WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable networked delivery

  1. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  2. Hyaluronan microgel as a potential carrier for protein sustained delivery by tailoring the crosslink network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunhong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: jhzhao@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) microgels with different crosslink network, i.e. HGPs-1, HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3, HGPs-6 and HGPs-15, were synthesized using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinker in an inverse microemulsion system for controlling the sustained delivery of bovine serum albumin (BSA). With increasing the crosslinker content, the average particle size slightly increased from 1.9 ± 0.3 μm to 3.6 ± 0.5 μm by dynamic laser scattering analysis. However, the crosslinker content had no significant effect on the morphology of HA microgels by scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis proved more sulfur participated in the crosslink reaction when raising the crosslinker amount. The water swelling test confirmed the increasing crosslink density with the crosslinker content by calculating the average molecular weight between two crosslink points to be 8.25 ± 2.51 × 10{sup 5}, 1.26 ± 0.43 × 10{sup 5}, 0.96 ± 0.09 × 10{sup 5}, 0.64 ± 0.03 × 10{sup 5}, and 0.11 ± 0.01 × 10{sup 5} respectively. The degradation of HA microgels by hyaluronidase slowed down by enhancing the crosslink density, only about 5% of HGPs-15 was degraded as opposed to over 90% for HGPs-1. BSA loading had no obvious influence on the surface morphology of HA microgels but seemed to induce their aggregation. The increase of crosslink density decreased the BSA loading capacity but facilitated its long-term sustained delivery. When the molar ratio of DVS to repeating unit of HA reached 3 or higher, similar delivery profiles were obtained. Among all these HA microgels, HGPs-3 was the optimal carrier for BSA sustained delivery in this system because it possessed both high BSA loading capacity and long-term delivery profile simultaneously. - Highlights: • HA microgels with different crosslink densities were prepared. • The crosslinker content had little effect on the morphology and size of HA microgels. • The crosslink density

  3. Self-reinforcement and protein sustained delivery of hyaluronan hydrogel by tailoring a dually cross-linked network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Chunhong; Xu, Guoguang; Wang, Xinghui; Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua; Zhao, Jianhao

    2015-01-01

    A series of self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels were developed to improve mechanical properties and protein sustained delivery thanks to a dually cross-linked network. Hyaluronan gel particles (HGPs, 1–5 μm in diameter) with different cross-linking densities, i.e. HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3 and HGPs-15, were prepared in an inverse emulsion system and used as the reinforcing phase after glycidyl methacrylation, while glycidyl methacrylated hyaluronan with a substitution degree of 45.2% was synthesized as the matrix phase. These two phases were cross-linked under ultraviolet irradiation to form self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels (srHAs) that showed typical cross-linked structure of HGPs connecting the matrix phase by cross-section observation. In comparison to hyaluronan bulk gels and their blends with HGPs, srHAs distinctly enhanced the mechanical properties and BSA long-term sustained delivery, especially srHA-1.5 showed the highest compressive modulus of 220 ± 15 kPa and the slowest BSA delivery (67% release at 14 d). The 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that all the srHAs had no cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • New self-reinforcing HA hydrogels with a dually cross-linked network were developed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels greatly enhanced the mechanical properties. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels prolonged the sustained delivery of BSA. • The self-reinforcing mechanism and BSA diffusion mechanism were discussed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels had no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast cells

  4. Self-reinforcement and protein sustained delivery of hyaluronan hydrogel by tailoring a dually cross-linked network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunhong; Xu, Guoguang; Wang, Xinghui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: jhzhao@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A series of self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels were developed to improve mechanical properties and protein sustained delivery thanks to a dually cross-linked network. Hyaluronan gel particles (HGPs, 1–5 μm in diameter) with different cross-linking densities, i.e. HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3 and HGPs-15, were prepared in an inverse emulsion system and used as the reinforcing phase after glycidyl methacrylation, while glycidyl methacrylated hyaluronan with a substitution degree of 45.2% was synthesized as the matrix phase. These two phases were cross-linked under ultraviolet irradiation to form self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels (srHAs) that showed typical cross-linked structure of HGPs connecting the matrix phase by cross-section observation. In comparison to hyaluronan bulk gels and their blends with HGPs, srHAs distinctly enhanced the mechanical properties and BSA long-term sustained delivery, especially srHA-1.5 showed the highest compressive modulus of 220 ± 15 kPa and the slowest BSA delivery (67% release at 14 d). The 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that all the srHAs had no cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • New self-reinforcing HA hydrogels with a dually cross-linked network were developed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels greatly enhanced the mechanical properties. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels prolonged the sustained delivery of BSA. • The self-reinforcing mechanism and BSA diffusion mechanism were discussed. • Self-reinforcing HA hydrogels had no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast cells.

  5. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  6. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  7. Architecting for Sustainable Software Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    14 CrossTalk—May/June 2012 RAPID AND AGILE STABILITY Architecting for Sustainable Software Delivery Ronald J. Koontz , Boeing Robert L. Nord...Figure 2, and additional architecture documentation can be found in the work of Koontz [9, 10, 11]. Designing for extensibility promotes continued...Mapping of Practices to Agile and Architecture Criteria CrossTalk—May/June 2012 19 RAPID AND AGILE STABILITY ABOUT THE AUTHORS Ronald J. Koontz

  8. Evaluation of Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) Containing Copolymer Networks of Varied Composition as Sustained Metoprolol Tartrate Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective β-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron ...

  9. Evaluation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) containing copolymer networks of varied composition as sustained metoprolol tartrate delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2014-08-01

    Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective β-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Swelling kinetics of SCNs in various media was followed, and the conditions for effective MT loading were specified. MT-loaded SCNs with drug content up to 80 wt.% were produced. The release kinetics of metoprolol tartrate from the systems was studied and it was shown that the conetworks of different structure and composition are able to sustain the metoprolol tartrate release without additional excipients.

  10. Microsensing networks for sustainable cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the microsensing technologies and systems now available to monitor the quality of air and water within the urban environment and examines their role in the creation of sustainable cities against the background of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The opening section addresses the theoretical and conceptual background of microsensing networks. The coverage includes detailed description of microsensors, supported by design-specific equations, and clear explanation of the ways in which devices that harvest energy from ambient sources can detect and quantify pollution. The practical application of such systems in addressing environmental impacts within cities and in sustainable urban planning is then discussed with the aid of case studies in developing countries. The book will be of interest to all who wish to understand the benefits of microsensing networks in promoting sustainable cities through better delivery of information on health hazards and improved provision of data to envir...

  11. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.

    2007-05-01

    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  12. Sustained Release Drug Delivery Applications of Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Lowinger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction over 50 years ago, polyurethanes have been applied to nearly every industry. This review describes applications of polyurethanes to the development of modified release drug delivery. Although drug delivery research leveraging polyurethanes has been ongoing for decades, there has been renewed and substantial interest in the field in recent years. The chemistry of polyurethanes and the mechanisms of drug release from sustained release dosage forms are briefly reviewed. Studies to assess the impact of intrinsic drug properties on release from polyurethane-based formulations are considered. The impact of hydrophilic water swelling polyurethanes on drug diffusivity and release rate is discussed. The role of pore formers in modulating drug release rate is examined. Finally, the value of assessing mechanical properties of the dosage form and approaches taken in the literature are described.

  13. Sustained subconjunctival protein delivery using a thermosetting gel delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Erin R; Amaral, Juan; Becerra, S Patricia; Lutz, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    An effective treatment modality for posterior eye diseases would provide prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents, including macromolecules, to eye tissues using a safe and minimally invasive method. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a thermosetting gel to deliver a fluorescently labeled protein, Alexa 647 ovalbumin, to the choroid and retina of rats following a single subconjunctival injection of the gel. Additional experiments were performed to compare in vitro to in vivo ovalbumin release rates from the gel. The ovalbumin content of the eye tissues was monitored by spectrophotometric assays of tissue extracts of Alexa 647 ovalbumin from dissected sclera, choroid, and retina at time points ranging from 2 h to 14 days. At the same time points, fluorescence microscopy images of tissue samples were also obtained. Measurement of intact ovalbumin was verified by LDS-PAGE analysis of the tissue extract solutions. In vitro release of Alexa 488 ovalbumin into 37 degrees C PBS solutions from ovalbumin-loaded gel pellets was also monitored over time by spectrophotometric assay. In vivo ovalbumin release rates were determined by measurement of residual ovalbumin extracted from gel pellets removed from rat eyes at various time intervals. Our results indicate that ovalbumin concentrations can be maintained at measurable levels in the sclera, choroid, and retina of rats for up to 14 days using the thermosetting gel delivery system. The concentration of ovalbumin exhibited a gradient that decreased from sclera to choroid and to retina. The in vitro release rate profiles were similar to the in vivo release profiles. Our findings suggest that the thermosetting gel system may be a feasible method for safe and convenient sustained delivery of proteins to choroidal and retinal tissue in the posterior segments of the eye.

  14. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  15. Astroglial metabolic networks sustain hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-05

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  16. Networks as Tools for Sustainable Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Tollin, Nicola

    will be discussed through a case study of a Danish municipal network on Sustainable Development, Dogme 20001. This network has become quite successful in terms of learning and innovation, committing actors, and influencing local policies, to a larger extent than other SUD-networks the municipalities are involved in....... By applying the GREMI2-theories of “innovative milieux” (Aydalot, 1986; Camagni, 1991) to the case study, we will suggest some reasons for the benefits achieved by the Dogme-network, compared to other networks. This analysis will point to the existence of an “innovative milieu” on sustainability within......Due to the increasing number of networks related to sustainable development (SUD) the paper focuses on understanding in which way networks can be considered useful tools for sustainable urban development, taking particularly into consideration the networks potential of spreading innovative policies...

  17. Networks as Tools for Urban Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Tollin, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of networks related to sustainable development (SUD) the paper focuses on understanding in which way networks can be considered useful tools for sustainable urban development, taking particularly into consideration the networks potential of spreading innovative policies...... will be discussed through a case study of a Danish municipal network on Sustainable Development, Dogme 2000 . This network has become quite successful in terms of learning and innovation, committing actors, and influencing local policies, to a larger extent than other SUD-networks the municipalities are involved in....... By applying the GREMI -theories of “innovative milieux” (Aydalot, 1986; Camagni, 1991) to the case study, we will suggest some reasons for the benefits achieved by the Dogme-network, compared to other networks. This analysis will point to the existence of an “innovative milieu” on sustainability within...

  18. Sustainable Urban Homecare Delivery with Different Means of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Szander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing number of requests for homecare services, care institutions struggle to perform in urban traffic, which eventually makes travel times longer and less predictable and, therefore, leads to a declining service quality. Homecare delivery scheduling and planning tools must lead to efficient reliable routes that allow the nursing crew to make the least efforts and use the fewest institutional resources, and that consider urban sustainability goals. For the case study, a European city was selected with 58,000 people of whom 73 patients received long-term care at homes provided by 11 homecare nurses. While maximising patient satisfaction, a homecare planning algorithm considered many means of transport and minimised travel times. The study reduced the total nurses’ working hours/day by a bus and walking combination, and by comparing if nurses ride e-bikes, which respectively reduced ~35–44% of the total time that nurses spent travelling. This result is applicable to an urban environment where the public transport network is sufficient and biking is allowed on a reasonable number of roads. Better homecare management can support the efficient use of resources of health care institutions, high-quality home care and aspirations towards livable communities and sustainable development.

  19. Building Trust-Based Sustainable Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    entities to build sustainable networks with limited resources or misbehaving entities by learning from the lessons in the social sciences. We discuss...their individuality); and ■ Misbehaving nodes in terms of environmental, economic, and social perspectives. The sustainable network concerns...equitable access to particular services which are otherwise abused by misbehaving or malicious users. Such approaches provide a fair and

  20. International Symposium on Computing and Network Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Akashe, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    The book is compilation of technical papers presented at International Research Symposium on Computing and Network Sustainability (IRSCNS 2016) held in Goa, India on 1st and 2nd July 2016. The areas covered in the book are sustainable computing and security, sustainable systems and technologies, sustainable methodologies and applications, sustainable networks applications and solutions, user-centered services and systems and mobile data management. The novel and recent technologies presented in the book are going to be helpful for researchers and industries in their advanced works.

  1. Practical guide to content delivery networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    With a practical and organized approach to learning and implementation, A Practical Guide to Content Delivery Networks presents a step-by-step process for building a highly available and highly scalable content delivery network (CDN). CDN refers to the infrastructure behind any service that provides utility or access to data to an end user. This book offers terminology, tactics, potential problems to avoid, and individual layers of design, providing clear understanding of the framework for CDNs using a structural and visual approach. The text emphasizes a best-of-breed strategy, allowing a tec

  2. Benchmarking Sustainability Practices Use throughout Industrial Construction Project Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungmin Yun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts for sustainability studies in building and infrastructure construction, the sustainability issues in industrial construction remain understudied. Further, few studies evaluate sustainability and benchmark sustainability issues in industrial construction from a management perspective. This study presents a phase-based benchmarking framework for evaluating sustainability practices use focusing on industrial facilities project. Based on the framework, this study quantifies and assesses sustainability practices use, and further sorts the results by project phase and major project characteristics, including project type, project nature, and project delivery method. The results show that sustainability practices were implemented higher in the construction and startup phases relative to other phases, with a very broad range. An assessment by project type and project nature showed significant differences in sustainability practices use, but no significant difference in practices use by project delivery method. This study contributes to providing a benchmarking method for sustainability practices in industrial facilities projects at the project phase level. This study also discusses and provides an application of phase-based benchmarking for sustainability in industrial construction.

  3. Networking of small cities to gain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleva , Zhanna; Sheresheva , Marina; Oborin , Matvey; Gvarliani , Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The paper addresses networking as a basis for cooperation of small cities leading to more sustainable regional development at the city, regional, and federal level. It is shown that networking of cities can contribute to increasing sustainability in many ways. Still, additional research is needed to adjust best management practices discussed in the relevant academic literature to the peculiarities of transition economies. The objective of the research presented in the ...

  4. Governance innovation networks for sustainable tuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Governance Innovation Networks for Sustainable Tuna

    Alice M.M. Miller

    Tuna fisheries are among the most highly capitalised and valuable fisheries in the world and their exploitation will continue for the foreseeable future. This means the sustainability of tuna

  5. Content Delivery in Future Mobile Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Karl; Raber, Sergey

    2003-07-01

    With the fast progress in the deployment of wireless networks during the last few years, the global communication market requires the development of new methods for content delivery towards mobile users. It is currently characterised by the introduction of the 3rd generation of terrestrial mobile networks based on 3GPP's UMTS standard. It is expected that this will eventually lead to integrated all-IP-based infrastructures supporting a variety of radio access technologies (so-called beyond-3G-networks or 4th Generation networks). The integration of mobility support, security and accounting and provisioning of differentiated qualities of service are among the issues which are currently researched in the 4G framework.Since it is not possible to change network protocols and infrastructure at once in order to optimize them for mobile services, it is very important to find an appropriate way for the migration from the current infrastructure towards an integrated architecture, where fixed and mobile networks coexist and interoperate in the most effective and flexible way.The integration of satellite communication networks into the terrestrial mobile communication environment is the focus of R&D activities at the Competence Centre for Advanced Satellite Communication of the FhG FOKUS institute. These activities are presented in this article, with a focus on the CoDeSat Content Delivery over Satellite project.In the remainder of this article we first summarize services and service requirements as they are considered in our work. We then discuss the challenges derived from these requirements with respect to current network and protocol architectures. Finally, we describe our approach, and the current status of our prototype implementation.

  6. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  7. Sustainable Operation of Arterial Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    This report describes operational data analysis and modeling of arterial networks with signalized intersections as follows: The setup for data collection, analysis and simulation is presented in Section 2.1. Detailed analysis of collected signal phas...

  8. Eco-sustainable routing in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Wang, Jiayuan; Palmieri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    infrastructures are now widely recognized to play a fundamental role in the emission of green-house gases (GHG) in the at- mosphere, signicantly aecting the environmental sustainability of new evolutions in network architectures as well as technological developments in communication devices. In this paper......, a novel eco-sustainable Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithm, based on shortest-path routing with an adaptive link weighting function relying on an extension of the OSPF-TE protocol to convey carbon footprint information, has been proposed to decrease the network ecological impact while...

  9. Building and Sustaining Learning Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Bessant, John; Barnes, Justin; Morris, Mike; Kaplinsky, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Research suggests that there are a number of potential advantages to learning in some form of network which include being able to benefit from other’s experience, being able to reduce the risks in experimentation, being able to engage in challenging reflection and in making use of peer group support. Examples of such configurations can be found in regional clusters, in sector groupings, in heterogeneous groups sharing a common topic of interest, in user groups concerned with le...

  10. SRUNs - sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemetz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it cannot be denied that fossil resources will approach or over-run their maximum global production rate within the 21st century. In addition to this resource constraints climate change has to be considered in parallel, requiring a drastic reduction in carbon emissions. These two trends clearly show that a fundamental shift is needed within the next decades, from fossil towards renewable resources. This transition gives rise to a change in the supply chains: while fossil fuels are typically exploited from point sources, nearly all renewable resources depend, either directly or indirectly, on solar radiation and area is required for their provision. This poses a new challenge for political, economic and social actors who can decide about land use. Within this thesis a conceptual framework of so called SRUNs – sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions - is developed. Regions have a responsibility in providing goods and services for the society within sustainable networks and bring the spatial dimension into consideration as well. The way how these networks are constructed is described in detail covering spatial planning, the stakeholder process, drivers and barriers as well as elements and features for SRUNs. Using the Process Network Synthesis (PNS) as an optimisation tool, the economic optimum of a network can be found and different scenarios compared. To show the ecological pressure of an established network an evaluation with the Sustainable Process Index (SPI) is carried out. Both computer tools are described and their application is shown in several case studies which are the versatility of the methods in practical implementation and application. Decision support tools offer the possibility for regional actors to analyse their region and to get a feeling about SRUNs. These tools provide an insight into the necessary changes which are needed to manage the shift towards a low carbon and sustainable society. (author) [de

  11. Green networking and communications ICT for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2013-01-01

    Although the information and communication technology (ICT) industry accounted for only 2 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2007, the explosive increase in data traffic brought about by a rapidly growing user base of more than a billion wireless subscribers is expected to nearly double that number by 2020. It is clear that now is the time to rethink how we design and build our networks.Green Networking and Communications: ICT for Sustainability brings together leading academic and industrial researchers from around the world to discuss emerging developments in energy-efficient netw

  12. Networks for Innovation for Sustainable Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liburd, Janne J.; Carlsen, Jack; Edwards, Deborah

    Innovation is key to responding to the future challenges that confront all sectors of society and the economy. Within tourism, there are numerous corporations and destinations around the world that are responding to the challenges posed by ecological, social, cultural and economic forces and making...... the transformation toward sustainability through innovation. Networks for Innovation in Sustainable Tourism assembles ten case studies of large and small enterprises and destinations in developed and developing nations that are pursuing innovative practices that will enhance the sustainability of their operations....... The cases have been prepared for use in research and teaching of innovation, and the analysis and case notes are designed to facilitate discussion and further investigation of innovation, not only in tourism, but in other economic sectors as well....

  13. Community Health Global Network and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the achievements, failures and passing of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG, the world has turned its eyes to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG, designed to foster sustainable social, economic and environmental development over the next 15 years.(1 Community-led initiatives are increasingly being recognised as playing a key role in realising sustainable community development and in the aspirations of universal healthcare.(2 In many parts of the world, faith-based organisations are some of the main players in community-led development and health care.(3 Community Health Global Network (CHGN creates links between organisations, with the purpose being to encourage communities to recognise their assets and abilities, identify shared concerns and discover solutions together, in order to define and lead their futures in sustainable ways.(4 CHGN has facilitated the development of collaborative groups of health and development initiatives called ‘Clusters’ in several countries including India, Bangladesh, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Myanmar. In March 2016 these Clusters met together in an International Forum, to share learnings, experiences, challenges, achievements and to encourage one another. Discussions held throughout the forum suggest that the CHGN model is helping to promote effective, sustainable development and health care provision on both a local and a global scale.

  14. Research Networks, Mentorship and Sustainability Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Nepal, M.; Shyamsundar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, a majority of institutions are ill-equipped to undertake research on multi-disciplinary environmental problems, though these problems are increasing at a fast rate and connected to the region's poverty and growth objectives. In this context, the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) tries to fill a research, training and knowledge gap by building skills in the area of Environment and Development Economics. In this paper, the authors argue that research networks contribute to the growth of sustainability knowledge through (a) knowledge creation, (b) knowledge transfer and (c) knowledge deepening. The paper tries to show the relationship between capacity building, mentorship and research scholarship. It demonstrates that researchers, by associating with the network and its multiple training and mentoring processes, are able to build skills, change curricula and deliver useful knowledge products. The paper discusses the need for interdisciplinary research and the challenges of bridging the gap between research outputs and policy reforms.

  15. Strategic Networks for Sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelyna Krasteva Yoveva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative approach towards introduction of an up-to-date sustainable development philosophy founded on the principles of combination and balance of common and individual interests on multilateral perspective, i.e. individuals vs. organizations, public groups vs. governmental authorities, industry vs. macroeconomic development, nation states vs. international regional development etc. The optimal implementation of such an approach is imminently dependent on an authentic self-awareness of own identity, values, purposes and motivation for positive contribution to the common well-being. The author’s arguments are based on the conviction that when more individuals and organizations harness deeper understanding of the mutual benefits within their operations area and undertake collaborative efforts to solve common problem their steadfast long-term development may be secured even in times of social-economic-political-eco-etc. crises and within a dynamically changing environment.Main purpose of current article is the concentration of the research on looking for and applying the principles of consistency, exchange of good collaborative practices and consequently strategic and operational utilization of the synergy effect, systems thinking and the holistic approach. Collaborative efforts would lead to greater effectiveness and optimization that satisfies individual and common interests in multiple environmental dimensions. The study aims to analyze the potential of a new network paradigm for provision of effectively applied strategies within the contemporary sustainable development context.Some good practices within the area of joint development of sustainable strategic networks in tourism industry in Bulgaria are presented. A case study of a culinary and hospitality cluster recently established in the Dobrudzha region is about to demonstrates the strategic network viability and sustainability in a contemporary agricultural

  16. The African Field Epidemiology Network-Networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mukanga, David; Babirye, Rebecca; Dahlke, Melissa; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities, and development partners, presenting the Network with a distinct vantage point. Through the Network, African nations are making strides in strengthening their health systems. Members are able to: leverage resources to support field epidemiology and public health laboratory training and service delivery notably in the area of outbreak investigation and response as well as disease surveillance; by-pass government bureaucracies that often hinder and frustrate development partners; and consolidate efforts of different partners channelled through the FELTPs by networking graduates through alumni associations and calling on them to offer technical support in various public health capacities as the need arises

  17. A novel nanoparticle formulation for sustained paclitaxel delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickler, W J; Nagvekar, A A; Dash, A K

    2008-01-01

    To develop a novel nanoparticle drug delivery system consisting of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) for the delivery of a wide variety of therapeutics including paclitaxel. Chitosan/GMO nanoparticles were prepared by multiple emulsion (o/w/o) solvent evaporation methods. Particle size and surface charge were determined. The morphological characteristics and cellular adhesion were evaluated with surface or transmission electron microscopy methods. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release and cellular uptake were determined using HPLC methods. The safety and efficacy were evaluated by MTT cytotoxicity assay in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). These studies provide conceptual proof that chitosan/GMO can form polycationic nano-sized particles (400 to 700 nm). The formulation demonstrates high yields (98 to 100%) and similar entrapment efficiencies. The lyophilized powder can be stored and easily be resuspended in an aqueous matrix. The nanoparticles have a hydrophobic inner-core with a hydrophilic coating that exhibits a significant positive charge and sustained release characteristics. This novel nanoparticle formulation shows evidence of mucoadhesive properties; a fourfold increased cellular uptake and a 1000-fold reduction in the IC(50) of PTX. These advantages allow lower doses of PTX to achieve a therapeutic effect, thus presumably minimizing the adverse side effects.

  18. Ocular Insert: Dosage Form for Sustain Opthalmic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for skin, the eye is the most easily accessible site for topical administration of a medication. Traditional topical ophthalmic formulations (eye drops and ointments have poor bioavailability because of rapid pre-corneal elimination, conjunctival absorption, solution drainage by gravity, induced lacrimation and normal tear turnover. This leads to frequent installations of concentrated medication to achieve a therapeutic effect. The typical “pulse-entry” type drug release observed with ocular aqueous solutions (eye drops, suspensions and ointments can be replaced by more controlled, sustained, and continuous drug delivery, using a controlled-release ocular drug delivery system. Ocular inserts are solid or semisolid sterile preparations, of appropriate size and shape, designed to be inserted behind the eyelid or held on the eye and to deliver drugs for topical or systemic effect. These are polymeric systems into which the drug is incorporated as a solution or dispersion. They are better tolerated as to drainage and tear flow compared with other ophthalmic formulation and produce reliable drug release in the conjunctival cul-de-sac.

  19. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  20. Polyelectrolyte microcapsules for sustained delivery of water-soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhakumar, S.; Debapriya, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Nagaraja, V. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Raichur, Ashok M., E-mail: amr@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2011-03-12

    Polyelectrolyte capsules composed of weak polyelectrolytes are introduced as a simple and efficient system for spontaneous encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs. Polyelectrolyte capsules were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembling of weak polyelectrolytes, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) on polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) doped CaCO{sub 3} particles followed by core removal with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The loading process was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using tetramethylrhodamineisothiocyanate labeled dextran (TRITC-dextran) as a fluorescent probe. The intensity of fluorescent probe inside the capsule decreased with increase in cross-linking time. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (a model water-soluble drug) was spontaneously deposited into PAH/PMA capsules and their morphological changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative study of drug loading was also elucidated which showed that drug loading increased with initial drug concentration, but decreased with increase in pH. The loaded drug was released in a sustained manner for 6 h, which could be further extended by cross-linking the capsule wall. The released drug showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. These findings indicate that such capsules can be potential carriers for water-soluble drugs in sustained/controlled drug delivery applications.

  1. Polyelectrolyte microcapsules for sustained delivery of water-soluble drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandhakumar, S.; Debapriya, M.; Nagaraja, V.; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte capsules composed of weak polyelectrolytes are introduced as a simple and efficient system for spontaneous encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs. Polyelectrolyte capsules were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembling of weak polyelectrolytes, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) on polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) doped CaCO 3 particles followed by core removal with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The loading process was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using tetramethylrhodamineisothiocyanate labeled dextran (TRITC-dextran) as a fluorescent probe. The intensity of fluorescent probe inside the capsule decreased with increase in cross-linking time. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (a model water-soluble drug) was spontaneously deposited into PAH/PMA capsules and their morphological changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative study of drug loading was also elucidated which showed that drug loading increased with initial drug concentration, but decreased with increase in pH. The loaded drug was released in a sustained manner for 6 h, which could be further extended by cross-linking the capsule wall. The released drug showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. These findings indicate that such capsules can be potential carriers for water-soluble drugs in sustained/controlled drug delivery applications.

  2. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P D; Podsakoff, G M; Chen, X; McQuiston, S A; Colosi, P C; Matelis, L A; Kurtzman, G J; Byrne, B J

    1996-11-26

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the beta-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies.

  3. Measuring sustainable accessibility potential using the mobility infrastructure's network configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.; Read, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an exploration into the analysis of public transport networks using space syntax approaches combined with concepts of sustainable accessibility. Present urban development policy aims to achieve sustainable mobility patterns, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes such as

  4. Delivering Sustainability Through Supply Chain Distribution Network Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ravet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Companies could gain (cost, service, green/sustainable competitive advantage through the supply chain network. The goal of this article is to study how to deliver sustainability through the supply chain distribution network redesign.Design/methodology/approach - A literature review is conducted to examine research relating to sustainable supply chain strategies and supply chain distribution network redesign.Findings - A study of the supply chain literature reveals the importance to rethink the supply chain distribution network design and to treat sustainability as integral to operations.

  5. Cephradin-plaga microspheres for sustained delivery to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustariz-Peyret, C; Coudane, J; Vert, M; Kaltsatos, V; Boisramé, B

    1999-01-01

    In the field of controlled drug delivery, most of the reported work is aimed at introducing new systems, or at providing basic information on the critical parameters which affect release profiles in vitro and occasionally in vivo. The situation is totally different when one wants to fulfil the specific requirements imposed by the marketing of a sustained release device to be used in humans or in animals eaten by human beings. The control of the release characteristics is then a difficult challenge. In this work, attempts were made to combine cephradin, a hydrophilic beta-lactam antibiotic, and bioresorbable polymeric matrices of a poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) in the form of microspheres with the aim of delivering the antibiotic to cattle at a dose rate of 4-5 mg/kg/day over a 3-4 days period after i.m. injection. PLAGA aliphatic polyesters were selected because they are already FDA approved as matrices. The solvent evaporation technique using PVA as the emulsion stabilizer was selected because it is efficient and can be extended to an industrial scale. Various experimental conditions were used in order to obtain the highest encapsulation yields compatible with the desired specifications. Decreasing the volume of the aqueous phase and adding a water-miscible organic solvent/non-solvent of cephradin failed. In contrast, microspheres containing up to 30% cephradin were prepared after addition of sodium chloride to the aqueous dispersing phase. The amount of entrapped drug was raised to 40% by decreasing the temperature and the pressure. Preliminary investigations using dogs showed that 20% cephradin microspheres prepared under these conditions extended the presence of cephradin in the blood circulation up to 48 h. Increasing the load led to higher blood concentrations but shorter sustained release. The fact that the microspheres were for cattle limited the volume of the injection and thus the amount of microspheres to be administered. The other limiting factors were

  6. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-08-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET, was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive, and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET has continued to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue, which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last 13 years. Since 2000, EARLINET has developed greatly in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution: from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000 to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has developed greatly also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multiwavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing, and the dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase in the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions, and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are aimed at continuous measurements and near-real-time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, such as in the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) www.actris.net, and with the modeling and satellite

  7. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies for transdermal sustained delivery of drug and vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaoyun; Wei, Liangming; Wu, Fei; Wu, Zaozhan; Chen, Lizhu; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, overcoming the shortages and preserving the advantages of hypodermic needle and conventional transdermal drug-delivery systems to some extent. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies have been used for transdermal sustained deliveries of different drugs and vaccines. This review describes microneedle geometry and the representative dissolving and biodegradable microneedle delivery methods via the skin, followed by the fabricating methods. Finally, this review puts forward some perspectives that require further investigation. PMID:24039404

  8. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-03-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET is continuing to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last thirteen years. Since 2000, EARLINET has strongly developed in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution, from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000, to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has strongly developed also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing and dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase of the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are in the direction of continuous measurements and near real time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, as in the ACTRIS research infrastructure, and with the modelling and satellite community, bridging the research community with the

  9. The Illinois Community College Sustainability Network--A Successful Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO), Bureau of Energy and Recycling, funded a pilot project creating a network of Sustainability Centers. The pilot project demonstrated that networked campus sustainability centers are an efficient mechanism to reach consumers, business, and industry. All 48 community…

  10. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le

    2015-01-01

    sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution...... centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains....

  11. Random Linear Network Coding for 5G Mobile Video Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vukobratovic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential increase in mobile video delivery will continue with the demand for higher resolution, multi-view and large-scale multicast video services. Novel fifth generation (5G 3GPP New Radio (NR standard will bring a number of new opportunities for optimizing video delivery across both 5G core and radio access networks. One of the promising approaches for video quality adaptation, throughput enhancement and erasure protection is the use of packet-level random linear network coding (RLNC. In this review paper, we discuss the integration of RLNC into the 5G NR standard, building upon the ideas and opportunities identified in 4G LTE. We explicitly identify and discuss in detail novel 5G NR features that provide support for RLNC-based video delivery in 5G, thus pointing out to the promising avenues for future research.

