed to test the chemically modified surface layer. A series of abrasives with various hardnesses including mono-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond, alpha and gamma alumina, zirconia, ceria and silica were used. Diaspore was also evaluated. The results indicated that, with similar particle size and shape, harder abrasives do not necessarily cause faster material removal and better surface finish, and abrasives with hardness equal to or less than sapphire such as alpha alumina and gamma alumina achieved the best surface finish and efficient material removal. A hypothesis was proposed that the sapphire surface was modified by water to form a thin hydration laver with structure and hardness close to diaspore. Abrasives with a hardness between diaspore and sapphire polished the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. SPM indicated the hydration layer on the c-plane surface was about 1 nm thick. Removal rate and surface finish as a function of pH were also examined on c-plane sapphire with nano-alumina abrasives. The removal rate as a function of pH was compared to the solubility behavior of alumina. The results showed the deviation of pH from the lowest solubility pH for alumina (pH = 5) was a driving force for the surface reaction to form a hydration layer. The anisotropy of sapphire strongly affects removal rate and surface quality in CMP. The relationships among orientation. pH and abrasive were studied for sapphire with c (0001), a (11-20), and m (10-10) planes. Based on the results, the CMP process for sapphire includes chemical reaction of the surface to form a thin reaction layer that is softer than sapphire

  1. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part D...

  2. [Economy of generic drugs in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Federico

    2008-01-01

    In terms of economics, implementing generic drug policy is nothing other than consolidating (or even, creating) drug markets that set competitive prices, the result of which favors public access to essential drugs. This article approaches the topic of generic drugs from the economic perspective by examining various regulatory models in order to evaluate and leverage generic drug policy implementation options as a mechanism for battling some of the markets' specific weaknesses. The conclusion is that there is no single unequivocal method for promoting the use of generic drugs, and that the most favorable way to integrate markets may be through a broad combination of alternatives. These alternatives are grouped and analyzed according to the market issues or challenges that must be overcome. Several options are then identified based on the degree of market consolidation to be obtained.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic, Facile and Cost Effective Alternative for Enantio-recognition and Separation: A Glance at Advances and Applications. JYN Philip, DMS Mosha ...

  4. Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’

  5. Generic Dynamic Scaling in Kinetic Roughening

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasco, JJ; Lopez, JM; Rodriguez, MA

    2000-01-01

    We study the dynamic scaling hypothesis in invariant surface growth. We show that the existence of power-law scaling of the correlation functions (scale invariance) does not determine a unique dynamic scaling form of the correlation functions, which leads to the different anomalous forms of scaling recently observed in growth models. We derive all the existing forms of anomalous dynamic scaling from a new generic scaling ansatz. The different scaling forms are subclasses of this generic scali...

  6. Progressive compression of generic surface meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Caillaud , Florian; Vidal , Vincent; Dupont , Florent; Lavoué , Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a progressive compression method for generic surface meshes (non-manifold and/or polygonal). Two major contributions are proposed : (1) generic edge collapse and vertex split operators allowing surface simplication and renement of a mesh, whatever its connectivity; (2) a distortion-aware collapse clustering strategy that adapts the decima-tion granularity in order to optimize the rate-distortion tradeoff.

  7. Authorized Generic Entry prior to Patent Expiry: Reassessing Incentives for Independent Generic Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Appelt, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Patent holders frequently attempt to mitigate the loss of monopoly power by authorizing generic entry prior to patent expiry (early entry). Competition in off-patent pharmaceutical markets may be adversely affected if early entry substantially impairs the attractiveness of subsequent market entry. I examine generic entry decisions made in the course of recent patent expiries to quantify the impact of early entry on incentives for generic entry. Using unique micro data and accounting for th...

  8. Brewing test with puffed polished rice. : Sake brewing with puffed polished rive (II)

    OpenAIRE

    家村, 芳次; 永田, 興四郎; 田端, 昇; 佐無田, 隆; 吉沢, 淑; YOSHITSUGU, IEMURA; KOSHIROU, NAGATA; NOBORU, TABATA; TAKASHI, SAMUTA; KIYOSHI, YOSHIZAWA; 菊正宗酒造株式会社; 山邑酒造株式会社; 灘五郷酒造組合; 熊本国税局鑑定官室; 国税庁醸造試験所

    1985-01-01

    Polished rice was puffed by continuous puffing equipment, then part of it was contracted under a vapor stream. These samples were used for sake brewing.Fermentation took place normally in very tested mash. Each sake produced differed slightly in alcohol concentration, nihonshudo, and acidity; they differed greatly in the content of amino acids, with that of sake made from puffed rice was lower than that of sake made from steamed rice, and that of sake made from contracted rice after puffing t...

  9. Plurilingualism and polish teenage learners of english

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otwinowska‑Kasztelanic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using several languages has become a norm for those who want to learn and work in the European Union. However, teaching for plurilingualism is also a challenge. The present paper first clarifies the notions of plurilingualism and multilingualism, then discusses the role of crosslinguistic similarity in language learning in the case of European languages. It also shows how lexical crosslinguistic similarity can be used in teaching typologically related and unrelated languages, and discusses the key factors in noticing such similarity. The research presented reports on examining and raising language awareness of Polish‑‑ English cognate vocabulary in the case of a group of Polish teenage learners of English. It presents the results of a small‑‑ scale study in quasi‑‑ experimental design, as well as qualitative research on the learners’ opinions and attitudes. Finally, the paper presents implications for language pedagogy and focuses on the fact that awareness raising may affect the learners’ plurilingual competence.

  10. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  11. Attitudes of Polish Consumers Toward Experiential Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skorek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experience economy is a concept that can be defned as a new way of perceiving the market offer of an enterprise, focusing on the customer experience. Enterprises, both in the production and service industries, are becoming similar to one another on a massive scale, which makes it increasingly diffcult to stand out. The response to this can be to offer the consumer an unforgettable experience related to a product or service provided by a company. Methodology: This study analysed the results of qualitative research on the attitudes and opinions of Polish consumers on experience marketing. Results/fndings: The results showed that participants of the study were prepared to transition from the economy based on products or services to an economy based on experiences at a moderate level. They declared a willingness to participate in experiences offered by companies but at the same time focus on the cost and utility of them

  12. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  13. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  14. Mobility management concept and examples of its usage in polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays cities are affected by the increasing number of cars. Car traffic leads to considerable problems related with congestion, parking, accidents as well as environmental pollution. Thus a very important issue is change of people’s mobility, behaviours towards more sustainable transport modes: public transport, bikes, walking trips or shared car usage – carpooling and carsharing systems. We can shape the travellers’ attitudes and behaviours using the mobility management concept. Mobility management is an approach to the passenger transport, oriented on promotion of sustainable mobility means and on management of demand for car usage. The paper presents the mobility management concept as well as gives examples of instruments applied in UE, North America, but also in Polish conditions, especially in Krakow.

  15. Sharing, samples, and generics: an antitrust framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Michael A

    Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition. Regulations such as the federal Hatch-Waxman Act and state substitution laws foster widespread generic competition. But these regimes can only be effectuated through generic entry. And that entry can take place only if a generic can use a brand's sample to show that its product is equivalent. More than 100 generic firms have complained that they have not been able to access needed samples. One study of 40 drugs subject to restricted access programs found that generics' inability to enter cost more than $5 billion a year. Brand firms have contended that antitrust law does not compel them to deal with their competitors and have highlighted concerns related to safety and product liability in justifying their refusals. This Article rebuts these claims. It highlights the importance of samples in the regulatory regime and the FDA's inability to address the issue. It shows how a sharing requirement in this setting is consistent with Supreme Court caselaw. And it demonstrates that the brands' behavior fails the defendant-friendly "no economic sense" test because the conduct literally makes no sense other than by harming generics. Brands' denial of samples offers a textbook case of monopolization. In the universe of pharmaceutical antitrust behavior, other conduct--such as "pay for delay" settlements between brands and generics and "product hopping" from one drug to a slightly modified

  16. Direct polishing of aluminum mirrors with higher quality and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ziqiang; Yi, Zhang

    2015-09-10

    Diamond-turned aluminum mirrors have been widely used in modern optical systems. However, the machined surfaces have characteristic periodic tool marks, which contribute to reduced optical performance by creating effects such as scattering and distortion. This paper develops a new polishing technology to polish aluminum mirrors directly to remove tool marks and improve surface quality and surface accuracy. A Taguchi experiment was used to obtain optimal polishing conditions for reducing surface roughness, and computer-controlled optical surfacing technology was employed for form correction of aluminum mirrors.

  17. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  18. Quality in Air transport process of LOT Polish Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rozenberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the air transport process on scheduled long-haul flights of LOT Polish Airlines. Main focus is taken on price development of these routes. The introduction consists of a brief profile characterized LOT Polish Airlines. Next chapter summarizes the air transport process on scheduled longhaul flights. The frame of article is formed by price development statistics for scheduled long-haul flights to / from Beijing of LOT Polish Airlines and two other competing companies. Conclusion contains results of analysis and puts forward proposals to streamline of the air transport process on reviewed routes.

  19. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  20. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra 5 μm are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness.

  1. Study on the influence of the rotational speed of polishing disk on material removal in aspheric surface compliant polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a soft polishing tool is compressed on a stiff workpiece of curved surface, the contact area is a piece of the curved surface. In the process of aspheric surface polishing, the machining speed is always provided by the rotational speed of the spindle of a computer numerical control lathe. Yet, the polishing tool is usually made rotating to remove cutting scraps and broken abrasives from the contact area. The rotational speed of the polishing tool would change the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area, and it would definitely change the volume of material removal in the surface of the workpiece. This article studies how the rotational speed of the polishing tool changes the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area and material removal in the volume of the surface of the workpiece. The computing results show that the volume of material removal increases with the increase in both the rotational speed of polishing disk and the rotational speed of lathe spindle, but the polishing quality is totally not in this case.

  2. Different initiatives across Europe to enhance losartan utilization post generics: impact and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C.; Godman, Brian; Petzold, Max; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Bennett, Kathleen; Bishop, Iain; Bucsics, Anna; Hesse, Ulrik; Martin, Andrew; Simoens, Steven; Zara, Corinne; Malmström, Rickard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is an urgent need for health authorities across Europe to fully realize potential savings from increased use of generics to sustain their healthcare systems. A variety of strategies were used across Europe following the availability of generic losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to be approved and marketed, to enhance its prescribing vs. single-sourced drugs in the class. Demand-side strategies ranged from 100% co-payment for single-sourced ARBs in Denmark to no specific measures. We hypothesized this heterogeneity of approaches would provide opportunities to explore prescribing in a class following patent expiry. Objective: Contrast the impact of the different approaches among European countries and regions to the availability of generic losartan to provide future guidance. Methodology: Retrospective segmented regression analyses applying linear random coefficient models with country specific intercepts and slopes were used to assess the impact of the various initiatives across Europe following the availability of generic losartan. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs). Price reductions for generic losartan were also measured. Results: Utilization of losartan was over 90% of all ARBs in Denmark by the study end. Multiple measures in Sweden and one English primary care group also appreciably enhanced losartan utilization. Losartan utilization actually fell in some countries with no specific demand-side measures. Considerable differences were seen in the prices of generic losartan. Conclusion: Delisting single-sourced ARBs produced the greatest increase in losartan utilization. Overall, multiple demand-side measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits to fully realize savings from generics. There is no apparent “spill over” effect from one class to another to influence future prescribing patterns even if these are closely related. PMID:25339902

  3. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  4. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (pzirconia.

  5. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  6. Addressing sustainability in hotel management education: designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on combining generic reference points that can be distilled from literature with the analysis of 18 face-to-face interviews with relevant stakeholders as input for designing a sustainability course within a (higher education) hotel management curriculum. The train of thought presented here shows that by ...

  7. Contemporary Approaches and Challenges of Tourism Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a generic process, sustainability of development requires satisfying the needs of current population without compromising the integrity of the environment for future generations, respecting the principles of intragenerational and inter-generational equity, substituting options of excessive centralization with forms of interstate cooperation and partnerships between corporations and companies, governments and local communities etc.

  8. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Antoni Podolski, Polska Strategia Bezpieczenstwa jako Praktyczna Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa...Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa: Center for International Relations, 2005), 13. Polish Ministry

  9. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  10. The resettlement of Polish refugees after the second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Blaszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the Polish Resettlement Act and the creation of the different agencies related to it undoubtedly represented an unprecedented response to the challenge of mass migration in the UK.

  11. Production of rare earth polishing powders in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosynkin, V.D.; Ivanov, E.N.; Kotrekhov, V.A.; Shtutza, M.G.; Grabko, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Russia is a potent producer of polishing powders made of rare earth material presented as an extensive and well developed base. Considering the reserves, the facilities predisposition and the polishing agent (cerium dioxide) content the chief mineral source is loparite, apatite and monazite. The production of rare earth polishing powders is based on specially developed continuous technological processes, corrosion-proof equipment, ensuring a high and stable production quality. A special attention is paid to the radiation safety of the powders. The initial material for the rare earth polishing powders based on loparite is the fusion cake of rare earth chlorides obtained at that mineral chlorination. The technology of the polishing powder production from the REE fusion cake includes the following stages: dissolution of the REE fusion cake chlorides; - thorough cleaning of the REE fusion cake chlorides from radioactive and non-rare-earth impurities; chemical precipitation of REE carbonates, obtaining middlings with proper material and granulometric composition, thermal treatment of precipitated carbonates followed with the operations of drying and roasting; classification of roasted oxides, obtaining end products - polishing powders. The production of fluorine-containing powders includes the stage of their fluorination after the stage of carbonate precipitation. The stabilizing doping can be introduced both into the middlings during one of the technological process of powders manufacturing and into the end product. Rare earth polishing powders are manufactured in Russia by the Share Holding Company 'Chepetz Mechanical Plant' (ChMP Co.), the city of Glasov. The plant produces a number of polishing materials, such as; polishing powder Optinol, containing at least 50% by mass of cerium dioxide, used in the mass production of optical and other articles; polishing powder Optinol-10 with doping to improve the sedimentary and aggregate stability of the solid phase

  12. British and American English for Polish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Waldemar; Preston, Dennis R.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assess the validity of dividing Polish students of English into British and American groups. The tests of the various hypotheses regarding linguistic and non-linguistic results of such divisions are described. (AM)

  13. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  14. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti, E-mail: debajyoti.bhaduri@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban [Digital Metal, Höganäs AB, 263 83 Höganäs (Sweden); Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S{sub a}) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm{sup 2} and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes

  15. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with two product topologies: (i) the product of copies of the Polish topology on X, so that H is again a Polish space and (ii) the product of copies of the discrete topology on X. Define now the Borel hierarchy in the larger topology on H. To do so, we need some notation. An element of H will be denoted by h = (x1,x2,...,xn,.

  16. Evaluation of the COMSOL software electro-polishing of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The niobium electro-polishing is efficient if a viscous layer exists at the surface. In order to define parameters of samples electro-polishing, opened with difficulty to the experiments, the simulation is essential. This report presents works realized with the COMSOL software. The Nernst Planck equations have been associated to the Navier Stockes ones for an incompressible fluid. The study of the potential behaviour on the viscous layer and the mobility value have been detailed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: rana@isical.ac.in; maitra@stat.umn.edu. MS received 22 August 2005; revised 28 August 2006. Abstract. Let H be a product of countably infinite number of copies of an uncountable. Polish space X. Let ξ ( ξ ) be the class of Borel sets of additive class ξ for the product of copies of the discrete topology on X (the Polish ...