  12. Spatial Tiling and Streaming in an Immersive Media Delivery Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Prins, M.J.; Brandenburg, R. van; Havekes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 project FascinatE, a capture, production and delivery system capable of supporting pan/tilt/zoom interaction with immersive media is being developed. Intelligent networks with processing components are needed to repurpose the content to suit different device types and framing

  13. Sustainable and Resilient Supply Chain Network Design under Disruption Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain network design is a rich area for academic research that is still in its infancy and has potential to affect supply chain performance. Increasing regulations for carbon and waste management are forcing firms to consider their supply chains from ecological and social objectives, but in reality, however, facilities and the links connecting them are disrupted from time to time, due to poor weather, natural or manmade disasters or a combination of any other factors. Supply chain systems drop their sustainability objectives while coping with these unexpected disruptions. Hence, the new challenges for supply chain managers are to design an efficient and effective supply chain network that will be resilient enough to bounce back from any disruption and that also should have sufficient vigilance to offer same sustainability under a disruption state. This paper focuses on ecological sustainability, because an environmental focus in a supply chain system is more important and also links with other pillars of sustainability, as the products need to be produced, packed and transported in an ethical way, which should not harm social balance and the environment. Owing to importance of the considered issue, this paper attempts to introduce a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by incorporating (1 sustainability via carbon emissions and embodied carbon footprints and (2 resilience by incorporating location-specific risks. The proposed goal programming (GP model optimizes the total cost, while considering the resilience and sustainability of the supply chain network.

  14. Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new landscape planning approaches that enhance collaboration by building social networks and link them to ecological networks. In this farewell address I will explain why the social-ecological network is a p...

  15. Looking for Sustainable Urban Mobility through Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fusco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no formalised theory of sustainable urban mobility systems. Observed patterns of urban mobility are often considered unsustainable. But we don’t know what a city with sustainable mobility should look like. It is nevertheless increasingly apparent that the urban mobility system plays an important role in the achievement of the city’s wider sustainability objectives.In this paper we explore the characteristics of sustainable urban mobility systems through the technique of Bayesian networks. At the frontier between multivariate statistics and artificial intelligence, Bayesian networks provide powerful models of causal knowledge in an uncertain context. Using data on urban structure, transportation offer, mobility demand, resource consumption and environmental externalities from seventy-five world cities, we developed a systemic model of the city-transportation-environment interaction in the form of a Bayesian network. The network could then be used to infer the features of the city with sustainable mobility.The Bayesian model indicates that the city with sustainable mobility is most probably a dense city with highly efficient transit and multimodal mobility. It produces high levels of accessibility without relying on a fast road network. The achievement of sustainability objectives for urban mobility is probably compatible with all socioeconomic contexts.By measuring the distance of world cities from the inferred sustainability profile, we finally derive a geography of sustainability for mobility systems. The cities closest to the sustainability profile are in Central Europe as well as in affluent countries of the Far East. Car-dependent American cities are the farthest from the desired sustainability profile.

  16. Forword: sustainability in agrifood chains and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Beers, P.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Mommaas, H.; Veldkamp, A.

    2012-01-01

    To feed this and the next generations, sustainable development is considered the only viable future for agriculture. The successful implementation of sustainable development has remained an elusive goal in agriculture. Innovation initiatives in agriculture, such as TransForum in the Netherlands,

  17. Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    This review, presenting as starting point the concept of the mathematical modeling, is aimed at the physical and mathematical description of the most important mechanisms regulating drug delivery from matrix systems. The precise knowledge of the delivery mechanisms allows us to set up powerful mathematical models which, in turn, are essential for the design and optimization of appropriate drug delivery systems. The fundamental mechanisms for drug delivery from matrices are represented by drug diffusion, matrix swelling, matrix erosion, drug dissolution with possible recrystallization (e.g., as in the case of amorphous and nanocrystalline drugs), initial drug distribution inside the matrix, matrix geometry, matrix size distribution (in the case of spherical matrices of different diameter) and osmotic pressure. Depending on matrix characteristics, the above-reported variables may play a different role in drug delivery; thus the mathematical model needs to be built solely on the most relevant mechanisms of the particular matrix considered. Despite the somewhat diffident behavior of the industrial world, in the light of the most recent findings, we believe that mathematical modeling may have a tremendous potential impact in the pharmaceutical field. We do believe that mathematical modeling will be more and more important in the future especially in the light of the rapid advent of personalized medicine, a novel therapeutic approach intended to treat each single patient instead of the 'average' patient.

  18. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Pang, Chengfang; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A MINLP model for designing sustainable biodiesel supply network is developed. • Emergy sustainability index is used as the objective to be maximized. • Multiple alternatives in each stage of biodiesel supply network are considered. • Life cycle perspective is incorporated in the design of biodiesel supply network. - Abstract: Sustainability is an important and difficult consideration for the stakeholders/decision-makers when planning a biofuel supply network. In this paper, a Mixed-Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP) model was developed with the aim to help the stakeholders/decision-maker to select the most sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains

  19. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  20. Sustainable Performance in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Dragoni, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    In this practical demo we illustrate the concept of "sustainable performance" in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). In particular, for different classes of applications and under several energy harvesting scenarios, we show how it is possible to have sustainable performance when...

  1. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. International Green Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  3. Lifelong learning networks for sustainable regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron; Ruelle, Christine; Valkering, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable regional development is a participatory, multi-actor process, involving a diversity of societal stakeholders, administrators, policy makers, practitioners and scientific experts. In this process, mutual and collective learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and

  4. Structural dimensions of knowledge-action networks for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischa A. Munoz; B.B. Cutts

    2016-01-01

    Research on the influence of social network structure over flows of knowledge in support of sustainability governance and action has recently flourished. These studies highlight three challenges to evaluating knowledge-action networks: first, defining boundaries; second, characterizing power distributions; and third, identifying obstacles to knowledge sharing and...

  5. Construction of Injectable Double-Network Hydrogels for Cell Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Mengnan; Yang, Di; Wang, Qian; Liang, Fuxin; Qu, Xiaozhong; Qiu, Dong; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2017-07-10

    Herein we present a unique method of using dynamic cross-links, which are dynamic covalent bonding and ionic interaction, for the construction of injectable double-network (DN) hydrogels, with the objective of cell delivery for cartilage repair. Glycol chitosan and dibenzaldhyde capped poly(ethylene oxide) formed the first network, while calcium alginate formed the second one, and in the resultant DN hydrogel, either of the networks could be selectively removed. The moduli of the DN hydrogel were significantly improved compared to that of the parent single-network hydrogels and were tunable by changing the chemical components. In situ 3D cell encapsulation could be easily performed by mixing cell suspension to the polymer solutions and transferred through a syringe needle before sol-gel transition. Cell proliferation and mediated differentiation of mouse chondrogenic cells were achieved in the DN hydrogel extracellular matrix.

  6. Applying a rateless code in content delivery networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Zarlis, Muhammad; Parulian Sitorus, Sahat; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Content delivery network (CDN) allows internet providers to locate their services, to map their coverage into networks without necessarily to own them. CDN is part of the current internet infrastructures, supporting multi server applications especially social media. Various works have been proposed to improve CDN performances. Since accesses on social media servers tend to be short but frequent, providing redundant to the transmitted packets to ensure lost packets not degrade the information integrity may improve service performances. This paper examines the implementation of rateless code in the CDN infrastructure. The NS-2 evaluations show that rateless code is able to reduce packet loss up to 50%.

  7. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  8. Networks: Innovation, Growth and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet as a measureable manifestation of our social and economic relationships changed the domination of networks in our lives. From about 2000, the internet has allowed us to study and understand the type of networks in which we live, and to model their behaviour. The Internet has fundamentally changed the distribution of wealth. The rich became richer simply because of the larger scale of the trading network and stretched national wealth distributions. Network effects are therefore likely to be responsible for much of the perceived increases in inequalities in the last 20-30 years, and policies to tackle poverty must therefore address the extent to which the poor can engage with society's networks of wealth creation. The greatest challenge to continued growth and prosperity, and therefore to peace and justice, is climate change. The potential cost of inaction on climate change could be as high. Our self-organising social networks have structured our societies and economies, and are now reflected in our technology networks. We can now replicate their evolution in computer simulations and can therefore better assess how to deal with the greatest challenges facing us in the next few decades.

  9. Self-sustained oscillations of complex genomic regulatory networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weiming; Huang Xiaodong; Huang Xuhui; Li Pengfei; Xia Qinzhi; Hu Gang

    2010-01-01

    Recently, self-sustained oscillations in complex networks consisting of non-oscillatory nodes have attracted great interest in diverse natural and social fields. Oscillatory genomic regulatory networks are one of the most typical examples of this kind. Given an oscillatory genomic network, it is important to reveal the central structure generating the oscillation. However, if the network consists of large numbers of genes and interactions, the oscillation generator is deeply hidden in the complicated interactions. We apply the dominant phase-advanced driving path method proposed in Qian et al. (2010) to reduce complex genomic regulatory networks to one-dimensional and unidirectionally linked network graphs where negative regulatory loops are explored to play as the central generators of the oscillations, and oscillation propagation pathways in the complex networks are clearly shown by tree branches radiating from the loops. Based on the above understanding we can control oscillations of genomic networks with high efficiency.

  10. Social network analysis of sustainable transportation organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Studying how organizations communicate with each other can provide important insights into the influence, and policy success of different types of organizations. This study examines the communication networks of 121 organizations promoting sustainabl...

  11. Virtual learning networks for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development is a participatory, multi-actor process. In this process, learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and integrate a diversity of perspectives and types of knowledge and expertise in order to arrive at innovative, jointly supported solutions. Virtual

  12. Building skills for sustainability: a role for regional research networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Mukhopadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia, as local and regional environment problems grow, societal demand for new sustainability knowledge has outpaced its supply by traditional institutions and created a niche for research networks and think tanks. We discuss the role of networks in producing knowledge by using the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE as a case study. We argue that geographic research networks can contribute to the growth of sustainability knowledge through (1 knowledge transfer, (2 knowledge sharing, and (3 knowledge deepening. By analyzing qualitative and quantitative information, we showed that although SANDEE participants gained significant intangible advantages from the network, there was also a noted tangible gain is in terms of a higher international publication rate. The SANDEE experience also suggests that policy outcomes are more likely to emerge from the buildup of human capital rather than from direct research interventions.

  13. Network-Based Community Brings forth Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    It has already been shown that an artificial society based on the three relations of social configuration (market, communal, and obligatory relations) functioning in balance with each other formed a sustainable society which the social reproduction is possible. In this artificial society model, communal relations exist in a network-based community with alternating members rather than a conventional community with cooperative mutual assistance practiced in some agricultural communities. In this paper, using the comparison between network-based communities with alternating members and conventional communities with fixed members, the significance of a network-based community is considered. In concrete terms, the difference in appearance rate for sustainable society, economic activity and asset inequality between network-based communities and conventional communities is analyzed. The appearance rate for a sustainable society of network-based community is higher than that of conventional community. Moreover, most of network-based communities had a larger total number of trade volume than conventional communities. But, the value of Gini coefficient in conventional community is smaller than that of network-based community. These results show that communal relations based on a network-based community is significant for the social reproduction and economic efficiency. However, in such an artificial society, the inequality is sacrificed.

  14. Nanoparticles laden in situ gel for sustained ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.

  15. Gamification, social networks and sustainable environments

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fábio; Analide, César; Rosa, Luís; Felgueiras, Gilberto; Pimenta, Cedric

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent environments and ambient intelligence enabled systems provide means to gather rich information from both environments and its users. With the help of such systems, it is possible to foster communities of ambient intelligence systems with community driven knowledge, which is created by individual actions and setups in each of the environments. Such arrangements provides the potential to build systems that promote better practices and more efficient and sustainable environments by p...

  16. Gamification, Social Networks and Sustainable Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent environments and ambient intelligence enabled systems provide means to gather rich information from both environments and its users. With the help of such systems, it is possible to foster communities of ambient intelligence systems with community driven knowledge, which is created by individual actions and setups in each of the environments. Such arrangements provides the potential to build systems that promote better practices and more efficient and sustainable environments by promoting the community best examples and engaging users to adopt and develop proactive behaviors to improve their standings in the community. This work aims to use knowledge from communities of intelligent environments to their own benefit. The approach presented in this work uses information from different environments, ranking them according to their sustainability assessment. Recommendations are then computed using similarity and clustering functions ranking users and environments, updating their previous records and launching new recommendations in the process. Gamification concepts are used in order to keep users motivation and engage them actively to produce better results in terms of sustainability.

  17. Sustained delivery of biomolecules from gelatin carriers for applications in bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiankang; Leeuwenburgh, Sander Cg

    2014-08-01

    Local delivery of therapeutic biomolecules to stimulate bone regeneration has matured considerably during the past decades, but control over the release of these biomolecules still remains a major challenge. To this end, suitable carriers that allow for tunable spatial and temporal delivery of biomolecules need to be developed. Gelatin is one of the most widely used natural polymers for the controlled and sustained delivery of biomolecules because of its biodegradability, biocompatibility, biosafety and cost-effectiveness. The current study reviews the applications of gelatin as carriers in form of bulk hydrogels, microspheres, nanospheres, colloidal gels and composites for the programmed delivery of commonly used biomolecules for applications in bone regeneration with a specific focus on the relationship between carrier properties and delivery characteristics.

  18. Value networks in manufacturing sustainability and performance excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Uusitalo, Teuvo

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights innovative solutions together with various techniques and methods that can help support the manufacturing sector to excel in economic, social, and environmental terms in networked business environments. The book also furthers understanding of sustainable manufacturing from the perspective of value creation in manufacturing networks, by capitalizing on the outcomes of the European ‘Sustainable Value Creation in Manufacturing Networks’ project. New dynamics and uncertainties in modern markets call for innovative solutions in the global manufacturing sector. While the manufacturing sector is traditionally driven by technology, it also requires other managerial and organizational solutions in terms of network governance, business models, sustainable solution development for products and services, performance management portals, etc., which can provide major competitive advantages for companies. At the same time, the manufacturing industry is subject to a change process, where business net...

  19. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.

  20. Learning in Networks for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, Angelique; Boon, Jo; Sloep, Peter; Van Dam-Mieras, Rietje

    2010-01-01

    The didactic model of remote internships described in this study provides the flexibility needed to support networked learners, i.e. to facilitate the development and subsequent assessment of their competences. The heterogeneity of the participants (students, employers, tutors) in the learning

  1. Voluntary Standards, Expert Knowledge and the Governance of Sustainability Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Cheyns, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Products certified according to their environmental and social sustainability are becoming an important feature of production, trade and consumption in the agro-food sector. ‘Sustainability networks’ are behind the emergence and growth of these new product forms, often evolving into multi......-stakeholder initiatives that establish and manage base codes, standards, certifications and labels. As sustainability moves into the mainstream, understanding the governance of these networks is essential because they partly reshape the structure and characteristics of commodity flows. In this article, we examine...

  2. Etched ion track polymer membranes for sustained drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Vijayalakshmi; Amar, J.V.; Avasthi, D.K.; Narayana Charyulu, R.

    2003-01-01

    The method of track etching has been successfully used for the production of polymer membranes with capillary pores. In the present paper, micropore membranes have been prepared by swift heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC). PC films were irradiated with ions of gold, silicon and oxygen of varying energies and fluence. The ion tracks thus obtained were etched chemically for various time intervals to get pores and these etched films were used as membranes for the drug release. Ciprofloxacine hydrochloride was used as model drug for the release studies. The drug content was estimated spectrophotometrically. Pore size and thus the drug release is dependent on the etching conditions, ions used, their energy and fluence. Sustained drug release has been observed in these membranes. The films can be selected for practical utilization by optimizing the irradiation and etching conditions. These films can be used as transdermal patches after medical treatment

  3. Proceedings of the 1999 Sustainable Forest Management Network conference: science and practice : sustaining the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeman, S.; Smith, D.W.; Purdy, B.G.; Salkie, F.J.; Larkin, G.A. [eds.

    1999-05-01

    The wide range and complex nature of research in sustainable forest management, supported cooperatively by the forest products industry, governments, the universities, First Nations and other groups, is reflected in the 128 papers presented at this conference. The range of topics discussed include historical perspectives of forest disturbances, including fires and harvesting, biological diversity, gaseous, liquid and solid wastes, community sustainability, public involvement, land aquatic interfaces, forest management planning tools, contaminant transfer, First Nations issues, certification, monitoring and resource trade-offs. The theme of the conference {sup S}cience and practice: sustaining the boreal forest` was selected to identify the key efforts of the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Network on boreal forest research. The objective of the conference was to exchange knowledge and integrate participants into a better working network for the improvement of forest management. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Polymer nanocomposite particles of S-nitrosoglutathione: A suitable formulation for protection and sustained oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Gaucher, Caroline; Fries, Isabelle; Hu, Xian-Ming; Maincent, Philippe; Sapin-Minet, Anne

    2015-11-10

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a nitric oxide (NO) donor with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease treatment. Chronic oral treatment with GSNO is limited by high drug sensitivity to the environment and limited oral bioavailability, requiring the development of delivery systems able to sustain NO release. The present work describes new platforms based on polymer nanocomposite particles for the delivery of GSNO. Five types of optimized nanocomposite particles have been developed (three based on chitosan, two based on alginate sodium). Those nanocomposite particles encapsulate GSNO with high efficiency from 64% to 70% and an average size of 13 to 61 μm compatible with oral delivery. Sustained release of GSNO in vitro was achieved. Indeed, chitosan nanocomposites discharged their payload within 24h; whereas alginate nanocomposites released GSNO more slowly (10% of GSNO was still remaining in the dosage form after 24h). Their cytocompatibility toward intestinal Caco-2 cells (MTT assay) was acceptable (IC50: 6.07 ± 0.07-9.46 ± 0.08 mg/mL), demonstrating their suitability as oral delivery systems for GSNO. These delivery systems presented efficient GSNO loading and sustained release as well as cytocompatibility, showing their promise as a means of improving the oral bioavailability of GSNO and as a potential new treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustainable water deliveries from the Colorado River in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tim P; Pierce, David W

    2009-05-05

    The Colorado River supplies water to 27 million users in 7 states and 2 countries and irrigates over 3 million acres of farmland. Global climate models almost unanimously project that human-induced climate change will reduce runoff in this region by 10-30%. This work explores whether currently scheduled future water deliveries from the Colorado River system are sustainable under different climate-change scenarios. If climate change reduces runoff by 10%, scheduled deliveries will be missed approximately 58% of the time by 2050. If runoff reduces 20%, they will be missed approximately 88% of the time. The mean shortfall when full deliveries cannot be met increases from approximately 0.5-0.7 billion cubic meters per year (bcm/yr) in 2025 to approximately 1.2-1.9 bcm/yr by 2050 out of a request of approximately 17.3 bcm/yr. Such values are small enough to be manageable. The chance of a year with deliveries climate-change or long-term mean flows, currently scheduled future water deliveries from the Colorado River are not sustainable. However, the ability of the system to mitigate droughts can be maintained if the various users of the river find a way to reduce average deliveries.

  6. Protein instability and immunogenicity: roadblocks to clinical application of injectable protein delivery systems for sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskoot, Wim; Randolph, Theodore W; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Schöneich, Christian; Winter, Gerhard; Friess, Wolfgang; Crommelin, Daan J A; Carpenter, John F

    2012-03-01

    Protein instability and immunogenicity are two main roadblocks to the clinical success of novel protein drug delivery systems. In this commentary, we discuss the need for more extensive analytical characterization in relation to concerns about protein instability in injectable drug delivery systems for sustained release. We then will briefly address immunogenicity concerns and outline current best practices for using state-of-the-art analytical assays to monitor protein stability for both conventional and novel therapeutic protein dosage forms. Next, we provide a summary of the stresses on proteins arising during preparation of drug delivery systems and subsequent in vivo release. We note the challenges and difficulties in achieving the absolute requirement of quantitatively assessing the degradation of protein molecules in a drug delivery system. We describe the potential roles for academic research in further improving protein stability and developing new analytical technologies to detect protein degradation byproducts in novel drug delivery systems. Finally, we provide recommendations for the appropriate approaches to formulation design and assay development to ensure that stable, minimally immunogenic formulations of therapeutic proteins are created. These approaches should help to increase the probability that novel drug delivery systems for sustained protein release will become more readily available as effective therapeutic agents to treat and benefit patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Problems of logistic systems sustainable development in delivery chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Realization of supply chains management paradigm, covering significantly more volumes of logistic space, logically leads to complication of logistic systems, which, in its turn, arises significant number of problems of both theoretical and practical character. In our opinion, not all the aspects of logistic systems design and their sustainable functioning have received by the present time corresponding coverage in scientific literature. More detailed consideration requires specific problems of logistic systems interaction with their environment. We can talk about formation of new scientific direction (which we suggest to name logistic environics, being applied addition to classical approach to design of logistic systems. Methods: the formalized description of interaction process for logistic systems with the environment was presented and discussed  from ecological, social, economical, organizational and technological, technical, natural scientific positions. Results and conclusions: There is an interaction between logistics systems and the environment, but formalized description of logistic systems interaction process with the environment requires performance of complex interdisciplinary research from many different positions.

  8. Characterizing the sustainable forestry issue network in thc United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Thomas P. Holmes; Elizabethann O' Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Issue network analysis techniques were applied to the issue sustainable forestry in the United States to identify potential public and private outcomes for the issue. A quantitative approach based on work by Laumann and Knoke [(The Organizational State (1987)] was utilized in conjunction with the Delphi method. Results suggest that the parity in the distribution of...

  9. Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new

  10. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  11. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%. PMID:23476142

  12. Transscleral sustained vasohibin-1 delivery by a novel device suppressed experimentally-induced choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Onami

    Full Text Available We established a sustained vasohibin-1 (a 42-kDa protein, delivery device by a novel method using photopolymerization of a mixture of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and collagen microparticles. We evaluated its effects in a model of rat laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV using a transscleral approach. We used variable concentrations of vasohibin-1 in the devices, and used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting to measure the released vasohibin-1 (0.31 nM/day when using the 10 μM vasohibin-1 delivery device [10VDD]. The released vasohibin-1 showed suppression activity comparable to native effects when evaluated using endothelial tube formation. We also used pelletized vasohibin-1 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 40 kDa dextran as controls. Strong fluorescein staining was observed on the sclera when the device was used for drug delivery, whereas pellet use produced strong staining in the conjunctiva and surrounding tissue, but not on the sclera. Vasohibin-1 was found in the sclera, choroid, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, and neural retina after device implantation. Stronger immunoreactivity at the RPE and ganglion cell layers was observed than in other retinal regions. Significantly lower fluorescein angiography (FA scores and smaller CNV areas in the flat mounts of RPE-choroid-sclera were observed for the 10VDD, VDD (1 μM vasohibin-1 delivery device, and vasohibin-1 intravitreal direct injection (0.24 μM groups when compared to the pellet, non-vasohibin-1 delivery device, and intravitreal vehicle injection groups. Choroidal neovascularization can be treated with transscleral sustained protein delivery using our novel device. We offer a safer sustained protein release for treatment of retinal disease using the transscleral approach.

  13. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Paul D.; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Chen, Xiaojuan; McQuiston, Susan A.; Colosi, Peter C.; Matelis, Laura A.; Kurtzman, Gary J.; Byrne, Barry J.

    1996-01-01

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the β-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies. PMID:8943064

  14. Energy Recovery in Existing Water Networks: Towards Greater Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable improvements in the performance of irrigation water networks. Improving the energy efficiency of water systems by hydraulic energy recovery is becoming an inevitable trend for energy conservation, emissions reduction, and the increase of profit margins as well as for environmental requirements. This paper presents the state of the art of hydraulic energy generation in drinking and irrigation water networks through an extensive review and by analyzing the types of machinery installed, economic and environmental implications of large and small hydropower systems, and how hydropower can be applied in water distribution networks (drinking and irrigation where energy recovery is not the main objective. Several proposed solutions of energy recovery by using hydraulic machines increase the added value of irrigation water networks, which is an open field that needs to be explored in the near future.

  15. Towards port sustainability through probabilistic models: Bayesian networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Molina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary that a manager of an infrastructure knows relations between variables. Using Bayesian networks, variables can be classified, predicted and diagnosed, being able to estimate posterior probability of the unknown ones based on known ones. The proposed methodology has generated a database with port variables, which have been classified as economic, social, environmental and institutional, as addressed in of smart ports studies made in all Spanish Port System. Network has been developed using an acyclic directed graph, which have let us know relationships in terms of parents and sons. In probabilistic terms, it can be concluded from the constructed network that the most decisive variables for port sustainability are those that are part of the institutional dimension. It has been concluded that Bayesian networks allow modeling uncertainty probabilistically even when the number of variables is high as it occurs in port planning and exploitation.

  16. PEG-based degradable networks for drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroha, Jamie L.

    The controlled delivery of therapeutic agents by biodegradable hydrogels has become a popular mechanism for drug administration in recent years. Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of polymer chains held together by crosslinks. Although the changes which the hydrogel undergoes in solution are important to a wide range of experimental studies, they have not been investigated systematically and the factors which influence the degree of swelling have not been adequately described. Hydrogels made of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) will generally resist degradation in aqueous conditions, while a hydrogel made from a copolymer of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and PEG will degrade via hydrolysis of the lactic acid group. This ability to degrade makes these hydrogels promising candidates for controlled release drug delivery systems. The goal of this research was to characterize the swelling and degradation of both degradable and non-degradable gels and to evaluate the release of different drugs from these hydrogels, where the key variable is the molecular weight of the PEG segment. These hydrogels were formed by the addition and subsequent chemically crosslinking of methacrylate end groups. During crosslinking, both PEG and LA-PEG-LA hydrogels of varied PEG molecular weight were loaded with Vitamin B12, Insulin, Haloperidol, and Dextran. It was shown that increasing PEG molecular weight produces a hydrogel with larger pores, thus increasing water uptake and degradation rate. While many environmental factors do not affect the swelling behavior, they do significantly impact the degradation of the hydrogel, and thus the release of incorporated therapeutic agents.

  17. Preparation and characterization of alginate microspheres for sustained protein delivery within tissue scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Peng; Chen, X B; Schreyer, David J

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are designed not only to provide structural support for the repair of damaged tissue, but can also serve the function of bioactive protein delivery. Here we present a study on the preparation and characterization of protein-loaded microspheres, either alone or incorporated into mock tissue scaffolds, for sustained protein delivery. Alginate microspheres were prepared by a novel, small-scale water-in-oil emulsion technique and loaded with fluorescently labeled immunoglobulin G (IgG). Microsphere size appears to be influenced by the magnitude and distribution of force generated by mechanical stirring during emulsion. Protein release studies show that sustained IgG release from microspheres could be achieved and that application of a secondary coating of chitosan could further slow the rate of protein release. Preservation of bioactivity of released IgG protein was confirmed using an immunohistochemical assay. When IgG-loaded microspheres were incorporated into mock scaffolds, initial protein release was diminished and the overall time course of release was extended. The present study demonstrates that protein-loaded microspheres can be prepared with a controlled release profile and preserved biological activity, and can be incorporated into scaffolds to achieve sustained and prolonged protein delivery in a tissue engineering application. (paper)

  18. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies for transdermal sustained delivery of drug and vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong X

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyun Hong,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Fei Wu,2,* Zaozhan Wu,2 Lizhu Chen,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, overcoming the shortages and preserving the advantages of hypodermic needle and conventional transdermal drug-delivery systems to some extent. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies have been used for transdermal sustained deliveries of different drugs and vaccines. This review describes microneedle geometry and the representative dissolving and biodegradable microneedle delivery methods via the skin, followed by the fabricating methods. Finally, this review puts forward some perspectives that require further investigation. Keywords: microneedle, dissolving, biodegradable, sustained release

  19. Self-assembled pentablock copolymers for selective and sustained gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of cancer cells. The work highlights the importance of identifying intracellular barriers for different gene delivery systems and provides a new paradigm for designing targeting vectors based on intracellular differences between cell types, rather than through the use of targeting ligands. The PB vector was further developed to simultaneously deliver anticancer drugs and genes, which showed a synergistic effect demonstrated by significantly enhanced gene expression in vitro. Due to the thermosensitive gelation behavior, the PB vector packaging both drug and gene was also investigated for its in vitro sustained release properties by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate as a barrier gel to mimic the tumor matrix in vivo. Overall, this work resulted in the development of a gene delivery vector for sustained and selective gene delivery to tumor cells for cancer therapy.

  20. A Network Analysis Model for Selecting Sustainable Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsung Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most companies develop technologies to improve their competitiveness in the marketplace. Typically, they then patent these technologies around the world in order to protect their intellectual property. Other companies may use patented technologies to develop new products, but must pay royalties to the patent holders or owners. Should they fail to do so, this can result in legal disputes in the form of patent infringement actions between companies. To avoid such situations, companies attempt to research and develop necessary technologies before their competitors do so. An important part of this process is analyzing existing patent documents in order to identify emerging technologies. In such analyses, extracting sustainable technology from patent data is important, because sustainable technology drives technological competition among companies and, thus, the development of new technologies. In addition, selecting sustainable technologies makes it possible to plan their R&D (research and development efficiently. In this study, we propose a network model that can be used to select the sustainable technology from patent documents, based on the centrality and degree of a social network analysis. To verify the performance of the proposed model, we carry out a case study using actual patent data from patent databases.

  1. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Erik, E-mail: e.g.j.blokhuis@tue.nl [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brouwers, Bart [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, Eric van der [Endinet, Gas and Electricity Network Operations, P.O. Box 2005, 5600CA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schaefer, Wim [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: > Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. > Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. > Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. > The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. > Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  2. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhuis, Erik; Brouwers, Bart; Putten, Eric van der; Schaefer, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: → Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. → Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. → Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. → The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. → Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  3. SUSTAINABILITY INDICES AS MEASURES OF SERVICE DELIVERY IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salawu, I. O, Adeoye, Felix A & Olugbenga David OJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Open and Distance Education if well organized, is an adequate alternative to conventional education. For acceptability of this assertion, the public, governments, employers of labour and other stakeholders need to be convinced that ODL institutions are not providing half-baked education. Also, for the public and other shareholders enthusiasm and interest that are usually hard earned to be sustained, there is need for total commitment to the implementation of some established indices of sustainability. The thrust of this paper is in the appraisal of the extent to which two ODL institutions in Nigeria adhere to the principles of sustainability. A set of questionnaire was developed and used to collect data which were analyzed using simple non-parametric statistics. Suggestions which were aimed at improving the service delivery, in the institutions used for the study in particular, and other sister institutions especially in the developed countries were highlighted.

  4. Project configured supply networks: Governance of delivery and failures in operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2008-01-01

    of delivery types; parts, components and subsystems. The project configuration and orchestrated governance forms are not always successful, and failures emerge. The paper aims at studying governance forms in delivery networks using operational failures as litmus. Operation management approaches is used...... failures occurred during three month observation. The costs were 8 pct. of the production budget. None of the mobilised governance forms fully prevented failures, especially subsystem delivery and internal integration was underperforming.......  Supply networks in complex B2B- construction deliver knowledge, materials, components, subsystems, competences, workforce and management. The delivery network and its governance forms are partly permanent, partly project specific. Integration upstream varies by project, constituting a range...

  5. Locality-Driven Parallel Static Analysis for Power Delivery Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zhiyu

    2011-06-01

    Large VLSI on-chip Power Delivery Networks (PDNs) are challenging to analyze due to the sheer network complexity. In this article, a novel parallel partitioning-based PDN analysis approach is presented. We use the boundary circuit responses of each partition to divide the full grid simulation problem into a set of independent subgrid simulation problems. Instead of solving exact boundary circuit responses, a more efficient scheme is proposed to provide near-exact approximation to the boundary circuit responses by exploiting the spatial locality of the flip-chip-type power grids. This scheme is also used in a block-based iterative error reduction process to achieve fast convergence. Detailed computational cost analysis and performance modeling is carried out to determine the optimal (or near-optimal) number of partitions for parallel implementation. Through the analysis of several large power grids, the proposed approach is shown to have excellent parallel efficiency, fast convergence, and favorable scalability. Our approach can solve a 16-million-node power grid in 18 seconds on an IBM p5-575 processing node with 16 Power5+ processors, which is 18.8X faster than a state-of-the-art direct solver. © 2011 ACM.

  6. Fluvastatin as a micropore lifetime enhancer for sustained delivery across microneedle-treated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Priyanka; Brogden, Nicole K; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2014-02-01

    Microneedles (MNs), a physical skin permeation enhancement technique, facilitate drug delivery across the skin, thus enhancing the number of drugs that can be delivered transdermally in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The micropores created in the skin by MNs reseal because of normal healing processes of the skin, thus limiting the duration of the drug delivery window. Pore lifetime enhancement strategies can increase the effectiveness of MNs as a drug delivery mechanism by prolonging the delivery window. Fluvastatin (FLU), a HMGCoA reductase inhibitor, was used in this study to enhance the pore lifetime by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol, a major component of the stratum corneum lipids. The study showed that using FLU as a pretreatment it is possible to enhance the pore lifetime of MN-treated skin and thus allow for sustained drug delivery. The skin recovered within a 30-45-min time period following the removal of occlusion, and there was no significant irritation observed due to the treatment compared to the control sites. Thus, it can be concluded that localized skin treatment with FLU can be used to extend micropore lifetime and deliver drugs for up to 7 days across MN-treated skin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Dynamic Business Networks: A Headache for Sustainable Systems Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Carlos; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    Collaborative networked environments emerged with the spread of the internet, contributing to overcome past communication barriers, and identifying interoperability as an essential property. When achieved seamlessly, efficiency is increased in the entire product life cycle. Nowadays, most organizations try to attain interoperability by establishing peer-to-peer mappings with the different partners, or in optimized networks, by using international standard models as the core for information exchange. In current industrial practice, mappings are only defined once, and the morphisms that represent them, are hardcoded in the enterprise systems. This solution has been effective for static environments, where enterprise and product models are valid for decades. However, with an increasingly complex and dynamic global market, models change frequently to answer new customer requirements. This paper draws concepts from the complex systems science and proposes a framework for sustainable systems interoperability in dynamic networks, enabling different organizations to evolve at their own rate.

  8. Transnational organizing: Issue professionals in environmental sustainability networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-09-01

    An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how 'issue professionals' operate in two-level professional and organizational networks to control issues. This two-level network provides the context for action in which professionals do their institutional work. The two-level network carries information about professional incentives and also norms about how issues should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how transnational organizing happens, and how we can best identify attempts at issue control.

  9. In situ gel systems as 'smart' carriers for sustained ocular drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Das, Manasmita; Jain, Sanyog

    2012-04-01

    In situ gel systems refer to a class of novel delivery vehicles, composed of natural, semisynthetic or synthetic polymers, which present the unique property of sol-gel conversion on receipt of biological stimulus. The present review summarizes the latest developments in in situ gel technology, with regard to ophthalmic drug delivery. Starting with the mechanism of ocular absorption, the review expands on the fabrication of various polymeric in situ gel systems, made up of two or more polymers presenting multi-stimuli sensitivity, coupled with other interesting features, such as bio-adhesion, enhanced penetration or sustained release. Various key issues and challenges in this area have been addressed and critically analyzed. The advent of in situ gel systems has inaugurated a new transom for 'smart' ocular delivery. By virtue of possessing stimuli-responsive phase transition properties, these systems can easily be administered into the eye, similar to normal eye drops. Their unique gelling properties endow them with special features, such as prolonged retention at the site of administration, followed by sustained drug release. Despite the superiority of these systems as compared with conventional ophthalmic formulations, further investigations are necessary to address the toxicity issues, so as to minimize regulatory hurdles during commercialization.

  10. Exploring the knowledge ‘base’ of practitioners in the delivery of sustainable regeneration projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Akotia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainable regeneration has been recognised as being of major economic and social concern in the world. In the UK for instance, government has initiated a number of policies and evaluation methods to deal with some of the environmental problems associated with regeneration projects. However, the post construction evaluation of these projects has often resulted in them being seen as not achieving their set objectives. Attempts aimed at evaluating the impact of sustainability by built environment practitioners have primarily been limited to their assessment of the projects’ potential environmental impacts, with the associated socio-economic impacts being neglected. There has not been any well-defined built environment research that has been able to deal holistically with the broader issues of sustainability in terms of benefits/impacts of the regeneration projects to the communities concerned. The findings of an exploratory study that adopted a semi-structured interview approach for data collection, to explore the knowledge and understanding of fifteen practitioners who are often involved in the delivery of these projects are presented. The findings reveal a lack of knowledge and understanding of sustainability as well as structured mechanism/practices for evaluating the socio-economic sustainability factors in relation to regeneration projects.

  11. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using K-means and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mourelo Ferrandez, Sergio; Harbison, Timothy; Webwer, Troy; Sturges, Robert; Rich, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time and energy for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1) to investigate the time and energy associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2) to propose an optimizat...

  12. Sustained delivery of plasmid DNA from polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie, Hannah; Mooney, David J

    2006-07-07

    The encapsulation of DNA into polymeric depot systems can be used to spatially and temporally control DNA release, leading to a sustained, local delivery of therapeutic factors for tissue regeneration. Prior to encapsulation, DNA may be condensed with cationic polymers to decrease particle size, protect DNA from degradation, promote interaction with cell membranes, and facilitate endosomal release via the proton sponge effect. DNA has been encapsulated with either natural or synthetic polymers to form micro- and nanospheres, porous scaffolds and hydrogels for sustained DNA release and the polymer physical and chemical properties have been shown to influence transfection efficiency. Polymeric depot systems have been applied for bone, skin, and nerve regeneration as well as therapeutic angiogenesis, indicating the broad applicability of these systems for tissue engineering.

  13. City networks collaboration and planning for health and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Migdalas, Athanasios; Rassia, Stamatina; Pardalos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable development within urban and rural areas, transportation systems, logistics, supply chain management, urban health, social services, and architectural design are taken into consideration in the cohesive network models provided in this book. The ideas, methods, and models presented consider city landscapes and quality of life conditions based on mathematical network models and optimization. Interdisciplinary Works from prominent researchers in mathematical modeling, optimization, architecture, engineering, and physics are featured in this volume to promote health and well-being through design.   Specific topics include: -          Current technology that form the basis of future living in smart cities -          Interdisciplinary design and networking of large-scale urban systems  -          Network communication and route traffic optimization -          Carbon dioxide emission reduction -          Closed-loop logistics chain management and operation ...

  14. Big Social Network Data and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Can

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have led to the rapid and effective growth of social networks. The amount of data produced by social networks has increased the value of the big data concept, which is one of the popular current phenomena. The immediate or unpredictable effects of a wide array of economic activities on large masses and the reactions to them can be measured by using social media platforms and big data methods. Thus, it would be extremely beneficial to analyze the harmful environmental and social impacts that are caused by unsustainable business applications. As social networks and big data are popular realms currently, their efficient use would be an important factor in sustainable economic development. Accurate analysis of people’s consumption habits and economic tendencies would provide significant advantages to companies. Moreover, unknown consumption factors that affect the economic preferences of individuals can be discovered and economic efficiency can be increased. This study shows that the numerous solution opportunities that are provided by social networks and big data have become significant tools in dynamic policy creation by companies and states, in solving problems related to women’s rights, the environment, and health.

  15. A novel nanoparticulate system for sustained delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind Sadashiv; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, an effort was made to develop the Eudragit RS100 based nanoparticulate system for sustained delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ). LPZ-loaded Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNPs) were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The effects of various formulation variables such as polymer concentration, drug amount and solvent composition on physicochemical performance of nanoparticles and in vitro drug release were investigated. All nanoparticles were spherical with particle size 198.9 ± 8.6-376.9 ± 5.6 nm and zeta potential +35.1 ± 1.7 to +40.2 ± 0.8 mV. The yield of nanoparticles was unaffected by change of these three variables. However, the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were affected by polymer concentration and drug amount. On the other hand, the particle size of nanoparticles was significantly affected by polymer concentration and internal phase composition due to influence of droplet size during emulsification process. All nanoparticles prolonged drug release for 24h which was dominated by a combination of drug diffusion and polymer chain relaxation. The fastest and the slowest release rates were observed in C2-1002-10/0 and C8-4001-10/0, respectively, based on the release rate constant (k). Thus, the developed nanoparticles possessed a potential as a nano-carrier to sustain drug delivery for treatment of acid related disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecological networks: a spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.; Rooij, van S.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the ecological network concept as a suitable basis for inserting biodiversity conservation into sustainable landscape development. For landscapes to be ecologically sustainable, the landscape structure should support those ecological processes required for the landscape to

  17. Development of PEGylated PLGA nanoparticle for controlled and sustained drug delivery in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene results in CF. The most common mutation, ΔF508-CFTR, is a temperature-sensitive, trafficking mutant with reduced chloride transport and exaggerated immune response. The ΔF508-CFTR is misfolded, ubiquitinated, and prematurely degraded by proteasome mediated- degradation. We recently demonstrated that selective inhibition of proteasomal pathway by the FDA approved drug PS-341 (pyrazylcarbonyl-Phe-Leuboronate, a.k.a. Velcade or bortezomib ameliorates the inflammatory pathophysiology of CF cells. This proteasomal drug is an extremely potent, stable, reversible and selective inhibitor of chymotryptic threonine protease-activity. The apprehension in considering the proteasome as a therapeutic target is that proteasome inhibitors may affect proteostasis and consecutive processes. The affect on multiple processes can be mitigated by nanoparticle mediated PS-341 lung-delivery resulting in favorable outcome observed in this study. Results To overcome this challenge, we developed a nano-based approach that uses drug loaded biodegradable nanoparticle (PLGA-PEGPS-341 to provide controlled and sustained drug delivery. The in vitro release kinetics of drug from nanoparticle was quantified by proteasomal activity assay from days 1-7 that showed slow drug release from day 2-7 with maximum inhibition at day 7. For in vivo release kinetics and biodistribution, these drug-loaded nanoparticles were fluorescently labeled, and administered to C57BL6 mice by intranasal route. Whole-body optical imaging of the treated live animals demonstrates efficient delivery of particles to murine lungs, 24 hrs post treatment, followed by biodegradation and release over time, day 1-11. The efficacy of drug release in CF mice (Cftr-/- lungs was determined by quantifying the changes in proteasomal activity (~2 fold decrease and ability to rescue the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS (Pa

  18. Sustaining a Global Social Network: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Ferguson, S L

    2017-03-01

    To examine the longer term impact on the social network of participating nurses in the Global Nursing Leadership Institute (GNLI2013) through using differing frequencies of follow-up to assess impact on maintenance of network cohesion. Social network analysis is increasingly been used by nurse researchers, however, studies tend to use single point-in-time descriptive methods. This study utilizes a repeated measures, block group, control-intervention, quasi-experimental design. Twenty-eight nurse leaders, competitively selected through a double-blind peer review process, were allocated to five action learning-based learning groups. Network architecture, measures of cohesion and node degree frequency were all used to assess programme impact. The programme initiated and sustained connections between nurse leaders drawn from a geographically dispersed heterogeneous group. Modest inputs of two to three e-mails over a 6-month period seem sufficient to maintain connectivity as indicated by measures of network density, diameter and path length. Due to the teaching methodology used, the study sample was relatively small and the follow-up data collection took place after a relatively short time. Replication and further cohort data collection would be advantageous. In an era where many policy solutions are being debated and initiated at the global level, action learning leadership development that utilizes new technology follow-up appears to show significant impact and is worthy of wider application. The approach warrants further inquiry and testing as to its longer term effects on nursing's influence on policy formulation and implementation. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Chitosan nanoparticles for targeting and sustaining minoxidil sulphate delivery to hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Breno Noronha; Reis, Thaiene Avila; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins

    2015-04-01

    This work developed minoxidil sulphate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (MXS-NP) for targeted delivery to hair follicles, which could sustain drug release and improve the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan nanoparticles were obtained using low-molecular weight chitosan and tripolyphosphate as crosslink agent. MXS-NP presented a monomodal distribution with hydrodynamic diameter of 235.5 ± 99.9 nm (PDI of 0.31 ± 0.01) and positive zeta potential (+38.6 ± 6.0 mV). SEM analysis confirmed nanoparticles average size and spherical shape. A drug loading efficiency of 73.0 ± 0.3% was obtained with polymer:drug ratio of 1:1 (w/w). Drug release through cellulose acetate membranes from MXS-NP was sustained in about 5 times in comparison to the diffusion rate of MXS from the solution (188.9 ± 6.0 μg/cm(2)/h and 35.4 ± 1.8 μg/cm(2)/h). Drug permeation studies through the skin in vitro, followed by selective recovery of MXS from the hair follicles, showed that MXS-NP application resulted in a two-fold MXS increase into hair follicles after 6h in comparison to the control solution (5.9 ± 0.6 μg/cm(2) and 2.9 ± 0.8 μg/cm(2)). MXS-loading in nanoparticles appears as a promising and easy strategy to target and sustain drug delivery to hair follicles, which may improve the topical treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  1. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  2. Segmented polyurethane intravaginal rings for the sustained combined delivery of antiretroviral agents dapivirine and tenofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd J; Gupta, Kavita M; Fabian, Judit; Albright, Theodore H; Kiser, Patrick F

    2010-02-19

    Dual segment polyurethane intravaginal rings (IVRs) were fabricated to enable sustained release of antiretroviral agents dapivirine and tenofovir to prevent the male to female sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. Due to the contrasting hydrophilicity of the two drugs, dapivirine and tenofovir were separately formulated into polymers with matching hydrophilicity via solvent casting and hot melt extrusion. The resultant drug loaded rods were then joined together to form dual segment IVRs. Compression testing of the IVRs revealed that they are mechanically comparable to the widely accepted NuvaRing IVR. Physical characterization of the individual IVR segments using wide angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry determined that dapivirine and tenofovir are amorphous and crystalline within their polymeric segments, respectively. In vitro release of tenofovir from the dual segment IVR was sustained over 30 days while dapivirine exhibited linear release over the time period. A 90 day accelerated stability study confirmed that dapivirine and tenofovir are stable in the IVR formulation. Altogether, these results suggest that multisegment polyurethane IVRs are an attractive formulation for the sustained vaginal delivery of drugs with contrasting hydrophilicity such as dapivirine and tenofovir. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Financing Regional Dementia Networks in Germany: Determinants of Sustainable Healthcare Networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowsky, B; Wübbeler, M; Thyrian, J R; Holle, B; Gräske, J; Schäfer-Walkmann, S; Fleßa, S; Hoffmann, W

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of practice-based financing concepts in German dementia networks (DN); Provision of sustainable financing structures and their determinants in DN. Qualitative expert interviews with leaders of 13 DN were conducted. A semi-structured interview guide was used to analyse four main topics: Finance-related organization, cost, sources of funding and financial sustainability. DN were primarily financed by membership fees, earnings of services provided, public funds and payments by municipalities or health care providers. 63% of the DN reported a financial sustainability. Funds to support the interpersonal expanding, a mix of internal and external financing sources and investments of the municipality were determinants of a sustainable financing. Overall, DN in rural areas seemed to be disadvantaged due to a lack of potential linkable service providers. DN in urban regions are more likely able to gather sustainable funding resources. A minimum funding of 50.000 €/year for human resources coordinating the DN, seems to be a threshold for a sustainable DN. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Optical broadband in-home networks for converged service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Broadband access networks, and in particular fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks, are offering abundantly available bandwidth in the local loop with high quality of services. Under such broadband connectivity conditions, in-home networks should not represent the bottleneck for high capacity service

  5. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  6. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Kebede

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00% clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%, poor management and lack of awareness (60.00% and inadequate budget (40.00%. For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00% and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%. Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers’ indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00% was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased

  7. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-11-12

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all

  8. Local drug delivery - the early Berlin experience: single drug administration versus sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Ulrich; Scheller, Bruno; Rutsch, Wolfgang; Laule, Michael; Stangl, Verena

    2011-05-01

    Our initial investigations into restenosis inhibition by local drug delivery were prompted by reports on an improved outcome of coronary interventions, including a lower rate of target lesion revascularisation, when the intervention was performed with an ionic instead of non-ionic contrast medium. Although this was not confirmed in an animal study, the short exposure of the vessel wall to paclitaxel dissolved in contrast agent or coated on balloons proved to be efficacious. A study comparing three methods of local drug delivery to the coronary artery in pigs indicated the following order of efficacy in inhibiting neointimal proliferation: paclitaxel-coated balloons > sirolimus-eluting stents, sustained drug release > paclitaxel in contrast medium. Cell culture experiments confirmed that cell proliferation can be inhibited by very short exposure to the drug. Shorter exposure times require higher drug concentrations. Effective paclitaxel concentrations in porcine arteries are achieved when the drug is dissolved in contrast medium or coated on balloons. Paclitaxel is an exceptional drug in that it stays in the treated tissue for a long time. This may explain the long-lasting efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons, but does not disprove the hypothesis that the agent blocks a process initiating long-lasting excessive neointimal proliferation, which occurs early after vessel injury.

  9. Sustainability governance of chains and networks: a review and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Bailey, M.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent to which sustainability governance has been integrated into the literature on sustainable chains and networks. The analysis brings together four main approaches to chains and network studies – supply chain management (SCM), global commodity chains (GCC), global value

  10. Sustained Pulmonary Delivery of a Water-Soluble Antibiotic Without Encapsulating Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Winston; Nowak, Pawel; Cu, Yen; Schopf, Lisa; Bourassa, James; Enlow, Elizabeth; Moskowitz, Samuel M; Chen, Hongming

    2016-03-01

    Traditional polymeric nanoparticle formulations for prolonged local action during inhalation therapy are highly susceptible to muco-ciliary clearance. In addition, polymeric carriers are typically administered in high doses due to finite drug loading. For toxicological reasons, these carriers and their degradation byproducts are undesirable for inhalation therapy, particularly for chronic use, due to potential lung accumulation. We synthesized a novel, insoluble prodrug (MRPD) of a time-dependent β-lactam, meropenem, and formulated MRPD into mucus-penetrating crystals (MRPD-MPCs). After characterizing their mucus mobility (in vitro) and stability, we evaluated the lung pharmacokinetics of intratracheally-instilled MRPD-MPCs and a meropenem solution in guinea pigs. Meropenem levels rapidly declined in the lungs of guinea pigs receiving meropenem solution compared to those given MRPD-MPCs. At 9 h after dosing, drug levels in the lungs of animals that received meropenem solution dropped to 12 ng/mL, whereas those that received MRPD-MPCs maintained an average drug level of ≥1,065 ng/mL over a 12-h period. This work demonstrated that the combination of prodrug chemistry and mucus-penetrating platform created nanoparticles that produced sustained levels of meropenem in guinea pig lungs. This strategy represents a novel approach for sustained local drug delivery to the lung without using encapsulating matrices.

  11. Dual Cross-Linked Carboxymethyl Sago Pulp-Gelatine Complex Coacervates for Sustained Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Muniyandy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report for the first time the complex coacervation of carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP with gelatine for sustained drug delivery. Toluene saturated with glutaraldehyde and aqueous aluminum chloride was employed as cross-linkers. Measurements of zeta potential confirm neutralization of two oppositely charged colloids due to complexation, which was further supported by infrared spectroscopy. The coacervates encapsulated a model drug ibuprofen and formed microcapsules with a loading of 29%–56% w/w and an entrapment efficiency of 85%–93% w/w. Fresh coacervates loaded with drug had an average diameter of 10.8 ± 1.93 µm (n = 3 ± s.d.. The coacervates could encapsulate only the micronized form of ibuprofen in the absence of surfactant. Analysis through an optical microscope evidenced the encapsulation of the drug in wet spherical coacervates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the non-spherical geometry and surface roughness of dried drug-loaded microcapsules. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis confirmed intact and crystalline ibuprofen in the coacervates. Gas chromatography indicated the absence of residual glutaraldehyde in the microcapsules. Dual cross-linked microcapsules exhibited a slower release than mono-cross-linked microcapsules and could sustain the drug release over the period of 6 h following Fickian diffusion.

  12. Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) promotes sustained access to digital research data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berchum, M.; Kraaikamp, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) promotes sustained access to digital research data. For this purpose, DANS encourages researchers to archive and reuse data in a sustained form. In the online archiving system EASY research data is stored in a permanent and sustainable manner, according

  13. Sustainable and Resilient Garment Supply Chain Network Design with Fuzzy Multi-Objectives under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are taking more interest in developing sustainable garment supply chains in recent times. On the other hand, the supply chain manager drops sustainability objectives while coping with unexpected natural and man-made disruption risks. Hence, supply chain managers are now trying to develop sustainable supply chains that are simultaneously resilient enough to cope with disruption risks. Owing to the importance of the considered issue, this study proposed a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by considering sustainability via embodied carbon footprints and carbon emissions and resilience by considering resilience index. In this paper, initially, a possibilistic fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and resilient supply chain network model is developed for the garment industry considering economic, sustainable, and resilience objectives. Secondly, a possibilistic fuzzy linguistic weight-based interactive solution method is proposed. Finally, a numerical case example is presented to show the applicability of the proposed model and solution methodology.

  14. Data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information in a mobile ad hoc network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  15. Data Delivery Method Based on Neighbor Nodes’ Information in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kashihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes’ information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE, Chachulski et al. (2007, improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  16. Reliable Download Delivery in a Terrestrial DAB Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Shao, X.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable file transfer is important in broadcast networks. In this paper, we have investigated if it is useful to extend the DAB standard with Fountain codes. To evaluate this, results from measurements in a live Single Frequency Network (SFN) were used. Our results show that the existing error

  17. Optimal Hierarchical Modular Topologies for Producing Limited Sustained Activation of Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Marcus; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2010-01-01

    An essential requirement for the representation of functional patterns in complex neural networks, such as the mammalian cerebral cortex, is the existence of stable regimes of network activation, typically arising from a limited parameter range. In this range of limited sustained activity (LSA), the activity of neural populations in the network persists between the extremes of either quickly dying out or activating the whole network. Hierarchical modular networks were previously found to show...

  18. Buffer Management and Hybrid Probability Choice Routing for Packet Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the features of long connection delays, frequent network partitions, and topology unsteadiness, the design of opportunistic networks faces the challenge of how to effectively deliver data based only on occasional encountering of nodes, where the conventional routing schemes do not work properly. This paper proposes a hybrid probability choice routing protocol with buffer management for opportunistic networks. A delivery probability function is set up based on continuous encounter duration time, which is used for selecting a better node to relay packets. By combining the buffer management utility and the delivery probability, a total utility is used to decide whether the packet should be kept in the buffer or be directly transmitted to the encountering node. Simulation results show that the proposed routing outperforms the existing one in terms of the delivery rate and the average delay.

  19. Controllability of complex networks for sustainable system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often non-linear and non-intuitive relationships among different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the system-wide implications of human actions. This basic un...

  20. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) devices: Production and applications for sustained protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Parker W; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2018-03-13

    Injectable or implantable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) devices for the sustained delivery of proteins have been widely studied and utilized to overcome the necessity of repeated administrations for therapeutic proteins due to poor pharmacokinetic profiles of macromolecular therapies. These devices can come in the form of microparticles, implants, or patches depending on the disease state and route of administration. Furthermore, the release rate can be tuned from weeks to months by controlling the polymer composition, geometry of the device, or introducing additives during device fabrication. Slow-release devices have become a very powerful tool for modern medicine. Production of these devices has initially focused on emulsion-based methods, relying on phase separation to encapsulate proteins within polymeric microparticles. Process parameters and the effect of additives have been thoroughly researched to ensure protein stability during device manufacturing and to control the release profile. Continuous fluidic production methods have also been utilized to create protein-laden PLGA devices through spray drying and electrospray production. Thermal processing of PLGA with solid proteins is an emerging production method that allows for continuous, high-throughput manufacturing of PLGA/protein devices. Overall, polymeric materials for protein delivery remain an emerging field of research for the creation of single administration treatments for a wide variety of disease. This review describes, in detail, methods to make PLGA devices, comparing traditional emulsion-based methods to emerging methods to fabricate protein-laden devices. This article is categorized under: Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus-Based Structures Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Peptide-Based Structures. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Taste masking of ofloxacin and formation of interpenetrating polymer network beads for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to carry out taste masking of ofloxacin (Ofl by ion exchange resins (IERs followed by sustained release of Ofl by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN beads. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of Ofl to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared by batch method and investigated for in vivo and in vitro taste masking. DRC of methacrylic acid-divinyl benzene (MD resin and Ofl prepared at a ratio of 1:4 was used to form IPN beads. IPN beads of MD 1:4 were prepared by following the ionic cross-linking method using sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum (SCMXG and SCMXG-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMXG-SCMC. IPN beads were characterized with FT-IR and further studied on sustained release of Ofl at different pH. In vivo taste masking carried out by human volunteers showed that MD 1:4 significantly reduced the bitterness of Ofl. Characterization studies such as FT-IR, DSC, P-XRD and taste masking showed that complex formation took place between drug and resin. In vitro study at gastric pH showed complete release of drug from MD 1:4 within 30 min whereas IPN beads took 5 h at gastric pH and 10 h at salivary pH for the complete release of drug. As the crosslinking increased the release kinetics changed into non-Fickian diffusion to zero-order release mechanism. MD 1:4 showed better performance for the taste masking of Ofl and IPNs beads prepared from it were found useful for the sustained release of Ofl at both the pH, indicating a versatile drug delivery system.

  2. Sustainable network of independent technical expertise for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, Christophe; Rocher, Muriel; Lemy, Frank; Havlova, Vaclava; Mrskova, Adela; Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SITEX is a 24-month FP7 project led by IRSN and bringing together 15 organisations representing technical safety organisations (TSO) and safety authorities, as well as civil society outreach specialists involved in the 'regulatory' review process of geological disposal of radioactive waste. SITEX aims at establishing the conditions required for developing a sustainable network of experts from various horizons (authorities, TSO, academic organisations, civil society,...) capable of developing and coordinating the technical expertise that is required from the stakeholders in charge of delivering opinion, independently from the waste management organisations (WMO), on the safety of geological disposals. The SITEX programme of work is split into a set of six work packages that address technical and organisational issues allowing to propose a structure of the missions and operating mode of the future network. These issues relate on the one hand to the study of the potential for sharing and developing technical expertise practices amongst stakeholders, on the other hand on the ability to implement co-ordinated R and D programmes run by TSO in order to develop the scientific knowledge necessary to perform independent technical assessments. Two major perspectives are identified for the future of the SITEX network: its ability to foster co-operation between regulatory bodies, TSO, implementers and civil society with a view to enhancing common understanding of key safety issues and challenges and to identifying possible harmonisation of practices; the constitution of a scientific task force (mainly driven by TSO) for research definition and implementation at the European level allowing to improve the co-ordination of scientific programmes between TSO and developing its own skills and analytical tools, independently of the WMO. A comprehensive list of safety issues relevant to the development and implementation of a geological repository has

  3. Sustained Ocular Delivery of Ciprofloxacin Using Nanospheres and Conventional Contact Lens Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhwal, Rahul; Shady, Sally F.; Ellis, Edward J.; Ellis, Jeanne Y.; Leahy, Charles D.; McCarthy, Stephen P.; Crawford, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To formulate conventional contact lenses that incorporate nanosphere-encapsulated antibiotic and demonstrate that the lenses provide for sustained antibacterial activity. Methods. A copolymer composed of pullulan and polycaprolactone (PCL) was used to synthesize core-shell nanospheres that encapsulated ciprofloxacin. Bactericidal activity of the nanosphere-encapsulated ciprofloxacin (nanosphere/cipro) was tested by using liquid cultures of either Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nanosphere/cipro was then incorporated into HEMA-based contact lenses that were tested for growth inhibition of S. aureus or P. aeruginosa in liquid cultures inoculated daily with fresh bacteria. Lens designs included thin or thick lenses incorporating nanosphere/cipro and ciprofloxacin-HCl-soaked Acuvue lenses (Acuvue; Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc., Jacksonville, FL). Results. Less than 2 μg/mL of nanosphere/cipro effectively inhibited the proliferation of cultures inoculated with 107 or 108 bacteria/mL of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. HEMA-based contact lenses polymerized with nanosphere/cipro were transparent, effectively inhibited the proliferation of greater than 107/mL of bacteria added daily over 3 days of culture, and killed up to 5 × 109 total microbes in a single inoculation. A thicker lens design provided additional inhibition of bacterial growth for up to 96 hours. Conclusions. Core-shell nanospheres loaded with an antibiotic can be incorporated into a conventional, transparent contact lens and provide for sustained and effective bactericidal activity and thereby provide a new drug delivery platform for widespread use in treating ocular disorders. PMID:22266514

  4. Promoting sustainable energy systems through networks. A framework for network design developed using the case of BASE (Basel Agency for Sustainable Energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlup, M.

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to generate a framework for establishment of networks to promote sustainable energies and to evaluate the value of networking approaches for Sustainable Energies. Three fields of action had to be analysed and described to provide a full overview of the issues of concern for network design. These were defined as being general factors of success for networks, the definition of appropriate network objectives and the incorporation of demands and needs of the stake holders of a certain field of action. In addition, the framework conditions for the broad topic 'Sustainable Energies' was also analysed and discussed. The framework developed was established using a thorough analysis of the above-mentioned fields of action for BASE, the Basel Agency for Sustainable Energy. Building of trust is a prerequisite for network persistence. It is a slow process that involves different levels of trust. Contributing to successful establishment of trust are 'small wins', benefits that can be felt by participants at an early stage and personal contacts. Communication of the result of the network's activities externally is necessary to harvest PR- and image benefits often part of the motivation to join a network. Balanced inputs and outputs in a network by individual organisations and resource and power dependencies among participating organisations are further factors that influence network persistence. For BASE, a UNEP Collaborating Centre which wants to promote and facilitate investment in sustainable energy, accelerate market development and contribute to global climate protection, networking was recognised as a potential way to increase effectiveness as linking together actors of different levels of the value-chain of sustainable energy projects could help overcoming barriers slowing down investment in the new technologies. Different actors could make use of different specializations of the organisations involved in

  5. An adaptive routing strategy for packet delivery in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huan; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Ming; Hui, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present an efficient routing approach for delivering packets in complex networks. On delivering a message from a node to a destination, a node forwards the message to a neighbor by estimating the waiting time along the shortest path from each of its neighbors to the destination. This projected waiting time is dynamical in nature and the path through which a message is delivered would be adapted to the distribution of messages in the network. Implementing the approach on scale-free networks, we show that the present approach performs better than the shortest-path approach and another approach that takes into account of the waiting time only at the neighboring nodes. Key features in numerical results are explained by a mean field theory. The approach has the merit that messages are distributed among the nodes according to the capabilities of the nodes in handling messages

  6. Development of polyether urethane intravaginal rings for the sustained delivery of hydroxychloroquine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufei; Traore, Yannick Leandre; Li, Amanda; Fowke, Keith R; Ho, Emmanuel A

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been shown to demonstrate anti-inflammatory properties and direct anti-HIV activity. In this study, we describe for the first time the fabrication and in vitro evaluation of two types of intravaginal ring (IVR) devices (a surfaced-modified matrix IVR and a reservoir segmental IVR) for achieving sustained delivery (>14 days) of HCQ as a strategy for preventing male-to-female transmission of HIV. Both IVRs were fabricated by hot-melt injection molding. Surface-modified matrix IVRs with polyvinylpyrrolidone or poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings exhibited significantly reduced burst release on the first day (6.45% and 15.72% reduction, respectively). Reservoir IVR segments designed to release lower amounts of HCQ displayed near-zero-order release kinetics with an average release rate of 28.38 μg/mL per day for IVRs loaded with aqueous HCQ and 32.23 μg/mL per day for IVRs loaded with HCQ mixed with a rate-controlling excipient. Stability studies demonstrated that HCQ was stable in coated or noncoated IVRs for 30 days. The IVR segments had no significant effect on cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, or colony formation of vaginal and ectocervical epithelial cells. Both IVR systems may be suitable for the prevention of HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25336923

  7. Efficient health care service delivery using network analysis: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critical path) and less important together with their time duration. The average total time spent in the hospital was 43 minutes but with effective capacity planning using network analysis the total time was reduced to 18 minutes and the critical path ...