  18. Stem subsidence of polished and rough double-taper stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Takano, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Many clinical reports have indicated that polished hip stems show better clinical results than rough stems of the same geometry. It is still unknown, however, what the mechanical effects are of different surface finishes on the cement at the cement-bone interface. We compared mechanical effects in an in vitro cemented hip arthroplasty model. Methods Two sizes of double-taper polished stems and matt-processed polished stems (rough stems) were fixed into composite femurs. A 1-Hz dynamic load was applied to the stems for 1 million cycles. An 8-h no-load period was set after every 16 h of load. Stem subsidence within the cement, and compressive force and horizontal cement creep at the cement-bone interface, were measured. Results Compared to rough stems, stem subsidence, compressive force and cement creep for polished stems were a maximum of 4, 12, and 7-fold greater, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between stem subsidence and compressive force for polished stems. In contrast, a strong negative correlation was found between stem subsidence and compressive force for rough stems. There was also a statistically significant relationship between compressive force on the cement and cement creep for the polished stems, but no significant relationship was found for rough stems. Interpretation This is the first evidence that different surface finishes of stems can have different mechanical effects on the cement at the cement-bone interface. Stem subsidence in polished stems resulted in compressive force on the cement and cement creep. The mechanical effects that polished taper stems impart on cement at the cement-bone interface probably contribute to their good long-term fixation and excellent clinical outcome. PMID:19421909

  19. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian The article focuses on the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian. The purpose for comparing and contrasting the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality is not only to identify all the lexemes in both languages but also find the answer to the following question: whether the morphological exponents of hypothetical modality (so-called modus relativus) familiar to the Lithuanian language have/...

  20. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  1. [Generic drug policy implementation in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudia Regina Cilento; Romano-Lieber, Nicolina Silvana

    2006-08-01

    A generic drug policy has been implemented in Brazil since 1999. Several political and administrative stages transpired between enactment of the legislation and the actual marketing and consumption of these drugs. This article describes the policy implementation process and examines the country's generic drug legislation, approved from 1999 to 2002. To contextualize these measures, the study compares articles published by two national periodicals and interviews with a government representative involved in drafting the legislation and a representative from the pharmaceutical industry. Generic drugs quickly gained considerable space in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. Ongoing adaptation of the legislation, media support, and the government's involvement in spreading the policy were key success factors. The population's access to medicines did not increase significantly, but people can now purchase medicines at more affordable prices and with quality assurance and interchangeability.

  2. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  3. Color stability of nanocomposites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Zeynep; Türkün, L Sebnem; Aladag, Akin

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the color changes of five novel resin composites polished with two one-step polishing systems when exposed to coffee solution. The resin composites tested were Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, CeramX, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 150 discs (30/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Ten specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The other samples were polished with PoGo and OptraPol discs for 30 seconds using a slow speed handpiece and immersed in coffee (Nescafé) for seven days. Color measurements were made with Vita Easyshade at baseline and after one and seven days. Repeated Measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (pGrandio, there were no significant differences between the Mylar and PoGo groups, while the most stain resistant surfaces were attained with OptraPol. Removing the outermost resin layer by polishing procedures is essential to achieving a stain resistant, more esthetically stable surface. One-step polishing systems can be used successfully for polishing nanocomposites.

  4. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  5. Advanced method for the characterization of polishing suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trum, Christian J.; Sitzberger, Sebastian; Rascher, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The industrial production of components for applications in the area of precision optics has a long-standing tradition in Germany. As in almost all branches of industry, the external circumstances, processes and products have changed over time. Large lots are becoming less frequent and the demand for special components is growing. In order to meet these requirements, it is necessary to adapt the production processes quickly and flexibly. In the field of chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP), this means that in addition to the process parameters such as speed, pressure and feed, the task-specific adaptation of suspension and polishing pad carriers gain in importance. Along with these changes, it is becoming increasingly important to compare and evaluate the properties of the various polishing suspensions. The procedures according to DIN 58750-3 and DIN 58750-4 are suitable for this purpose. Due to the clearly defined procedures and the constant boundary conditions, different suspensions can be compared and evaluated. The study presented here shows that this method can also lead to misinterpretations. Known relationships, such as the influence of the polishing pad, the concentration of the suspension and the influence of the processed materials play an important role. An extension of the procedure of DIN 58750-3 for the test of a polishing agent can help in a task-specific characterization of polishing slurries.

  6. Polish university as an (unattractive potential employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruk, Agnieszka Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues associated with the reasons for the fact that young potential employees are not interested in starting work at Polish universities. The article is theoretical-empirical in character. The theoretical part highlights the importance of a situation in which an entity is regarded as an attractive employer, which allows attracting the best employees. Particular attention is paid to the fact that a university needs to build its image as an employer, which results from its characteristics. The article strives to achieve three research goals, among others, identifying the reasons why respondents are not interested in starting work at a university and arranging these reasons hierarchically. Two research hypotheses were subject to preliminary verification: H1 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are financial aspects; H2 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are the aspects of prestige. The data collected in course of primary research were subject to quantitative analysis based on the method of average assessment analysis and the method of factor analysis. Their results show that the respondents were not interested in work at a university mainly because they wanted to test the knowledge and skills acquired during studies in other branches. At the same time, the aspects of finances and prestige didn’t play a major role. Thus, in case of the surveyed sample of respondents both research hypotheses have to be recognized as untrue.

  7. Personality of Polish gay men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kwiatkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.

  8. Marketing Globalisation – Polish Market Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowacki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century has been yielded with an acceleration of transformations occurring in economies of the whole world. These changes relate to all the areas of economic life functioning. The most important manifestation thereof is a reinforcement of competitive phenomena. Among the most important reasons for such a state of affairs, there is mentioned globalisation. The course of its processes forces the organisation operating in the market to undertake adaptive actions. One of them is reorientation of marketing activities. The need to modify the previous marketing concepts results, first of all, from far reaching alterations in the sphere of consumption, just triggered by globalisationís impact. These trends are noticed in all the markets, also in the Polish one. The foreign enterprises operating in it more and more often use the concept of global marketing. This makes us to have reflection on what is the real effectiveness of such actions and what are the possibilities to form oneís competitive position owing to that. The article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to these questions.

  9. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  10. Study on chemical mechanical polishing of silicon wafer with megasonic vibration assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ke; He, Qing; Li, Liang; Ren, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the primary method to realize the global planarization of silicon wafer. In order to improve this process, a novel method which combined megasonic vibration to assist chemical mechanical polishing (MA-CMP) is developed in this paper. A matching layer structure of polishing head was calculated and designed. Silicon wafers are polished by megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing and traditional chemical mechanical polishing respectively, both coarse polishing and precision polishing experiments were carried out. With the use of megasonic vibration, the surface roughness values Ra reduced from 22.260nm to 17.835nm in coarse polishing, and the material removal rate increased by approximately 15-25% for megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing relative to traditional chemical mechanical polishing. Average Surface roughness values Ra reduced from 0.509nm to 0.387nm in precision polishing. The results show that megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing is a feasible method to improve polishing efficiency and surface quality. The material removal and finishing mechanisms of megasonic vibration assisted polishing are investigated too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses ''generic'' magnetic fusion reactors. The author comments on DT burning magnetic fusion reactor models being possibly operational in the 21st century. Representative parameters from D-T reactor studies are given, as well as a shematic diagram of a generic fusion reactor. Values are given for winding pack current density for existing and future superconducting coils. Topics included are the variation of the cost of electricity (COE), the dependence of the COE on the net electric power of the reactor, and COE formula definitions

  12. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  13. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  14. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  15. Effect of various polishing systems on the surface roughness and phase transformation of zirconia and the durability of the polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan; Vang, Mong-Sook; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2017-03-01

    Although many systems are used to polish zirconia, a comparison of the performance of zirconia and feldspathic porcelain polishing systems is lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effects of 3 polishing systems on surface roughness, zirconia phase transformation, and durability of the polishing systems when applied to zirconia and feldspathic porcelain. Three polishing systems were evaluated: Z1, a zirconia polishing system; Z2, a zirconia polishing system, and F1, a feldspathic porcelain polishing system. Three ceramic systems were evaluated: PR and ZM zirconia specimens (diameter 15 mm, height 2 mm; 23 specimens each) and CB feldspathic porcelain specimens of the same size (15 specimens). A rough surface was created on the 3 types of specimens (15 specimens each) to model an occlusal adjustment under the same conditions. Polishing was carried out with the 3 polishing systems for 2 minutes each. Surface roughness was measured with a 3-dimensional (3D) optical profiler. The surface was also observed with a scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed for 8 PR or ZM zirconia specimens polished by using the Z1 and Z2 systems for 8 minutes to evaluate the phase transformation of zirconia before, during, and after polishing. These specimens were compared and analyzed for phase transformation that might have occurred during the polishing of the specimens. After finishing the surface roughness experiment and the phase transformation experiment, the volumes of the polishers were measured with a 3D volume scanner and compared with those before the experiments to evaluate the durability of the polishing system. A statistical analysis of all data was performed using 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference test (α=.05). The 2 zirconia polishing systems (Z1, Z2) created a significantly (Pzirconia specimens for 8 minutes, the maximum percentages of monoclinic phase increased by 0.03% in the Z1 system and by 0

  16. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  17. Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lombard, L.; Houbraken, J.; Decock, C.; Samson, R.A.; Meijer, M.; Réblová, Martina; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, SI Jun (2016), s. 156-246 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodegraders * generic concept * human and plant pathogens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  18. Generic Checklist for Day Care Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium.

    This guide presents the results of research on day care monitoring methods conducted by the Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium. It suggests a set of generic predictor items that can be used to monitor day care providers' compliance with standards. The predictor items are at the licensing or minimal compliance level and have been…

  19. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical condition...

  20. Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette

    2012-01-01

    Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…

  1. Comparing Generic Parameter Controllers for EAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karafotias, G.; Hoogendoorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Parameter controllers for Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) deal with adjusting parameter values during an evolutionary run. Many ad hoc approaches have been presented for parameter control, but few generic parameter controllers exist and, additionally, no comparisons or in depth analyses of these

  2. Generic competences in Higher Education: Studying their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generic competences in Higher Education: Studying their development in undergraduate social science studies by means of a specific methodology. ... A methodology for the study of competence acquisition and for the characterisation of a competence-focused educational model is thus implicitly developed. The aim of the ...

  3. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture. Increasing carbon dioxide: Good for most crops. Increase in mean temperature: orter crop durations, higher evapotranspiration, other effects on growth and yield. Intermittent periods of extreme heat stress: highly ...

  4. Generic 'du' in time and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the way individual speakers respond to a macro-level process of language change: an increased use of the second-person pronoun du for generic reference. Real time panel studies show that life span change is much more common than is often assumed, particularly among adult...

  5. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  6. South African patient's acceptance of generic drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i1.37. Introduction. Access to therapeutic drugs form an integral part of any successful healthcare system. The high cost of drugs, however, remains a barrier to accessibility and improved health to the majority of the South Afri- can population1. The promotion of generic drug con-.

  7. Matatti’s generic names for fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The generic names for fungi used by Maratti in his ‘Flora romana’ must be accepted as validly published. Notes are given on the validly re-published names. Of these Agaricum and Coralloides may cause some difficulties. Conservation of Fomes (Fr.) Fr. against Agaricum [Mich.] Maratti is proposed. To

  8. Antagonist wear by polished zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkamp, Oliver; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Reich, Sven

    The aim of this in vivo study was to measure antagonist wear caused by polished monolithic posterior zirconia crowns over a 24-month period using the intraoral digital impression (IDI) technique. Thirteen zirconia crowns were placed in nine patients. The crowns and adjacent teeth were captured using an intraoral scanner (Lava C.O.S.). The corresponding antagonist teeth and the respective neighboring teeth were also scanned. Scanning was performed immediately after the restoration (baseline) as well as 12 and 24 months after crown placement. Geomagic Qualify software was used to superimpose the follow-up data sets onto the corresponding baseline data set, identify wear sites, and measure maximum vertical height loss in each individual wear site. Overall antagonist wear was then determined as the mean of wear rates measured in all of the individual antagonist units. In addition, wear rates in enamel and ceramic antagonists were analyzed as part of the scope of this study. The maximum mean wear with standard deviation (SD) in the overall sample with a total of nine patients, 13 antagonist units, and 98 evaluable wear sites was 86 ± 23 µm at 12 months, and 103 ± 39 µm at 24 months. The maximum mean wear in the enamel antagonist subgroup was 87 ± 41 µm at 12 months, and 115 ± 71 µm at 24 months; and in the ceramic antagonist subgroup 107 ± 22 µm at 12 months, and 120 ± 27 µm at 24 months. The wear rates determined in this study are comparable to those of existing studies. The IDI technique of wear analysis can be carried out in a practical manner and produces useful results.

  9. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  10. Studies on polishing of Ti and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy with five dental abrasives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T; Nakamura, T; Takashima, F; Maruyama, T; Taira, M; Takahashi, J

    2001-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy were examined for their polishing behaviour by conducting manually controlled polishing tests using five dental abrasives [carborundum point (CR) and silicone points (R1 and R2)] driven by a high torque micromotor with rotational speeds ranging from 2000 to 15 000 r.p.m. Polishing of Ti resulted in less volume of removal upon polishing, a rougher surface and larger loss of abrasives, compared with polishing of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. Polishing of Ti with a rotational speed of 15 000 r.p.m. led to the largest volume of removal upon polishing, whilst that of 10 000 r.p.m. produced the optimal volume for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. It was concluded that Ti was much more difficult to polish, requiring special care (e.g. frequent exchange of abrasives). Development of new abrasives for polishing Ti is required.

  11. The study of optimization on process parameters of high-accuracy computerized numerical control polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ren; Huang, Shih-Pu; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-09-01

    Spherical lenses lead to forming spherical aberration and reduced optical performance. Consequently, in practice optical system shall apply a combination of spherical lenses for aberration correction. Thus, the volume of the optical system increased. In modern optical systems, aspherical lenses have been widely used because of their high optical performance with less optical components. However, aspherical surfaces cannot be fabricated by traditional full aperture polishing process due to their varying curvature. Sub-aperture computer numerical control (CNC) polishing is adopted for aspherical surface fabrication in recent years. By using CNC polishing process, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) error is normally accompanied during this process. And the MSF surface texture of optics decreases the optical performance for high precision optical system, especially for short-wavelength applications. Based on a bonnet polishing CNC machine, this study focuses on the relationship between MSF surface texture and CNC polishing parameters, which include feed rate, head speed, track spacing and path direction. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis is used to judge the MSF level caused by those polishing parameters. The test results show that controlling the removal depth of single polishing path, through the feed rate, and without same direction polishing path for higher total removal depth can efficiently reduce the MSF error. To verify the optical polishing parameters, we divided a correction polishing process to several polishing runs with different direction polishing paths. Compare to one shot polishing run, multi-direction path polishing plan could produce better surface quality on the optics.

  12. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  13. Delayed polishing technique on glass–ionomer restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Irie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing after 1-day storage in water on the gap-formation around a Class V and Class I restorations, using a resin-modified glass–ionomer and a conventional glass–ionomer materials. The study also examined the gap-formation in another two different cervical restorations, a cervical cavity: incisally bordered by enamel and cervically by dentin and a root surface cavity of these restorative materials, which may be effects of this polishing procedure. This study evaluated the effects of delayed versus immediate polishing to permit maturation on: (1 interfacial gap-formation around resin-modified (RMGIC and conventional (CGIC in three types of cervical restorations, (2 interfacial gap-formation around highly viscous conventional glass–ionomer cement (HCGIC in Class I restorations. After polishing procedure, either: (i immediately (3 or 6 min after setting or (ii after 24 h storage, the maximum the restored teeth were sectioned in a mesio-distal direction through the center of the restorations. The presence or absence of interfacial-gaps was measured at 14 points (each 0.5-mm apart along the cavity restoration interface. For various restorative cases, significant differences (p < 0.05 in gap-width or gap-incidence, were observed between polishing (i immediately and (ii after 1-day storage.