  8. Networking in the sport delivery system in South African Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Network theory, the cluster concept of Porter (1998) and the social capital ... for case study analysis of 60 sport-related entities at the 23 public universities in South ... them to schools and community clubs in the value chain of service provision.

  9. Organic Nano vesicular Cargoes for Sustained Drug Delivery: Synthesis, Vesicle Formation, Controlling “Pearling” States, and Terfenadine Loading/Release Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botcha, A.K.; Chandrasekar, R.; Dulla, B.; Reddy, E.R.; Rajadurai, M.S.; Chennubhotla, K.S.; Kulkarni, P.; Kulkarni, P.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained drug delivery systems” which are designed to accomplish long-lasting therapeutic effect are one of the challenging topics in the area of nano medicine. We developed an innovative strategy to prepare nontoxic and polymer stabilized organic nano vesicles (diameter: 200 nm) from a novel bolaamphiphile, where two hydrogen bonding acetyl cytosine molecules connected to 4,4′′-positions of the 2,6-bispyrazolylpyridine through two flexible octyne chains. The nano vesicles behave like biological membrane by spontaneously self-assembling into “pearl-like” chains and subsequently forming long nano tubes (diameter: 150 nm), which further develop into various types of network-junctions through self-organization. For drug loading and delivery applications, the nano vesicles were externally protected with biocompatible poly(ethyleneglycol)-2000 to prevent them from fusion and ensuing tube formation. Nontoxic nature of the nano vesicles was demonstrated by zebra fish teratogenicity assay. Biocompatible nano vesicles were loaded with “terfenadine” drug and successfully utilized to transport and release drug in sustained manner (up to 72 h) in zebra fish larvae, which is recognized as an emerging in vivo model system Synthetic nano

  10. Leveraging Educational, Research and Facility Expertise to Improve Global Seismic Monitoring: Preparing a Guide on Sustainable Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybade, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Fischer, K.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Meltzer, A.; Sandvol, E.; Willemann, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Building a sustainable earthquake monitoring system requires well-informed cooperation between commercial companies that manufacture components or deliver complete systems and the government or other agencies that will be responsible for operating them. Many nations or regions with significant earthquake hazard lack the financial, technical, and human resources to establish and sustain permanent observatory networks required to return the data needed for hazard mitigation. Government agencies may not be well- informed about the short-term and long-term challenges of managing technologically advanced monitoring systems, much less the details of how they are built and operated. On the relatively compressed time scale of disaster recovery efforts, it can be difficult to find a reliable, disinterested source of information, without which government agencies may be dependent on partial information. If system delivery fails to include sufficient development of indigenous expertise, the performance of local and regional networks may decline quickly, and even data collected during an early high-performance period may be degraded or lost. Drawing on unsurpassed educational capabilities of its members working in close cooperation with its facility staff, IRIS is well prepared to contribute to sustainability through a wide variety of training and service activities that further promote standards for network installation, data exchange protocols, and free and open access to data. Members of the Consortium and staff of its Core Programs together could write a guide on decisions about network design, installation and operation. The intended primary audience would be government officials seeking to understand system requirements, the acquisition and installation process, and the expertise needed operate a system. The guide would cover network design, procurement, set-up, data use and archiving. Chapters could include advice on network data processing, archiving data (including

  11. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  12. A conceptual framework for analyzing sustainability strategies in industrial supply networks from an innovation perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, H.W.M.; van Bommel, Harrie W.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a new conceptual framework concerning the implementation of sustainability in supply networks from an innovation perspective. Based upon a recent qualitative literature review in environmental, social/ethical and logistics/operations management journals, this article summarizes

  13. Performance analysis of data delivery schemes for a multi-sink wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.P.; Gabor, A.F.; Seah, W.K.G.; Lee, P.W.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to be deployed in harsh environments characterised by extremely poor and fluctuating channel conditions. With the commonly adopted single-sink architecture, such conditions are exemplified by contention near the sink as a result of multipath delivery. This may

  14. Surface Engineering of Porous Silicon Microparticles for Intravitreal Sustained Delivery of Rapamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Hou, Huiyuan; Moon, Sang Woong; Sailor, Michael J.; Freeman, William R.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the relationship between rapamycin loading/release and surface chemistries of porous silicon (pSi) to optimize pSi-based intravitreal delivery system. Methods. Three types of surface chemical modifications were studied: (1) pSi-COOH, containing 10-carbon aliphatic chains with terminal carboxyl groups grafted via hydrosilylation of undecylenic acid; (2) pSi-C12, containing 12-carbon aliphatic chains grafted via hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene; and (3) pSiO2-C8, prepared by mild oxidation of the pSi particles followed by grafting of 8-hydrocarbon chains to the resulting porous silica surface via a silanization. Results. The efficiency of rapamycin loading follows the order (micrograms of drug/milligrams of carrier): pSiO2-C8 (105 ± 18) > pSi-COOH (68 ± 8) > pSi-C12 (36 ± 6). Powder X-ray diffraction data showed that loaded rapamycin was amorphous and dynamic drug-release study showed that the availability of the free drug was increased by 6-fold (compared with crystalline rapamycin) by using pSiO2-C8 formulation (P = 0.0039). Of the three formulations in this study, pSiO2-C8-RAP showed optimal performance in terms of simultaneous release of the active drug and carrier degradation, and drug-loading capacity. Released rapamycin was confirmed with the fingerprints of the mass spectrometry and biologically functional as the control of commercial crystalline rapamycin. Single intravitreal injections of 2.9 ± 0.37 mg pSiO2-C8-RAP into rabbit eyes resulted in more than 8 weeks of residence in the vitreous while maintaining clear optical media and normal histology of the retina in comparison to the controls. Conclusions. Porous silicon–based rapamycin delivery system using the pSiO2-C8 formulation demonstrated good ocular compatibility and may provide sustained drug release for retina. PMID:25613937

  15. Surface engineering of porous silicon microparticles for intravitreal sustained delivery of rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Hou, Huiyuan; Moon, Sang Woong; Sailor, Michael J; Freeman, William R; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-22

    To understand the relationship between rapamycin loading/release and surface chemistries of porous silicon (pSi) to optimize pSi-based intravitreal delivery system. Three types of surface chemical modifications were studied: (1) pSi-COOH, containing 10-carbon aliphatic chains with terminal carboxyl groups grafted via hydrosilylation of undecylenic acid; (2) pSi-C12, containing 12-carbon aliphatic chains grafted via hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene; and (3) pSiO2-C8, prepared by mild oxidation of the pSi particles followed by grafting of 8-hydrocarbon chains to the resulting porous silica surface via a silanization. The efficiency of rapamycin loading follows the order (micrograms of drug/milligrams of carrier): pSiO2-C8 (105 ± 18) > pSi-COOH (68 ± 8) > pSi-C12 (36 ± 6). Powder X-ray diffraction data showed that loaded rapamycin was amorphous and dynamic drug-release study showed that the availability of the free drug was increased by 6-fold (compared with crystalline rapamycin) by using pSiO2-C8 formulation (P = 0.0039). Of the three formulations in this study, pSiO2-C8-RAP showed optimal performance in terms of simultaneous release of the active drug and carrier degradation, and drug-loading capacity. Released rapamycin was confirmed with the fingerprints of the mass spectrometry and biologically functional as the control of commercial crystalline rapamycin. Single intravitreal injections of 2.9 ± 0.37 mg pSiO2-C8-RAP into rabbit eyes resulted in more than 8 weeks of residence in the vitreous while maintaining clear optical media and normal histology of the retina in comparison to the controls. Porous silicon-based rapamycin delivery system using the pSiO2-C8 formulation demonstrated good ocular compatibility and may provide sustained drug release for retina. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Sustained Activity in Hierarchical Modular Neural Networks: Self-Organized Criticality and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. Previously, it was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We found that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and SOC, which are not present in the respective random networks. The mechanism underlying the sustained activity is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays SOC in the presence of weak perturbations. Therefore, the hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with SOC. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivity of critical states and the predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient information

  17. Diclofenac sodium ion exchange resin complex loaded melt cast films for sustained release ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelli, Goutham R; Balguri, Sai Prachetan; Bhagav, Prakash; Raman, Vijayasankar; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the present study is to develop polymeric matrix films loaded with a combination of free diclofenac sodium (DFS free ) and DFS:Ion exchange resin complexes (DFS:IR) for immediate and sustained release profiles, respectively. Effect of ratio of DFS and IR on the DFS:IR complexation efficiency was studied using batch processing. DFS:IR complex, DFS free , or a combination of DFS free  +   DFS:IR loaded matrix films were prepared by melt-cast technology. DFS content was 20% w/w in these matrix films. In vitro transcorneal permeability from the film formulations were compared against DFS solution, using a side-by-side diffusion apparatus, over a 6 h period. Ocular disposition of DFS from the solution, films and corresponding suspensions were evaluated in conscious New Zealand albino rabbits, 4 h and 8 h post-topical administration. All in vivo studies were carried out as per the University of Mississippi IACUC approved protocol. Complexation efficiency of DFS:IR was found to be 99% with a 1:1 ratio of DFS:IR. DFS release from DFS:IR suspension and the film were best-fit to a Higuchi model. In vitro transcorneal flux with the DFS free  +   DFS:IR (1:1) (1 + 1) was twice that of only DFS:IR (1:1) film. In vivo, DFS solution and DFS:IR (1:1) suspension formulations were not able to maintain therapeutic DFS levels in the aqueous humor (AH). Both DFS free and DFS free  +   DFS:IR (1:1) (3 + 1) loaded matrix films were able to achieve and maintain high DFS concentrations in the AH, but elimination of DFS from the ocular tissues was much faster with the DFS free formulation. DFS free  +   DFS:IR combination loaded matrix films were able to deliver and maintain therapeutic DFS concentrations in the anterior ocular chamber for up to 8 h. Thus, free drug/IR complex loaded matrix films could be a potential topical ocular delivery platform for achieving immediate and sustained release characteristics.

  18. The Global Network of Biofuel Sustainability Standards-setters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2015-01-01

    the relevance of incorporating in the current attributional conception of hybridity a network element, taking seriously the role of network structure in shaping regulatory fields. Social Network Analysis as an analytical tool holds great potential for further research into the structural features of hybrid...

  19. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multi-disciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organisations working to assess both ...

  20. The effect of local sustained delivery of sirolimus on the vascular PAI-1 and t-PA expression after angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E Yajun; He Nengshu; Fan Hailun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of local sustained delivery of sirolimus on the vascular inhibitor of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression after angioplasty. Methods: Experimental common carotid artery injury model was established in the rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into experimental group (n=20) and control group (n=10). Adventitial administration of drug was applied. Pluronic F-127 gel containing sirolimus was administered to the exposed adventitial surface of injured carotid artery. The experimental group was divided into high concentration (600 μg/100 μl) sub-group and low concentration (300 μg/100μl) sub-group according to the concentration of sirolimus delivered. The effect of local sustained delivery sirolimus on vascular PAI-1 and t-PA expression after percutaneous angioplasty was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to control group, 15 and 30 days after injury local sustained delivery of sirolimus in both high concentration and low concentration sub-groups the expression of the PAI-1 in neointima was significantly enhanced (P 0.05). At 15 and 30 days after injury, the expression of t-PA in neointima was decreased in both high and low concentration sub-groups (P<0.05), and the expression of t-PA in media was significantly decreased in high concentration sub-group (P<0.05) while on significant difference could be detected in low concentration sub-group. Conclusion: Local sustained delivery of sirolimus can induce the high expression of PAI-1 and low expression of t-PA in neointima although it inhibits the proliferation of neointima in the same time, and the imbalanced expression of t-PA and PAI-1 may probably play an important role in the late formation of thrombosis after the placement of drug-eluting stent. (authors)

  1. Alginate encapsulated mesoporous silica nanospheres as a sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We applied a combination of inorganic mesoporous silica material, frequently used as drug carriers, and a natural organic polymer alginate (ALG, to establish a sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug Indomethacin (IND. Mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs were synthesized using an organic template method and then functionalized with aminopropyl groups through postsynthesis. After drug loading into the pores of aninopropyl functionalized MSNs (AP-MSNs, IND loaded AP-MSNs (IND-AP-MSNs were encapsulated by ALG through the ionic interaction. The effects of surface chemical groups and ALG layer on IND release were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nitrogen adsorption, zeta-potential analysis and TGA analysis. The surface structure and surface charge changes of the ALG encapsulated AP-MSNs (ALG-AP-MSNs were also investigated. The results showed that sustained release of IND from the designed drug delivery system was mainly due to the blockage effect from the coated ALG. We believe that this combination will help designing oral sustained drug delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs.

  2. Building Service Delivery Networks: Partnership Evolution Among Children's Behavioral Health Agencies in Response to New Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C; Doogan, Nathan J; Cao, Yiwen

    2014-12-01

    Meeting the complex needs of youth with behavioral health problems requires a coordinated network of community-based agencies. Although fiscal scarcity or retrenchment can limit coordinated services, munificence can stimulate service delivery partnerships as agencies expand programs, hire staff, and spend more time coordinating services. This study examines the 2-year evolution of referral and staff expertise sharing networks in response to substantial new funding for services within a regional network of children's mental health organizations. Quantitative network survey data were collected from directors of 22 nonprofit organizations that receive funding from a county government-based behavioral health service fund. Both referral and staff expertise sharing networks changed over time, but results of a stochastic actor-oriented model of network dynamics suggest the nature of this change varies for these networks. Agencies with higher numbers of referral and staff expertise sharing partners tend to maintain these ties and/or develop new relationships over the 2 years. Agencies tend to refer to agencies they trust, but trust was not associated with staff expertise sharing ties. However, agencies maintain or form staff expertise sharing ties with referral partners, or with organizations that provide similar services. In addition, agencies tend to reciprocate staff expertise sharing, but not referrals. Findings suggest that during periods of resource munificence and service expansion, behavioral health organizations build service delivery partnerships in complex ways that build upon prior collaborative history and coordinate services among similar types of providers. Referral partnerships can pave the way for future information sharing relationships.

  3. Analytic network process model for sustainable lean and green manufacturing performance indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, Adam Shariff Adli; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Mohamed, Nik Mohd Zuki Nik

    2014-09-01

    Sustainable manufacturing is regarded as the most complex manufacturing paradigm to date as it holds the widest scope of requirements. In addition, its three major pillars of economic, environment and society though distinct, have some overlapping among each of its elements. Even though the concept of sustainability is not new, the development of the performance indicator still needs a lot of improvement due to its multifaceted nature, which requires integrated approach to solve the problem. This paper proposed the best combination of criteria en route a robust sustainable manufacturing performance indicator formation via Analytic Network Process (ANP). The integrated lean, green and sustainable ANP model can be used to comprehend the complex decision system of the sustainability assessment. The finding shows that green manufacturing is more sustainable than lean manufacturing. It also illustrates that procurement practice is the most important criteria in the sustainable manufacturing performance indicator.

  4. Leveraging socially networked mobile ICT platforms for the last-mile delivery problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyo; Smith, Timothy; Linhoff, Michelle

    2012-09-04

    Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these social relationships by leveraging spatial and networked information for sharing excess capacity to reduce the environmental impacts associated with "last-mile" package delivery systems from online purchases, particularly in low population density settings. Alternative package pickup location systems (PLS), such as a kiosk on a public transit platform or in a grocery store, have been suggested as effective strategies for reducing package travel miles and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to current door-to-door delivery models (CDS). However, our results suggest that a pickup location delivery system operating in a suburban setting may actually increase travel miles and emissions. Only once a social network is employed to assist in package pickup (SPLS) are significant reductions in the last-mile delivery distance and carbon emissions observed across both urban and suburban settings. Implications for logistics management's decades-long focus on improving efficiencies of dedicated distribution systems through specialization, as well as for public policy targeting carbon emissions of the transport sector are discussed.

  5. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. They are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality. We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. It was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We find that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and self-organized criticality, which are not present in the respective random networks. The underlying mechanism is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays self-organized criticality in the presence of weak perturbations. The hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with self-organized criticality. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivityof critical state and predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient

  6. A Framework for Secure Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas PERLEPES

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical sensor nodes are resource constrained devices containing user level applications, operating system components, and device drivers in a single address space, with no form of memory protection. A malicious user could easily capture a node and tamper the applications running on it, in order to perform different types of attacks. In this paper, we propose a 3-layer Security Framework composed by physical security schemes, cryptography of communication channels and live forensics protection techniques that allows for secure WSN deployments. Each of the abovementioned techniques maximizes the security levels leading to a tamper proof sensor node. By applying the proposed security framework, secure communication between nodes is guaranteed, identified captured nodes are silenced and their destructive effect on the rest of the network infrastructure is minimized due to the early measures applied. Our main concern is to propose a framework that balances its attributes between robustness, as long as security is concerned and cost effective implementation as far as resources (energy consumption are concerned.

  7. A Step towards Developing a Sustainability Performance Measure within Industrial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Shokravi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the plethora of literature in sustainability and supply chain management in the recent years, a quantitative tool that measures the sustainability performance of an industrial supply network, considering the uncertainties of existing data, is hard to find. This conceptual paper is aimed at establishing a quantitative measure for the sustainability performance of industrial supply networks that considers aleatory and epistemic uncertainties in its environmental performance evaluation. The measure is built upon economic, environmental and social performance evaluation models. These models address a number of shortcomings in the literature, such as incomplete and inaccurate calculation of environmental impacts, as well as the disregard for aleatory and epistemic uncertainties in the input data and, more importantly, the scarce number of quantitative social sustainability measures. Dyadic interactions are chosen for the network, while the network members have a revenue-sharing relationship. This relationship promotes sharing of the required information for the use of the proposed model. This measure provides an approach to quantify the environmental, social and economic sustainability performances of a supply network. Moreover, as this measure is not specifically designed for an industrial sector, it can be employed over an evolving and diverse industrial network.

  8. Nanoparticles in Porous Microparticles Prepared by Supercritical Infusion and Pressure Quench Technology for Sustained Delivery of Bevacizumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.Yandrapu, Sarath; Upadhyay, Arun K.; Petrash, J. Mark; Kompella, Uday B.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles in porous microparticles (NPinPMP), a novel delivery system for sustained delivery of protein drugs, was developed using supercritical infusion and pressure quench technology, which does not expose proteins to organic solvents or sonication. The delivery system design is based on the ability of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) to expand poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) matrix but not polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. The technology was applied to bevacizumab, a protein drug administered once a month intravitreally to treat wet age related macular degeneration. Bevacizumab coated PLA nanoparticles were encapsulated into porosifying PLGA microparticles by exposing the mixture to SC CO2. After SC CO2 exposure, the size of PLGA microparticles increased by 6.9 fold. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrated the expansion and porosification of PLGA microparticles and infusion of PLA nanoparticles inside PLGA microparticles. In vitro release of bevacizumab from NPinPMP was sustained for 4 months. Size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and ELISA studies indicated that the released bevacizumab maintained its monomeric form, conformation, and activity. Further, in vivo delivery of bevacizumab from NPinPMP was evaluated using noninvasive fluorophotometry after intravitreal administration of Alexa Flour 488 conjugated bevacizumab in either solution or NPinPMP in a rat model. Unlike the vitreal signal from Alexa-bevacizumab solution, which reached baseline at 2 weeks, release of Alexa-bevacizumab from NPinPMP could be detected for 2 months. Thus, NPinPMP is a novel sustained release system for protein drugs to reduce frequency of protein injections in the therapy of back of the eye diseases. PMID:24131101

  9. Nanoparticles in porous microparticles prepared by supercritical infusion and pressure quench technology for sustained delivery of bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandrapu, Sarath K; Upadhyay, Arun K; Petrash, J Mark; Kompella, Uday B

    2013-12-02

    Nanoparticles in porous microparticles (NPinPMP), a novel delivery system for sustained delivery of protein drugs, was developed using supercritical infusion and pressure quench technology, which does not expose proteins to organic solvents or sonication. The delivery system design is based on the ability of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) to expand poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) matrix but not polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. The technology was applied to bevacizumab, a protein drug administered once a month intravitreally to treat wet age related macular degeneration. Bevacizumab coated PLA nanoparticles were encapsulated into porosifying PLGA microparticles by exposing the mixture to SC CO2. After SC CO2 exposure, the size of PLGA microparticles increased by 6.9-fold. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrated the expansion and porosification of PLGA microparticles and infusion of PLA nanoparticles inside PLGA microparticles. In vitro release of bevacizumab from NPinPMP was sustained for 4 months. Size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and ELISA studies indicated that the released bevacizumab maintained its monomeric form, conformation, and activity. Further, in vivo delivery of bevacizumab from NPinPMP was evaluated using noninvasive fluorophotometry after intravitreal administration of Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated bevacizumab in either solution or NPinPMP in a rat model. Unlike the vitreal signal from Alexa-bevacizumab solution, which reached baseline at 2 weeks, release of Alexa-bevacizumab from NPinPMP could be detected for 2 months. Thus, NPinPMP is a novel sustained release system for protein drugs to reduce frequency of protein injections in the therapy of back of the eye diseases.

  10. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social networks (SNs) are social frameworks that form good entry points for business and socio-economic developments. Social networks are important for small-scale, resource-poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, who overly rely on informal sources of information. SNs provide opportunities for establishing effective ...

  11. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision

  12. Application of social network analysis in the assessment of organization infrastructure for service delivery: a three district case study from post-conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Kawooya, Vincent; Namakula, Justine; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    In post-conflict settings, service coverage indices are unlikely to be sustained if health systems are built on weak and unstable inter-organization networks-here referred to as infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-organization infrastructure that supports the provision of selected health services in the reconstruction phase after conflict in northern Uganda. Applied social network analysis was used to establish the structure, size and function among organizations supporting the provision of (1) HIV treatment, (2) maternal delivery services and (3) workforce strengthening. Overall, 87 organizations were identified from 48 respondent organizations in the three post-conflict districts in northern Uganda. A two-stage snowball approach was used starting with service provider organizations in each district. Data included a list of organizations and their key attributes related to the provision of each service for the year 2012-13. The findings show that inter-organization networks are mostly focused on HIV treatment and least for workforce strengthening. The networks for HIV treatment and maternal services were about 3-4 times denser relative to the network for workforce strengthening. The network for HIV treatment accounted for 69-81% of the aggregated network in Gulu and Kitgum districts. In contrast, the network for workforce strengthening contributed the least (6% and 10%) in these two districts. Likewise, the networks supporting a young district (Amuru) was under invested with few organizations and sparse connections. Overall, organizations exhibited a broad range of functional roles in supporting HIV treatment compared to other services in the study. Basic information about the inter-organization setup (infrastructure)-can contribute to knowledge for building organization networks in more equitable ways. More connected organizations can be leveraged for faster communication and resource flow to boost the delivery of health services

  13. Synthesis and Design of a Sustainable CO2 Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    In response to increasing regulations and concern about the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are targeted for reduction. One method is the conversion of CO2 to useful compounds via chemical reactions. However, conversion is still in its infancy...... and requires work for implementation at an industrial level. One aspect of this is the development of a methodology for the formulation and optimization of sustainable conversion processes. This methodology follows three stages for the process synthesis, design and more sustainable design. Using...

  14. Branding the city of Šibenik as a sustainable tourist destination using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Blaće

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism, as a fast-growing cultural and economic activity, offers great opportunities for steady development of branded regions and cities. Branding is an integral part of marketing, aimed at raising awareness and creating loyalty among customers. Recent trends show the growing impact of social networks in brand creation. Croatia has one of the shortest tourist seasons in Europe, which affects the sustainability of tourism. Therefore, a pilot study of the Dalmatian town of Šibenik has been made in order to examine whether there is room for development of a sustainable tourism model through strengthening its brand with the help of modern technology, predominantly the social networks. The rich tourism potential of Šibenik has not been sufficiently exploited for sustainable tourism through a recognizable tourism brand, and the official development strategies neglected to examine the use of social networks in achieving both goals. Therefore, an online survey has been conducted in order to determine whether Šibenik is recognized as a tourist destination through social networks. The results should help in developing a systematic approach to the branding of Šibenik. It should simultaneously address the issue of its seasonal attractiveness to tourists, thus contributing to the extension of the season and increasing sustainability of tourism activities. In that way, the branding of the city will not turn into a traditional marketing strategy to promote its market, and may contribute to its sustainable development as well as serve as a model to similar cities.

  15. Experiences Sustaining a Conference and Building a Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2016-01-01

    The Women in Educational Leadership Conference (WELC) was founded at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1987. The 28th conference was held in October 2014. A database related to the conference has been maintained throughout these years. Using these data, the following report includes the factors that have sustained the conference, the network…

  16. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    multi-stakeholder Innovation Platforms (IPs) necessary for catalysing wide adoption of SLM innovations. This paper analyses the significance of SNs in sustainable land management (SLM), focusing on stakeholders' characteristics and their association among agricultural rural communities in central Ethiopia and eastern ...

  17. Coherent detection passive optical access network enabling converged delivery of broadcast and dedicated broadband services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Prince, Kamau; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We propose a passive optical network architecture based on coherent detection for converged delivery of broadcast services from a dedicated remote broadcast server and user-specific services from a local central office. We experimentally demonstrate this architecture with mixed traffic types....... The broadcast channels were transmitted over 78 km of single mode fiber to a central office where they were multiplexed with the unicast channels for further fiber transmission over 34-km to reach the access network. Successful detection of all channels is demonstrated....

  18. Customer satisfaction of mobile telecommunication networks in Ghana: service delivery perspective

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. ABDUL-AZIZ; Bashiru I.I. SAEED; Ayogyam ALEXANDER

    2014-01-01

    Organizations, both private and public, in today’s dynamic marketplaces are increasingly leaving antiquated marketing philosophies and strategies to the adoption of more customer driven initiatives that seek to understand, attract, retain and build intimate long term relationship with profitable customers. This article analyzed customer satisfaction with the service delivery of mobile telecommunication networks in Ghana using a binary logistic regression model. Primary data was collected thro...

  19. Low molecular mass chitosan as carrier for hydrodynamically balanced system for sustained delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    VERMA, ANURAG; BANSAL, ASHOK K.; GHOSH, AMITAVA; PANDIT, JAYANTA K.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan has become a focus of major interest in recent years due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Although this material has already been extensively investigated in the design of different types of drug delivery systems, it is still little explored for stomach specific drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the potential of low molecular mass chitosan (LMCH) as carrier for a hydrodynamically balanced system (HBS)...

  20. INTELLIGENT NETWORKS, SMART GRIDS CONCEPT, CRUCIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin RADU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the concept of smart grids, a very important technology for sustainable development. In the context of globalization of the world lives in an increasingly complex security environment, with rapid changes, some obvious, others less obvious implications in the short, medium or long term, international, national, local and up to every citizen. All countries in the globalized world economy is facing energy problems in terms of climate change have intensified in the twentieth century.

  1. Reconfiguration of sustainable thermoelectric generation using wireless sensor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    wireless sensor networks (WSNs), where remotely deployed temperature and voltage sensors as well as latching relays can be organized as a whole to intelligently identify and execute the optimal interconnection of TEM strings. A reconfigurable TEM array with a WSN controller and a maximum power point...

  2. Sustainable reverse logistics network design for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic recycling is a legal requirement and can yield environmental benefits. In the Netherlands, there is a complex network of various collection methods, separation centers, sorting centers and reprocessors. The first step of the recycling system, separating plastics from other waste, can occur

  3. ARCOS Network: A Sustainable Mountain Development Hub for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Muvunankiko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is endowed with mountains of high productivity, biodiversity, endemism, and cultural diversity. African mountain ecosystems play an important role in economic development, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection. However, climate change and extreme events, as well as human activities, alter the capacity of mountains to provide such services to millions of Africans who depend on them. Since the creation in 1995 of the Albertine Rift Conservation Society (ARCOS, mountains have been at the core of its programs, and collaboration among stakeholders is a key aspect of its search for sustainable solutions to threats affecting African mountains.

  4. Exploring the knowledge ‘base’ of practitioners in the delivery of sustainable regeneration projects

    OpenAIRE

    Akotia, Julius; Opoku, Alex; Egbu, Charles; Fortune, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, sustainable regeneration has been recognised as being of major economic and social concern in the world. In the UK for instance, government has initiated a number of policies and evaluation methods to deal with some of the environmental problems associated with regeneration projects. However, the post construction evaluation of these projects has often resulted in them being seen as not achieving their set objectives. Attempts aimed at evaluating the impact of sustainability ...

  5. Fault Activity Aware Service Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly used in smart cities which involve multiple city services having quality of service (QoS requirements. When misbehaving devices exist, the performance of current delivery protocols degrades significantly. Nonetheless, the majority of existing schemes either ignore the faulty behaviors’ variability and time-variance in city environments or focus on homogeneous traffic for traditional data services (simple text messages rather than city services (health care units, traffic monitors, and video surveillance. We consider the problem of fault-aware multiservice delivery, in which the network performs secure routing and rate control in terms of fault activity dynamic metric. To this end, we first design a distributed framework to estimate the fault activity information based on the effects of nondeterministic faulty behaviors and to incorporate these estimates into the service delivery. Then we present a fault activity geographic opportunistic routing (FAGOR algorithm addressing a wide range of misbehaviors. We develop a leaky-hop model and design a fault activity rate-control algorithm for heterogeneous traffic to allocate resources, while guaranteeing utility fairness among multiple city services. Finally, we demonstrate the significant performance of our scheme in routing performance, effective utility, and utility fairness in the presence of misbehaving sensors through extensive simulations.

  6. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles as a New Delivery System for Sustained 5-Fluorouracil Release: Characterization and Evaluation of Drug Release Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. El-Kady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles were synthesized and tested for the first time as a new delivery system for sustained 5-fluorouracil (5-FU release. They were characterized by TEM, DTA, TGA, and FT-IR. The porosity % and specific surface area of glass nanoparticles were 85.59% and 378.36 m2/g, respectively. The in vitro bioactivity evaluation confirmed that bioactive glass disks prepared from these nanoparticles could induce hydroxyapatite layer over their surfaces in simulated body fluid. The in vitro drug release experiment indicated that glass nanoparticles could serve as long-term local delivery vehicles for sustained 5-FU release. The release profile of 5-FU showed an initial fast release stage followed by a second stage of slower release. The initial burst release of 5-FU in the first day was about 23% (28.92 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU, while the final cumulative percentage of the 5-FU released after 32 days was about 45.6% (57.31 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU. The application of different mathematical models indicated that 5-FU was released by diffusion controlled mechanism and suggested that its release rate was dependent on glass particles dissolution, changes of surface area as well as diameter of glass particles, and concentration of loaded drug.