  14. Nail polish as a source of exposure to triphenyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013-2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10-14h after fingernail painting (pexposure, ten participants also painted their nails and painted synthetic nails adhered to gloves on two separate occasions, and collected urine for 24h following applications. Urinary DPHP was significantly diminished when wearing gloves, suggesting that the primary exposure route is dermal. Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analys...

  16. Requirements for generic antiepileptic medicines: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinka, Eugen; Krämer, Günter; Graf, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are now available as a generic product. This can potentially save the healthcare providers massive costs. Hence, governmental authorities have introduced rules and incentives for clinicians to switch from the original branded AED to a generic product. Clinicians and patients with epilepsy are reluctant to switch. The licensing of generic AEDs is based on the equation that bioavailability means therapeutic equivalence. However, from a clinical standpoint one has to consider several other relevant issues: (1) Do generic AEDs have the same efficacy, safety and quality? (2) Can generic AEDs be used as substitutions for brand AEDs? (3) Can generic products of AEDs be used interchangeably? (4) Does the generic AED manufacturer guarantee the long-term consistency of availability on the market? (4) Do generic AEDs reduce the costs, and--if so--are these costs worth any additional risk to patient's safety? This article reviews the clinical issues related to current bioequivalence, prescribability, and switchability of AEDs.

  17. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  18. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  19. Smart city solutions in regard to urbanization processes – Polish cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdulak Halina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the spectrum of problems associated with the growing importance of cities in the context of rapidly occurring processes of urbanization. Therefore the following issues are included: the concept of smart cities, which are a combination of the intelligent use of information systems allowing for active management of the various areas of urban activity with the potential of institutions, companies and the active involvement and creative people; transport problems and the use of new technologies. Particular attention will be given to both, the issue of transport congestion as the strongest factor affecting the quality of life of residents and to the role of social capital in the creation of sustainable development. To exemplify the result of the cooperation between southern Polish communities there will be presented a case of the introducing process of the Silesian Card of Public Services with a wide range of its functionality.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  1. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  2. 40 CFR 721.983 - Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic... Substances § 721.983 Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonyl azide intermediate...

  3. Maximum potential cost-savings attributable to generic substitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment, however, can become more affordable through generic substitution. Objective: To determine the maximum potential cost-saving through generic substitution for both originator and more expensive generic items while observing the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics. Method: Antipsychotic medicine usage was ...

  4. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...-2012-0246] RIN 3150-AJ20 Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Nuclear... generic environmental impact statement (DGEIS), NUREG-2157, ``Waste Confidence Generic Environmental... licensed life for operation and prior to ultimate disposal (proposed Waste Confidence rule). The NRC staff...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN P-98-0002...

  6. 17 CFR 230.135a - Generic advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic advertising. 230.135a... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135a Generic advertising. (a) For the purposes only of... different generic types or having various investment objectives, such as balanced funds, growth funds...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl silane...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine dye...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03...

  14. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (PMN...

  16. Extension algorithm for generic low-voltage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, S.; Olk, C.

    2018-02-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) are increasingly penetrating the energy system which is driven by climate and sustainability goals. These technologies are mostly connected to low- voltage electrical networks and change the demand and supply situation in these networks. This can cause critical network states. Network topologies vary significantly and depend on several conditions including geography, historical development, network design or number of network connections. In the past, only some of these aspects were taken into account when estimating the network investment needs for Germany on the low-voltage level. Typically, fixed network topologies are examined or a Monte Carlo approach is used to quantify the investment needs at this voltage level. Recent research has revealed that DERs differ substantially between rural, suburban and urban regions. The low-voltage network topologies have different design concepts in these regions, so that different network topologies have to be considered when assessing the need for network extensions and investments due to DERs. An extension algorithm is needed to calculate network extensions and investment needs for the different typologies of generic low-voltage networks. We therefore present a new algorithm, which is capable of calculating the extension for generic low-voltage networks of any given topology based on voltage range deviations and thermal overloads. The algorithm requires information about line and cable lengths, their topology and the network state only. We test the algorithm on a radial, a loop, and a heavily meshed network. Here we show that the algorithm functions for electrical networks with these topologies. We found that the algorithm is able to extend different networks efficiently by placing cables between network nodes. The main value of the algorithm is that it does not require any information about routes for additional cables or positions for additional substations when it comes to estimating

  17. [Polish medical ethics in the period 1945-1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichrowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is o present that main currents of Polish medical ethics in the years 1945-1980, which the author treats as the 'prehistory' of Poland's contemporary bioethics. The author begins by ascertaining the post-war disappearance of two Polish traditions--that of the Warsaw school of philosopher-physicians (known in the West as the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine) and the Lwów-Warsaw School of Philosophy. The political system that come into being after 1945 was not conducive to the development of medical ethics, but several clear orientations may be discerned in the utterances of physicians, lawyers, moral technologlans and academic philosophers. The analysis begins with Catholic ethics in its archaic 1950s-vintage form. The author then presents the thinking of ethicians Independent of both the Church and Marxism (the milieu of the journal 'Etyka') as well as the deontological writings of physicians.

  18. Body conformation comparison of Czech and Polish Hucul horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Matoušová Malbohanová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 17 body measures and 11 indices of body conformation on 209 breeding individuals of the Hucul horse were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Poland and the Czech Republic, sex (stallions and mares, age (5 classes and sire line (Gurgul, Goral, Oušor, Hroby, Polan, Pietrosu, Prislop. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by the GLM procedure. The main effect was the country of origin. Highly significant differences were found between both Polish and Czech horses in two thirds of measurements and in more than half of indices. The Czech Hucul horses are significantly higher, longer, wider in pelvis and have longer head than Polish horses. On the contrary to the Czech horses are Polish horses more compact, massive and have deeper chest. Their cannon bone in relation to height of wither is wider.

  19. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  20. The social shaping of innovation in polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies...... and presents two cases more in detail. The analysis shows that the Polish companies have all been quite innovative, mostly in relation to product innovation. They choose innovation strategies, which are incremental more than radical, and they tend to differentiate their product range rather than to specialise....... They consider quality development a must in the fight for market shares and they adapt equipment and organisation to this goal. The factors forming and determining the strategies of the companies count the technological knowledge and expertise of the owner/founder, the structural changes of the market...

  1. Strategic Orientation and Organisational Culture in Polish Public Organisations: Insights from the Miles and Snow Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronka-Pośpiech Martyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polish public organisations are often perceived as having strong bureaucratic orientation, avoiding both change and risk. However, in the last decade a distinct change in the management model of public organisations can be noticed. Public sector becomes an open ground for mergers and partnerships, entrepreneurial leadership, diversified services and commercialization (Golensky and DeRuiter 1999; Zimmerman and Dart, 1998; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Walker, 2013]. Public organisations embrace these strategies from the for-profit sector in order to manage change and to be effective. Most importantly, public organisations are adopting these frameworks in order to survive the changing operating environment, including changes in the level of government funding. Our paper draws on the Miles and Snow (1978 typology of generic strategies - prospectors, defenders, analysers, and reactors - to identify different organisational strategies within public organisations providing social services in Poland. In order to assess organisational culture we used the most widespread and used in many empirical studies Cameron and Quinn’s model (2003, the Competing Values Framework (CVF, from which four cultures - adhocracy, clan, market and hierarchy - emerge. The choice of these two providers of social services was dictated by our conviction, that these organisations are critical both for the national economy and for mitigating, counteracting and preventing social exclusion.

  2. Making sense of a generic label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Making sense of a generic label through linguistic context analysis: A study of genre (re)cognition among novices’ Considerable work has been done on written and spoken genres characterized by a high degree of ritualization with “predictable elements occurring in a predictable order” (Fairclough......, as in Martin, Christie and Rothery (1987) and Martin (1993), or consistency of communicative purposes as in Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993)”. Common to these definitions are the notions of predictability and recognition of generic patterns, notions that are, however, not unproblematic. This article therefore......) that the students had studied during the course leading up to the exam. Given the lack of situated cognition (Bawarshi and Reiff, 2010: 79) of one of these genres, the students were requested to produce arguments and justification for assigning the genres presented to them to two different genre colonies...

  3. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Jäger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques.

  4. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility and supp......We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility...... and support a wide range of avionic applications. Segregation can be made on different hierarchies according to system criticality and security requirements. The structure of each layer is discussed in detail. Two network configurations are presented, focusing on how to support different network services...

  5. Generic Structure Potential of Christian Apologetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwu Inya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious texts have been examined by scholars from different theoretical standpoints. However, a close survey of the literature reveals that little attention has been paid to Christian apologetics from a linguistic perspective. Also, an examination of studies along the lines of Generic Structure Potential (henceforth GSP shows that the genre status of Christian apologetics has not been indicated. This gap provides the motivation for this paper, which investigates the GSP of Christian apologetics. Twenty texts written by various key contemporary apologetic writers were purposively selected for the study. The following generic structure potential catalogue was generated:The paper reveals that the elements of the GSP concertedly work to advance, argue for or defend the Christian belief system. The paper also suggests that the model could be applied to other forms of apologetic instances.

  6. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Zug, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques. PMID:29558435

  7. Linguistic reflections on the generic feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier San Julián Solana

    2017-12-01

    After comparing the underlying assumptions of the feminists’ position with some linguistic principles, we analyze the conditions under which the generic interpretations of feminine forms take place in ordinary language. We then present the problems that the generalization of the phenomenon can give rise to: limitation of «displacement» capacity (Hockett, 1960, poor processing effort / cognitive effect ratio, and difficulty in accomplishing the communicative function of language. This brings us to the point that the generic feminine is most unlikely to become established in general uses of Spanish; it also seem not to be feasible to achieve a free alternation of masculine and feminine forms as a means of expressing gender neutralization. However, the occasional use of the feminine with extensive value could be made habitual —considering the social function of language— in political discourse, where it would function as a badge that shows membership of (or solidarity with a social group.

  8. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    A growing uneasiness among users with the experience of current product user interfaces mounts pressure on interaction designers to innovate user interface conventions. In previous research we have shown that a study of the history of product interaction triggers a broader discussion of interaction...... qualities among designers in a team, and that the naming of interaction styles helps establish an aesthetics of interaction design. However, that research focused on one particular product field, namely industrial controllers, and it was yet to be proven, if interaction styles do have generic traits across...... a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  9. [The historical significance of the Polish medical faculty in Edinburgh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K

    1999-01-01

    The Polish Medical Faculty at the University of Edinburgh was a unique phenomenon in the history of universities. Established during the Second World War in 1941 as an entirely autonomous Polish academic institution, the Faculty trained 228 doctors and awarded 19 PhD degrees during its nine years of formal existence (1941-1949). In reviewing its almost 60-year old history, seen in the context of the involvement of the elite of both the political and academic establishments, the splendour of various celebrations and its graduates devotion in keeping the "Edinburgh experiment" alive, the author makes a case for the long-term historical and psychological significance of events well outlasting the period of formal activity of the Faculty. The history of the Faculty is well documented, but the long term outcome in terms of its lasting historical importance is gradually emerging with the passage of time. It has become an indisputable testimony to the generosity and hospitality of the Scottish (political and) academic establishment and a lasting proof of the special liaison between the Scots and the Poles. The Faculty's importance and psychological significance to the rich historical heritage of Polish medicine and the notion of patriotism and loyalty to Polishness have become apparent in the ensuing decades of its carefully maintained tradition. The existence of the Polish Medical Faculty has become an extraordinary asset in the history of Scottish universities, but for the Polish tradition both in Poland and throughout its rich diaspora it constitutes an increasingly valuable historical event which deserves to be cultivated and passed on to younger generations so that it may continue bringing further dividends, so important to national identity, achievement, dignity and pride.

  10. Verbalization the Concept of Dignity in Polish Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaban Vasylyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The object of the study is the concept of DIGNITY. The justification of the research is predetermined by the lack of such investigation in Polish linguistics. The background for the article is also determined by the lack of similar studies in the sphere of Cognitive Linguistics. Purpose: The article aims at analysing the cultural concept of DIGNITY in the minds of the bearers of the Polish language and culture based on the data incorporated from the lexicographical sources and collection of folk sayings and proverbs. Results: The article dwells upon the most important features of this concept in the Polish language and culture. The study investigates the language conceptualization of this concept in the system of the Polish language and folk maxims and sayings. The definition of the lexeme of dignity reveals the compliance with higher moral principles and the understanding of value; good name, good character claiming attention and respect; the last name. DIGNITY is the principal regulating mechanism of behaviour and development of positive human values which become apparent in the process of human interaction. A man of worth respects himself and is as well proud to be an honourable man. DIGNITY concerns both a separate human and the society in general; it could be regarded as both individual and collective notion. Discussion: The suggested analysis revealed cultural and linguistic peculiarities of the concept of DIGNITY in the Polish language and culture. The conducted research is not exhaustive since it provides potential perspectives for further research of the Polish concept of DIGNITY, in particular, in terms of comparative studies with correlative concepts in Ukrainian and English languages and cultures with the help of the cognitive definition method.

  11. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti; Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung; Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban; Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-05-01

    Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm Sa) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm2 and overlap factors of 95% and 88-91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes, lumps and irregularities that were prevalent on the as-received stainless steel samples. The optimised laser polishing technology was consequently implemented for serial finishing of structured 3D printed mesoscale SS316L components. This led to substantial reductions in areal Sa and St parameters by 75% (0.489-0.126 μm) and 90% (17.71-1.21 μm) respectively, without compromising the geometrical accuracy of the native 3D printed samples.

  12. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values

  14. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  15. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  16. Generic considerations of LMFBR hypothetical accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauske, H.K.; Cho, D.H.; Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M.A.; Henry, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The paper provides a preliminary assessment of generic accident energetics issues associated with alternatives relative to the reference (U,Pu) oxide fuel in liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The alternatives considered include thorium- and uranium-based oxide, carbide and metal fuel types. This assessment is made within the context of low probability, but potentially large consequence accidents, e.g., core-disruptive accidents.

  17. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    RTO-MP-AVT-146 20 - 1 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles Magali BARBIER ...it fires the event- triggered transitions of the Petri nets and runs actions associated to transitions; Barbier , M.; Gabard, J.-F.; Ayreault, H...affect the mission; a reaction is specified for each one: • in case of an engine failure, transit to the nearest emergency site; • in case of a

  18. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard , A.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values.

  19. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  20. Evolution of polish E-commerce - main trends and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present main phases of Polish e-commerce development and to show its major trends. The author also tries to predict future directions of its development. The whole e-commerce process of development is divided into five phases. The first part of the paper presents the beginnings of Polish e-commerce. Then the following stages of development are discussed with presentation of some key figures e.g. percentage of individuals who ordered goods or services over the Inter...

  1. Polish as a Foreign Language: New Context, Regulations and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popławska Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the developments in Poland after the collapse of communism in 1989 from the point of view of foreign language teaching, including a swift reorientation and transition from a public school system with Russian as the main foreign language, to a diversified language teaching market focused on teaching English and other languages. A particular stress is placed on a relatively new phenomenon, being an increased demand and new opportunities for teaching Polish as a foreign language to be further promoted as a result of anticipated amendments to legal regulations governing the status and certification of the Polish language.