  7. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike [Electricity North West Ltd., 304 Bridgewater Place, Birchwood, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6XG (United Kingdom); Jackson, Tim [RESOLVE, Centre for Environmental Strategy D3, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs. (author)

  8. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike; Jackson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs.

  9. Structural and biological properties of thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogels for sustained drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeednia, Leyla; Yao, Li; Berndt, Marcus; Cluff, Kim; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan has the ability to make injectable thermosensitive hydrogels which has been highly investigated for drug delivery applications. The addition of nanoparticles is one way to increase the mechanical strength of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel and subsequently and control the burst release of drug. Graphene nanoparticles have shown unique mechanical, optical and electrical properties which can be exploited for biomedical applications, especially in drug delivery. This study, have focused on the mechanical properties of a thermosensitive and injectable hybrid chitosan hydrogel incorporated with graphene nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used for morphological and chemical characterization of graphene infused chitosan hydrogels. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of graphene-contained hydrogels were analyzed using the alamarBlue ® technique. In-vitro methotrexate (MTX) release was investigated from MTX-loaded hybrid hydrogels as well. As a last step, to evaluate their efficiency as a cancer treatment delivery system, an in vitro anti-tumor test was also carried out using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Results confirmed that a thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogel can be used as a potential breast cancer therapy system for controlled delivery of methotrexate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2381-2390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Newly engineered magnetic erythrocytes for sustained and targeted delivery of anti-cancer therapeutic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Cinti

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic chemotherapy of cancer is limited by serious, sometimes life-threatening, side effects that arise from toxicities to sensitive normal cells because the therapies are not selective for malignant cells. So how can they be selectively improved? Alternative pharmaceutical formulations of anti-cancer agents have been investigated in order to improve conventional chemotherapy treatment. These formulations are associated with problems like severe toxic side effects on healthy organs, drug resistance and limited access of the drug to the tumor sites suggested the need to focus on site-specific controlled drug delivery systems. In response to these concerns, we have developed a new drug delivery system based on magnetic erythrocytes engineered with a viral spike fusion protein. This new erythrocyte-based drug delivery system has the potential for magnetic-controlled site-specific localization and highly efficient fusion capability with the targeted cells. Here we show that the erythro-magneto-HA virosomes drug delivery system is able to attach and fuse with the target cells and to efficiently release therapeutic compounds inside the cells. The efficacy of the anti-cancer drug employed is increased and the dose required is 10 time less than that needed with conventional therapy.

  11. Direct and sustained intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules using acoustic-transfection with high frequency ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Kim, Min Gon; Chiu, Chi Tat; Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Hyung Ham; Wang, Yingxiao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-02-01

    Controlling cell functions for research and therapeutic purposes may open new strategies for the treatment of many diseases. An efficient and safe introduction of membrane impermeable molecules into target cells will provide versatile means to modulate cell fate. We introduce a new transfection technique that utilizes high frequency ultrasound without any contrast agents such as microbubbles, bringing a single-cell level targeting and size-dependent intracellular delivery of macromolecules. The transfection apparatus consists of an ultrasonic transducer with the center frequency of over 150 MHz and an epi-fluorescence microscope, entitled acoustic-transfection system. Acoustic pulses, emitted from an ultrasonic transducer, perturb the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane of a targeted single-cell to induce intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules. Simultaneous live cell imaging using HeLa cells to investigate the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and propidium iodide (PI) and the delivery of 3 kDa dextran labeled with Alexa 488 were demonstrated. Cytosolic delivery of 3 kDa dextran induced via acoustic-transfection was manifested by diffused fluorescence throughout whole cells. Short-term (6 hr) cell viability test and long-term (40 hr) cell tracking confirmed that the proposed approach has low cell cytotoxicity.

  12. Newly Engineered Magnetic Erythrocytes for Sustained and Targeted Delivery of Anti-Cancer Therapeutic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta, Monia; Naldi, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy of cancer is limited by serious, sometimes life-threatening, side effects that arise from toxicities to sensitive normal cells because the therapies are not selective for malignant cells. So how can they be selectively improved? Alternative pharmaceutical formulations of anti-cancer agents have been investigated in order to improve conventional chemotherapy treatment. These formulations are associated with problems like severe toxic side effects on healthy organs, drug resistance and limited access of the drug to the tumor sites suggested the need to focus on site-specific controlled drug delivery systems. In response to these concerns, we have developed a new drug delivery system based on magnetic erythrocytes engineered with a viral spike fusion protein. This new erythrocyte-based drug delivery system has the potential for magnetic-controlled site-specific localization and highly efficient fusion capability with the targeted cells. Here we show that the erythro-magneto-HA virosomes drug delivery system is able to attach and fuse with the target cells and to efficiently release therapeutic compounds inside the cells. The efficacy of the anti-cancer drug employed is increased and the dose required is 10 time less than that needed with conventional therapy. PMID:21373641

  13. Development of a codrug approach for sustained drug delivery across microneedle-treated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Priyanka; Pinninti, Raghotham R; Hammell, Dana C; Paudel, Kalpana S; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2013-05-01

    Microneedle (MN) enhanced transdermal drug delivery enables the transport of a host of molecules that cannot be delivered across the skin by passive diffusion alone. However, the skin being a self-regenerating organ heals itself and thus prevents delivery of molecules through micropores for a 7-day time period, the ideal transdermal delivery goal. Hence, it is necessary to employ a second drug molecule, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor to enhance pore lifetime by decreasing local subclinical inflammatory response following MN treatment. A codrug approach using a 3-O-ester codrug of the model drug naltrexone (NTX) with diclofenac (DIC), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was tested in vitro as well as in vivo to look at stability, bioconversion and permeation. The results indicated that the approach could be useful for transdermal drug delivery of NTX from a single patch for a week, but stability and solubility optimization will be required for the codrug before it can deliver significant levels of NTX into the plasma. The skin concentration of DIC was high enough to keep the pores open in vivo in a hairless guinea pig model as demonstrated by day seven pore visualization studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development and in vitro evaluation of diclofenac sodium loaded mucoadhesive microsphere with natural gum for sustained delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Lutful; Jesmeen, Tasbira; Sutradhar, Kumar Bishwajit; Mannan, Md Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive microsphere of diclofenac sodium with natural gums for sustained delivery. Guar gum and tragacanth were used along with sodium alginate as mucoadhesive polymers. Microspheres were formulated using orifice-ionic gelation method. Particle size, surface morphology, swelling study and drug entrapment efficiency of the prepared microspheres were determined. In vitro evaluation was carried out comprising of mucoadhesion and drug release study. The prepared microspheres were discrete and free flowing. Sodium alginate and natural gum, at a ratio of 1:0.25, showed good mucoadhesive property and they had high drug entrapment efficiencies. They also exhibited the best rate retarding effect among all the formulations. Drug entrapment efficiency of all the microspheres ranged from 80.42% to 91.67%. An inverse relationship was found between extent of crosslinking and drug release rate. Release rate was slow and extended in case of the formulations of 1:0.25 ratio (F1 and F3), releasing 68.36% and 70.56% drug respectively after 8 hours. Tragacanth-containing microspheres of F1 showed superiority over other formulations, with best mucoadhesive and rate retarding profile. The correlation value (r(2)) indicated that the drug release of all the formulations followed Higuchi's model. Overall, the results indicated that mucoadhesive microspheres containing natural gum can be promising in terms of prolonged delivery with good mucoadhesive action, targeting the absorption site to thrive oral drug delivery.

  15. Modified thermoresponsive Poloxamer 407 and chitosan sol-gels as potential sustained-release vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Dong, Yao-Da; Boyd, Ben J; Rades, Thomas; Hook, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Thermoresponsive, particle-loaded, Poloxamer 407 (P407)-Pluronic-R® (25R4) or chitosan-methyl cellulose (MC) formulations were developed as single-dose, sustained release vaccines. The sol-gels, loaded either with a particulate vaccine (cubosomes) or soluble antigen (ovalbumin) and adjuvants (Quil A and monophosphoryl lipid A), were free-flowing liquids at room temperature and formed stable gels at physiological temperatures. Rheological results showed that both systems meet the criteria of being thermoresponsive gels. The P407-25R4 sol-gels did not significantly sustain the release of antigen in vivo while the chitosan-MC sol-gels sustained the release of antigen up to at least 14 days after administration. The chitosan-MC sol-gels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The inclusion of cubosomes in the sol-gels did not provide a definitive beneficial effect. Further analysis of the formulations with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that while cubosomes were stable in chitosan-MC gels they were not stable in P407-25R4 formulations. The reason for the mixed response to cubosome-loaded vehicles requires more investigation, however it appears that the cubosomes did not facilitate synchronous vaccine release and may in fact retard release, reducing efficacy in some cases. From these results, chitosan-MC sol-gels show potential as sustained release vaccine delivery systems, as compared to the P407-25R4 system that had a limited ability to sustain antigen release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NILDE, Network Inter Library Document Exchange: An Italian Document Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.; Mangiaracina, S.

    2007-10-01

    This poster presents NILDE, a document delivery system supporting the exchange of documents via the internet. The system has been set up by the Central Library of the National Research Council of Bologna (Italy) in order to make use of new internet technology, to promote cooperation between Italian university libraries and research libraries, and to achieve quick response times in satisfying DD requests. The Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory Library was the first astronomical library to join the NILDE project from its earliest days in 2002. Many were the reasons for this choice: automation of the DD processes, security and reliability of the network, creation of usage statistics and reports, reduction of DD System management costs and so on. This work describes the benefits of NILDE and discusses the role of an organized document delivery system as an important tool to cope with the difficult constraints of the publishing market.

  17. Memory-induced mechanism for self-sustaining activity in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Steeg, G. Ver; Galstyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study a mechanism of activity sustaining on networks inspired by a well-known model of neuronal dynamics. Our primary focus is the emergence of self-sustaining collective activity patterns, where no single node can stay active by itself, but the activity provided initially is sustained within the collective of interacting agents. In contrast to existing models of self-sustaining activity that are caused by (long) loops present in the network, here we focus on treelike structures and examine activation mechanisms that are due to temporal memory of the nodes. This approach is motivated by applications in social media, where long network loops are rare or absent. Our results suggest that under a weak behavioral noise, the nodes robustly split into several clusters, with partial synchronization of nodes within each cluster. We also study the randomly weighted version of the models where the nodes are allowed to change their connection strength (this can model attention redistribution) and show that it does facilitate the self-sustained activity.

  18. Software Delivery Risk Management: Application of Bayesian Networks in Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancveire Ieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The information technology industry cannot be imagined without large- or small-scale projects. They are implemented to develop systems enabling key business processes and improving performance and enterprise resource management. However, projects often experience various difficulties during their execution. These problems are usually related to the three objectives of the project – costs, quality and deadline. A way these challenges can be solved is project risk management. However, not always the main problems and their influencing factors can be easily identified. Usually there is a need for a more profound analysis of the problem situation. In this paper, we propose the use of a Bayesian Network concept for quantitative risk management in agile projects. The Bayesian Network is explored using a case study focusing on a project that faces difficulties during the software delivery process. We explain why an agile risk analysis is needed and assess the potential risk factors, which may occur during the project. Thereafter, we design the Bayesian Network to capture the actual problem situation and make suggestions how to improve the delivery process based on the measures to be taken to reduce the occurrence of project risks.

  19. A Methodology for a Sustainable CO2 Capture and Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Fjellerup, Kasper; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    hydrogenation highlights the application. This case study illustrates the utility of the utilization network and elements of the methodology being developed. In addition, the conversion process is linked with carbon capture to evaluate the overall sustainability. Finally, the production of the other raw...... of Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [2] J. Wilcox, Carbon Capture. New York: Springer, 2012....

  20. Bistability Analysis of Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Networks in Limited-Sustained-Activity Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yun; Wu Liang; Wu Dan; Zhu Shiqun

    2011-01-01

    Bistable behavior of neuronal complex networks is investigated in the limited-sustained-activity regime when the network is composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The standard stability analysis is performed on the two metastable states separately. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show consistently that the difference between time scales of excitatory and inhibitory populations can influence the dynamical behaviors of the neuronal networks dramatically, leading to the transition from bistable behaviors with memory effects to the collapse of bistable behaviors. These results may suggest one possible neuronal information processing by only tuning time scales. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. A fuzzy multi-objective optimization model for sustainable reverse logistics network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Paam, Parichehr; Abtahi, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the environmental impact, increasing the degree of social responsibility, and considering the economic motivations of organizations are three significant features in designing a reverse logistics network under sustainability respects. Developing a model, which can simultaneously consider...... a multi-echelon multi-period multi-objective model for a sustainable reverse logistics network. To reflect all aspects of sustainability, we try to minimize the present value of costs, as well as environmental impacts, and optimize the social responsibility as objective functions of the model. In order...... these environmental, social, and economic aspects and their indicators, is an important problem for both researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we try to address this comprehensive approach by using indicators for measurement of aforementioned aspects and by applying fuzzy mathematical programming to design...

  2. A Community-based Partnership for a Sustainable GNSS Geodetic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Geodetic networks offer unparalleled opportunities to monitor and understand many of the rhythms of the Earth most vital to the sustainability of modern and future societies, i.e., crustal motions, sea-level, and the weather. For crustal deformation studies, the advantage is clear. Modern measurements allow us to document not only the permanent strains incurred over a seismic cycle, for example, but also the ephemeral strains that are critical for understanding the underlying physical mechanism. To be effective for science, however, geodetic networks must be properly designed, capitalized, and maintained over sufficient time intervals to fully capture the processes in action. Unfortunately, most networks lack interoperability and lack a business plan to ensure long term sustainability. The USA, for example, lacks a unified nation-wide GNSS network that can sustain its self over the coming years, decades, and century. Current federal priorities do not yet envision such a singular network. Publicly and privately funded regional networks exist, but tend to be parochial in scope, and optimized for a special user community, e.g., surveying, crustal motions, etc. Data sharing is common, but the lack of input at the beginning limits the functionality of the system for non-primary users. Funding for private networks depend heavily on the user demand, business cycle, and regulatory requirements. Agencies funding science networks offer no guarantee of sustained support. An alternative model (GULFNet) developed in Louisiana is meeting user needs, is sustainable, and is helping engineers, surveyors, and geologists become more spatially enabled. The common denominator among all participants is the view that accurate, precise, and timely geodetic data have tangible value for all segments of society. Although operated by a university (LSU), GULFNet is a community-based partnership between public and private sectors. GULFNet simultaneously achieves scientific goals by providing

  3. Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengxin; Robert, Marie-Claude; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Lei, Fengyang; Stagner, Anna M; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Dohlman, Claes H; Paschalis, Eleftherios I

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is upregulated in eyes following corneal alkali injury and contributes to corneal and also retinal damage. Prompt TNF-α inhibition by systemic infliximab ameliorates retinal damage and improves corneal wound healing. However, systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors carries risk of significant complications, whereas topical eye-drop delivery is hindered by poor ocular bioavailability and the need for patient adherence. This study investigates the efficacy of subconjunctival delivery of TNF-α antibodies using a polymer-based drug delivery system (DDS). The drug delivery system was prepared using porous polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol composite fabrication and loaded with 85 μg of infliximab. Six Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits received ocular alkali burn with NaOH. Immediately after the burn, subconjunctival implantation of anti-TNF-α DDS was performed in three rabbits while another three received sham DDS (without antibody). Rabbits were followed with photography for 3 months. After 3 months, the device was found to be well tolerated by the host and the eyes exhibited less corneal damage as compared to eyes implanted with a sham DDS without drug. The low dose treatment suppressed CD45 and TNF-α expression in the burned cornea and inhibited retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and optic nerve degeneration, as compared to the sham DDS treated eyes. Immunolocalization revealed drug penetration in the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and choroid, with residual infliximab in the DDS 3 months after implantation. This reduced-risk biologic DDS improves corneal wound healing and provides retinal neuroprotection, and may be applicable not only to alkali burns but also to other inflammatory surgical procedures such as penetrating keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis implantation.

  4. Optimization of naltrexone diclofenac codrugs for sustained drug delivery across microneedle-treated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Priyanka; Lee, DoMin; Kim, Kyung Bo; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to optimize the structure of codrugs for extended delivery across microneedle treated skin. Naltrexone, the model compound was linked with diclofenac, a nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor to enhance the pore lifetime following microneedle treatment and develop a 7 day transdermal system for naltrexone. Four different codrugs of naltrexone and diclofenac were compared in terms of stability and solubility. Transdermal flux, permeability and skin concentration of both parent drugs and codrugs were quantified to form a structure permeability relationship. The results indicated that all codrugs bioconverted in the skin. The degree of conversion was dependent on the structure, phenol linked codrugs were less stable compared to the secondary alcohol linked structures. The flux of naltrexone across microneedle treated skin and the skin concentration of diclofenac were higher for the phenol linked codrugs. The polyethylene glycol link enhanced solubility of the codrugs, which translated into flux enhancement. The current studies indicated that formulation stability of codrugs and the flux of naltrexone can be enhanced via structure design optimization. The polyethylene glycol linked naltrexone diclofenac codrug is better suited for a 7 day drug delivery system both in terms of stability and drug delivery.

  5. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-18

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers' production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers' sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  6. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries. PMID:29346305

  7. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  8. Catalysing low cost green technologies for sustainable water service delivery in Kenya: Feasibility Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndirangu, Wangai; Schaer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Since 1974, the government of Kenya has recognised water supplies as critical for poverty reduction and development. Kenya’s economic and social development Vision 2030 emphasises the need for adequate and sustainable provision of water supply and sanitation services, with a target to achieve...... universal access by 2030. However, thus far most water development targets have not been achieved. Improvement has been much slower in rural and low income urban areas, and the current funding level is inadequate to achieve universal access by 2030. Over the years, official effort have been complemented...... to planning, standards and operations and maintenance, including source and cost of energy in rural and peri-urban water supplies is a key challenge to functionality and sustainability....

  9. The post-2015 delivery of universal and sustainable access to infrastructure services. Working Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doczi, Julian, Dorr, Tobias; Mason, Nathaniel; Scott, Andrew

    2013-06-15

    In this new working paper, the authors focus specifically on what would be necessary to achieve High Level Panel-style goals and targets for water, energy and transport, if these were to be eventually adopted by world leaders. In all three cases, much of the advocacy - and the proposed High Level Panel goals - have emphasized the need to strive for universal and sustainable access to at least basic levels of services from these sectors. Many of the proposals for post-2015 goals and targets appear ambitious, but what would it take to achieve them? This paper assesses what is needed to achieve goals for universal and sustainable access to infrastructure, specifically water, energy and transport. Using illustrative goals and targets, the paper reviews the development challenges in each sector, and what will be necessary to overcome the barriers to universal and sustainable access to water, energy and transport infrastructure services, in the areas of governance, finance, capacity development and environmental protection. The paper ends with general conclusions about infrastructure in the post-2015 development agenda.

  10. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using k-means and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrandez, S. M.; Harbison, T.; Weber, T.; Sturges, R.; Rich, R.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time, energy, and costs for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1) to investigate the time, energy, and costs associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2) to propose an optimization algorithm that determines the optimal number of launch sites and locations given delivery requirements, and drones per truck, (3) to develop mathematical formulations for closed form estimations for the optimal number of launch locations, optimal total time, as well as the associated cost for the system. The design of the algorithm herein computes the minimal time of delivery utilizing K-means clustering to find launch locations, as well as a genetic algorithm to solve the truck route as a traveling salesmen problem (TSP). The optimal solution is determined by finding the minimum cost associated to the parabolic convex cost function. The optimal min-cost is determined by finding the most efficient launch locations using K-means algorithms to determine launch locations and a genetic algorithm to determine truck route between those launch locations. Results show improvements with in-tandem delivery efforts as opposed to standalone systems. Further, multiple drones per truck are more optimal and contribute to savings in both energy and time. For this, we sampled various initialization variables to derive closed form mathematical solutions for the problem. Ultimately, this provides the necessary analysis of an integrated truck-drone delivery system which could be implemented by a company in order to maximize deliveries while minimizing time and energy. Closed-form mathematical solutions can be used as close estimators for final costs and time. (Author)

  11. Optimization of a truck-drone in tandem delivery network using k-means and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mourelo Ferrandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of implementing unmanned aerial delivery vehicles in delivery networks. We investigate the notion of the reduced overall delivery time, energy, and costs for a truck-drone network by comparing the in-tandem system with a stand-alone delivery effort. The objectives are (1 to investigate the time, energy, and costs associated to a truck-drone delivery network compared to standalone truck or drone, (2 to propose an optimization algorithm that determines the optimal number of launch sites and locations given delivery requirements, and drones per truck, (3 to develop mathematical formulations for closed form estimations for the optimal number of launch locations, optimal total time, as well as the associated cost for the system. Design/methodology/approach: The design of the algorithm herein computes the minimal time of delivery utilizing K-means clustering to find launch locations, as well as a genetic algorithm to solve the truck route as a traveling salesmen problem (TSP. The optimal solution is determined by finding the minimum cost associated to the parabolic convex cost function. The optimal min-cost is determined by finding the most efficient launch locations using K-means algorithms to determine launch locations and a genetic algorithm to determine truck route between those launch locations.  Findings: Results show improvements with in-tandem delivery efforts as opposed to standalone systems. Further, multiple drones per truck are more optimal and contribute to savings in both energy and time. For this, we sampled various initialization variables to derive closed form mathematical solutions for the problem. Originality/value: Ultimately, this provides the necessary analysis of an integrated truck-drone delivery system which could be implemented by a company in order to maximize deliveries while minimizing time and energy. Closed-form mathematical solutions can be used as

  12. Engineering a degradable polyurethane intravaginal ring for sustained delivery of dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Kavita M; Poursaid, Azadeh E; Karra, Prasoona; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Aliyar, Hyder A; Kiser, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    We describe the engineering of a degradable intravaginal ring (IVR) for the delivery of the potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine. The degradable polymer used in fabricating the device incorporated poly(caprolactone) ester blocks in a poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol ABA type polyurethane backbone. The polymer was designed to maintain its structure for 1 month during usage and then degrade in the environment post-disposal. In vitro release of dapivirine showed zero-order kinetics for up to 1 month and significant levels of drug release into engineered vaginal tissue. The mechanical properties of the degradable IVR were comparable to those of a widely used contraceptive intravaginal ring upon exposure to simulated vaginal conditions. Incubation under simulated vaginal conditions for a month caused minimal degradation with minimal effect on the mechanical properties of the ring and polymer. The cytotoxicity evaluation of the drug-loaded IVRs against Vk2/E6E7 human vaginal epithelial cells, Lactobacillus jensenii, and engineered vaginal tissue constructs showed the degradable polyurethane to be non-toxic. In vitro evaluation of inflammatory potential monitored through the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-1β, and MIP-3α when engineered EpiVaginal™ tissue was incubated with the polyurethanes suggested that the degradable polyurethane was comparable to commercial medical grade polyurethane. These results are encouraging for further development of this degradable IVR for topical vaginal delivery of microbicides.

  13. Rainwater Harvesting and Social Networks: Visualising Interactions for Niche Governance, Resilience and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Visualising interactions across urban water systems to explore transition and change processes requires the development of methods and models at different scales. This paper contributes a model representing the network interactions of rainwater harvesting (RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations in the UK RWH niche to identify how resilience and sustainability feature within niche governance in practice. The RWH network interaction model was constructed using a modified participatory social network analysis (SNA. The SNA was further analysed through the application of a two-part analytical framework based on niche management and the safe, resilient and sustainable (‘Safe and SuRe’ framework. Weak interactions between some RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations highlighted reliance on a limited number of persuaders to influence the regime and landscape, which were underrepresented. Features from niche creation and management were exhibited by the RWH network interaction model, though some observed characteristics were not represented. Additional Safe and SuRe features were identified covering diverse innovation, responsivity, no protection, unconverged expectations, primary influencers, polycentric or adaptive governance and multiple learning-types. These features enable RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations to reflect on improving resilience and sustainability, though further research in other sectors would be useful to verify and validate observation of the seven features.

  14. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  15. Sustained reductions in time to antibiotic delivery in febrile immunocompromised children: results of a quality improvement collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoy, Christopher E; Hariharan, Selena; Weiss, Brian; Demmel, Kathy; Timm, Nathan; Chiarenzelli, Janis; Dewald, Mary Katherine; Kennebeck, Stephanie; Langworthy, Shawna; Pomales, Jennifer; Rineair, Sylvia; Sandfoss, Erin; Volz-Noe, Pamela; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Alessandrini, Evaline

    2016-02-01

    Timely delivery of antibiotics to febrile immunocompromised (F&I) paediatric patients in the emergency department (ED) and outpatient clinic reduces morbidity and mortality. The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to increase the percentage of F&I patients who received antibiotics within goal in the clinic and ED from 25% to 90%. Using the Model of Improvement, we performed Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to design, test and implement high-reliability interventions to decrease time to antibiotics. Pre-arrival interventions were tested and implemented, followed by post-arrival interventions in the ED. Many processes were spread successfully to the outpatient clinic. The Chronic Care Model was used, in addition to active family engagement, to inform and improve processes. The study period was from January 2010 to January 2015. Pre-arrival planning improved our F&I time to antibiotics in the ED from 137 to 88 min. This was sustained until October 2012, when further interventions including a pre-arrival huddle decreased the median time to antibiotics within 60 min to >90%. In September 2014, we implemented a rapid response team to improve reliable venous access in the ED, which increased our mean percentage of patients receiving timely antibiotics to its highest rate (95%). This stepwise approach with pre-arrival planning using the Chronic Care Model, followed by standardisation of processes, created a sustainable improvement of timely antibiotic delivery in F&I patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.; Sorour, Sameh; Aboutorab, Neda; Sadeghi, Parastoo; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  17. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.

    2015-12-06

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients\\' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  18. Developments in human growth hormone preparations: sustained-release, prolonged half-life, novel injection devices, and alternative delivery routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yunpeng Cai,1,2 Mingxin Xu,2 Minglu Yuan,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Since the availability of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH enabled the application of human growth hormone both in clinical and research use in the 1980s, millions of patients were prescribed a daily injection of rhGH, but noncompliance rates were high. To address the problem of noncompliance, numerous studies have been carried out, involving: sustained-release preparations, prolonged half-life derivatives, new injectors that cause less pain, and other noninvasive delivery methods such as intranasal, pulmonary and transdermal deliveries. Some accomplishments have been made and launched already, such as the Nutropin Depot® microsphere and injectors (Zomajet®, Serojet®, and NordiFlex®. Here, we provide a review of the different technologies and illustrate the key points of these studies to achieve an improved rhGH product. Keywords: intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, microsphere, microneedle, hydrogel

  19. Solid cellulose nanofiber based foams - Towards facile design of sustained drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svagan, Anna J; Benjamins, Jan-Willem; Al-Ansari, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    acceptable surfactant (lauric acid sodium salt). The drug was suspended in the wet-stable foams followed by a drying step to obtain dry foams. Flexible cellular solid materials of different thicknesses, shapes and drug loadings (up to 50wt%) could successfully be prepared. The drug was released from...... the solid foams in a diffusion-controlled, sustained manner due to the presence of intact air bubbles which imparted a tortuous diffusion path. The diffusion coefficient was assessed using Franz cells and shown to be more than one order of magnitude lower for the cellular solids compared to the bubble...

  20. Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Processing Networks with Uncertainty and Sustainability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    combinations of processing networks. The optimization of the network is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming type of problem and solved in GAMS. The methodology was applied for designing optimal biorefinery networks considering biochemical routes. Furthermore, the methodology has also been...... for processing renewable feedstocks, with the aim of bridging the gap for fuel, chemical and material production. This project is focusing on biorefinery network design, in particular for early stage design and development studies. Optimal biorefinery design is a challenging problem. It is a multi......-objective decision-making problem not only with respect to technical and economic feasibility but also with respect to environmental impacts, sustainability constraints and limited availability & uncertainties of input data at the early design stage. It is therefore useful to develop a systematic methodology...

  1. Sustainability Analysis and Market Demand Estimation in the Retail Industry through a Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese retail industry is expected to grow dramatically over the next few years, owing to the rapid increase in purchasing power of Chinese consumers. Retail managers should analyze the market demands and avoid dull sales to promote the sustainable development of the retail industry. Economic sustainability in the retail industry, which refers to a suitable return of investment, requires the implementation of precise product allocation strategies in different regions. This study proposed a hybrid model to evaluate economic sustainability in the preparation of goods of retail shops on the basis of market demand evaluation. Through a grid-based convolutional neural network, a regression model was first established to model the relationship between consumer distribution and the potential market demand. Then, another model was proposed to evaluate the sustainability among regions based on their supply-demand analysis. An experiment was conducted based on the actual sales data of retail shops in Guiyang, China. Results showed an immense diversity of sustainability in the entire city and three classes of regions were distinguished, namely, high, moderate, and limited. Our model was proven to be effective in the sustainability evaluation of supply and demand in the retail industry after validation showed that its accuracy reached 92.8%.

  2. Pharmacokinetic profile of a sustained-delivery system for physostigmine in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Donna [Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories (Kent Ridge), 27 Medical Drive, 12-00, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Zhao Bin [Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories (Kent Ridge), 27 Medical Drive, 12-00, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Moochhala, Shabbir [Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories (Kent Ridge), 27 Medical Drive, 12-00, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)]. E-mail: mshabbir@dso.org.sg; Yang Yiyan [Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos, 04-01, Singapore 138669 (Singapore)

    2006-07-25

    Physostigmine (PHY) is involved in clinical treatments of glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease and has been suggested as an alternative prophylactic treatment against organophosphate poisoning. However, one of the therapeutic uses of physostigmine is limited by short elimination half-life. In this study, PHY-loaded microparticles, prepared by a spray-drying method with biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with a size ranging from 1 to 5 {mu}M was developed on a sustained release preparation to prevent multiple dosing and yet maintaining constant plasma level. The release of PHY-loaded microparticles was characterized in vitro and in vivo after oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats. After oral administration of physostigmine-loaded microparticles in rats, the time course of physostigmine in blood plasma was followed over 48 h and samples were analysed using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. In the pharmacokinetics profile of physostigmine for the elimination half-life and area-under-curve, PHY release was sustained in vitro for over 1 week with a low initial burst release. The pharmacokinetics results show a 15-fold increase in the elimination half-life of physostigmine microparticle formulation, coupled with a larger area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), without affecting the peak concentration and the latency to peak concentration, when compared to the standard formulation.