  2. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Klopf, J. Mike [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  3. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  4. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  5. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  6. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  7. Removing Mid-Spatial Frequency (MSF) Errors Using Stress-Polishing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD proposes to evaluate how stress polishing can be used to extend the application of super-polishing to fast aspheres and freeforms, removing sub-aperture...

  8. Bibliography of English-Polish Contrastive Studies in Poland (as of August 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszek, Aleksandra

    This bibliography lists books, articles, papers, theses and dissertations describing English-Polish contrastive studies conducted in Poland. There are 403 works listed in both languages, divided into two groups: General Works and English-Polish Contrastive Studies. (CHK)

  9. Simulation and analysis of an alternative kinematics for improving the polishing uniformity over the surface of polished tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingaertner, W. L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the possibility of adopting a new kinematics at the industrial polishing lines of porcelain stoneware tile. An alternative motion of the transverse oscillation of the polishing heads is proposed, in which no radical changes in the industries facilities are required. The basic idea is to replace the purely sinus motion of the polishing heads by a rather trapezoid wavelike motion. In theory this could be achieved simply by adopting regular delays at the transverse oscillation motion. Consequences of this alternative kinematics were quantitatively analyzed considering the spatial homogeneity of polishing expected for tiles. Such homogeneity was represented by the coefficient of variation of the distribution of polishing time over the surface, which was in turn determined by means of computational simulations, taking into account the effect of multiple polishing heads.

    El presente trabajo investiga la posibilidad de adoptar una nueva cinemática en las líneas de pulido industrial de baldosas de gres porcelánico. Se propone una propuesta alternativa de la oscilación transversal de los cabezales pulidores, en el que no hay cambios radicales en las instalaciones de las industrias son necesarias. La idea básica consiste en sustituir el movimiento totalmente del seno de los cabezales pulidores por un movimiento ondulatorio trapezoide. En teoría, esto podría lograrse sólo mediante la adopción de los habituales retrasos en el movimiento de oscilación transversal. las consecuencias de esta cinemática fueron analizados cuantitativamente, teniendo en cuenta la homogeneidad espacial de pulido. Tal homogeneidad fora representada por el coeficiente de variación de la distribución de lo tiempo de pulido en la superficie, determinada por medio de simulaciones computacionales, teniendo también en cuenta el efecto de pulido de las cabezas múltiples.

  10. The diffusion of generics after patent expiry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-11-01

    To identify the influences on the diffusion of generics after patent expiry, we analyzed 65 generic entries using prescription data of a large German sickness fund between 2007 and 2012 in a sales model. According to theory, several elements are responsible for technology diffusion: (1) time reflecting the rate of adaption within the social system, (2) communication channels, and (3) the degree of incremental innovation, e.g., the modifications of existing active ingredient's strength. We investigated diffusion in two ways: (1) generic market share (percentage of generic prescriptions of all prescriptions of a substance) and, (2) generic sales quantity (number of units sold) over time. We specified mixed regression models. Generic diffusion takes considerable time. An average generic market share of about 75 % was achieved not until 48 months. There was a positive effect of time since generic entry on generic market share (p innovation influenced generic market share (mostly p diffusion to amplify savings through generic entry.

  11. Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Varol, Nebibe

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the adoption of generic drugs has the potential to improve static efficiency in a health system without harming pharmaceutical innovation. However, very little is known about the timing of generic adoption and diffusion. No prior study has empirically examined the differential launch times of generics across a comprehensive set of markets, or more specifically the delays in country specific adoption of generics relative to the first country of (generic) adoption. Drawing on data containing significant country and product variation across a lengthy time period (1999-2008), we use duration analysis to examine relative delays, across countries, in the adoption of generic drugs. Our results suggest that price regulation has a significant effect on reducing the time to launch of generics, with faster adoption in higher priced markets. The latter result is dependent on the degree of competition and the expected market size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Generic Qualitative Approaches: Pitfalls and Benefits of Methodological Mixology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate M. Kahlke BA Hon, MA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Generic qualitative research studies are those that refuse to claim allegiance to a single established methodology. There has been significant debate in the qualitative literature regarding the extent to which rigour can be preserved outside of the guidelines of an established methodology. This article offers a starting place for researchers interested in entering the literature on generic qualitative approaches and offers some guidance to help researchers appreciate the advantages of using a generic approach and navigate the potential pitfalls. Given that generic approaches are, by definition, less defined and established, this article begins by defining generic qualitative approaches, including the descriptive qualitative approach and interpretive description subcategories. It then outlines key critiques of generic studies present in the literature, describes the benefits of generic approaches, and suggests ways in which the issues raised in critiques might be mediated.

  13. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...

  14. Present and future role of chemical mechanical polishing in wafer bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Lambeck, Paul

    Almost all direct wafer bonding has been conducted between chemical-mechanically polished substrates or between thin films that were present on top of the polished substrates. Introducing chemical mechanical polishing in the wafer bonding will make a large range of materials suitable for direct

  15. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process is capable of achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm on industrial components. In RAP, a robot arm carries a polishing module with controlled contact force utilizing oscillating or rotating tools. In this work a multisensory polishing arm with integrated...

  16. Influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on polishing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Satoshi; Gemma, Masaya; Hayashi, Keitoku; Kondo, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yakou, Takao; Arakawa, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Diamond electrodeposited wire tools are frequently used to cut thin wafers from hard and brittle materials. However, microcracks sometimes appear during the slicing process. The appearance of microcracks adversely affects slicing efficiency and slicing accuracy. In this study, we examine the influence of brittle behavior on the polishing characteristics such as polishing depth and tool wear. This is the first step toward investigating the influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on slicing characteristics. Ceramics such as alumina, silicon carbide, and zirconia are used as work materials. Even with the same degree of hardness, we found that the polishing depth values were greater for materials exhibiting brittle behavior. In the polishing of high-hardness materials, abrasive grains were badly damaged during the initial stages of polishing. Damage to the abrasive paper was less in wet polishing as compared with dry polishing. Moreover, wet polishing had a greater polishing depth than dry polishing. The polishing characteristics of the brittle materials were similar to the grooving characteristics produced using wire tools; however, both these characteristics depend on the brittle behavior of the work materials. Therefore, by performing simple polishing tests, estimating the state of grooving or slicing using wire tools is possible.

  17. Patterns of Language Use: Polish Migrants from the 1980s and Their Children in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Beata

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the retention of Polish language and culture by first generation Polish migrants from the 1980s and their second generation offspring (aged 15-24) from endogamous and exogamous marriages. We examine various domains such as the home, social networks, visits to Poland, institutions of learning, the Polish media, the Polish…

  18. Polish Migrant Parents of Secondary School Boys in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Daria; McGhee, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the parents of secondary school Polish boys and their capacity to realise their educational and professional aspirations for their children. Our primary finding is that although many Polish parents face considerable challenges in manoeuvring through the educational system, some Polish parents display a level of agency…

  19. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  20. Validation of the Polish language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kłosiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Patient-reported outcome (PRO questionnaires have become the standard measure for treatment effectiveness after spinal surgery. One of the most widely used generic PROs is the SF-36 Health Survey. The aim of this study was to specifically focus on validating the SF-36 Health Survey to confirm that the tool is an acceptable and psychometrically robust measure to collect HRQoL data in Polish patients with spinal stenosis. [b]materials and methods[/b]. Patients were eligible if they were above 18 years of age and had been qualified for spine surgery of the lumbar region due to either discopathy or non-traumatic spinal stenosis. All patients filled-in the Polish version of the SF-36 and a demographic questionnaire. Standard validity and reliability analyses were performed. [b]results.[/b] 192 patients (83 women – 43.2% agreed to take part in the study (mean age: 57.5±11.4 years. In 47 patients (24.5%, using MRI, ossification of the ligamenta flava were found. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients showed positive internal consistency (0.70–0.92. Interclass correlations for the SF-36 ranged from 0.72 – 0.86 and proved appropriate test-retest reliability. Satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity in multi-trait scaling analyses was seen. [b]conclusions.[/b] The Polish version of the SF-36 is a reliable and valid tool for measuring HRQoL in patients with spinal stenosis. It can be recommended for use in clinical and epidemiological settings in the Polish population. However, caution is warranted when interpreting the results of the ‘role limitations due to physical health problems’ and the ‘role limitations due to emotional problems’ scales because of floor and ceiling effects.

  1. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  2. Advances on generic exemption levels and generic clearance levels in the argentinean regulatory field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the regulatory effort in Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) evaluated two worldwide concepts used in the radioactive waste management field: “Generic Exemption Levels” and “Generic Clearance Levels”. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made in the past two years in relation to these topics and to present the results of the specific requests received from users of radioactive material. Since the approval of both Generic Levels, the ARN received two exemption requests. The first one, regarding the practice of dismantling lighting rods with 241 Am. The other case regards the international trade, distribution, usage and final disposal of lighting products with radioactive material ( 85 Kr and 232 Th). Concerning clearance, there has not been any request yet. However, in the future the ARN expects to receive this kind of requests from nuclear power plants and other facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors) [es

  3. A generic coordinate system and a set of generic variables for MFE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, W.H. Jr.; Ross, D.W.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.; Wiley, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last several years, profile data from nine different tokamaks have been stored in the magnetic fusion energy database (MFEDB). These data sets have come from a variety of sources and most are given in different coordinate systems. In order to attempt any intermachine analysis, it is convenient to transform these data sets into one generic coordinate system and to choose a uniform set of variable names. The authors describe the data sets from each tokamak indicating the source of the data and the coordinate system in which it is given. Next, they discuss the generic coordinate that has been adopted and show how it is implemented for each tokamak. Finally, the generic naming convention that has been adopted is discussed. It follows closely that which was used by Christiansen et al. for the ITER Global Energy Confinement H-Mode Database. For further clarification, they discuss the characteristics of the magnetic geometry given a Fourier representation of the magnetic equilibria

  4. In-situ photopatterning of hydrogel microarrays in polished microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication method which enables simple and eproducible photopatterning of micron- sized hydrogel arrays inside closed microchips. To achieve this, the glass cover of the microchip is thinned by mechanical grinding and polishing. This procedure reduces the spacing between the photomask

  5. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being

  6. [Surveillance of hospital acquired pneumonia in Polish hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Heczko, Piotr B

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze epidemiology of hospital acquired infections in Polish hospitals, according to type and size of hospital. Data gathered between year 2002 and 2004 in the Active Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System, developed and conducted by Polish Society of Hospital Infections, were used in the analysis. Epidemiology of PNEU was described with the usage of cumulative incidence and incidence density rates. The average cumulative incidence rate was 0.29%; incidence density rate: 0.41 per thousand, and incidence density among ventilated patients: 1.57 per thousand. Differences in morbidity detected in hospitals were statistically important only in hospitals of different size. Morbidity of PNEU in intensive care units was much higher than in other wards, and differences were statistically important. PNEU and VAP epidemiology in Polish intensive care units indicates serious problems in hospital infections control: high values of morbidity in non-teaching ICUs reflect the huge risk of developing infections in Polish hospitals. Low rates in ICUs of teaching hospitals reflect lack of surveillance and detection of infections in such hospitals.

  7. Advanced surface polishing using gas cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Z.; Hassanein, A.; Norem, J.; Swenson, D. R.

    2007-08-01

    The gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) treatment can be an important treatment for mitigation of the Q-slope in superconducting cavities. The existing surface smoothening methods were analyzed and a new surface polishing method was proposed based on employing extra-large gas cluster ions (X-GCIB).

  8. Detection of Polish clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates resistant to triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrot, Urszula; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2018-01-01

    We studied the presence of triazole resistance of 121 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates collected in two Polish cities, Warsaw and Wrocław, to determine if resistance is emerging in our country. We identified five itraconazole resistant isolates (4.13%) carrying the TR34/L98H alteration in ...

  9. Abrasive properties of modified oxides for finish polishing of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    The study of modified chromium and aluminum oxides, demonstrates that finish polishing by modified hydroxocomplexes based on a solid solution of iron and aluminum oxides provide a surface nanoroughness of 0.02 to 0.005 µm for the hardened ShKh15 steel (American Standard AISI 52100).

  10. [Polish doctors graves at the cemeteries in Edinburgh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebertt, S

    1994-01-01

    The first part of the text reviews the cultural links between Poland and Scotland. These links were originated in the 14th century and were created by scottish students travelling to Poland to seek learning in the then polish centre of excellence Jagiellonian University in Cracow. There were also some learned Scots who ventured to Poland, seeking work. Some of them achieved positions of distinction. The first Polish medical men attended the University of Edinburgh in the 18th century. In the 19th century, following the suppression of the polish uprising against Russia, there were a small group of Poles seeking asylum in Scotland. A few of them enlisted at the University of Edinburgh at the medical faculty. The above history is described in detail in Annotations. In the second part of the paper all the polish medical and veterinary doctors whose graves are located in various cemeteries in Edinburgh are listed in chronological order of their deaths. As full as possible personal data, the kind of medical work, and location of their graves are given. Greater details, whenever obtainable, are dealt with in Annotations. The total of thirty deceased between 1942 and 1993 are described.

  11. An operational map of the Polish Coastal Front 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Tinning, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The map of the Operational Plan for the Coastal Front, from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portraits the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish military in the late 1960’s and 70’s. It details the offensive against NATO countries and their forces in No...

  12. The Teaching of English in Polish Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teachers of English in Polish schools, and is the result of the Dr. Butler's experience as a teacher of English in Poland. It is argued that native teachers of English should be employed in Poland because they teach in their own language, use current idioms, provide…

  13. The Meanings of Learning as Described by Polish Migrant Bloggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the meanings given to learning by Polish migrant bloggers. It presents the result of an analysis of ten blogs, written by Poles living abroad. The blogs under analysis were chosen on the basis of random sample. The analysed material was categorised by recurring themes, which included: learning in Poland, language acquisition,…

  14. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  15. Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda

    2002-05-01

    On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights.

  16. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  17. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  18. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  19. Polish adaptation of scoliosis research society-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Maciej; Misterska, Ewa; Laurentowska, Maria; Mankowski, Przemyslaw

    2009-05-01

    Polish adaptation of the original version of Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument. The transcultural adaptation of SRS-22 and evaluation of its internal consistency. High psychometric value of the SRS-22 Questionnaire has made it an effective evaluation instrument in clinically assessing the functional status of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. First, 2 translators translated the original version into Polish. Afterwards, the translators identified differences between the translations and produced a consensus version. In the third stage, 2 native English speakers produced back translations. Finally, a team of 2 orthopedic surgeons, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all the translations to produce a prefinal version. The questionnaire was administered to 60 girls at the age of 16.6, SD 2.0 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with the Cotrel-Dubousset method in Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic in Poznań. The internal consistency in the Polish version equaled 0.89 for the overall result and 0.81 for function, 0.81 for pain, 0.80 for mental health, 0.77 for self-image, and 0.69 for treatment satisfaction domains, respectively. The Polish version of SRS-22 is characterized by high internal consistency for all domains and for the overall score, which makes it an evaluation tool after surgical treatment compatible with the original SRS-22.