  3. Dual-drug delivery by porous silicon nanoparticles for improved cellular uptake, sustained release, and combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Kaasalainen, Martti H; Hagström, Marja V; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-04-01

    Dual-drug delivery of antiangiogenic and chemotherapeutic drugs can enhance the therapeutic effect for cancer therapy. Conjugation of methotrexate (MTX) to porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (MTX-PSi) with positively charged surface can improve the cellular uptake of MTX and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Herein, MTX-PSi conjugates sustained the release of MTX up to 96 h, and the released fragments including MTX were confirmed by mass spectrometry. The intracellular distribution of the MTX-PSi nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to pure MTX, the MTX-PSi achieved similar inhibition of cell proliferation in folate receptor (FR) over-expressing U87 MG cancer cells, and a higher effect in low FR-expressing EA.hy926 cells. Nuclear fragmentation analysis demonstrated programmed cell apoptosis of MTX-PSi in the high/low FR-expressing cancer cells, whereas PSi alone at the same dose had a minor effect on cell apoptosis. Finally, the porous structure of MTX-PSi enabled a successful concomitant loading of another anti-angiogenic hydrophobic drug, sorafenib, and considerably enhanced the dissolution rate of sorafenib. Overall, the MTX-PSi nanoparticles can be used as a platform for combination chemotherapy by simultaneously enhancing the dissolution rate of a hydrophobic drug and sustaining the release of a conjugated chemotherapeutic drug. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustained ophthalmic delivery of highly soluble drug using pH-triggered inner layer-embedded contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Cheng, Hongbo; Huo, Yingnan; Mao, Shirui

    2018-06-10

    In the present work the feasibility of using inner layer-embedded contact lenses (CLs) to achieve sustained release of highly water soluble drug, betaxolol hydrochloride (BH) on the ocular surface was investigated. Blend film of cellulose acetate and Eudragit S100 was selected as the inner layer, while silicone hydrogel was used as outer layer to construct inner layer-embedded contact lenses. Influence of polymer ratio in the blend film on in vitro drug release behavior in phosphate buffered solution or simulated tear fluid was studied and drug-polymer interaction, erosion and swelling of the blend film were characterized to better understand drug-release mechanism. Storage stability of the inner layer-embedded contact lenses in phosphate buffer solution was also conducted, with ignorable drug loss and negligible change in drug release pattern within 30 days. In vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits showed sustained drug release for over 240 h in tear fluid, indicating prolonged drug precorneal residence time. In conclusion, cellulose acetate/Eudragit S100 inner layer-embedded contact lenses are quite promising as controlled-release carrier of highly water soluble drug for ophthalmic delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bimatoprost-loaded ocular inserts as sustained release drug delivery systems for glaucoma treatment: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Ribeiro Franca

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and assess a novel sustained-release drug delivery system of Bimatoprost (BIM. Chitosan polymeric inserts were prepared using the solvent casting method and characterized by swelling studies, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, drug content, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. Biodistribution of 99mTc-BIM eye drops and 99mTc-BIM-loaded inserts, after ocular administration in Wistar rats, was accessed by ex vivo radiation counting. The inserts were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous Wistar rats. Glaucoma was induced by weekly intracameral injection of hyaluronic acid. BIM-loaded inserts (equivalent to 9.0 µg BIM were administered once into conjunctival sac, after ocular hypertension confirmation. BIM eye drop was topically instilled in a second group of glaucomatous rats for 15 days days, while placebo inserts were administered once in a third group. An untreated glaucomatous group was used as control. Intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored for four consecutive weeks after treatment began. At the end of the experiment, retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping were evaluated in the histological eye sections. Characterization results revealed that the drug physically interacted, but did not chemically react with the polymeric matrix. Inserts sustainedly released BIM in vitro during 8 hours. Biodistribution studies showed that the amount of 99mTc-BIM that remained in the eye was significantly lower after eye drop instillation than after chitosan insert implantation. BIM-loaded inserts lowered IOP for 4 weeks, after one application, while IOP values remained significantly high for the placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were only effective during the daily treatment period. IOP results were reflected in RGC counting and optic nerve head cupping damage. BIM-loaded inserts provided sustained release of BIM and seem to be a

  6. A Community-Based Event Delivery Protocol in Publish/Subscribe Systems for Delay Tolerant Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic operation of a Delay Tolerant Sensor Network (DTSN is to finish pervasive data gathering in networks with intermittent connectivity, while the publish/subscribe (Pub/Sub for short paradigm is used to deliver events from a source to interested clients in an asynchronous way. Recently, extension of Pub/Sub systems in DTSNs has become a promising research topic. However, due to the unique frequent partitioning characteristic of DTSNs, extension of a Pub/Sub system in a DTSN is a considerably difficult and challenging problem, and there are no good solutions to this problem in published works. To ad apt Pub/Sub systems to DTSNs, we propose CED, a community-based event delivery protocol. In our design, event delivery is based on several unchanged communities, which are formed by sensor nodes in the network according to their connectivity. CED consists of two components: event delivery and queue management. In event delivery, events in a community are delivered to mobile subscribers once a subscriber comes into the community, for improving the data delivery ratio. The queue management employs both the event successful delivery time and the event survival time to decide whether an event should be delivered or dropped for minimizing the transmission overhead. The effectiveness of CED is demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies.

  7. A community-based event delivery protocol in publish/subscribe systems for delay tolerant sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nianbo; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Jinqi; Gong, Haigang

    2009-01-01

    The basic operation of a Delay Tolerant Sensor Network (DTSN) is to finish pervasive data gathering in networks with intermittent connectivity, while the publish/subscribe (Pub/Sub for short) paradigm is used to deliver events from a source to interested clients in an asynchronous way. Recently, extension of Pub/Sub systems in DTSNs has become a promising research topic. However, due to the unique frequent partitioning characteristic of DTSNs, extension of a Pub/Sub system in a DTSN is a considerably difficult and challenging problem, and there are no good solutions to this problem in published works. To ad apt Pub/Sub systems to DTSNs, we propose CED, a community-based event delivery protocol. In our design, event delivery is based on several unchanged communities, which are formed by sensor nodes in the network according to their connectivity. CED consists of two components: event delivery and queue management. In event delivery, events in a community are delivered to mobile subscribers once a subscriber comes into the community, for improving the data delivery ratio. The queue management employs both the event successful delivery time and the event survival time to decide whether an event should be delivered or dropped for minimizing the transmission overhead. The effectiveness of CED is demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies.

  8. Local sustained delivery of bupivacaine HCl from a new castor oil-based nanoemulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Arvin, Yang Aryani; Asyarie, Sukmadjaja; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Tjandrawinata, Raymond Rubianto; Storm, Gert

    2018-06-01

    Bupivacaine HCl (1-butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide hydrochloride), an amide local anesthetic compound, is a local anesthetic drug utilized for intraoperative local anesthesia, post-operative analgesia and in the treatment of chronic pain. However, its utility is limited by the relative short duration of analgesia after local administration (approximately 9 h after direct injection) and risk for side effects. This work is aimed to develop a nanoemulsion of bupivacaine HCl with sustained local anesthetics release kinetics for improved pain management, by exhibiting extended analgesic action and providing reduced peak levels in the circulation to minimize side effects. Herein, biodegradable oils were evaluated for use in nanoemulsions to enable sustained release kinetics of bupivacaine HCl. Only with castor oil, a clear and stable nanoemulsion was obtained without the occurrence of phase separation over a period of 3 months. High loading of bupivacaine HCl into the castor oil-based nanoemulsion system was achieved with about 98% entrapment efficiency and the resulting formulation showed high stability under stress conditions (accelerated stability test) regarding changes in visual appearance, drug content, and droplet size. We show herein that the in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles as well as pharmacodynamic outcome (pain relief test) after subcutaneous administration in rats correlate well and clearly demonstrate the prolonged release and extended duration of activity of our novel nanoformulation. In addition, the lower C max value achieved in the blood compartment suggests the possibility that the risk for systemic side effects is reduced. We conclude that castor oil-based nanomulsion represents an attractive pain treatment possibility to achieve prolonged local action of bupivacaine HCl.

  9. Network analysis as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability: applying the ecosystem perspective to a Danish water management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Scotti, Marco; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    New insights into the sustainable use of natural resources in human systems can be gained through comparison with ecosystems via common indices. In both kinds of system, resources are processed by a number of users within a network, but we consider ecosystems as the only ones displaying sustainable...... patterns of growth and development. We applied Network Analysis (NA) for assessing the sustainability of a Danish municipal Water Management System (WMS). We identified water users within the WMS and represented their interactions as a network of water flows. We computed intensive and extensive indices...

  10. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD for brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area – nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD. NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1 international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2 highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3 research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies.

  11. Self-sustained oscillations in blood flow through a honeycomb capillary network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Pozrikidis, C

    2014-09-01

    Numerical simulations of unsteady blood flow through a honeycomb network originating at multiple inlets and terminating at multiple outlets are presented and discussed under the assumption that blood behaves as a continuum with variable constitution. Unlike a tree network, the honeycomb network exhibits both diverging and converging bifurcations between branching capillary segments. Numerical results based on a finite difference method demonstrate that as in the case of tree networks considered in previous studies, the cell partitioning law at diverging bifurcations is an important parameter in both steady and unsteady flow. Specifically, a steady flow may spontaneously develop self-sustained oscillations at critical conditions by way of a Hopf bifurcation. Contrary to tree-like networks comprised entirely of diverging bifurcations, the critical parameters for instability in honeycomb networks depend weakly on the system size. The blockage of one or more network segments due to the presence of large cells or the occurrence of capillary constriction may cause flow reversal or trigger a transition to unsteady flow.

  12. Well-defined degradable brush polymer-drug conjugates for sustained delivery of Paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Law, Wing-Cheung; Mok, Jorge; Zou, Jiong; Prasad, Paras N; Cheng, Chong

    2013-03-04

    To achieve a conjugated drug delivery system with high drug loading but minimal long-term side effects, a degradable brush polymer-drug conjugate (BPDC) was synthesized through azide-alkyne click reaction of acetylene-functionalized polylactide (PLA) with azide-functionalized paclitaxel (PTXL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Well-controlled structures of the resulting BPDC and its precursors were verified by (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterizations. With nearly quantitative click efficiency, drug loading amount of the BPDC reached 23.2 wt %. Both dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging indicated that the BPDC had a nanoscopic size around 10-30 nm. The significant hydrolytic degradability of the PLA backbone of the BPDC was confirmed by GPC analysis of its incubated solution. Drug release study showed that PTXL moieties can be released through the cleavage of the hydrolyzable conjugation linkage in pH 7.4 at 37 °C, with 50% release in about 22 h. As illustrated by cytotoxicity study, while the polymeric scaffold of the BPDC is nontoxic, the BPDC exhibited higher therapeutic efficacy toward MCF-7 cancer cells than free PTXL at 0.1 and 1 μg/mL. Using Nile red as encapsulated fluorescence probe, cell uptake study showed effective internalization of the BPDC into the cells.

  13. Development of a system dynamics model for financially sustainable management of municipal watermain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, R; Knight, M A; Unger, A J A; Haas, C T

    2013-12-15

    This paper develops causal loop diagrams and a system dynamics model for financially sustainable management of urban water distribution networks. The developed causal loop diagrams are a novel contribution in that it illustrates the unique characteristics and feedback loops for financially self-sustaining water distribution networks. The system dynamics model is a mathematical realization of the developed interactions among system variables over time and is comprised of three sectors namely watermains network, consumer, and finance. This is the first known development of a water distribution network system dynamics model. The watermains network sector accounts for the unique characteristics of watermain pipes such as service life, deterioration progression, pipe breaks, and water leakage. The finance sector allows for cash reserving by the utility in addition to the pay-as-you-go and borrowing strategies. The consumer sector includes controls to model water fee growth as a function of service performance and a household's financial burden due to water fees. A series of policy levers are provided that allow the impact of various financing strategies to be evaluated in terms of financial sustainability and household affordability. The model also allows for examination of the impact of different management strategies on the water fee in terms of consistency and stability over time. The paper concludes with a discussion on how the developed system dynamics water model can be used by water utilities to achieve a variety of utility short and long-term objectives and to establish realistic and defensible water utility policies. It also discusses how the model can be used by regulatory bodies, government agencies, the financial industry, and researchers. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted Delivery and Sustained Antitumor Activity of Triptolide through Glucose Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing-Li; Minn, Il; Wang, Qiaoling; Xu, Peng; Head, Sarah A; Datan, Emmanuel; Yu, Biao; Pomper, Martin G; Liu, Jun O

    2016-09-19

    Triptolide, a key ingredient from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant thunder god vine, which has been used to treat inflammation and autoimmune diseases for centuries, has been shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of the XPB subunit of the transcription factor TFIIH and initiation of RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. The clinical development of triptolide over the past two decades has been limited by its toxicity and low water solubility. Herein, we report the development of a glucose conjugate of triptolide, named glutriptolide, which was intended to target tumor cells overexpressing glucose transporters selectively. Glutriptolide did not inhibit XPB activity in vitro but demonstrated significantly higher cytotoxicity against tumor cells over normal cells with greater water solubility than triptolide. Furthermore, it exhibited remarkable tumor control in vivo, which is likely due to sustained stepwise release of active triptolide within cancer cells. These findings indicate that glutriptolide may serve as a promising lead for developing a new mechanistic class of anticancer drugs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Insulin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles: efficient, sustained and safe insulin delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Thiago M; Teixeira, Zaine; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C; Rezende, Luiz F; Boschero, Antonio C; Durán, Nelson; Höehr, Nelci F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an efficient, biodegradable, biocompatible and safe controlled release system using insulin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. The insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion method (water-in-oil-in-water) using Pluronic F68 as emulsifier. Using the double emulsion method a high insulin encapsulation efficiency (90.6 +/-1.6%) with a zeta potential of -29 +/-2.7 mV and average particle size of 796 +/-10.5 nm was obtained. Insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles showed no toxicity to MIN6 cells. Insulin nanoparticles administered subcutaneously and intraperitoneally in rats reduced glycaemia of basal levels after 15 minutes, and presented a sustainable hypoglycemic effect on insulin-dependent type 1 diabetic rats, showing to be more efficient than unencapsulated insulin. Furthermore, these nanoparticles were not hepatotoxic, as evaluated by the effect over liver cell-death and oxidative stress scavenger system in rats. These results suggest that insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles prepared by water-in-oil-in-water emulsion method are biocompatible, efficient and safe insulin-delivering system with controlled insulin release, which indicates that it may be a powerful tool for insulin-dependent patients care.

  16. Lyophilized sustained release mucoadhesive chitosan sponges for buccal buspirone hydrochloride delivery: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; ElMeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2015-06-01

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive lyophilized chitosan sponges of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. Chitosan sponges were prepared using simple casting/freeze-drying technique according to 3(2) factorial design where chitosan grade was set at three levels (low, medium, and high molecular weight), and concentration of chitosan solution at three levels (0.5, 1, and 2%). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h), and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal chitosan sponge were prepared to achieve uni-directional BH release toward the buccal mucosa. Sponges were evaluated in terms of drug content, surface pH, scanning electron microscopy, swelling index, mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, and in vitro drug release. Cup and core sponge (HCH 0.5E) were able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8 h. It showed Q8h of 68.89% and exhibited a uni-directional drug release profile following Higuchi diffusion model.

  17. A social and ecological assessment of tropical land uses at multiple scales: the Sustainable Amazon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Barlow, Jos; Lees, Alexander C.; Parry, Luke; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Berenguer, Erika; Abramovay, Ricardo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Andretti, Christian; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Araújo, Ivanei; de Ávila, Williams Souza; Bardgett, Richard D.; Batistella, Mateus; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Beldini, Troy; de Blas, Driss Ezzine; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Braga, Danielle de Lima; de Brito, Janaína Gomes; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Campos dos Santos, Fabiane; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Cordeiro, Amanda Cardoso Nunes; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Carvalho, Déborah Reis; Castelani, Sergio André; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Francisco de Assis; da Costa, Carla Daniele Furtado; Coudel, Emilie; Coutinho, Alexandre Camargo; Cunha, Dênis; D'Antona, Álvaro; Dezincourt, Joelma; Dias-Silva, Karina; Durigan, Mariana; Esquerdo, Júlio César Dalla Mora; Feres, José; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Ferreira, Amanda Estefânia de Melo; Fiorini, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Frazão, Fábio Soares; Garrett, Rachel; Gomes, Alessandra dos Santos; Gonçalves, Karoline da Silva; Guerrero, José Benito; Hamada, Neusa; Hughes, Robert M.; Igliori, Danilo Carmago; Jesus, Ederson da Conceição; Juen, Leandro; Junior, Miércio; Junior, José Max Barbosa de Oliveira; Junior, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Junior, Carlos Souza; Kaufmann, Phil; Korasaki, Vanesca; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Leitão, Rafael; Lima, Natália; Almeida, Maria de Fátima Lopes; Lourival, Reinaldo; Louzada, Júlio; Nally, Ralph Mac; Marchand, Sébastien; Maués, Márcia Motta; Moreira, Fátima M. S.; Morsello, Carla; Moura, Nárgila; Nessimian, Jorge; Nunes, Sâmia; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Pardini, Renata; Pereira, Heloisa Correia; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Rossetti, Felipe; Schmidt, Fernando Augusto; da Silva, Rodrigo; da Silva, Regina Célia Viana Martins; da Silva, Thiago Fonseca Morello Ramalho; Silveira, Juliana; Siqueira, João Victor; de Carvalho, Teotônio Soares; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Tancredi, Nicola Savério Holanda; Thomson, James R.; Torres, Patrícia Carignano; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Viana, Cecília; Weinhold, Diana; Zanetti, Ronald; Zuanon, Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in guiding more sustainable development trajectories. Here, we present the Sustainable Amazon Network (Rede Amazônia Sustentável, RAS): a multidisciplinary research initiative involving more than 30 partner organizations working to assess both social and ecological dimensions of land-use sustainability in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The research approach adopted by RAS offers three advantages for addressing land-use sustainability problems: (i) the collection of synchronized and co-located ecological and socioeconomic data across broad gradients of past and present human use; (ii) a nested sampling design to aid comparison of ecological and socioeconomic conditions associated with different land uses across local, landscape and regional scales; and (iii) a strong engagement with a wide variety of actors and non-research institutions. Here, we elaborate on these key features, and identify the ways in which RAS can help in highlighting those problems in most urgent need of attention, and in guiding improvements in land-use sustainability in Amazonia and elsewhere in the tropics. We also discuss some of the practical lessons, limitations and realities faced during the development of the RAS initiative so far. PMID:23610172

  18. Local sustained-release delivery systems of the antibiofilm agent thiazolidinedione-8 for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenderovich, Julia; Feldman, Mark; Kirmayer, David; Al-Quntar, Abed; Steinberg, Doron; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael

    2015-05-15

    Thiazolidinedione-8 (TZD-8) is an anti-quorum-sensing molecule that has the potential to effectively prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections, a major healthcare challenge. Sustained-release drug-delivery systems can enhance drugs' therapeutic potential, by maintaining their therapeutic level and reducing their side effects. Varnishes for sustained release of TZD-8 based on ethylcellulose or ammonio methacrylate copolymer type A (Eudragit(®) RL) were developed. The main factors affecting release rate were found to be film thickness and presence of a hydrophilic or swellable polymer in the matrix. The release mechanism of ethylcellulose-based systems matched the Higuchi model. Selected varnishes were retained on catheters for at least 8 days. Sustained-release delivery systems of TZD-8 were active against Candida albicans biofilms. The present study demonstrates promising results en route to developing applications for the prevention of catheter-associated infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Health system sustainability from a network perspective: a proposal to optimize healthy habits and social support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Sánchez, Pilar; Fernández Peña, Rosario; Cabrera León, Andrés; Muñoz Doyague, María F; Llopis Cañameras, Jaime; Arias Ramos, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The search of new health management formulas focused to give wide services is one of the priorities of our present health policies. Those formulas examine the optimization of the links between the main actors involved in public health, ie, users, professionals, local socio-political and corporate agents. This paper is aimed to introduce the Social Network Analysis as a method for analyzing, measuring and interpreting those connections. The knowledge of people's relationships (what is called social networks) in the field of public health is becoming increasingly important at an international level. In fact, countries such as UK, Netherlands, Italy, Australia and U.S. are looking formulas to apply this knowledge to their health departments. With this work we show the utility of the ARS on topics related to sustainability of the health system, particularly those related with health habits and social support, topics included in the 2020 health strategies that underline the importance of the collaborative aspects in networks.

  20. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  1. Intermittent and sustained periodic windows in networked chaotic Rössler oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhiwei; Sun, Yong; Zhan, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Route to chaos (or periodicity) in dynamical systems is one of fundamental problems. Here, dynamical behaviors of coupled chaotic Rössler oscillators on complex networks are investigated and two different types of periodic windows with the variation of coupling strength are found. Under a moderate coupling, the periodic window is intermittent, and the attractors within the window extremely sensitively depend on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and topology of the network. Therefore, after adding or removing one edge of network, the periodic attractor can be destroyed and substituted by a chaotic one, or vice versa. In contrast, under an extremely weak coupling, another type of periodic window appears, which insensitively depends on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and network. It is sustained and unchanged for different types of network structure. It is also found that the phase differences of the oscillators are almost discrete and randomly distributed except that directly linked oscillators more likely have different phases. These dynamical behaviors have also been generally observed in other networked chaotic oscillators

  2. Optimization of European call options considering physical delivery network and reservoir operation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops alternative strategies for European call options for water purchase under hydrological uncertainties that can be used by water resources managers for decision making. Each alternative strategy maximizes its own objective over a selected sequence of future hydrology that is characterized by exceedance probability. Water trade provides flexibility and enhances water distribution system reliability. However, water trade between two parties in a regional water distribution system involves many issues, such as delivery network, reservoir operation rules, storage space, demand, water availability, uncertainty, and any existing contracts. An option is a security giving the right to buy or sell an asset; in our case, the asset is water. We extend a flow path-based water distribution model to include reservoir operation rules. The model simultaneously considers both the physical distribution network as well as the relationships between water sellers and buyers. We first test the model extension. Then we apply the proposed optimization model for European call options to the Tainan water distribution system in southern Taiwan. The formulation lends itself to a mixed integer linear programming model. We use the weighing method to formulate a composite function for a multiobjective problem. The proposed methodology provides water resources managers with an overall picture of water trade strategies and the consequence of each strategy. The results from the case study indicate that the strategy associated with a streamflow exceedence probability of 50% or smaller should be adopted as the reference strategy for the Tainan water distribution system.

  3. Quasi-Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of an Integrated Service Delivery Network for the Frail Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Andre; Durand, Pierre J.; Bonin, Lucie; Hebert, Rejean; Rochette, Louis

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new, integrated service delivery (ISD) network of health and social services for frail elderly living in a semi-urban community. A quasi-experimental study was conducted from 1997 to 2000, with measures taken before implementation (T0) and every 12 months after implementation for a 3-year…

  4. Tunable sustained intravitreal drug delivery system for daunorubicin using oxidized porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huiyuan; Nieto, Alejandra; Ma, Feiyan; Freeman, William R; Sailor, Michael J; Cheng, Lingyun

    2014-03-28

    Daunorubicin (DNR) is an effective inhibitor of an array of proteins involved in neovascularization, including VEGF and PDGF. These growth factors are directly related to retina scar formation in many devastating retinal diseases. Due to the short vitreous half-life and narrow therapeutic window, ocular application of DNR is limited. It has been shown that a porous silicon (pSi) based delivery system can extend DNR vitreous residence from a few days to 3months. In this study we investigated the feasibility of altering the pore size of the silicon particles to regulate the payload release. Modulation of the etching parameters allowed control of the nano-pore size from 15nm to 95nm. In vitro studies showed that degradation of pSiO2 increased with increasing pore size and the degradation of pSiO2 was approximately constant for a given particle type. The degradation of pSiO2 with 43nm pores was significantly greater than the other two particles with smaller pores, judged by observed and normalized mean Si concentration of the dissolution samples (44.2±8.9 vs 25.7±5.6 or 21.2±4.2μg/mL, pporous silicon dioxide with covalent loading of daunorubicin) with large pores (43nm) yielded a significantly higher DNR level than particles with 15 or 26nm pores (13.5±6.9ng/mL vs. 2.3±1.6ng/mL and 1.1±0.9ng/mL, p<0.0001). After two months of in vitro dynamic release, 54% of the pSiO2-CO2H:DNR particles still remained in the dissolution chamber by weight. In vivo drug release study demonstrated that free DNR in the vitreous at post-injection day 14 was 66.52ng/mL for 95nm pore size pSiO2-CO2H:DNR, 10.76ng/mL for 43nm pSiO2-CO2H:DNR, and only 1.05ng/mL for 15nm pSiO2-CO2H:DNR. Pore expansion from 15nm to 95nm led to a 63 fold increase of DNR release (p<0.0001) and a direct correlation between the pore size and the drug levels in the living eye vitreous was confirmed. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of regulating DNR release from pSiO2 covalently loaded with DNR by

  5. A preliminary evaluation of dexamethasone palmitate emulsion: a novel intravitreal sustained delivery of corticosteroid for treatment of macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daull, Philippe; Paterson, Christopher A; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-03-01

    basal levels and no evidence of cataract formation. IVT injections of DXP emulsions were well tolerated and shown to be efficacious for the sustained release of the drug, with the potential to control vascular leakage up to 9 months following a single IVT injection. These data suggest that IVT injections of DXP emulsions could be a safe and effective alternative IVT drug delivery vehicle for corticosteroid to treat back of the eye diseases complicated by macular edema.

  6. Gelucire Based In Situ Gelling Emulsions: A Potential Carrier for Sustained Stomach Specific Delivery of Gastric Irritant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly prescribed medications to the geriatric patients for the treatment of arthritis and other painful disorders. The major side effects of NSAIDs are related to their effects on the stomach and bowels. The present study concerns assessment of the potential of liquid in situ gelling emulsion formulations (emulgels as patient compliant stomach specific sustained release carrier for the delivery of highly gastric irritant drug, Piroxicam. Emulgels were prepared, without using any emulgent, by mixing different concentrations of molten Gelucire 39/01 with low viscosity sodium alginate solution prepared in deionized water at 50°C. CaCO3 was used as buoyancy imparting as well as crosslinking agent. Emulgels so prepared were homogenous, physically stable, and rapidly formed into buoyant gelled mass when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2. Drug release studies carried out in SGF revealed significant retardation (P<0.05 of Piroxicam release from emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations prepared without Gelucire 39/01. Pharmacodynamic studies carried out in albino rats revealed significantly increased analgesic/anti-inflammatory response from in situ emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations. Further, in vivo toxicity studies carried out in albino rats revealed no signs of gastric ulceration upon prolonged dosing.

  7. Inequity in ecosystem service delivery: Socioeconomic gaps in the public-private conservation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollón, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    private conservation lands included beneficiaries of significantly greater household income than benefit zones of other types of conservation areas. Our analysis of ES flows revealed significant socioeconomic gaps in how the current public-private conservation network benefits the public. These gaps warrant consideration in regional conservation plans and suggest that private conservation initiatives may be best suited for responding to the equity challenge. Enhancing the ecosystem benefits and the equity of benefit delivery from private conservation networks could build public and political support for long-term conservation strategies and ultimately enhance conservation efficacy.

  8. Sustainable Technology Analysis of Artificial Intelligence Using Bayesian and Social Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI have led to a significant increase in the use of AI technologies. Many experts are researching and developing AI technologies in their respective fields, often submitting papers and patent applications as a result. In particular, owing to the characteristics of the patent system that is used to protect the exclusive rights to registered technology, patent documents contain detailed information on the developed technology. Therefore, in this study, we propose a statistical method for analyzing patent data on AI technology to improve our understanding of sustainable technology in the field of AI. We collect patent documents that are related to AI technology, and then analyze the patent data to identify sustainable AI technology. In our analysis, we develop a statistical method that combines social network analysis and Bayesian modeling. Based on the results of the proposed method, we provide a technological structure that can be applied to understand the sustainability of AI technology. To show how the proposed method can be applied to a practical problem, we apply the technological structure to a case study in order to analyze sustainable AI technology.

  9. Application of Network Analysis for Development and Promotion of Sustainable Tourism in Public Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brach Michał

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of sustainable tourism within valuable natural areas has been extensively discussed ever since the emergence of sustainable development philosophy in the 1990s. In view of growing public interest in nature recreation and tourism development, the importance of addressing this subject matter has hitherto increased significantly. The main objective of the present paper was to offer a tool for supporting development and promotion of sustainable tourism in Poland’s forests managed by the State Forests - National Forest Holding. GIS technology, and specific tools for network analysis were used in the project. During task realization, only free and open software sources were used. The work was performed based on the example of the Forest District Żołędowo (Regional Directorate of State Forests in Toruń, Poland with the use of District’s spatial data resources. A web application was created to present information about tourist attractions and infrastructure on an interactive map with tools for route planning. As a result, there has been developed the web mapping application which provides general access to tourism related information and enables planning touristic routes by pre-specified criteria. Implemented routing algorithms can help traffic management and further protection of the areas vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. The system created not only promotes attractive tourist sites but also, supports targeting tourist traffic, and accordingly - adds to the progress of sustainable tourism

  10. The data collection/data distribution center: building a sustainable African-American church-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmon, Moses; Roberson, James T; Carey, Tim; Godley, Paul; Howard, Daniel L; Boyd, Carlton; Ammerman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Carolina-Shaw Partnership for the Elimination of Health Disparities efforts to engage a diverse group of Black churches in a sustainable network. We sought to develop a diverse network of 25 churches to work with the Carolina-Shaw Partnership to develop sustainable health disparities research, education, and intervention initiatives. Churches were selected based on location, pastoral buy-in, and capacity to engage. A purposive sampling technique was applied. (1) Collecting information on the location and characteristics of churches helps to identify and recruit churches that possess the desired qualities and characteristics. (2) The process used to identify, recruit, and select churches is time intensive. (3) The time, energy, and effort required managing an inter-institutional partnership and engage churches in health disparities research and interventions lends itself to sustainability. The development of a sustainable network of churches could lead to successful health disparities initiatives.

  11. ENEA e-Learn Platform for Development and Sustainability with International Renewable Energies Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Moreno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The UNESCO office in Venice (the Regional Bureau for Science and Culture in Europe has promoted, in collaboration with the Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment (ENEA, an e-learning project on renewable energy: the DESIRE-net project (Development and Sustainability with International Renewable Energies network. The project's aim is to share the best available knowledge on renewable energies among all the countries that have joined the project and exploit this knowledge at every level. Currently the project involves 30 Eastern European and Southern Mediterranean countries as well as Australia, Indonesia, and China.