  20. Jules Verne - a new polishing technique related to FJP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.; Fähnle, O.W.; Meeder, M.; Wons, T.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A variation on the fluid jet polishing (FJP) technique, arbitrarily named Jules Verne (JV), will be described in this article. Jules Verne is a glass processing technique that removes material due to the fact that the tool and the surface are in close contact, and a slurry moves in between the tool

  1. The paradigm of sustainable development: a critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Poczta-Wajda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development is now being used in many areas of the economy. Its implementation, however, has its supporters and constructive opponents. Because most authors have a positive attitude towards sustainable development, the aim of the study is to present critical views regarding this concept. The article is based on The analysis of Polish and English literature. The most important critical opinions formulated against the idea of sustainable development include: contradictory, too general and vague definition of sustainable development; abuse of the concept of sustainable development, which has led to the devaluation of the term; and the lack of effects of the implementation of sustainable development and the ever deepening of the problems it was supposed to solve. In order to break the United Nations deadlock, it is necessary to formulate measurable guidelines and to take concrete actions, which require significant financial resources.

  2. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  3. Polish Geophysical Solid Earth Infrastructure Contributing to EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, W.; Mutke, G.; Suchcicki, J.; Jozwiak, W.; Wiejacz, P.; Trojanowski, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this poster we present the current state of the main polish solid-earth-orientated infrastructures and shortly described history of their development, current state, and some plans for their future development. The presen- tation concentrates only on the classical infrastructure leaving aside for the while the the geodetic-orientated infrastructure, like GPS network and the GPS processing data centers, gravimetric infrastructure and others of this type. Polish broadband seismic infrastructure consists of 7 permanent broadband stations incorporated into the VEBSN initiative running at the polish territory and one operated in collaboration with NORSAR is settled at the Hornsund (Svalbard) polish polar station. All stations are equipped with STS-2 seismometers and polish MK-6 seismic stations providing 120 dB dynamics 100Hz sampling and data transmission in a real time to processing center. Besides this permanent broadband seismic network (PLSN) the Central Institute of Mining is running the permanent regional, short period network at the Upper Silesia area dedicated to the detailed monitoring of seismicity induced by the black coal mining activity in this area. The network consists of As the mining activity is the main source of seismicity in Poland also all mines are running underground short period networks, like for example Rudna-Polkowice copper mine seismic network consisting of 64 underground located short period seimometers. In that area, especially around the Zelazny Most: the huge post-floating artificial lake the, IGF PAS is running the local seismic array consisting of 4 short period seismometers. Besides these permanent network IGF PAN is running the portable seismic network for detailed mapping a possible natural seismic activity in selected regions of Poland. Important contribution to classical geophysical observation in the electro-magnetic field are provided by three permanent geomagnetic observatories (one at Hornsund) and supporting set of 10

  4. Generic drugs: myths, facts, and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioequivalence (BE has always been an important pharmaceutical area, particularly (but not solely in Mediterranean region, where the use of generic drugs is a relatively recent development. The lack of new therapeutic molecules has concentrated primary research in the hands of a few large pharmaceutical companies. For smaller companies, this has created opportunities for the development of new formulations of existing drugs (orodispersible tablets that dissolve in the mouth, extended-release tablets, transdermal delivery systems, generic drugs. These applications take advantage of the Abridged New Drug Application (ANDA procedure, which exempts them from a series of expensive investigations and limits the requirement for clinical testing to bioequivalence trials. Since 1991, bioequivalence trials have been regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA guidelines that provide precise indications on the most specific procedures to be adopted. In spite of these guidelines, however, some aspects of the process have not been fully defined, the most important of which regards the management of endogenous substances. Additional problems are how to manage bioequivalence protocols with drugs that have long half-lives and those whose clearance is characterized by high intrinsic variability. The view that bioequivalence data would be more reliable if they were based on studies in target populations is a myth to be discredited. The present paper reviews issues relative to pharmacokinetics (PK, bioavailability (BA, and bioequivalence, also from an historical viewpoint, and includes a stimulating “questions and answers” section on some key aspects of the bioequivalence of generic drugs.

  5. Influencers of generic drug utilization: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer N; Harris, Ilene; Frank, Gavriella; Kiptanui, Zippora; Qian, Jingjing; Hansen, Richard

    2017-08-04

    With an increase in prescription drug spending and rising drug costs there is a need to encourage the use of generic prescription drugs. However, maximizing generic drug use is not possible without the public's positive perception and meeting their informational needs about generic drugs. Thus, improving the public's confidence in, and knowledge of generic drugs on the market is critical. The objective of this systematic review is to examine and evaluate the studies focusing on the nature and extent of key factors influencing generic drug use in the United States in order to help guide policy, education and practice interventions. Using multiple search engines and key word screening criteria, empirical studies published in English between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 were identified. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence identified domains of key factors that influenced generic drug use across studies. Over 3000 citations met the key word screening criteria; 67 of these met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Seven domains of factors that influence generic drug utilization were identified: 1) patient-related factors, 2) formulary management or cost containment, 3) healthcare policies, 4) promotional activities, 5) educational initiatives, 6) technology, and 7) physician-related factors. Patients, physicians, pharmacists, formulary managers, and policymakers play an important role in generic drug use. Understanding the factors influencing generic drug use can help guide future policy, education, and practice interventions to increase generic drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Generic Inspection Planning for Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details in steel structures. The basic idea is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their Fatigue Design Factor (FDF) and SN curve. When...... a measure of the structural redundancy and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known, it is possible to formulate a generic description of fatigue sensitive structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables...

  7. A Generic Solution Approach to Nurse Rostering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, David

    In this report, we present a solution approach to the nurse rostering problem. The problem is defined by a generic model that is able to capture close to all of the problem characteristics that we have seen in the literature and in the realistic problems at hand. The model is used directly......, which is solved in a branch-and-price framework. Columns of the set partitioning problem are generated dynamically and branch-and-bound is used to enforce integrality. The column generating subproblem is modeled in three stages that utilize the inherent structure of roster-lines. Some important features...

  8. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  9. Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.

  10. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  11. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  12. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  13. The generic Gröbner walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Fukuda, Komei

    2005-01-01

    perturbation of this line. This usually involves both time and space demanding arithmetic of integers much larger than the input numbers. In this paper we show how the explicit line may be replaced by a formal line using Robbiano's characterization of group orders on . This gives rise to the generic Gröbner...... walk involving only Gröbner basis conversion over facets and computations with marked polynomials. The infinite precision integer arithmetic is replaced by term order comparisons between (small) integral vectors. This makes it possible to compute with infinitesimal numbers and perturbations...

  14. Understanding Foreign Future and Deconstructing Polish Past: The Experiences of Schooling under a Communist Rule Recollected by Contemporary Polish Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustulka, Paula; Slusarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The article elaborates on the recollections of schooling under the communist rule in Poland as presented in biographical interviews with contemporary Polish migrants living in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway. An analysis of childhood and schooling nexus is elicited on two platforms, specifically as (1) interviewees' first-hand experiences…

  15. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  16. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    , has put a counter pressure on the university, forcing it to review its role as a driver for sustainable development. Today, universities and intergovernmental institutions have developed more than 31 SHE declarations, and more than 1400 universities have signed a SHE declaration globally. However....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable......Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn...

  17. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  18. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  19. Hydrogen risk analysis for a generic nuclear containment ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Jordan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen safety issue in a ventilation system of a generic nuclear containment is studied. In accidental scenarios, a large amount of burnable gas mixture of hydrogen with certain amount of oxygen is released into the containment. In case of high containment pressure, the combustible mixture is further ventilated into the chambers and the piping of the containment ventilation system. The burnable even potentially detonable gas mixture could pose a risk to the structures of the system once being ignited unexpectedly. Therefore the main goal of the study is to apply the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code - GASFLOW, to analyze the distribution of the hydrogen in the ventilation system, and to find how sensitive the mixture is to detonation in different scenarios. The CFD simulations manifest that a ventilation fan with sustained power supply can extinguish the hydrogen risk effectively. However in case of station blackout with loss of power supply to the fan, hydrogen/oxygen mixture could be accumulated in the ventilation system. A further study proves that steam injection could degrade the sensitivity of the hydrogen mixture significantly. (author)

  20. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-23

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  1. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Lerch, Jason; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-01

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  2. On searching generic properties of non generic phenomena: an approach to bioinformatic theory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we first shortly review the current view of the evolution of complexity and novelty in biotic evo- lution. Next we show that the basic processes thereof do happen automatically and are generic properties of systems including the basic mechanisms of Darwini- an evolution plus local

  3. Influence of polishing on surface roughness following toothbrushing wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Vecchia, Karine Battestin; Taborda, Talita Damas; Stona, Deborah; Pressi, Heloísa; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Results showed that surface roughness was influenced by the type of composite and polishing system and was not influenced by the simulated toothbrushing time. However, the surface roughness, as challenged by toothbrushing wear, was affected by the interaction among the composite, the polisher, and the toothbrushing time. The 1-step polisher produced the highest surface roughness and influenced toothbrushing wear resistance of some composites.

  4. [Jakub Barner (1640-1683) and his Chymia philosophica (1698): side notes on the publication of the Polish translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinke, Rafat T

    2014-01-01

    The translation of Chymiaphilosophica by Jakub Barner is the second publication in Polish historiography of a printed source work on early modem chemistry (alchemy) written by a Polish citizen, well known and influencial across Europe (the first such translation comprised the treatises of Michael Sendivogius). This admirable initiative of unquestionable value to Polish historians of science resulted in an elegantly published volume, with an extensive introduction and useful appendices. The language of the translation is pleasant to read, retaining the spirit of the original by means of a moderate use of archaisms and generally accurate selection of proper terminology. A closer comparison of some fragments of the translation reveals, however, that it omits essential words, phrases and even entire sentences. The translation itself is occasionally incorrect as well, completely changing the meaning of the author's text and distorting his intentions, thereby undermining the reliability of the Polish translation as a whole. In the factual layer, identifying both chemical substances and (especially) the names of the authors cited by Barner often appear to be doubtful or problematic. Apart from numerous obvious mistakes, as well as leaving many surnames unidentified even when it was very difficult, the translators and/or editors of the Polish text created some non-existent authors as a result of errors produced while copying their surnames from the original text or due to unfounded assumptions that some chemical or botanical terms are names of chemical authors. There is also no consistency in the spelling of surnames (usually left in the Latin form, sometimes spelled with wrong inflection, but also modernised). In the biographical introduction there are also numerous factual errors and some bizarre mistranslations. Not only did its author fail to correct invalid information of earlier biographers of Barner, relying only on the most obvious and accessible publications, but

  5. A prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Riggs, R.; Milstead, W.; Pittman, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues and related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated as Un-resolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are High, Medium, Low, and Drop and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative. 1310 refs

  6. Life cycle and sustainability of abrasive tools

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on abrasive tools for grinding, polishing, honing, and lapping operations. The book describes the life cycle of abrasive tools from raw material processing of abrasive grits and bonding, manufacturing of monolithic or multi-layered tools, tool use to tool end-of-life. Moreover, this work highlights sustainability challenges including economic, environmental, social and technological aspects. The target audience primarily comprises research and industry experts in the field of manufacturing, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  7. Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis The

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6, Goursat (class 6-7 and generic (class 7-7 hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

  8. Generic Switching and Non-Persistence among Medicine Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Andersen, Morten; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely...... implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching......' attitudes towards generic medicines and concerns about their medicine. RESULTS: Patients who experience their first-time switch of a specific drug were at higher risk of non-persistence, Hazard Ratio 2.98, 95% CI (1.81;4.89) versus those who have never switched, and 35.7% became non-persistent during...

  9. Enamel demineralization after different methods of interproximal polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellak, Andreas F; Riepe, Esther M; Seubert, Andreas; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the demineralization rate in human enamel after interproximal polishing (IPP) and to detect possible correlations with the IPP method used, with special emphasis on the surface characteristics of the enamel being treated. This in vitro study tested five IPP systems (Profin Directional System®, Intensiv ProxoStrip®, OS discs®, ARS Safe-Tipped Bur Kit® and Ortho-Strips Set®) that are currently available on the market. Each of the five examination groups comprised 12 randomly selected teeth, while the control group consisted of six teeth. The teeth were placed in an artificial model for each group. The proximal contacts were then resolved by IPP. To allow detection of any surface characteristics, one surface was not further processed after IPP, while the other side was additionally polished. After IPP, the teeth were exposed to a pH-cycling model with alternating phases of demineralization and remineralization. Substance loss was analyzed using optical emission spectrometry. Data were subjected to simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) performed with Tukey's test. Comparison between the groups with and without polishing was conducted using the t test for independent samples. The significance level was set at p Rotor Stripping® system (ARS; 145.34 ± 20.37 μm). In all of the examination groups, subsequent polishing of the surfaces did not significantly reduce the amount of demineralization (polished 119.64 ± 28.61 μm; unpolished 114.16 ± 28.61 μm). No correlation between surface morphology and the degree of susceptibility of human enamel was detected. However, it must be taken into consideration that there was no potential bacterial colonization in this in vitro erosive set-up. Thus, in contrast to previous explanations, the outermost fluorapatite layer and the individual composition of the enamel may have a greater impact on the solubility of the enamel and the amount of enamel loss after IPP than

  10. Efficiency of three different polishing methods on enamel and cementum: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Zoya; Mohan, Ranjana

    2018-01-01

    Tooth polishing is an integral part of clinical dentistry. The main purpose of polishing is to smoothen the surface of the tooth and minimize the deposition of plaque to allow a healthy periodontal maintenance postscaling. Today, polishing by different methods is available to a clinician. Traditional bristle brush and rubber-cup polishing are being widely practiced and gradually getting replaced by novel air polisher. Pros and cons of each method should be weighed before its clinical applications. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of three different polishing systems on enamel as well as on cementum surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM). A total of 120 samples were divided into three groups randomly - Group 1 (bristle brush), Group 2 (rubber cup), and Group 3 (air polisher) - with 20 samples each of enamel and cementum, which were subdivided into 10 control and 10 test group (subjected to polishing). The samples were analyzed by SEM at ×1000 magnification, and the data obtained were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. Polishing with bristle brush demonstrated less surface roughness and debris when compared to air polisher at P = 0.58, P = 0.03 for enamel surface and P = 0.003, P = 0.21 for cementum, respectively. The surface roughness was reduced considerably by rubber cup at P = 0.03 for enamel and P = 0.003 for cementum, compared to air polisher at P = 0.99 and P = 0.21 for enamel and cementum, respectively. The results indicate that polishing with rubber cup was more effective and statistically significant when compared to bristle brush polishing and air polisher for the crown and root surface smoothening and debris removal.

  11. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  12. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however...

  14. Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dylst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

  15. A generic process template for continuous pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Rozada-Sanches, Raquel; Dean, William

    2012-01-01

    In the work reported here, a conceptual generic continuous process template for pharmaceutical production is presented. The template is demonstrated on a nitro reduction case study that should in principle be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with similar molecular functional......In the work reported here, a conceptual generic continuous process template for pharmaceutical production is presented. The template is demonstrated on a nitro reduction case study that should in principle be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with similar molecular...

  16. How do generic statements impact performance? Evidence for entity beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeun; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Nolla, Kyle M; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2017-03-01

    Generic statements about the abilities of children's social groups (e.g. 'Girls/Boys are good at this game') negatively impact children's performance - even if the statements are favorable towards children's own social groups. We explored the mechanism by which generic language impairs children's performance. Across three studies, our findings suggest that generic statements influence children's performance by creating an entity belief (i.e. a belief that a fixed ability determines performance). Children who were exposed to a generic statement about their social group's ability performed worse than children in control conditions. This effect hurt children's performance even when the person who made the generic statement was no longer present and a new person not privy to the statement replaced them. However, when children heard a generic statement paired with an effort explanation (i.e. 'Girls/Boys are good at this game because they try really hard when they draw') they performed better than children who heard the generic statement with no explanation (i.e. just 'Girls/Boys are good at this game') and children who heard the generic statement paired with a trait explanation (i.e. 'Girls/Boys are good at this game because they are smart and really good at drawing'). This work uncovers when and how generic statements that refer to the ability of one's social group hinder performance, informing the development of practices to improve student motivation and learning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Generic trajectory representation and trajectory following for wheeled robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the work towards a purely generic navigation solution for wheeled mobile robots motivated by the following goals: Generic: Works for different types of robots. Configurable: Parameters maps to geometric properties of the robot. Predictable: Well defined where the robot...... will drive. Safe: Avoid fatal collisions. Based on a survey of existing methods and algorithms the article presents a generic way to represent constraints for different types of robots, a generic way to represent trajectories using Bëzier curves, a method to convert the trajectory so it can be driven...... in a smooth motion, a method to create a safe velocity profile for the robot, and a path following controller....

  18. Towards Using a Generic Robot as Training Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Nielsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    implement the same type of interaction, but can expand the training regime to include both upper arm and shoulder training. We compare the generic robot to two affordable but custom-built training robots, and outline interesting directions for future work based on these training robots.......In this paper, we demonstrate how a generic industrial robot can be used as a training partner, for upper limb training. The motion path and human/robot interaction of a non-generic upper-arm training robot is transferred to a generic industrial robot arm, and we demonstrate that the robot arm can...

  19. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL

    1999-01-01

    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  20. Chemical mechanical polishing of tantalum and tantalum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjam, Sathish Babu S. V.

    There is a continuing need in the semiconductor industry to clear residual copper (Cu) and planarize the tantalum (Ta)/tantalum nitride (TaN) barrier/etch stop layer with a higher removal rate using the technique of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). Obtaining high removal rates for Ta/TaN is very challenging as the films are very hard, and hence it is difficult to achieve high Ta/TaN removal rates by just relying on an increase in the mechanical forces (operating pressure) alone during CMP. Ta/TaN is an inert metal, therefore, obtaining high Ta/TaN removal rates by using chemical additives is also challenging. Not only Ta/TaN needs to be removed at a higher rate in the second step of polishing, but also remaining Cu should be cleared. It is important to search for novel chemicals that can form a thin film on the Ta/TaN surface which can be easily abraded by the polishing pad with very less pressure. In this work, oxalic and tartaric acids have been investigated as the complexing agents in slurries for Ta/TaN CMP. Oxalic and tartaric acids appear to be reactive with Ta in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A dispersion of the Oxalic acid (OA)/Tartaric Acid (TA) - peroxide mixtures with silica (fumed/colloidal) can be used to achieve Ta removal rates that are ˜ 90 nm/min at pH between 3 to 6 by applying a down force of 6.3 psi, where as at a lower down force of 2 psi, a removal rate of ˜ 40 nm/min has been achieved at pH = 3. It was shown earlier that a high Cu removal rate can be obtained using OA-peroxide based slurries with/without the addition of abrasives at pH = 3 [1]. So, in the first step, Cu could be removed at high rates at pH = 3 and by changing the pH to 5 or 6, Ta/TaN can be removed as mentioned above. Hence these slurries could be used as "single dispersion slurries " that could be used for both the first and second steps of Cu CMP. During the second step (barrier layer polish), Cu removal rates are low but not low enough to minimize dishing with

  1. Strategic Marketing for Indonesian Plywood Industry: An Analyse by using Porter Five Forces Model and Generic Strategy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Makkarennu; Nakayasu, A.; Osozawa, K.; Ichikawa, M.

    2014-01-01

    The target for a marketing strategy is to find a way of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage over the other competing products and firms in a market.Good strategy serves as a road map for effective action. Porter???s five forces model and three generic strategies were used to evaluate the structure and the strategy for positioning of plywood industry in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Qualitative research was carried out by using in-depth interview method. Having expressed either agree...

  2. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  3. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  4. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  5. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  6. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  7. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  8. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  9. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  10. Legal aspects of Polish Tax and Social Security in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Parlińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.

  11. Restaurants and hotels expenditure in Polish households of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekut Marlena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The age of household members is an important factor for expenditures. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of expenditure on restaurants and hotels incurred in Polish households of the elderly in 2004-2013 and to identify the factors affecting such expenditures. The source of information used in the study was the household budget survey of the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The main methods used in this study were variance analysis and regression analysis. Restaurants and hotels expenditure increases every year together with their share in total household expenditure. The most important factors affecting the restaurants and hotels spending in Polish households of the elderly are: income per capita and the level of education of the head of the family. The study on consumption determinants at different groups leads to better understanding of consumer behavior circumstances and thereby ensuring a good quality of life for the people of the elderly.

  12. Africa and Its People in the Polish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Średziński Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is treated by the Polish media marginally and usually seen through the lens of four domains of stereotypical perceptions that are associated with difficult life conditions, threats and dangers, beautiful and wild nature, as well as original and diverse cultures. Monitoring of the Polish media has become very important in this situation. That is why the results of first media monitoring report were published in 2011 by ‘Africa Another Way’ Foundation. Five years later the monitoring was repeated. It is hard to resist the impression that Africa is still viewed as this poor, underdeveloped and dangerous continent. And the way it is presented translates into the way individuals of African descent are perceived.

  13. E-TOURISM SERVICES IN POLISH TOURISTS' OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Papińska-Kacperek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available E-tourism is most often related only with web pages of travel agencies or aggregators offering many services, where it is possible to make transactions electronically. Whereas many applications and devices are applied in tourism, like the audio guides and mobile guides (sometimes with augmented reality functions, electronic cards in museums, 2D codes systems, web pages for individual tourists, geographic information systems (e.g. Google Street View, social network sites recommendation, and profiles of cities on social networks sites like Facebook. Polish tourists' opinions about mentioned innovative tools will be presented as the report from the survey conducted among students and graduates from three Polish universities. The objectives of the study are: investigating the popularity of e-tourist services in Poland and verifying whether municipal authorities promote e-tourism initiatives.

  14. Edge effect modeling of small tool polishing in planetary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi-xin; Ma, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yao, Yong-sheng

    2018-03-01

    As one of the most challenging problems in Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS), the edge effect greatly affects the polishing accuracy and efficiency. CCOS rely on stable tool influence function (TIF), however, at the edge of the mirror surface,with the grinding head out of the mirror ,the contact area and pressure distribution changes, which resulting in a non-linear change of TIF, and leads to tilting or sagging at the edge of the mirror. In order reduce the adverse effects and improve the polishing accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we used the finite element simulation to analyze the pressure distribution at the mirror edge and combined with the improved traditional method to establish a new model. The new method fully considered the non-uniformity of pressure distribution. After modeling the TIFs in different locations, the description and prediction of the edge effects are realized, which has a positive significance on the control and suppression of edge effects

  15. POLISH EMOTIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION USING ARTIFICAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Powroźnik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issue of emotion recognition based on polish emotional speech analysis. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. The following parameters extracted from sampled and normalised speech signal has been used for the analysis: energy of signal, speaker’s sex, average value of speech signal and both the minimum and maximum sample value for a given signal. As an emotional state a classifier fof our layers of artificial neural network has been used. The achieved results reach 50% of accuracy. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom.

  16. Finishing and polishing of a poly (fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B; Hacker, C H; Ritsco, R G

    1994-01-01

    A raised ridge of Novus resilient denture liner was removed from samples using one of three burs, three stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. Average surface roughness of control samples was 0.96 microns. Average surface roughness measurements for reduced samples ranged from 7.21 microns (sandpaper disc) to 3.34 microns (Prolastic wheel). Without polishing, sandpaper discs and serrated burs produced rougher surfaces than stones or the nonserrated bur. The sandpaper disc reduced the liner the quickest. There were no significant differences between treatments or controls after the use of pumice alone or after the use of a combination of pumice and tin oxide. An acceptable finishing protocol for this poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient liner appears to differ from that previously established for a silicone resilient denture liner.

  17. A new strategy for the restructuring of Polish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.; Tallat, J.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with strategic planning in the military, the leader (in this case the Minister of Economy) is responsible for setting goals, finding the right people to accomplish these goals (those working in the energy sector), analysing the current situation (state of the energy sector) and evaluating available resources (conventional and renewable energy resources). In terms of economic planning (this term is proper for an economy that sets numerous laws and quotas), the goal is to get the Polish economy out of economic slump, which is the result of seventeen years of improper government practices, into a state of prosperity corresponding to no less than the European average. The only way of accomplishing this goal of high economic growth and catching up with highly-developed countries is to develop local inexpensive energy resources. This study focuses on the potential to develop abundant Polish geothermal resources as well as natural gas based co-generation. (author)

  18. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  19. Polish epistolography in Ukrainian polemic of the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhareva Svitlana Volodymyrivna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The block of Polish epistolary in the system of polemical prose of the 17th century is analyzed in the article. It's indicated in its genre features, holistic character, publicistic and artistic level. Special attention is paid to the epistolary style of Hypatij Potij, Andrew Muzhylovski and Klyryk from Ostrog. Innovative and classical elements of epistolary heritage of the Baroque epoch are identified.

  20. Fracking in the Polish press: Geopolitics and national identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte; Lemańcyzk, Szczepan

    2014-01-01

    In a context of resource scarcity and political instability, new energy sources and technologies are being explored in many parts of the world and exploited in some. One of these new energy sources is shale gas and one of the countries seeking to decrease its energy dependence and increase its energy security is Poland which is largely dependent on gas and oil imports from Russia. This article presents the results of a thematic content analysis of articles reporting on shale gas/fracking published in Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita, two leading Polish newspapers, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Findings suggest that in media reporting the geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension and that representations are overwhelmingly positive. Positive representations are bolstered through particular linguistic framings. It is argued that the Polish press has polarized the debate on fracking in a particular (positive) direction, which has silenced an open and constructive debate concerning energy policy in Poland and constructed criticism of fracking as counter-normative and “un-Polish.” The potential socio-political and policy implications of these media representations are discussed. - Highlights: • The general tone of Polish media reporting is positive and emphatic about the benefits of fracking. • The geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension. • The implementation of fracking is constructed as a national priority. • Opposition to fracking is constructed as counter-normative and “anti-Polish”. • Representations impede open and constructive dialogue about energy policy

  1. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Sonomammography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Wiesław; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Migda, Bartosz

    2012-09-01

    The use of BIRADS classification has been recommended in sonomammography examinations in Poland since the year 2010. It was developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society and published in Ultrasound Examinations Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society. Standards, based on BIRADS-usg classification, introduced uniformity in breast ultrasound examination descriptions and in the terminology of pathological lesions in breasts. BIRADS-usg classification takes into account breast morphological structure elements and pathological focal lesions in them. It enables the distinction between benign lesions and lesions suspected of being malignant. It contains information on the malignancy risk of focal lesions and proposals of diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms (including biopsy) in relation to lesions of different character. The Polish Ultrasound Society recommends performing prophylactic sonomammography examinations every 12 months in women over the age of 30 because of the increasing breast cancer morbidity in women from all age groups. In this article a spectrum of focal changes in breasts are presented within the relevant BIRADS-usg classification categories. The features of ultrasound morphology, enabling them to be classified to particular categories of BIRADS-usg classification are discussed. Management algorithms which may help clinicians to diagnose breast cancer and to treat it are proposed. Elements of medical history, physical examination, recommended techniques of sonomammography examination performance, technical parameters of ultrasound machine and examination description standards are presented. This article was prepared based on the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society which was published in 2011 and updated. It contains numerous pictures visualizing BIRADS-usg classification.

  2. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Sonomammography examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Wiesław; Migda, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    The use of BIRADS classification has been recommended in sonomammography examinations in Poland since the year 2010. It was developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society and published in Ultrasound Examinations Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society. Standards, based on BIRADS-usg classification, introduced uniformity in breast ultrasound examination descriptions and in the terminology of pathological lesions in breasts. BIRADS-usg classification takes into account breast morphological structure elements and pathological focal lesions in them. It enables the distinction between benign lesions and lesions suspected of being malignant. It contains information on the malignancy risk of focal lesions and proposals of diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms (including biopsy) in relation to lesions of different character. The Polish Ultrasound Society recommends performing prophylactic sonomammography examinations every 12 months in women over the age of 30 because of the increasing breast cancer morbidity in women from all age groups. In this article a spectrum of focal changes in breasts are presented within the relevant BIRADS-usg classification categories. The features of ultrasound morphology, enabling them to be classified to particular categories of BIRADS-usg classification are discussed. Management algorithms which may help clinicians to diagnose breast cancer and to treat it are proposed. Elements of medical history, physical examination, recommended techniques of sonomammography examination performance, technical parameters of ultrasound machine and examination description standards are presented. This article was prepared based on the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society which was published in 2011 and updated. It contains numerous pictures visualizing BIRADS-usg classification. PMID:26673579

  3. Ion beam polishing for three-dimensional electron backscattered diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Ubhi, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    averaging and/or poor 3D-EBSD data quality. In this work a low kV focused ion beam was successfully implemented to automatically polish surfaces during 3D-EBSD of La- and Nb-doped strontium titanate of volume 12.6 × 12.6 × 3.0 μm. The key to achieving this technique is the combination of a defocused low k...

  4. Surface layer softing in mechanically polished molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, R.K.; Kostyuchenko, V.G.; Lotsko, D.V.; Lukinov, I.V.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Novikov, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Softening of the surface layer together with growth of dislocation density is found in molybdenum single crystals mechanically polished with diamond suspension in water solution of CuSO 4 . The penetration of small amount of copper into molybdenum is observed by SIMS. A supposition has been made about molybdenum solid solution softening influenced by copper penetrating into molybdenum by means of a dynamic dislocation mechanism

  5. MeV ion beam polishing of anodically grown alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudin, B.; Martin, P.

    1988-01-01

    When bombarded with 1 MeV N + ions, the surface of anodically grown alumina films is smoothened. This polishing effect was studied as a function of the ion bombardment fluence and of the substrate temperature in the range 80 - 650 K. The techniques used to characterize the surface roughness were Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and small angle X-rays diffusion. It is suggested that atomic and/or electronic sputtering is responsible for the smoothing effect which was observed

  6. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ömer faruk tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE, thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, whether fund managers show better or worse performance than the market. Methodology/Methods: In order to evaluate fund manager performances, Jensen alpha (1968 is computed, which depicts selectivity skills of fund managers. For determining market timing ability of fund managers, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 regression analysis and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis are applied. Fund performances are evaluated using Warsaw Stock Exchange Index as the benchmark index. Scientific aim: In this study, we have tried to evaluate selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers. A total of 14 equity fund managers’ performances are analysed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with quantitative easing. Findings: Jensen (1968 alphas indicate that over this period fund managers did not have selective ability, as none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive alphas. Furthermore, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis indicate that over the same period fund managers did not also have market timing ability, as again none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive coefficients. Conclusions: In this work, we can detect that in the era of quantitative easing, although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, the fund returns were

  7. [Mortality of Polish actors in 1981-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznańska, Anna; Gajewski, Antoni K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mortality of Polish actors (males and females) with the general Polish population for the period 1981-1999 and for two sub-periods: 1981-1991 and 1992-1998. Initially the studied cohort included 3992 dramatic actors (2161 males, 1831 females) of age 18-80 years (at the moment of cohort entrance). After detailed data verification statistical analysis was made for 2120 actors and 1767 actresses, contributing 29477.1 and 24886.2 person-years of observation, respectively. A total of 633 deaths (368 males and 265 females) were noted during the analyzed period. Statistical approach based on the follow-up method. Comparison with the reference population (Polish males and females from urban areas) was made by means of the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their 95% confidence intervals. Direct comparison of the selected subgroups' mortality based on the rate ratio analysis. Standardized mortality ratios were 0.739 (95%CI: 0.666-0.819) for the actors and 0.887 (95%CI: 0.784-1.001) for actresses. Mortality of the actors' cohort was found to be significantly lower than in the reference population during total analyzed period, whereas for actresses no significant differences were found. Age-specific SMR dependence was found. Statistically significant lowering of SMR was observed for actors up to 80 years old. Finally, it could be concluded that in contrast to the actresses' cohort the actors' mortality in 1992-1999 significantly decreased in relation to 1981-1991 period. Moreover, the decrease of the actors' mortality exceeded tendencies observed for Polish urban population.