  12. Exploring trade-offs between VMAT dose quality and delivery efficiency using a network optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salari, Ehsan; Craft, David; Wala, Jeremiah

    2012-01-01

    To formulate and solve the fluence-map merging procedure of the recently-published VMAT treatment-plan optimization method, called vmerge, as a bi-criteria optimization problem. Using an exact merging method rather than the previously-used heuristic, we are able to better characterize the trade-off between the delivery efficiency and dose quality. vmerge begins with a solution of the fluence-map optimization problem with 180 equi-spaced beams that yields the ‘ideal’ dose distribution. Neighboring fluence maps are then successively merged, meaning that they are added together and delivered as a single map. The merging process improves the delivery efficiency at the expense of deviating from the initial high-quality dose distribution. We replace the original merging heuristic by considering the merging problem as a discrete bi-criteria optimization problem with the objectives of maximizing the treatment efficiency and minimizing the deviation from the ideal dose. We formulate this using a network-flow model that represents the merging problem. Since the problem is discrete and thus non-convex, we employ a customized box algorithm to characterize the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier is then used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the standard vmerge algorithm as well as two other similar heuristics. We test the exact and heuristic merging approaches on a pancreas and a prostate cancer case. For both cases, the shape of the Pareto frontier suggests that starting from a high-quality plan, we can obtain efficient VMAT plans through merging neighboring fluence maps without substantially deviating from the initial dose distribution. The trade-off curves obtained by the various heuristics are contrasted and shown to all be equally capable of initial plan simplifications, but to deviate in quality for more drastic efficiency improvements. This work presents a network optimization approach to the merging problem. Contrasting the trade-off curves of the

  13. Exploring trade-offs between VMAT dose quality and delivery efficiency using a network optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Ehsan; Wala, Jeremiah; Craft, David

    2012-09-07

    To formulate and solve the fluence-map merging procedure of the recently-published VMAT treatment-plan optimization method, called VMERGE, as a bi-criteria optimization problem. Using an exact merging method rather than the previously-used heuristic, we are able to better characterize the trade-off between the delivery efficiency and dose quality. VMERGE begins with a solution of the fluence-map optimization problem with 180 equi-spaced beams that yields the 'ideal' dose distribution. Neighboring fluence maps are then successively merged, meaning that they are added together and delivered as a single map. The merging process improves the delivery efficiency at the expense of deviating from the initial high-quality dose distribution. We replace the original merging heuristic by considering the merging problem as a discrete bi-criteria optimization problem with the objectives of maximizing the treatment efficiency and minimizing the deviation from the ideal dose. We formulate this using a network-flow model that represents the merging problem. Since the problem is discrete and thus non-convex, we employ a customized box algorithm to characterize the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier is then used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the standard VMERGE algorithm as well as two other similar heuristics. We test the exact and heuristic merging approaches on a pancreas and a prostate cancer case. For both cases, the shape of the Pareto frontier suggests that starting from a high-quality plan, we can obtain efficient VMAT plans through merging neighboring fluence maps without substantially deviating from the initial dose distribution. The trade-off curves obtained by the various heuristics are contrasted and shown to all be equally capable of initial plan simplifications, but to deviate in quality for more drastic efficiency improvements. This work presents a network optimization approach to the merging problem. Contrasting the trade-off curves of the merging

  14. Oscillatory Dynamics in the Frontoparietal Attention Network during Sustained Attention in the Ferret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Sellers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention requires the coordination of neural activity across multiple cortical areas in the frontoparietal network, in particular the prefrontal cortex (PFC and posterior parietal cortex (PPC. Previous work has demonstrated that activity in these brain regions is coordinated by neuronal oscillations of the local field potential (LFP. However, the underlying coordination of activity in terms of organization of single unit (SU spiking activity has remained poorly understood, particularly in the freely moving animal. We found that long-range functional connectivity between anatomically connected PFC and PPC was mediated by oscillations in the theta frequency band. SU activity in PFC was phase locked to theta oscillations in PPC, and spiking activity in PFC and PPC was locked to local high-gamma activity. Together, our results support a model in which frequency-specific synchronization mediates functional connectivity between and within PFC and PPC of the frontoparietal attention network in the freely moving animal.

  15. Standardized network order sets in rural Ontario: a follow-up report on successes and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Andrea; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Unifying, implementing and sustaining a large order set project requires strategic placement of key organizational professionals to provide ongoing user education, communication and support. This article will outline the successful strategies implemented by the Grey Bruce Health Network, Evidence-Based Care Program to reduce length of stay, increase patient satisfaction and increase the use of best practices resulting in quality outcomes, safer practice and better allocation of resources by using standardized Order Sets within a network of 11 hospital sites. Audits conducted in 2007 and again in 2008 revealed a reduced length of stay of 0.96 in-patient days when order sets were used on admission and readmission for the same or a related diagnosis within one month decreased from 5.5% without order sets to 3.5% with order sets.

  16. A conserved signaling network monitors delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jesse; Dephoure, Noah; Horecka, Ira; Gygi, Steven; Kellogg, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    In budding yeast, cell cycle progression and ribosome biogenesis are dependent on plasma membrane growth, which ensures that events of cell growth are coordinated with each other and with the cell cycle. However, the signals that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth are poorly understood. Here we used proteome-wide mass spectrometry to systematically discover signals associated with membrane growth. The results suggest that membrane trafficking events required for membrane growth generate sphingolipid-dependent signals. A conserved signaling network appears to play an essential role in signaling by responding to delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane. In addition, sphingolipid-dependent signals control phosphorylation of protein kinase C (Pkc1), which plays an essential role in the pathways that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth. Together these discoveries provide new clues as to how growth--dependent signals control cell growth and the cell cycle. © 2017 Clarke et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Multilayer encapsulated mesoporous silica nanospheres as an oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Liang [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, P.O. Box 32, Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, Hongrui [English Teaching Department, School of Basic Courses, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Wenhua Road 103, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhao, Qinfu; Han, Ning; Bai, Ling; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Tongying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, P.O. Box 32, Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Siling, E-mail: silingwang@syphu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, P.O. Box 32, Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We used a combination of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) and layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technology to establish a new oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine. Firstly, the model drug was loaded into MSN, and then the loaded MSN were repeatedly encapsulated by chitosan (CHI) and acacia (ACA) via LBL self-assembly method. The structural features of the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption. The encapsulating process was monitored by zeta-potential and surface tension measurements. The physical state of the drug in the samples was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The influence of the multilayer with different number of layers on the drug release rate was studied using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface tension measurement. The swelling effect and the structure changes of the multilayer were investigated to explore the relationship between the drug release behavior and the state of the multilayer under different pH conditions. The stability and mucosa adhesive ability of the prepared nanoparticles were also explored. After multilayer coating, the drug release rate was effectively controlled. The differences in drug release behavior under different pH conditions could be attributed to the different states of the multilayer. And the nanoparticles possessed good stability and strong mucosa adhesive ability. We believe that this combination offers a simple strategy for regulating the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and extends the pharmaceutical applications of inorganic materials and polymers. - Highlights: • A combination of inorganic and organic materials was applied. • Mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) were used as drug carriers. • Chitosan and acacia were encapsulated through layer-by-layer self-assembly. • The release rate of the poorly

  18. Multilayer encapsulated mesoporous silica nanospheres as an oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Liang; Sun, Hongrui; Zhao, Qinfu; Han, Ning; Bai, Ling; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2015-01-01

    We used a combination of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) and layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technology to establish a new oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine. Firstly, the model drug was loaded into MSN, and then the loaded MSN were repeatedly encapsulated by chitosan (CHI) and acacia (ACA) via LBL self-assembly method. The structural features of the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption. The encapsulating process was monitored by zeta-potential and surface tension measurements. The physical state of the drug in the samples was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The influence of the multilayer with different number of layers on the drug release rate was studied using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface tension measurement. The swelling effect and the structure changes of the multilayer were investigated to explore the relationship between the drug release behavior and the state of the multilayer under different pH conditions. The stability and mucosa adhesive ability of the prepared nanoparticles were also explored. After multilayer coating, the drug release rate was effectively controlled. The differences in drug release behavior under different pH conditions could be attributed to the different states of the multilayer. And the nanoparticles possessed good stability and strong mucosa adhesive ability. We believe that this combination offers a simple strategy for regulating the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and extends the pharmaceutical applications of inorganic materials and polymers. - Highlights: • A combination of inorganic and organic materials was applied. • Mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) were used as drug carriers. • Chitosan and acacia were encapsulated through layer-by-layer self-assembly. • The release rate of the poorly

  19. A network-based frequency analysis of Inclusive Wealth to track sustainable development in world countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Derrible, Sybil; Managi, Shunsuke

    2018-07-15

    Using human (HC), natural (NC), and produced (PC) capital from Inclusive Wealth as representatives of the triple bottom line of sustainability and utilizing elements of network science, we introduce a Network-based Frequency Analysis (NFA) method to track sustainable development in world countries from 1990 to 2014. The method compares every country with every other and links them when values are close. The country with the most links becomes the main trend, and the performance of every other country is assessed based on its 'orbital' distance from the main trend. Orbital speeds are then calculated to evaluate country-specific dynamic trends. Overall, we find an optimistic trend for HC only, indicating positive impacts of global initiatives aiming towards socio-economic development in developing countries like the Millennium Development Goals and 'Agenda 21'. However, we also find that the relative performance of most countries has not changed significantly in this period, regardless of their gradual development. Specifically, we measure a decrease in produced and natural capital for most countries, despite an increase in GDP, suggesting unsustainable development. Furthermore, we develop a technique to cluster countries and project the results to 2050, and we find a significant decrease in NC for nearly all countries, suggesting an alarming depletion of natural resources worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating strategies for sustainable intensification of US agriculture through the Long-Term Agroecosystem Research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegal, S.; Bestelmeyer, B. T.; Archer, D. W.; Augustine, D. J.; Boughton, E. H.; Boughton, R. K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Clark, P. E.; Derner, J. D.; Duncan, E. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Harmel, R. D.; Heilman, P.; Holly, M. A.; Huggins, D. R.; King, K.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Liebig, M. A.; Locke, M. A.; McCarty, G. W.; Millar, N.; Mirsky, S. B.; Moorman, T. B.; Pierson, F. B.; Rigby, J. R.; Robertson, G. P.; Steiner, J. L.; Strickland, T. C.; Swain, H. M.; Wienhold, B. J.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Yost, M. A.; Walthall, C. L.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable intensification is an emerging model for agriculture designed to reconcile accelerating global demand for agricultural products with long-term environmental stewardship. Defined here as increasing agricultural production while maintaining or improving environmental quality, sustainable intensification hinges upon decision-making by agricultural producers, consumers, and policy-makers. The Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network was established to inform these decisions. Here we introduce the LTAR Common Experiment, through which scientists and partnering producers in US croplands, rangelands, and pasturelands are conducting 21 independent but coordinated experiments. Each local effort compares the outcomes of a predominant, conventional production system in the region (‘business as usual’) with a system hypothesized to advance sustainable intensification (‘aspirational’). Following the logic of a conceptual model of interactions between agriculture, economics, society, and the environment, we identified commonalities among the 21 experiments in terms of (a) concerns about business-as-usual production, (b) ‘aspirational outcomes’ motivating research into alternatives, (c) strategies for achieving the outcomes, (d) practices that support the strategies, and (e) relationships between practice outreach and adoption. Network-wide, concerns about business as usual include the costs of inputs, opportunities lost to uniform management approaches, and vulnerability to accelerating environmental changes. Motivated by environmental, economic, and societal outcomes, scientists and partnering producers are investigating 15 practices in aspirational treatments to sustainably intensify agriculture, from crop diversification to ecological restoration. Collectively, the aspirational treatments reveal four general strategies for sustainable intensification: (1) reducing reliance on inputs through ecological intensification, (2) diversifying management

  1. Bi-objective integrating sustainable order allocation and sustainable supply chain network strategic design with stochastic demand using a novel robust hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jafarian, Ahmad; Nourbakhsh, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    simultaneously considering the sustainable OAP in the sustainable SCND as a strategic decision. The proposed supply chain network is composed of five echelons including suppliers classified in different classes, plants, distribution centers that dispatch products via two different ways, direct shipment......, a novel multi-objective hybrid approach called MOHEV with two strategies for its best particle selection procedure (BPSP), minimum distance, and crowding distance is proposed. MOHEV is constructed through hybridization of two multi-objective algorithms, namely the adapted multi-objective electromagnetism...

  2. Australia's TERN: Building, Sustaining and Advancing Collaborative Long Term Ecosystem Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEld, A. A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    TERN is Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (www.tern.org.au) is one of several environmental data collection, storage and sharing projects developed through the government's research infrastructure programs 2008-2014. This includes terrestrial and coastal ecosystem data collection infrastructure across multiple disciplines, hardware, software and processes used to store, analyse and integrate data sets. TERN's overall objective is to build the collaborations, infrastructure and programs to meet the needs of ecosystem science communities in Australia in the long term, through institutional frameworks necessary to establish a national terrestrial ecosystem site and observational network, coordinated networks enabling cooperation and operational experience; public access to quality assured and appropriately licensed data; and allowing the terrestrial ecosystem research community to define and sustain the terrestrial observing paradigm into the longer term. This paper explains how TERN was originally established, and now operates, along with plans to sustain itself in the future. TERN is implemented through discipline/technical groups referred to as "TERN Facilities". Combined, the facilities provide observations of surface mass and energy fluxes over key ecosystems, biophysical remote sensing data, ecological survey plots, soils information, and coastal ecosystems and associated water quality variables across Australia. Additional integrative facilities cover elements of ecoinformatics, data-scaling and modelling, and linking science to management. A central coordination and portal facility provides meta-data storage, data identification, legal and licensing support. Data access, uploading, meta-data generation, DOI attachment and licensing is completed at each facility's own portal level. TERN also acts as the open-data repository of choice for Australian scientists required to publish their data. Several key lessons we have learnt, will be presented

  3. The Value of Sustainable Knowledge Transfer Methods for SMEs, Utilizing Socio-Technical Networks and Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Nousala

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the development of sustainable SME methods for tracking tacit (informal knowledge transfer as a series of networks of larger complex system. Understanding sustainable systems begins with valuing tacit knowledge networks and their ability to produce connections on multiple levels. The behaviour of the social or socio aspects of a system in relation to the explicit formal/physical structures need to be understood and actively considered when utilizing methodologies for interacting within complex systems structures. This paper utilizes theory from several previous studies to underpin the key case study discussed. This approach involved examining the behavioural phenomena of an SME knowledge network. The knowledge network elements were highlighted to identify their value within an SME structure. To understand the value of these emergent elements from between tacit and explicit knowledge networks, is to actively, simultaneously and continuous support sustainable development for SME organizations. The simultaneous links within and between groups of organizations is crucial for understanding sustainable networking structures of complex systems.

  4. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena; Dinda, Amit K; Gupta, Asheesh

    2010-01-01

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 ± 1.4 to 75 ± 2.7 kPa (p 0 C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 t /M ∞ ≤ 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  5. Responsive and resilient supply chain network design under operational and disruption risks with delivery lead-time sensitive customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan; Keyvanshokooh, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    We address a multi-period supply chain (SC) network design where demands of customers depend on facilities serving them based on their delivery lead-times. Potential customer demands are stochastic, and facilities’ capacity varies randomly because of possible disruptions. Accordingly, we develop...... a multi-stage stochastic program, and model disruptions’ effect on facilities’ capacity. The SC responsiveness risk is limited and, to obtain a resilient network, both mitigation and contingency strategies are exploited. Computational results on a real-life case study and randomly generated problem...... instances demonstrate the model's applicability, risk-measurement policies’ performance, and the influence of mitigation and contingency strategies on SC's resiliency....

  6. The Sustainability of Global Chain Governance: Network Structures and Local Supplier Upgrading in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been widely accepted that insertion into global production networks may play a critical role in fostering local supplier upgrading, scholars have yet to fully incorporate heterogeneous configurations of buyer-supplier relationships within networks into empirical testing. Using a representative sample of manufacturing firms in Thailand, we propose a more nuanced empirical framework that asks which features of buyer-supplier relationships are related to which aspects of local supplier upgrading. Our findings, derived from latent class analysis, show that the ways value chains are governed can exert varying effects on different types of technological upgrading. Being a multinational corporation (MNC supplier was found to have positive effects on process and minor product upgrading, irrespective of the types of buyer-supplier networks. However, we found a more radical type of upgrading (i.e., the development of own brands to be negatively related to insertion into ‘quasi-hierarchical’ or ‘buyer-driven relationships’, whilst involvement in ‘cooperative networks’ was associated with a significantly higher tendency of product and brand upgrading. Understanding this inherent relationality provides a crucial balance to previous firm-level findings, suggesting that the sustainability of participation in global value chains depends on the relational structures in which local manufacturers are embedded.

  7. Critical Factors to Achieve Dockless Bike-Sharing Sustainability in China: A Stakeholder-Oriented Network Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-gang Shi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In China, dockless bike-sharing programs (DBSPs play a significant role in promoting the goals of sustainable urban travel and carbon emissions reduction. However, the sustainability of DBSPs is increasingly being challenged as various issues associated with different stakeholders emerge. While numerous studies have focused on the barriers to traditional bike-sharing programs, the sustainability performance of new-generation DBSPs is largely overlooked. It is accordingly imperative to understand the primary challenges that impede the sustainability of DBSPs and to consider what stimulative measures can be taken. In this study, we investigate the factors that are critical to DBSPs’ sustainability from a network perspective. Stakeholder-associated factors and their interrelations were identified via literature analysis and interviews, and the social network analysis (SNA method was employed to recognize the critical factors and links in DBSPs. As a result, 10 critical factors and 10 major interactions were identified and further classified into six challenges. Sharing transport schemes, legislative perfection, public private partnership (PPP, and product lifecycle management (PLM were proposed to govern these challenges. This paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge of bike-sharing programs via a network approach that integrates the key influencing factors with those factors’ associated stakeholders. Furthermore, these findings provide the government and operators with implications for mitigating the tough challenges and facilitating the sustainability of DBSPs.

  8. Asset sustainability index : quick guide : proposed metrics for the long-term financial sustainability of highway networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    "This report provides a Quick Guide to the concept of asset sustainability metrics. Such metrics address the long-term performance of highway assets based upon expected expenditure levels. : It examines how such metrics are used in Australia, Britain...

  9. Linking hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in African papyrus wetlands using a Bayesian Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, A.; Gettel, G. M.; Kipkemboi, J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands in East Africa provide ecosystem services supporting the livelihoods of millions but are rapidly degrading due to economic development. For ecosystem conservation, an integrated understanding of the natural and social processes driving ecosystem change is needed. This research focuses on integrating the causal relationships between hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in Nyando wetland, western Kenya. Livelihood sustainability is based on ecosystem services that include plant and animal harvest for building material and food, conversion of wetlands to crop and grazing land, water supply, and water quality regulation. Specific objectives were: to integrate studies of hydrology, ecology, and livelihood activities using a Bayesian Network (BN) model and include stakeholder involvement in model development. The BN model (Netica 4.16) had 35 nodes with seven decision nodes describing demography, economy, papyrus market, and rainfall, and two target nodes describing ecosystem function (defined by groundwater recharge, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity) and livelihood sustainability (drinking water supply, crop production, livestock production, and papyrus yield). The conditional probability tables were populated using results of ecohydrological and socio-economic field work and consultations with stakeholders. The model was evaluated for an average year with decision node probabilities set according to data from research, expert opinion, and stakeholders' views. Then, scenarios for dry and wet seasons and for economic development (low population growth and unemployment) and policy development (more awareness of wetland value) were evaluated. In an average year, the probability for maintaining a "good" level of sediment and nutrient retention functions, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity was about 60%. ("Good" is defined by expert opinion based on ongoing field research.) In the dry season, the probability was

  10. Effect and Analysis of Sustainable Cell Rate using MPEG video Traffic in ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Kaushal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The broadband networks inhibit the capability to carry multiple types of traffic – voice, video and data, but these services need to be controlled according to the traffic contract negotiated at the time of the connection to maintain desired Quality of service. Such control techniques use traffic descriptors to evaluate its performance and effectiveness. In case of Variable Bit Rate (VBR services, Peak Cell Rate (PCR and its Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVTPCR are mandatory descriptors. In addition to these, ATM Forum proposed Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR and its Cell delay variation tolerance (CDVTSCR. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of specific SCR and CDVTSCR values on the Usage Parameter Control (UPC performance in case of measured MPEG traffic for improving the efficiency

  11. Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The third African IRPA 2010 conference on Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks. IAEA's role in radiation protection with focus in Africa. The controlling of exposure to indoor Radon. And Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222 Rn in some dwelling and enclosed areas in Africa - capacity building for radiation protection. It had also address Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy, challenges for advancing medical physic globally, Heath effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation, nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan that address among other issues educations and training activities (2000-2020) and the current UNSCLEAR activities

  12. Decreased rates of nosocomial endometritis and urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery in a French surveillance network, 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Chapuis, Catherine; Depaix, Florence; Dumas, Anne-Marie; Gignoux, Chantal; Haond, Catherine; Lafarge-Leboucher, Joëlle; Launay, Carine; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent, Agnès; Fabry, Jacques

    2008-06-01

    To identify independent risk factors for endometritis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after vaginal delivery, and to monitor changes in nosocomial infection rates and derive benchmarks for prevention. Prospective study. We analyzed routine surveillance data for all vaginal deliveries between January 1997 and December 2003 at 66 maternity units participating in the Mater Sud-Est surveillance network. Adjusted odds ratios for risk of endometritis or UTI were obtained using a logistic regression model. The overall incidence rates were 0.5% for endometritis and 0.3% for UTI. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and risk of endometritis but not of UTI during the 7-year period. Significant risk factors for endometritis were fever during labor, parity of 1, and instrumental delivery and/or manual removal of the placenta. Significant risk factors for UTI were urinary infection on admission, premature rupture of membranes (more than 12 hours before admission), blood loss of more than 800 mL, parity of 1, instrumental delivery, and receipt of more than 5 vaginal digital examinations. Each maternity unit received a poster showing graphs of the number of expected and observed cases of UTI and endometritis associated with vaginal deliveries, which enabled each maternity unit to determine their rank within the network and to initiate prevention programs. Although routine surveillance means additional work for maternity units, our results demonstrate the usefulness of regular targeted monitoring of risk factors and of the most common nosocomial infections in obstetrics. Most of the information needed for monitoring is already present in the patients' records.

  13. Folic acid-decorated polyamidoamine dendrimer exhibits high tumor uptake and sustained highly localized retention in solid tumors: Its utility for local siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Yeudall, W Andrew; Yang, Hu

    2017-07-15

    The utility of folic acid (FA)-decorated polyamidoamine dendrimer G4 (G4-FA) as a vector was investigated for local delivery of siRNA. In a xenograft HN12 (or HN12-YFP) tumor mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), intratumorally (i.t.) injected G4-FA exhibited high tumor uptake and sustained highly localized retention in the tumors according to near infrared (NIR) imaging assessment. siRNA against vascular endothelial growth factor A (siVEGFA) was chosen as a therapeutic modality. Compared to the nontherapeutic treatment groups (PBS solution or dendrimer complexed with nontherapeutic siRNA against green fluorescent protein (siGFP)), G4-FA/siVEGFA showed tumor inhibition effects in single-dose and two-dose regimen studies. In particular, two doses of G4-FA/siVEGFA i.t. administered eight days apart resulted in a more profound inhibition of tumor growth, accompanied with significant reduction in angiogenesis, as judged by CD31 staining and microvessel counts. Tumor size reduction in the two-dose regimen study was ascertained semi-quantitatively by live fluorescence imaging of YFP tumors and independently supported antitumor effects of G4-FA/siVEGFA. Taken together, G4-FA shows high tumor uptake and sustained retention properties, making it a suitable platform for local delivery of siRNAs to treat cancers that are readily accessible such as HNSCC. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is difficult to transfect for gene therapy. We developed folate receptor (FR)-targeted polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer for enhanced delivery of genes to HNSCC and gained in-depth understanding of how gene delivery and transfection in head and neck squamous cancer cells can be enhanced via FR-targeted PAMAM dendrimers. The results we report here are encouraging and present latest advances in using dendrimers for cancer therapies, in particular for HNSCC. Our work has demonstrated that localized delivery of FR

  14. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Dacome

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: – Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. – Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an

  15. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  16. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  17. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  18. Preparation of a Sustained-Release Nebulized Aerosol of R-terbutaline Hydrochloride Liposome and Evaluation of Its Anti-asthmatic Effects via Pulmonary Delivery in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingrui; Zhan, Shuyao; Liu, Qing; Su, Hao; Dai, Xi; Wang, Hai; Beng, Huimin; Tan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    An aerosolized liposome formulation for the pulmonary delivery of an anti-asthmatic medication was developed. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for a sustained bronchodilator response. Liposomes are known for their sustained drug release capability and thus would be a suitable delivery system for prolonging the therapeutic effect of anti-asthmatic medication. Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were loaded with a model drug, R-terbutaline hydrochloride(R-TBH), using an ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of up to 71.35% and yielded R-TBH liposomes with a particle size of approximately 145 ± 20 nm. According to stability studies, these R-TBH liposomes should be stored at 4°C before usage. Compared to R-TBH solution, which showed 90.84% release within 8 h, liposomal R-TBH had a cumulative release of 73.53% at 37°C over 192 h. A next generation impactor (NGI) was used to analyze the particle size distribution in the lungs of R-TBH liposome aerosol in vitro at 5°C. The therapeutic efficacy of the nebulized aerosol of the R-TBH liposomes was assessed via pulmonary delivery in guinea pigs. The results showed that, compared to the R-TBH solution group, the R-TBH liposome group had a prolonged anti-asthma effect.

  19. Increased Loading, Efficacy and Sustained Release of Silibinin, a Poorly Soluble Drug Using Hydrophobically-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of Anticancer Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Yee Kuen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB, a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using a hydrophobically-modified chitosan nanoparticle (pCNP system. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were hydrophobically-modified to confer a palmitoyl group as confirmed by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assay. Physicochemical features of the nanoparticles were studied using the TNBS assay, and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR analyses. The FTIR profile and electron microscopy correlated the successful formation of pCNP and pCNP-SLB as nano-sized particles, while Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM results exhibited an expansion in size between pCNP and pCNP-SLB to accommodate the drug within its particle core. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles, a Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cytotoxicity assay was subsequently performed using the A549 lung cancer cell line. Cytotoxicity assays exhibited an enhanced efficacy of SLB when delivered by CNP and pCNP. Interestingly, controlled release delivery of SLB was achieved using the pCNP-SLB system, conferring higher cytotoxic effects and lower IC50 values in 72-h treatments compared to CNP-SLB, which was attributed to the hydrophobic modification of the CNP system.

  20. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dinda, Amit K [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Gupta, Asheesh, E-mail: veenak_iitd@yahoo.co [Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Ministry of Defense, New Delhi 110059 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt {approx} 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 {+-} 1.4 to 75 {+-} 2.7 kPa (p < 0.02) with increasing Cs (from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%), while it decreased from 162 {+-} 6.4 to 23 {+-} 1.4 kPa (p < 0.05) with decreasing PAm/G ratio. Cell viability studies by MTT assay showed excellent cytocompatibility of matrices with fibroblast L929 cells. Curcumin, a hydrophobic phytochemical, was loaded by a diffusion method and its release profile was investigated in 4% w/v aqueous BSA solution at 75 rpm (at 37 {+-} 0.2 {sup 0}C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity} {<=}} 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  1. Building a sustainable complementary and alternative medicine research network in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bettina; Baumhöfener, Franziska; Dlaboha, Meike; Odde Madsen, Jesper; Regenfelder, Stephanie; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Since CAMbrella is a networking project funded by the European Commission explicitly to build and sustain a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research network in Europe, communication and dissemination play a large role and form a work package of their own. The present article gives an outline of the communication and dissemination work in the CAMbrella consortium. The intensive building of sound internal communication is an essential part in establishing a functioning structure for collaboration in a diverse group of 16 partner institutions from 12 countries, as exists in the CAMbrella project. The means and tools for dissemination of results to the scientific community and the European public at large, as well as to the European policy makers, are presented. The development of the corporate design and a dissemination strategy are described in detail. In addition, some basic information regarding previous CAM research efforts, which might be interesting for future consortium building in the field of CAM research, is given. Internal communication within a heterogeneous research group, the maintenance of a work-oriented style of communication and a consensus oriented effort in establishing dissemination tools and products will be essential for any future consortium in the CAM field. The outlook shows the necessity for active political encouragement of CAM research and the desideratum of a Pan-European institution analogous to the NIH (National Institutes of Health) in the USA.

  2. The AGING Initiative experience: a call for sustained support for team science networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tullika; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Landyn, Valentina; Hajduk, Alexandra; Waring, Stephen; Hanson, Leah R; Whitson, Heather E

    2018-05-18

    Team science, defined as collaborative research efforts that leverage the expertise of diverse disciplines, is recognised as a critical means to address complex healthcare challenges, but the practical implementation of team science can be difficult. Our objective is to describe the barriers, solutions and lessons learned from our team science experience as applied to the complex and growing challenge of multiple chronic conditions (MCC). MCC is the presence of two or more chronic conditions that have a collective adverse effect on health status, function or quality of life, and that require complex healthcare management, decision-making or coordination. Due to the increasing impact on the United States society, MCC research has been identified as a high priority research area by multiple federal agencies. In response to this need, two national research entities, the Healthcare Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAIC), formed the Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth (AGING) Initiative to build nationwide capacity for MCC team science. This article describes the structure, lessons learned and initial outcomes of the AGING Initiative. We call for funding mechanisms to sustain infrastructures that have demonstrated success in fostering team science and innovation in translating findings to policy change necessary to solve complex problems in healthcare.

  3. Sustainable network of independent technical expertise for radioactive waste disposal (SITEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serres, Christophe; Rocher, Muriel [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Frederic [FANC, Brussels (Belgium); Havlova, Vaclava [UJV Rez, a.s., Rez (Czech Republic); Mrskova, Adela [DECOM A.S., Trnava (Slovakia); Dubreuil, Gilles Heriard [MUTADIS, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    SITEX is a 24 months FP7 Euratom project (from January 2012 to December 2013) led by IRSN and bringing together organisations representing technical safety organisations and nuclear safety authorities performing technical and scientific assessment of geological disposals for radioactive waste in the framework of their respective national regulatory review process of the safety case. Civil society outreach specialists of interaction with civil society are also involved in the project. SITEX aims at establishing the conditions required for developing sustainable interactions among experts from various horizons (nuclear safety authorities, technical safety organisations, civil society organisations..) capable of developing and coordinating joint and harmonized activities in relation with the safety assessment of the safety case. Among foreseen activities, partnership with the civil society experts is considered as a key function of the future network in order to contribute in enhancing trust in the decision making process. The SITEX program of work is split into a set of six workpackages that address technical and organizational issues allowing in fine to propose a structure of the activities and operating modes of the future network. These issues relate on the one hand to the study of the potential for sharing and developing technical expertise practices independently from the expertise developed by waste management organisations, on the other hand on the ability to implement coordinated R and D programs run by technical safety organisations in order to develop the scientific knowledge necessary to perform technical assessments. (orig.)

  4. Pasundan Delivery Services (PT. Wahana Bumi Raya) Business Strategy Formulation and Implementation to Create Sustain Future Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Iman; Wandebori, Harimukti

    2012-01-01

    Pasundan Delivery Services (PDS) is the delivery services provider using motorcycle provide solutions for visitors and Bandung citizens to effective and efficient their valuable time, run its costumer order through smartphone and social media, lucrative demand leads PDS to formulate its strategy to reach more costumers among existing competitors to win the competition in and as the leader the future. Formulation of strategic management involving small team discussion group as the management o...

  5. Gene silencing in non-model insects: Overcoming hurdles using symbiotic bacteria for trauma-free sustainable delivery of RNA interference: Sustained RNA interference in insects mediated by symbiotic bacteria: Applications as a genetic tool and as a biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda; Dyson, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Insight into animal biology and development provided by classical genetic analysis of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was an incentive to develop advanced genetic tools for this insect. But genetic systems for the over one million other known insect species are largely undeveloped. With increasing information about insect genomes resulting from next generation sequencing, RNA interference is now the method of choice for reverse genetics, although it is constrained by the means of delivery of interfering RNA. A recent advance to ensure sustained delivery with minimal experimental intervention or trauma to the insect is to exploit commensal bacteria for symbiont-mediated RNA interference. This technology not only offers an efficient means for RNA interference in insects in laboratory conditions, but also has potential for use in the control of human disease vectors, agricultural pests and pathogens of beneficial insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A pH- and temperature-responsive bioresorbable injectable hydrogel based on polypeptide block copolymers for the sustained delivery of proteins in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabee, Md Hasan; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Duong, Huu Thuy Trang; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Doo Sung

    2018-02-27

    Sustained delivery of protein therapeutics is limited owing to the fragile nature of proteins. Despite its great potential, delivery of proteins without any loss of bioactivity remains a challenge in the use of protein therapeutics in the clinic. To surmount this shortcoming, we report a pH- and temperature-responsive in situ-forming injectable hydrogel based on comb-type polypeptide block copolymers for the controlled delivery of proteins. Polypeptide block copolymers, composed of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG), temperature-responsive poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PBLG), and pH-responsive oligo(sulfamethazine) (OSM), exhibit pH- and temperature-induced sol-to-gel transition behavior in aqueous solutions. Polypeptide block copolymers were synthesized by combining N-carboxyanhydride-based ring-opening polymerization and post-functionalization of the chain-end using N-hydroxy succinimide ester activated OSM. The physical properties of polypeptide-based hydrogels were tuned by varying the composition of temperature- and pH-responsive PBLG and OSM in block copolymers. Polypeptide block copolymers were non-toxic to human embryonic kidney cells at high concentrations (2000 μg mL -1 ). Subcutaneous administration of polypeptide block copolymer sols formed viscoelastic gel instantly at the back of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The in vivo gels exhibited sustained degradation and were found to be bioresorbable in 6 weeks without any noticeable inflammation at the injection site. Anionic characteristics of hydrogels allow efficient loading of a cationic model protein, lysozyme, through electrostatic interaction. Lysozyme-loaded polypeptide block copolymer sols readily formed a viscoelastic gel in vivo and sustained lysozyme release for at least a week. Overall, the results demonstrate an elegant approach to control the release of certain charged proteins and open a myriad of therapeutic possibilities in protein therapeutics.