  8. Health status among French, Polish and Romanian students

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michèle; Le Bihan, Etienne; Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bucki, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Research question. Students face many school and living difficulties which alter health status and favour substance use which were assessed in this study among university students from France, Poland and Romania. Methods. In total 934 French, 480 Polish, and 195 Romanian students from the Universities of Metz, Iaşi, and Silésie, completed a self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed using adjusted odds ratios (OR) and variance analysis taking age and sex into account, vs. French. ...

  9. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  10. Analysis of Cooling Capability in Polish District Heating Substations

    OpenAIRE

    Markowicz, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    For a district heating company it is of importance to have an efficient and well performing system. A central part in the work to lower temperature levels in district heating networks is to acknowledge and improve cooling capability in substations. The aim of this thesis is to analyse substations in Polish district heating systems in order to identify reasons of poor cooling and to present suggestions of implementable measures. Furthermore, the economical saving potential from an improved coo...

  11. Sludge accumulation in polishing ponds treating anaerobically digested wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, P; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2002-01-01

    When ponds are used for wastewater treatment, settleable solids will form a steadily growing bottom sludge layer, which reduces their effective volume. Eventually this sludge must be removed to ensure that the pond maintains the required retention time to keep performing properly. The settleable solids may either be present in the influent or they are formed during the treatment as a result of algal flocculation. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate bottom sludge accumulation in a polishing pond used for treatment of UASB effluent. The mass and composition of the bottom sludge formed in a polishing pond was evaluated after the pilot scale pond had been in operation for 1 year and about 60 m3 of digested wastewater had been treated per m3 of pond. The bottom sludge mass represented a solids accumulation of 70 g per m3 of digested wastewater. About half of these solids were the result of settling of influent solids in the first part of the pond, while the other half was attributable to settling of algae, formed in the pond. It is concluded that the bottom sludge growth in a polishing pond is so low, that desludging during the useful life span of the pond will most likely not be necessary. This leads to the important conclusion that excess sludge discharge from UASB reactors (a major factor in operational costs) may be omitted, if a polishing pond is used for post-treatment. The bottom sludge had a high volatile solids concentration (58%) and the macronutrient fractions were also high (3.9% N and 1.1% P of the TSS mass). The bottom sludge was stable and could be dried directly without problems. The hygienic quality of the bottom sludge was very poor: about half the influent helminth eggs during one year of operation were found in the bottom sludge and the faecal coliform concentration was very high.

  12. Between Positivism, Narrativism and Idealisation in Polish Methodology of History

    OpenAIRE

    Brzechczyn, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Its primary purpose is to present the reception of the discussion between positivism and narrativism in Polish methodology of history. A secondary one is to paraphrase, using the notion apparatus of the idealisational theory of science, the issue of the accuracy of explanation. The paper consists of six parts. In the first, Hempel’s deductive-nomological (or covering law) model of explanation is presented. In the second part, the main tenets and assumptions o...

  13. Innovation for sustainable urban tourism: some thoughts on best practice

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Noel; Cooper, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a series of strategic initiatives that have been undertaken by Tourism Queensland (TQ), a State Tourism Organization in Australia, to develop tourism and in particular to develop networks in tourism destinations. This paper firstly examines the nature of sustainable urban tourism (SUT) and discusses approaches to defining it. It suggests that developing SUT requires a generic approach to improving sustainable tourism operations amongst all suppliers in an urban area. Furth...

  14. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gorczyca, Piotr; Misiołek, Hanna; Gierlotka, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress characterized by low enthusiasm towards the job, high psychological exhaustion, indolence and guilt. Being a medical doctor, both in Poland and in other countries, is one of the most stressful occupations and anaesthesiology is considered one of the most stressful specializations, which justify carrying out of the study on Polish anaesthesiologists. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists Non-randomized cross-sectional study was carried out and data were gathered through a self-administrated questionnaire. The sample consisted of 373 Polish anaesthesiologists, 57.6% were women and 42.4% were men. A 66% response rate was achieved. The Burnout Syndrome was measured by the Spanish Burnout Inventory. The prevalence burnout risk was almost 70%. The percentage of participants who indicated very high levels of burnout was 18%; 5.9% of whom fell into profile 2 considered to be clinical. The instrument applied was reliable with Cronbach's alphas exceeding 0.70. The sample is characterized by high burnout risk with 5.9% of clinical cases. Participation in prevention programs is recommended.

  15. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  16. The Persistence of Abnormal Returns: Analysis of Polish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Puziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of a company is to build the enterprise value, which is achievable thanks to abnormal profits generated in particular period. Moreover, firms are expected to take measures to maintain abnormal profit in the future. On the other hand, abnormal profits attract competitors, who increase competition and as a result abnormal profits disappear. The persistence of profit is a term that describes a situation, when the company is successful in maintaining the abnormal profit over time. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the persistence of abnormal profit in Polish manufacturing sector. In other words, the question is whether Polish manufacturing companies are able to maintain their abnormal profits over time. The persistence of abnormal profits is investigated using dynamic panel model with generalized method-of-moments estimators. The method is applied to a panel of 5303 Polish companies from manufacturing sector observed over the period 2006-2014. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, analysis is performed for developing country. Second, analysis is performed both at the level of entire sector and at division level. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the conducted research: there are significant differences between profit rates within the same industry at division level; estimated persistence of abnormal profit coefficients are at moderate level; there are substantial differences between estimated persistence of profit coefficients for divisions in the same industry.

  17. The Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Calling Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaniti, Amalia; Żygis, Marzena; Jaskuła, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall. Systematic differences were found in the scaling and alignment of tonal targets: the routine call showed late alignment of the accentual pitch peak, and in most instances lower scaling of targets. The accented vowel was also affected, being overall louder in the urgent call. Based on the data and comparisons with other Polish melodies, we analyze the routine call as LH* !H-H% and the urgent call as H* L-L%. We discuss the results and our analysis in light of recent findings on calling melodies in other languages, and explore their repercussions for intonational phonology and the modeling of intonation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Preparation of cerium oxide for lens polishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injarean, Uthaiwan; Rodthongkom, Chouvana; Pichestapong, Pipat; Changkrurng, Kalaya

    2003-10-01

    Cerium is an element of rare earth group which is called lanthanide series. It is found in the ores like monazite and xenotime which are the tailings of tin mines in the south of Thailand. Cerium is used mostly as lens polishing powder besides the applications in other industries. In this study, cerium extracted from monazite ore breakdown by alkaline process was used for the preparation of lens polishing powder. Cerium hydroxide cake from the process was dissolved by hydrochloric acid and precipitated with oxalic acid. The oxalate precipitate then was calcined to oxide powder and its particle size was measured. Precipitation conditions being studied are concentration of feed cerium chloride solution, concentration of oxalic acid used for the precipitation, concentration of sulfuric acid used as precipitation control reagent and the precipitation temperature. It was found that the appropriate precipitation conditions yielded the fine oxide powder with particle size about 12μm. The oxide powder can be ground to the size of 1-3 μm which is suitable for making lens polishing powder

  19. Bio-polishing sludge adsorbents for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Muhammad Abbas Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to evaluate the removal of methylene blue dye by bio-polishing sludge-based adsorbents. The adsorbents were characterized according to the specific surface area, pH upon the treatment and surface functional groups. The adsorption of dye was carried out at room temperature, and the adsorption data were analyzed using the isotherm and kinetics models. The bio-polishing sludge is rich in ash content, and the presence of surface functional groups varied with the treatment strategies. The specific surface area of adsorbents is between 7.25 and 20.8 m2/g. Results show that the maximum removal of methylene blue by sludge adsorbents was observed to have the following order: untreated sludge (SR > zinc chloride-treated (SZ > microwave-dried (SW = potassium carbonate-treated (SK > acid-washed (SH. The maximum adsorption capacities for SR and SZ as predicted by the Langmuir model are 170 and 135 mg/g, respectively. Although SR demonstrates a higher maximum removal than SZ, the latter exhibits greater removal intensity and rate constant even at high dye concentration. The bio-polishing sludge is a promising adsorbent for dye wastewater treatment.

  20. Mirror surface metrology and polishing for AXAF/TMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomba, A.; Babish, R.; Glenn, P.

    1985-01-01

    The achievement of the derived goals for mirror surface quality on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) required a combination of state-of-the-art metrology and polishing techniques. In this paper, the authors summarize the derived goals and cover the main facets of the various metrology instruments employed, as well as the philosophy and technique used in the polishing work. In addition, they show how progress was measured against the goals, using the detailed error budget for surface errors and a mathematical model for performance prediction. The metrology instruments represented a considerable advance on the state-of-the-art and fully satisfied the error budget goals for the various surface errors. They were capable of measuring the surface errors over a large range of spatial periods, from low-frequency figure errors to microroughness. The polishing was accomplished with a computer-controlled process, guided by the combined data from various metrology instruments. This process was also tailored to reduce the surface errors over the full range of spatial periods

  1. IPO timing determinants: empirical evidence on the Polish capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants influencing the IPO timing by enterprises under the conditions in force on the Polish capital market. In the study we asked CFOs Polish enterprises divided into two groups to formulate their insights in the area of IPO timing. The first group consisted of the entities that have previously executed an initial public offering, the second one included the entities that have not executed an IPO (but considered doing so in the past or were candidates for doing it in the future. The survey results can be summarised as follows. First, in choosing an opportune time for an IPO, both subsamples of companies take into considerations the current need of external equity capital for continuing their growth. Second, managers also take advantage of macroeconomic development and effort conducting IPOs when present and projected state of the national and global economy is favorable. Overall stock market conditions, conditions in the business sector and investors´ interest in the business sector were identified as determinants of IPOs timing with a very strong support. Finally, Polish CFOs attach less importance to the interest that other companies operating in the same type of business may have in IPOs. The interest that firms from other business sectors may have in going public does not have an appreciable effect on timing as well.

  2. Cleaning, abrasion, and polishing effect of novel perlite toothpaste abrasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to optimize perlite particle size and morphology for better tooth cleaning and lower tooth abrasion, and to evaluate the performance of a whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive for tooth cleaning, abrasion, and polishing. Perlite toothpaste abrasive samples were prepared by air classifying a commercial expanded perlite product. The tooth cleaning and abrasion properties for these classified perlite samples were reported via the pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) and relative dentin abrasion (RDA). Performance of the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive in tooth cleaning, polishing, and abrasion was evaluated against a widely used synthetic high-cleaning silica. Air classification removes large perlite particles and also physically changes perlite particle morphology from mostly three dimensional and angular particles to mainly two dimensional and platy particles. All the classified samples show good tooth cleaning effect, but tooth abrasion decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. Compared to high-cleaning silica whitening toothpaste, the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive (PerlClean) is slightly better at tooth cleaning, lower in tooth abrasion, and significantly better at tooth polishing. Fine platy perlite particles are effective in tooth cleaning with low tooth abrasion. The enhanced performance of optimized perlite toothpaste abrasive compared to high-cleaning silica in a whitening toothpaste is attributed to the optimized particle size distribution and the unique platy particle geometry.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  4. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    Improving power performance assessment by measuring at different heights has been demonstrated using ground-based profiling LIDARs. More recently, nacelle-mounted lidars studies have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance. Using nacelle lidars avoids the erection of expensive...... meteorology masts, especially offshore. A new generation of commercially developed profiling nacelle lidars has sophisticated measurement capabilities. As for any other measuring system, lidars measurements have uncertainties. Their estimation is the ultimate goal of a calibration. Field calibration...... procedures have been developed for non-profiling nacelle lidars. However, their specificity to one type of lidar or another highlights the need for developing generic calibration procedures. Such procedures should be applicable to any type of existing and upcoming lidar technology. Profiling nacelle lidars...

  5. Generic Adaptively Secure Searchable Phrase Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissel Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years searchable symmetric encryption has seen a rapid increase in query expressiveness including keyword, phrase, Boolean, and fuzzy queries. With this expressiveness came increasingly complex constructions. Having these facts in mind, we present an efficient and generic searchable symmetric encryption construction for phrase queries. Our construction is straightforward to implement, and is proven secure under adaptively chosen query attacks (CQA2 in the random oracle model with an honest-but-curious adversary. To our knowledge, this is the first encrypted phrase search system that achieves CQA2 security. Moreover, we demonstrate that our document collection preprocessing algorithm allows us to extend a dynamic SSE construction so that it supports phrase queries. We also provide a compiler theorem which transforms any CQA2-secure SSE construction for keyword queries into a CQA2-secure SSE construction that supports phrase queries.

  6. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    of employing a well-structured model library for storage, use/reuse, and analysis of the kinetic models are highlighted. Examples illustrating the application of the modeling framework for kinetic model discrimination related to simulation of specific crystallization scenarios and for kinetic model parameter......A new and extended version of a generic modeling framework for analysis and design of crystallization operations is presented. The new features of this framework are described, with focus on development, implementation, identification, and analysis of crystallization kinetic models. Issues related...... to the modeling of various kinetic phenomena like nucleation, growth, agglomeration, and breakage are discussed in terms of model forms, model parameters, their availability and/or estimation, and their selection and application for specific crystallization operational scenarios under study. The advantages...

  7. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  8. A Generic Software Architecture For Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.; Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai; Watkins, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Prognostics is a systems engineering discipline focused on predicting end-of-life of components and systems. As a relatively new and emerging technology, there are few fielded implementations of prognostics, due in part to practitioners perceiving a large hurdle in developing the models, algorithms, architecture, and integration pieces. As a result, no open software frameworks for applying prognostics currently exist. This paper introduces the Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP), an open-source, cross-platform, object-oriented software framework and support library for creating prognostics applications. GSAP was designed to make prognostics more accessible and enable faster adoption and implementation by industry, by reducing the effort and investment required to develop, test, and deploy prognostics. This paper describes the requirements, design, and testing of GSAP. Additionally, a detailed case study involving battery prognostics demonstrates its use.

  9. Axiological aspects of sustainable development with theoretical and empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kaczocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper presents the values – goals, which are contained in political programs of sustainable development. These values (e.g. social justice, intergenerational justice, liberty, sustainable consumption and value of nature should be explained with respect to the assumptions of ethics of beliefs, obligation or responsibility. The second part discusses the results of empirical studies which focused on certain goals-values of sustainable development achieved by residents of rural areas. The third part contains analytical interpretation of three values: positive liberty, social justice and community, which are of key importance to sustainable development. The final fourth part discusses political and ethical dilemmas which must be faced by Polish politicians: should we design and implement sustainable development evenly or, in consideration of the ethical aspect; should we start first from radical improvement in conditions of living among poor people?

  10. A generic readout system for astrophysical detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a generic digital platform to fulfill the needs for the development of new detectors in astrophysics, which is used in lab, for ground-based telescopes instruments and also in prototype versions for space instruments development. This system is based on hardware FPGA electronic board (called MISE) together with software on a PC computer (called BEAR). The MISE board generates the fast clocking which reads the detectors thanks to a programmable digital sequencer and performs data acquisition, buffering of digitalized pixels outputs and interfaces with others boards. The data are then sent to the PC via a SpaceWire or Usb link. The BEAR software sets the MISE board up, makes data acquisition and enables the visualization, processing and the storage of data in line. These software tools are made of C++ and Labview (NI) on a Linux OS. MISE and BEAR make a generic acquisition architecture, on which dedicated analog boards are plugged, so that to accommodate with detectors specificity: number of pixels, the readout channels and frequency, analog bias and clock interfaces. We have used this concept to build a camera for the P-ARTEMIS project including a 256 pixels sub-millimeter bolometer detector at 10Kpixel/s (SPIE 7741-12 (2010)). For the EUCLID project, a lab camera is now working for the test of CCDs 4Mpixels at 4*200Kpixel/s. Another is working for the testing of new near infrared detectors (NIR LFSA for the ESA TRP program) 110Kpixels at 2*100Kpixels/s. Other projects are in progress for the space missions PLATO and SPICA.

  11. Generic Skills from Qur'anic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Generic skills are defined as a set of skills that are directly related and needed for the working environment. Employers prefer to recruit officials who are competent in interpersonal communication, leadership skill, team work, oral and written skills. They are reluctant to employ graduates lacking certain necessary skills. This reveals the fact that there is a serious gap between the skills that are required by the employers and the skills that the graduates possess. Therefore, this research is focused on five aspects of generic skills namely; communication, team work, problem solving, lifelong learning and self-esteem. From Qur’anic perspective, the same terms have been used except minor differences in using various terms. The thematic approach is used when discussing these aspects from the Qur’an. The findings showed that the ways of effective communication are represented by terms of qawl sadid, qawl ma`ruf, qawl baligh, qawl maysur, qawl karim and qawl layyin. For collective work, ta`aruf and tafahum, as the pre-requisites, should be practiced via ta`awun and takaful. For problem solving, four methods are adapted from the Qur’an such as reflection of the past, observation, demonstration and asking questions. For lifelong learning, the establishment of learning institutions and the self-motivation of learners are two pre-requisites that should be undertaken for its accomplishment. They could be practiced through open learning system, consultation and hands-on learning. Last but not least, for personality development could be built up through physical training, spiritual training and mental training.

  12. Sustainable Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Sustainable Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Lessons for Developing Countries. • Views disasters as different from accidents and minor emergencies;. • Views catastrophes as different from disasters;. • Focuses on multiple hazards and is generic rather than agent specific;. • Includes all four time phases of the planning ...

  13. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  14. A Systematic Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cohen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the world rapidly urbanizes, there is much focus on achieving sustainability outcomes within cities. Accomplishing this goal requires not only envisioning sustainable cities and implementing strategies, but it also demands assessing progress towards sustainable urban development. Despite a growing literature on sustainability assessment, there is room to further understand the application of sustainability assessment in urban contexts. This paper presents a systematic review of urban sustainability assessment literature to (1 identify the most common methods used for urban sustainability assessment, (2 identify the most common framings for urban sustainability assessment, and (3 identify the most common categories for organizing indicators that measure urban sustainability. This research finds that urban sustainability assessment in general lacks a unifying framing and that it could be better aligned with common sustainability principles. The paper provides recommendations for future urban sustainability assessment research, including the employment of mixed-methods research among other strategies. In closing, this research offers a generic framework around which to structure urban sustainability assessment and within which to assign indicators for measuring progress towards sustainable urban development.

  15. Generic medicines: Perceptions of Physicians in Basrah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheed Khalid Sharrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  19. 76 FR 76738 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... to http://www.regulations.gov . Submit written comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA... document. Transcripts of the meeting will be available for review at the Division of Dockets Management and... generic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and generic finished dosage form (FDF) manufacturers with...

  20. Potential cost savings from generic medicines – protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the difference between brand and generic medicines listed for that algorithm, and also as the median of differences between generic medicines for the same condition. Results: Three of the algorithms .... Protecting the PMBs, as a key element of the new community-rated medical schemes environment, is therefore vital.

  1. Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

    This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

  2. An annotated catalogue of the generic names of the Bromeliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, J.R.; Zijlstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    An annotated catalogue of the known generic names of the Bromeliaceae is presented. It accounts for 187 names in six lists: I. Generic names (133), II. Invalid names (7), III. A synonymized checklist of the genera of the Bromeliaceae (56 accepted genera, and 77 synonyms), IV. Nothogenera (bigeneric

  3. 77 FR 60125 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., and certain sites and organizations identified in a generic drug submission, that they must provide... and Innovation Act (FDASIA). This notice is intended to help organizations ascertain if they need to...

  4. Convergence of generic pronouns : Language contact and Faroese mann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knooihuizen, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Despite state-driven language policy against Danish linguistic influence, the Faroese language has borrowed the Danish generic pronoun mann 'one'. As in Danish, this pronoun varies with generically used tú 'you'. An analysis of the variation in Faroese shows that Faroese tú is used more often than

  5. Creating specific grammars with generic grammars : Towards flexible urban design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirao, J.N.; Duarte, J.P.; Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the City Induction project is to develop an urban design tool consisting of 3 parts: an urban programme formulation module, a generation module and an evaluation module. The generation module relies on a very generic Urban Grammar composed of several generic grammars called Urban

  6. Systematic identification of crystallization kinetics within a generic modelling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    A systematic development of constitutive models within a generic modelling framework has been developed for use in design, analysis and simulation of crystallization operations. The framework contains a tool for model identification connected with a generic crystallizer modelling tool-box, a tool...

  7. Generic skills requirements (KSA model) towards future mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generic Skills is a basic requirement that engineers need to master in all areas of Engineering. This study was conducted throughout the peninsular Malaysia involving small, medium and heavy industries using the KSA Model. The objectives of this study are studying the level of requirement of Generic Skills that need to be ...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN P-95-514) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10048 - Substituted anthraquinone (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted anthraquinone (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10048 Substituted anthraquinone (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... anthraquinone (PMN P-02-869) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  12. Development of a generic virus behavioural detector: a preview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Generic Virus Behavioral Detector (GVBD) is a system (program) that monitors various system activities; reading and writing block of disks and memory and the use of Interrupts. A technique for its realisation is presented. Key Words: Computer virus, interrupts, handlers, GVBD (Generic Virus Behavioral Detector).

  13. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  14. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  15. Making tenofovir accessible in the brazilian public health system: patent conflicts and generic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Juliana

    2014-08-01

    In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An audit of generic prescribing in a general surgical department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, M

    2013-01-17

    BACKGROUND: The Health Service Executive introduced a generic prescription policy to reduce costs. Despite this, generic prescription rates remain low. AIM: To audit in-patient prescription practice in a single surgical department and identify potential savings which could be realised by adherence to the generic prescribing policy. METHODS: Surgical in-patient charts were obtained at the point of discharge and their drug prescription information was recorded. RESULTS: 51 % of prescriptions involved a trade-name prescription where an appropriate generic equivalent existed. The cost implications for hospital and community patients were found to be greatly affected by substitution policies that exist at hospital pharmacy level. CONCLUSION: There is a need to promote greater adherence to generic prescribing amongst hospital doctors in line with international best practice. It can have a positive impact in terms of safe prescribing and can have cost implications at both hospital and community level.

  17. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  18. Patients' concern about their medicine after a generic switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the possible association between patients' concerns about their medicine and generic switch. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey was carried out comprising responses from 2217 randomly selected persons aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern...... Denmark, who had redeemed generically substitutable drugs in September 2008. For each patient, we focused on the purchase of one generically substitutable drug (index drug). We applied the specific concerns subscale from the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ) to analyse lack of confidence...... in treatment. We also included general beliefs about medicine (BMQ), views on generic medicine and confidence in the health-care system. The information about the patients' generic switch was obtained from a prescription database and not provided by the patients. Data were analysed using linear regression...

  19. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  20. The Impact of the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of 1864 on the Polish Civil Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rylski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence, which had already been exerted, and which is still exerted by the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of November 20, 1864 (CJPA on the Polish civil proceedings. First, the authors present the history of CJPA’s presence in the Polish territories. Next, they discuss the general significance of this act and its solutions for the process of shaping the Polish civil procedure in the interwar period. Finally, they present selected examples of the regulations and solutions that demonstrate the CJPA’s impact on the Polish civil proceedings. The authors conclude that CJPA exerted a minor impact on the pre-war and present Polish procedural regulations in comparison to the other codes, i.e. the Austrian and German codes. Even today, however, one can find in the Polish Code of Civil Procedure some provisions patterned after the CJPA.

  1. Effect of liquid-polish coating on in vivo biofilm accumulation on provisional restorations: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Davidi, Michael; Beyth, Nurit; Sterer, Nir; Feuerstein, Osnot; Weiss, Ervin I

    2007-01-01

    Biofilm accumulation on provisional restorations may affect the surrounding tissues' integrity. The purpose of this study was to test in vivo biofilm formation on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) self-cured acrylic resin provisional crowns. Three types of PMMA surfaces were tested: (1) polished, (2) polished and coated with bonding agent, and (3) polished and coated with light-cured liquid polish. After 12 hours in the oral cavity, the crown was removed and examined by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Biofilm, 250 Mum thick, was observed with CLSM on the polished acrylic surface. Significantly less bacterial accumulation was observed on the crowns coated with bonding agent, whereas no biofilm was observed on the crowns coated with liquid polish (P provisional restorations.

  2. The introduction of generic risperidone in Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Vicki; Price, Mary; Busch, Alisa B; Landrum, Mary Beth; Fireman, Bruce; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Newhouse, Joseph P; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generic second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), starting with risperidone in July 2008, could reduce antipsychotic spending and cost-related use barriers. This study examines associations between generic risperidone use and spending and adherence after introduction among Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries. Historic cohort study. The study included MA beneficiaries receiving SGA treatment prior to July 2008. We examined antipsychotic spending using linear models, adherence (proportion of days covered ≥ 80%) using logistic models, and nonpersistence (time to first gap in antipsychotic use > 30 days) in 2009 using Cox proportional hazard models, comparing beneficiaries with versus without generic use, adjusting for individual and plan characteristics. Between July 2008 and December 2009, 22.8% of beneficiaries had ≥ 1 fill of generic risperidone: 73% of those previously using branded risperidone and 6.7% of those previously using other SGAs. Beneficiaries in private fee-for-service (FFS) versus health maintenance organization (HMO) plans had lower rates of generic use (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.96]); however, cost-sharing levels were not associated with generic use. Compared with beneficiaries who continued using other SGAs, those who switched from other SGAs to generic risperidone in 2008 had lower out-of-pocket spending (-$214; 95% CI, -$314 to -$115), higher adherence (odds ratio, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.62-3.40) and lower rates of nonpersistence (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46-0.69) in 2009. Generic use was concentrated among patients previously using branded risperidone. HMO plans appeared to be more effective at encouraging generic use than unmanaged private FFS plans; however, patient financial incentives had limited influence on switching. Additional opportunity remains to encourage greater generic SGA use, reduce spending, and potentially improve treatment adherence and outcomes.

  3. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...... undertake the changes that are necessary to achieve greater sustainability—or at best continue to struggle in a globalized and highly interconnected industry to implement the necessary changes. In light of this failure, this thesis investigates how organizations can change towards practising sustainability...

  4. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... extent these expectations are being met through the comparative case study of two sustainability certifications in the biofuel industry – in the context of a wider set of experiences in the agro-food and forestry sectors. I show that ‘roundtabling’ entails an ever more complex web of governance systems...

  5. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  6. The Rise and Decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth due to Grain Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I present the cause of the rise and decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The main driving force was Polish grain trade over the Baltic. At the beginning, Polish grain was vital for Western Europe thus the Commonwealth was able to make significant profits and obtain economical growth. However, once the cultivation of grain was not any more profitable, the Commonwealth missed to adopt its economy to the new situation and fell behind. I present the main politi...

  7. Poland, a workforce in transition: Exploring leadership styles and effectiveness of Polish vs. Western expatriate managers

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Jacob; Pieczonka, Artur; Eisenring, Martin; Mironski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Given the cultural differences between Western Europe and Poland, differences are expected in leadership styles and behaviours between Polish and Western managers. Our study explored Polish employees’ perceptions and attitudes toward expatriate Western versus local managers. The main method was surveying Polish employees working under Western managers in three mid-size companies. We supplemented the survey with in-depth interviews with five West European middle managers working in Poland. We ...

  8. Evaluation of various polishing systems and the phase transformation of monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2016-09-01

    Although a well-polished monolithic zirconia surface is essential, insufficient comparative studies on the constituents and efficacy of polishing systems have been conducted. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the abrasive constituents and compare the polishing effectiveness of 6 zirconia polishing systems, including their potential influence on the phase transformation of monolithic zirconia. The compositions of 6 zirconia polishing systems were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Sintered and high-speed ground monolithic zirconia specimens were used as control groups (n=14 specimens per group). Test groups (n=168) were pretreated identically to the control group and arbitrarily divided into 12 groups to examine 6 polishing systems for 2 polishing periods (60 or 120 seconds). The surfaces were characterized by a surface profiler and various analytic techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons and the Bonferroni method (α=.05). The abrasives were primarily composed of C, O, and Si. Diamond was identified as the main abrasive and SiC as the supplementary abrasive in the polishing systems. No significant differences were observed for the 60- or 120-second polishing times (P>.05). Four products had significantly lower surface roughness values than the other 2 (Pzirconia specimens. The monolithic zirconia polishing systems contained diamond and SiC abrasives. All zirconia polishing systems showed clinically acceptable results, and 4 systems exhibited lower surface roughness. Phase transformation did not occur during polishing procedure. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  10. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė; Vladislav Markovič; Olegas Černašėjus

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS) method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treat...

  11. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  12. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  13. Generous sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    I define "generous sustainability" as a combination of two conditions: neither instantaneous maximin utility nor attainable maximin utility should decrease over time. I provide a formal definition and study applications to a Climate Economy with bounded and with unbounded growth. Generosity is shown

  14. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  15. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  16. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  17. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  18. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  19. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  20. Effects of Polishing Bur Application Force and Reuse on Sintered Zirconia Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N G; Tsujimoto, A; Baruth, A G

    2018-03-16

    Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types. Each group was divided into subgroups for polishing (15,000 rpm) at 15 seconds for 1.0 N, 4.5 N, or 11 N of force using a purpose-built fixture. Subgroups were further divided to study the effects of polishing for the first, fifth, 15th, and 30th bur use, simulating clinical procedures. Unpolished surfaces served as a control group. Surfaces were imaged with noncontact optical profilometry (OP) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure average roughness values (Ra). Polishing burs were optically examined for wear. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on burs and zirconia surfaces. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD (honest significant difference) tests (α=0.05) were used for statistical analyses. AFM and OP Ra values of all polished surfaces were significantly lower than those of the unpolished control. Different polishing forces and bur reuse showed no significant differences in AFM Ra. However, significant differences in OP Ra were found due to differing application forces and bur reuse between the first and subsequent uses. SEM and optical micrographs revealed notable bur wear, increasing with increasing reuse. SEM and AFM micrographs clearly showed polished, periodic zirconia surfaces. Nanoscale topography, as analyzed with kurtosis and average groove depth, was found dependent on the specific polishing bur type. These in