  7. Sustainable intensification of U.S. agriculture: Aspirations and barriers in the regional agroecosystems of the LTAR network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainable intensification of agriculture in the United States will require major shifts in producer decision-making, markets, and public policies. The Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is working to better understand how these shifts may be accomplished. Through a common experime...

  8. Sustainability strategies in industrial supply networks: an innovation approach concerning environmental and social aspects in the clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, H.W.M.; van Bommel, Henricus Wilhelmus Maria

    2016-01-01

    Many different theories are found to explain how industrial companies implement sustainability strategies in their supply networks. However, the question why companies in a similar position choose different strategies remains under discussed. It is this question the research of this study seeks to

  9. Delivery mode and intraventricular hemorrhage risk in very-low-birth-weight infants: Observational data of the German Neonatal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberg, Alexander; Härtel, Christoph; Paul, Pia; Hanke, Kathrin; Bossung, Verena; Hartz, Annika; Fasel, Laura; Rausch, Tanja K; Rody, Achim; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) are frequently delivered by cesarean section (CS). However, it is unclear at what gestational age the benefits of spontaneous delivery outweigh the perinatal risks, i.e. intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or death. To assess the short-term outcome of VLBWI on IVH according to mode of delivery in a population-based cohort of the German Neonatal Network (GNN). A total cohort of 2203 singleton VLBWI with a birth weight 30 weeks of gestation prevalence for IVH was not significantly different in VD and planned CS (5.3% vs. 4.4%). Our observational data demonstrate that elective cesarean section is associated with a reduced risk of IVH in preterm infants <30 weeks gestational age when presenting with preterm labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leadership training and delivery prospects of team leaders in Communication Network Support Services Limited, Ilorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi G. Olatunji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of staff has been one of the key focuses of every human resources department of any formal work organisation. This is as a result of the realisation that training is an important determinant of people’s behaviour as well as their general delivery ability at work. In realisation of this, intellectuals and researchers in industrial relations generally have put vested interest in the phenomena of training and work delivery ability. However, despite the enormous volume of literatures available in this regard, very few among them have specifically examined the importance of leadership training as a possible determinant of work delivery. Thus, this study is an attempt to cover this gap. In order to achieve this objective, survey design was used as the research design for the study. A questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents, while simple random sampling technique was used to select the study sample. Frequency distribution and percentage were used as descriptive tools, while chi-square was used as an inferential statistical tool in the study. The study found out that leadership training has a significant relationship with the identified work delivery elements measured in the study. The study concluded that leadership training has a significant effect on delivery ability of team leaders and thus recommended that leadership training should be given utmost priority in work organisations so that work delivery prospects of the employees could be realised.

  11. Recent advances on smart TiO2 nanotube platforms for sustainable drug delivery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qun Wang,1,2,* Jian-Ying Huang,2,* Hua-Qiong Li,3,4 Allan Zi-Jian Zhao,4 Yi Wang,4 Ke-Qin Zhang,2,5 Hong-Tao Sun,1 Yue-Kun Lai,2,5 1College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 2National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, 3Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, 4Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou, 5Research Center of Cooperative Innovation for Functional Organic/Polymer Material Micro/Nanofabrication, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To address the limitations of traditional drug delivery, TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs are recognized as a promising material for localized drug delivery systems. With regard to the excellent biocompatibility and physicochemical properties, TNTs prepared by a facile electrochemical anodizing process have been used to fabricate new drug-releasing implants for localized drug delivery. This review discusses the development of TNTs applied in localized drug delivery systems, focusing on several approaches to control drug release, including the regulation of the dimensions of TNTs, modification of internal chemical characteristics, adjusting pore openings by biopolymer coatings, and employing polymeric micelles as drug nanocarriers. Furthermore, rational strategies on external conditions-triggered stimuli-responsive drug release for localized drug delivery systems are highlighted. Finally, the review concludes with the recent advances on TNTs for controlled drug delivery and corresponding prospects in the future. Keywords: TiO2 nanotubes, electrochemical anodization, modification, stimulated drug delivery, drug-releasing implant

  12. Research on the comparison of the demethylvancomycin's diffusion-deposition characteristics in the ocular solid tissues of sustained subtenon drug delivery with subconjunctival injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yi-Qin; Yang, Ye-Zhen; Huang, Xue-Tao; Lin, Ding

    2017-11-01

    To compare the demethylvancomycin's diffusion-deposition characteristics in the ocular solid tissues of sustained subtenon drug delivery with subconjunctival injection. Sixty adult white rabbits were randomly assigned to the subtenon drug delivery group and the subconjunctival injection group. The subtenon drug delivery group was continuously infused demethylvancomycin to the subtenon of rabbits. The subconjunctival injection group was injected demethylvancomycin to the subconjunctival of rabbits. Cornea, iris and sclera were collected for high-performance liquid chromatography analyses to determine drug concentrations at one hour, three hours, six hours, 12 h and 24 h of drug administration. WinNonlin 6.3 was used to calculate the parameters of cumulative area under the curve (AUC cum ) of demethylvancomycin. The peak levels of demethylvancomycin concentration of the subtenon drug delivery group and the subconjunctival injection group were 92.406 ± 21.555 and 51.778 ± 14.001 μg/g in cornea, 28.451 ± 10.229 μg/g and 42.271 ± 27.291 μg/g in iris, 153.166 ± 51.738 μg/g and 57.423 ± 18.480 μg/g in sclera. The differences of concentrations between the two groups in cornea and sclera were statistically significant (F = 487.775, p drug delivery group and the subconjunctival injection group was 1808.23 h * μg/g and 273.73 h * μg/g in cornea, 489.12 h * μg/g and 216.16 h * μg/g in iris and 2166.34 h * μg/g and 392.57 h * μg/g in sclera at 24 h of drug administration. The sustained subtenon drug delivery had a better drug permeability and accumulation in the intraocular solid tissue compared to subconjunctival injection, which demonstrated it was probably a promising and effective approach for treating posterior segment diseases and endophthalmitis.

  13. Self-sustained firing activities of the cortical network with plastic rules in weak AC electrical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ying-Mei; Wang Jiang; Men Cong; Zhao Jia; Wei Xi-Le; Deng Bin

    2012-01-01

    Both external and endogenous electrical fields widely exist in the environment of cortical neurons. The effects of a weak alternating current (AC) field on a neural network model with synaptic plasticity are studied. It is found that self-sustained rhythmic firing patterns, which are closely correlated with the cognitive functions, are significantly modified due to the self-organizing of the network in the weak AC field. The activities of the neural networks are affected by the synaptic connection strength, the external stimuli, and so on. In the presence of learning rules, the synaptic connections can be modulated by the external stimuli, which will further enhance the sensitivity of the network to the external signal. The properties of the external AC stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating the evolution of the neural network. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to fluvial networks draining grassland dominated headwater catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, M T; Owen, G J; Benskin, C McW H; Jonczyk, J; Deasy, C; Burke, S; Reaney, S M; Haygarth, P M

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in monitoring technology have enabled high frequency, in-situ measurements of total phosphorus and total reactive phosphorus to be undertaken with high precision, whilst turbidity can provide an excellent surrogate for suspended sediment. Despite these measurements being fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and flow paths that deliver these constituents to river networks, there is a paucity of such data for headwater agricultural catchments. The aim of this paper is to deduce the dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to an upland river network in the UK through characterisation of the temporal variability of hydrological fluxes, and associated soluble and particulate concentrations for the period spanning March 2012-February 2013. An assessment of the factors producing constituent hysteresis is undertaken following factor analysis (FA) on a suite of measured environmental variables representing the fluvial and wider catchment conditions prior to, and during catchment-wide hydrological events. Analysis indicates that suspended sediment is delivered to the fluvial system predominantly via rapidly responding pathways driven by event hydrology. However, evidence of complex, figure-of-eight hysteresis is observed following periods of hydrological quiescence, highlighting the importance of preparatory processes. Sediment delivery via a slow moving, probably sub-surface pathway does occur, albeit infrequently and during low magnitude events at the catchment outlet. Phosphorus is revealed to have a distinct hysteretic response to that of suspended sediment, with sub-surface pathways dominating. However, high magnitude events were observed to exhibit threshold-like behaviour, whereby activation and connection of usually disconnected depositional zones to the fluvial networks results in the movement of vast phosphorus fluxes. Multiple pathways are observed for particulate and soluble constituents, highlighting the

  15. IAEA support to the sustainability of nuclear research institutions through networking and coalitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videnovic, I.R.; Goldman, I.N.; Bradley, E.E.; Ridikas, D.; Adelfang, P.; Acuna, O.E.; )

    2009-01-01

    enhanced international and regional cooperation may be the best prospect not only to assure the survival of the most capable reactors but also as a means of providing high quality research reactor capabilities to individual countries that do not need or cannot afford to maintain and operate a research reactor on their own. The role of the IAEA in this field is thus to provide key support for fledgling coalitions by serving as an honest broker and a forum for enhancing regional cooperation and promoting the formation of partnerships and coalitions. The Agency is best placed to coordinate the formulation of specific ideas for enhanced regional and international cooperation between research reactors and users in order to improve sustainability. The Department of Technical Cooperation, the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications of the IAEA are working together in European regional project entitled 'Enhancing the Sustainability of Research Reactors and Their Safe Operation Through Regional Cooperation, Networking and Coalitions' (RER/4/032) to improve business planning, expand awareness of potential customers and increase contacts between prospective customers and research reactor service providers, and to increase effectiveness of nuclear research and education through sustainable networking. (authors)

  16. Sustainability and collapse in a coevolutionary model of local resource stocks and behavioral patterns on a social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    When investigating the causes and consequences of global change, the collective behavior of human beings is considered as having a considerable impact on natural systems. In our work, we propose a conceptual coevolutionary model simulating the dynamics of local renewable resources in interaction with simplistic societal agents exploiting those resources. The society is represented by a social network on which social traits may be transmitted between agents. These traits themselves induce a certain rate of exploitation of the resource, leading either to its depletion or sustainable existence. Traits are exchanged probabilistically according to their instantaneous individual payoff, and hence this process depends on the status of the natural resource. At the same time agents may adaptively restructure their set of acquaintances. Connections with agents having a different trait may be broken while new connections with agents of the same trait are established. We investigate which choices of social parameters, like the frequency of social interaction, rationality and rate of social network adaptation, cause the system to end in a sustainable state and, hence, what can be done to avoid a collapse of the entire system. The importance and influence of the social network structure is analyzed by the variation of link-densities in the underlying network topology and shows significant influence on the expected outcome of the model. For a static network with no adaptation we find a robust phase transition between the two different regimes, sustainable and non-sustainable, which co-exist in parameter space. High connectivity within the social network, e.g., high link-densities, in combination with a fast rate of social learning lead to a likely collapse of the entire co-evolutionary system, whereas slow learning and small network connectivity very likely result in the sustainable existence of the natural resources. Collapse may be avoided by an intelligent rewiring, e

  17. Sustained oscillations, irregular firing and chaotic dynamics in hierarchical modular networks with mixtures of electrophysiological cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar eTomov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex exhibits neural activity even in the absence of externalstimuli. This self-sustained activity is characterized by irregular firing ofindividual neurons and population oscillations with a broad frequency range.Questions that arise in this context, are: What are the mechanismsresponsible for the existence of neuronal spiking activity in the cortexwithout external input? Do these mechanisms depend on the structural organization of the cortical connections? Do they depend onintrinsic characteristics of the cortical neurons? To approach the answers to these questions, we have used computer simulations of cortical network models. Our networks have hierarchical modular architecture and are composedof combinations of neuron models that reproduce the firing behavior of the five main cortical electrophysiological cell classes: regular spiking (RS, chattering (CH, intrinsically bursting (IB, low threshold spiking (LTS and fast spiking (FS. The population of excitatory neurons is built of RS cells(always present and either CH or IB cells. Inhibitoryneurons belong to the same class, either LTS or FS. Long-lived self-sustained activity states in our networksimulations display irregular single neuron firing and oscillatoryactivity similar to experimentally measured ones. The duration of self-sustained activity strongly depends on the initial conditions,suggesting a transient chaotic regime. Extensive analysis of the self-sustainedactivity states showed that their lifetime expectancy increases with the numberof network modules and is favored when the network is composed of excitatory neurons of the RS and CH classes combined with inhibitory neurons of the LTS class. These results indicate that the existence and properties of the self-sustained cortical activity states depend on both the topology of the network and the neuronal mixture that comprises the network.

  18. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization.

  19. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization. PMID:26251592

  20. Ensuring Support for Research and Quality Improvement (QI) Networks: Four Pillars of Sustainability-An Emerging Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional research and quality improvement (QI) projects using electronic clinical data (ECD) hold great promise for improving quality of care and patient outcomes but typically require significant infrastructure investments both to initiate and maintain the project over its duration. Consequently, it is important for these projects to think holistically about sustainability to ensure their long-term success. Four "pillars" of sustainability are discussed based on the experiences of EDM Forum grantees and other research and QI networks. These include trust and value, governance, management, and financial and administrative support. Two "foundational considerations," adaptive capacity and policy levers, are also discussed.

  1. Engineering online and in-person social networks to sustain physical activity: application of a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S; Sallis, James F; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Kiser, Elizabeth J; Ray, Chester A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Ding, Ding; Matthews, Stephen A; Bopp, Melissa; George, Daniel R; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-08-14

    High rates of physical inactivity compromise the health status of populations globally. Social networks have been shown to influence physical activity (PA), but little is known about how best to engineer social networks to sustain PA. To improve procedures for building networks that shape PA as a normative behavior, there is a need for more specific hypotheses about how social variables influence PA. There is also a need to integrate concepts from network science with ecological concepts that often guide the design of in-person and electronically-mediated interventions. Therefore, this paper: (1) proposes a conceptual model that integrates principles from network science and ecology across in-person and electronically-mediated intervention modes; and (2) illustrates the application of this model to the design and evaluation of a social network intervention for PA. A conceptual model for engineering social networks was developed based on a scoping literature review of modifiable social influences on PA. The model guided the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial in which 308 sedentary adults were randomly assigned to three groups: WalkLink+: prompted and provided feedback on participants' online and in-person social-network interactions to expand networks for PA, plus provided evidence-based online walking program and weekly walking tips; WalkLink: evidence-based online walking program and weekly tips only; Minimal Treatment Control: weekly tips only. The effects of these treatment conditions were assessed at baseline, post-program, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured PA. Secondary outcomes included objectively-measured aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and neighborhood walkability; and self-reported measures of the physical environment, social network environment, and social network interactions. The differential effects of the three treatment conditions on primary and secondary

  2. [Benefit and Sustainability of Networks for workplace Health Promotion in SME Examined at the SME Networks "Bewegte Unternehmen" and "Vitale Unternehmen"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eva; Fischmann, Wolfgang; Kötter, Rudolf; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze if 2 regional networks of small and medium enterprises (SME) for workplace health promotion are sustainable, and to find out the motivation of the enterprises to join the network. It was also examined if there is a stable culture of cooperation 6 -10 years after the founding of the network. Additionally, the study checked the current work and suggestions for improvement to the network structure, so that in the future, promotion of workplace health can be further improved. 2 regional networks, founded in 2005 and 2009, were studied. Standardized telephone interviews carried out between September 2013 and January 2014 enabled data collection for this cross-sectional study. 42 interviews with 6 open questions were organized with the managers of the companies or the person responsible for workplace health promotion. The results of the study show that 88.1% (n=37) of the network company members profited from the exchange of experiences. 50.0% (n=21) benefited from shared activities and 28.6% (n=12) from making new contacts. 9.5% (n=4) of the respondents expressed concerns about excessive bureaucracy resulting in too much effort for too little benefit and 7.1% (n=3) were also missing comprehensive structural measures. Suggestions for improvement were enhancement of practical work (26.2%, n=11) and the wish for stronger commitment (11.9%, n=5). 90.5% (n=38) considered their expectations as fulfilled and 66.7% (n=28) evaluated the current work as being quite positive. The networks have turned out to be sustainable, proven by the fact that the companies still are members of the networks for 6 and 10 years, respectively and are still satisfied with the network. The study shows that the majority of the members profits from the membership of these regional networks. Networks can help them to implement permanent workplace health promotion. To further improve the work of the network, a systematic and scientific workplace health promotion

  3. Recent innovations in last mile deliveries. In : Non-technological Innovations for Sustainable Transport: Four Transport Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    MORGANTI, Eléonora; DABLANC, Laetitia

    2014-01-01

    In cities and metropolitan areas, last mile deliveries are a key factor contributing to local economic vitality, urban life quality and attractiveness of urban communities. However, the freight transport sector is responsible for negative impacts, mainly with regards to congestion, CO2 emissions and air and noise pollution. In order to improve efficiency and reduce adverse impacts, private companies as well as city planners and policy makers have designed initiatives to promote urban logistic...

  4. An adaptive drug delivery design using neural networks for effective treatment of infectious diseases: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Radhakant; Bhardhwaj, Jayender R

    2009-06-01

    An adaptive drug delivery design is presented in this paper using neural networks for effective treatment of infectious diseases. The generic mathematical model used describes the coupled evolution of concentration of pathogens, plasma cells, antibodies and a numerical value that indicates the relative characteristic of a damaged organ due to the disease under the influence of external drugs. From a system theoretic point of view, the external drugs can be interpreted as control inputs, which can be designed based on control theoretic concepts. In this study, assuming a set of nominal parameters in the mathematical model, first a nonlinear controller (drug administration) is designed based on the principle of dynamic inversion. This nominal drug administration plan was found to be effective in curing "nominal model patients" (patients whose immunological dynamics conform to the mathematical model used for the control design exactly. However, it was found to be ineffective in curing "realistic model patients" (patients whose immunological dynamics may have off-nominal parameter values and possibly unwanted inputs) in general. Hence, to make the drug delivery dosage design more effective for realistic model patients, a model-following adaptive control design is carried out next by taking the help of neural networks, that are trained online. Simulation studies indicate that the adaptive controller proposed in this paper holds promise in killing the invading pathogens and healing the damaged organ even in the presence of parameter uncertainties and continued pathogen attack. Note that the computational requirements for computing the control are very minimal and all associated computations (including the training of neural networks) can be carried out online. However it assumes that the required diagnosis process can be carried out at a sufficient faster rate so that all the states are available for control computation.

  5. DASH-based network performance-aware solution for personalised video delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rovcanin, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Video content is an increasingly prevalent contributor of Internet traffic. The proliferation of available video content has been fuelled by both Internet expansion and the growing power and affordability of viewing devices. Such content can be consumed anywhere and anytime, using a variety of technologies. The high data rates required for streaming video content and the large volume of requests for such content degrade network performance when devices compete for finite network bandwidth. Th...

  6. Delivery of video-on-demand services using local storages within passive optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Wong, Elaine

    2013-01-28

    At present, distributed storage systems have been widely studied to alleviate Internet traffic build-up caused by high-bandwidth, on-demand applications. Distributed storage arrays located locally within the passive optical network were previously proposed to deliver Video-on-Demand services. As an added feature, a popularity-aware caching algorithm was also proposed to dynamically maintain the most popular videos in the storage arrays of such local storages. In this paper, we present a new dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve Video-on-Demand services over passive optical networks using local storages. The algorithm exploits the use of standard control packets to reduce the time taken for the initial request communication between the customer and the central office, and to maintain the set of popular movies in the local storage. We conduct packet level simulations to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality-of-Service attributes between two passive optical networks, namely the conventional passive optical network and one that is equipped with a local storage. Results from our analysis highlight that strategic placement of a local storage inside the network enables the services to be delivered with improved Quality-of-Service to the customer. We further formulate power consumption models of both architectures to examine the trade-off between enhanced Quality-of-Service performance versus the increased power requirement from implementing a local storage within the network.

  7. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  8. Making Small Towns Visible in Europe: The Case of Cittaslow Network – The Strategy Based on Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K. ZAWADZKA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify strategies for the development and promotion of small towns based on the implementation of the principles of sustainable development, using both endogenous social capital, unique material values of cultural heritage as well as values of the natural environment. The strategy described in this article is a derivative of the benefi ts of membership in the Cittaslow global network, the peripheral location of small towns to metropolises as well as other alternative values of small towns not accessible to large cities. It has been shown that Cittaslow can be both an indicator of sustainable development, an activator of sustainable tourism as well as an instrument for raising awareness of the endogenous capital of small towns. The background to the considerations on potential implications of accession to Cittaslow is the analysis of contemporary international networks of cities whose priority or one of the key objectives is to act in accordance with the principles of sustainable development.

  9. Modified thermoresponsive Poloxamer 407 and chitosan sol-gels as potential sustained-release vaccine delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Dong, Yao-Da

    2015-01-01

    Thermoresponsive, particle-loaded, Poloxamer 407 (P407)-Pluronic-R® (25R4) or chitosan-methyl cellulose (MC) formulations were developed as single-dose, sustained release vaccines. The sol-gels, loaded either with a particulate vaccine (cubosomes) or soluble antigen (ovalbumin) and adjuvants (Quil...... the chitosan-MC sol-gels sustained the release of antigen up to at least 14 days after administration. The chitosan-MC sol-gels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The inclusion of cubosomes in the sol-gels did not provide a definitive beneficial effect. Further analysis of the formulations...... with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that while cubosomes were stable in chitosan-MC gels they were not stable in P407-25R4 formulations. The reason for the mixed response to cubosome-loaded vehicles requires more investigation, however it appears that the cubosomes did not facilitate...

  10. A biodegradable, sustained-released, prednisolone acetate microfilm drug delivery system effectively prolongs corneal allograft survival in the rat keratoplasty model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Liu

    Full Text Available Frequent and long-term use of topical corticosteroids after corneal transplantation is necessary to prevent graft rejection. However, it relies heavily on patient compliance, and sustained therapeutic drug levels are often not achieved with administration of topical eye drops. A biodegradable drug delivery system with a controlled and sustained drug release may circumvent these limitations. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a prednisolone acetate (PA-loaded poly (d,l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLC microfilm drug delivery system on promoting the survival of allogeneic grafts after penetrating keratoplasty (PK using a rat model. The drug release profiles of the microfilms were characterized (group 1. Subsequently, forty-eight PK were performed in four experimental groups: syngeneic control grafts (group 2, allogeneic control grafts (group 3, allogeneic grafts with subconjunctivally-implanted PA microfilm (group 4, and allogeneic grafts with PA eye drops (group 5; n = 12 in each. PA-loaded microfilm achieved a sustained and steady release at a rate of 0.006-0.009 mg/day, with a consistent aqueous drug concentration of 207-209 ng/ml. The mean survival days was >28 days in group 2, 9.9±0.8 days in group 3, 26.8±2.7 days in group 4, and 26.4±3.4 days in group 5 (P = 0.023 and P = 0.027 compared with group 3. Statistically significant decrease in CD4+, CD163+, CD 25+, and CD54+ cell infiltration was observed in group 4 and group 5 compared with group 3 (P<0.001. There was no significant difference in the mean survival and immunohistochemical analysis between group 4 and group 5. These results showed that sustained PA-loaded microfilm effectively prolongs corneal allograft survival. It is as effective as conventional PA eye drops, providing a promising clinically applicable alternative for patients undergoing corneal transplantation.

  11. European network for health technology assessment, EUnetHTA: planning, development, and implementation of a sustainable European network for health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Neikter, Susanna Allgurin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The European network on Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) aimed to produce tangible and practical results to be used in the various phases of health technology assessment and to establish a framework and processes to support this. This article presents the background, objectives......, and organization of EUnetHTA, which involved a total of sixty-four partner organizations. METHODS: Establishing an effective and sustainable structure for a transnational network involved many managerial, policy, and methodological tools, according to the objective of each task or Work Package. Transparency...... the use of HTA at national and regional levels. Responsiveness to political developments in Europe should be balanced with maintaining a high level of ambition to promote independent, evidence-based information and well-tested tools for best practice based on a strong network of HTA institutions....

  12. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil [School of Industrial Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Lan, S-F [University of Oklahoma Bioengineering Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  13. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil; Lan, S-F

    2009-01-01

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  14. Deterministic Greedy Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in 3D Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With both computational complexity and storage space bounded by a small constant, greedy routing is recognized as an appealing approach to support scalable routing in wireless sensor networks. However, significant challenges have been encountered in extending greedy routing from 2D to 3D space. In this research, we develop decentralized solutions to achieve greedy routing in 3D sensor networks. Our proposed approach is based on a unit tetrahedron cell (UTC mesh structure. We propose a distributed algorithm to realize volumetric harmonic mapping (VHM of the UTC mesh under spherical boundary condition. It is a one-to-one map that yields virtual coordinates for each node in the network without or with one internal hole. Since a boundary has been mapped to a sphere, node-based greedy routing is always successful thereon. At the same time, we exploit the UTC mesh to develop a face-based greedy routing algorithm and prove its success at internal nodes. To deliver a data packet to its destination, face-based and node-based greedy routing algorithms are employed alternately at internal and boundary UTCs, respectively. For networks with multiple internal holes, a segmentation and tunnel-based routing strategy is proposed on top of VHM to support global end-to-end routing. As far as we know, this is the first work that realizes truly deterministic routing with constant-bounded storage and computation in general 3D wireless sensor networks.

  15. Lipid-coated hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres for co-delivery of doxorubicin and paclitaxel: Preparation, sustained release, cellular uptake and pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yang; Wu, Chao; Jiang, Jie; Hao, Yanna; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Jie; Yu, Tong; Ji, Peng

    2017-01-01

    A carrier consisting of lipid-coated hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres (L-HMSN) was produced for the combination of the water-insoluble drug (paclitaxel, PTX) and the water-soluble drug (doxorubicin, DOX). DOX was adsorbed into the nanoscale hollow structure of the hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres (HMSN) by adsorption and PTX was wrapped in the phospholipid layer of the HMSN surface by lipid film hydration method. The characterization results showed that DOX and PTX were present in the nanopheres in an amorphous state. The loaded L-HMSN (DOX/PTX@L-HMSN) in vitro drug release showed a sustained release in phosphate buffered solution (PBS) at pH 6.8 and 0.001%SDS. The cellular uptake experiment indicated that L-HMSN was successfully taken up by A549 cells. In addition, the combination of DOX and PTX in L-HMSN exhibited a marked synergistic effect in inhibiting the proliferation of A549 cells. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that L-HMSN could significantly improve the relative bioavailability of DOX and PTX. These results confirm that L-HMSN is a promising carrier for successful drug combination. - Highlights: • L-HMSN as a platform is used for combination of DOX and PTX • The drug delivery system demonstrates synergy effect in inhibiting A549 cell proliferation • The drug delivery system slowly releases the drugs and improves drug absorption

  16. Lipid-coated hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres for co-delivery of doxorubicin and paclitaxel: Preparation, sustained release, cellular uptake and pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yang; Wu, Chao, E-mail: wuchao27@126.com; Jiang, Jie; Hao, Yanna; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Jie; Yu, Tong; Ji, Peng

    2017-02-01

    A carrier consisting of lipid-coated hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres (L-HMSN) was produced for the combination of the water-insoluble drug (paclitaxel, PTX) and the water-soluble drug (doxorubicin, DOX). DOX was adsorbed into the nanoscale hollow structure of the hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres (HMSN) by adsorption and PTX was wrapped in the phospholipid layer of the HMSN surface by lipid film hydration method. The characterization results showed that DOX and PTX were present in the nanopheres in an amorphous state. The loaded L-HMSN (DOX/PTX@L-HMSN) in vitro drug release showed a sustained release in phosphate buffered solution (PBS) at pH 6.8 and 0.001%SDS. The cellular uptake experiment indicated that L-HMSN was successfully taken up by A549 cells. In addition, the combination of DOX and PTX in L-HMSN exhibited a marked synergistic effect in inhibiting the proliferation of A549 cells. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that L-HMSN could significantly improve the relative bioavailability of DOX and PTX. These results confirm that L-HMSN is a promising carrier for successful drug combination. - Highlights: • L-HMSN as a platform is used for combination of DOX and PTX • The drug delivery system demonstrates synergy effect in inhibiting A549 cell proliferation • The drug delivery system slowly releases the drugs and improves drug absorption.

  17. Enabling the sustainable Faecal Sludge Management service delivery chain-A case study of dense settlements in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akumuntu, Jean Baptiste; Wehn, Uta; Mulenga, Martin; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2017-08-01

    The lack of access to basic sanitation is a global concern and alarmingly prevalent in low- and middle- income countries. In the densely populated settlements of these countries, on-site sanitation systems are usually the only feasible option because dwellers there have no sewers in place to connect to. Using on-site sanitation facilities results in an accumulation of faecal sludge which needs to be properly managed to ensure the well-being of the users as well as the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, often the conditions for faecal sludge management (FSM) within dense settlements are adverse and thus hamper sustainable FSM. We use the normative framework of the FSM enabling environment to gather empirical evidence from densely populated settlements of Kigali city in Rwanda to examine current FSM practices and the extent to which these are being influenced and affected by the setting within which they are taking place. The analysis of the study findings confirms that the existing conditions for FSM in these settlements are inadequate. The specific constraints that hinder the achievement of sustainable FSM include limited government focus on the sanitation sector, high turnover of staff in relevant government institutions, pit sludge management is not placed on the sanitation projects agenda, the existing relevant bylaws are not pro-poor oriented, a lack of clear responsibilities, a lack of relevant local professional training opportunities, unaffordability of FSM services and an inhibition to discuss FSM. Drawing on the involved stakeholders' own perceptions and suggestions, we identify possible approaches to overcome the identified constraints and to allow all actors in the FSM chain to contribute effectively to the management of faecal sludge in densely populated low-income urban settlements. Finally, our study also presents a contribution to the theoretical conceptualisation of the enabling environment for sustainable FSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Gmb

  18. Sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction induces compromised neural systems integration and schizophrenia-like alterations in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Neil; Xiao, Xiaolin; McDonald, Martin; Higham, Desmond J; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A

    2014-02-01

    Compromised functional integration between cerebral subsystems and dysfunctional brain network organization may underlie the neurocognitive deficits seen in psychiatric disorders. Applying topological measures from network science to brain imaging data allows the quantification of complex brain network connectivity. While this approach has recently been used to further elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia, the value of applying this approach in preclinical models of psychiatric disease has not been recognized. For the first time, we apply both established and recently derived algorithms from network science (graph theory) to functional brain imaging data from rats treated subchronically with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). We show that subchronic PCP treatment induces alterations in the global properties of functional brain networks akin to those reported in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we show that subchronic PCP treatment induces compromised functional integration between distributed neural systems, including between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, that have established roles in cognition through, in part, the promotion of thalamic dysconnectivity. We also show that subchronic PCP treatment promotes the functional disintegration of discrete cerebral subsystems and also alters the connectivity of neurotransmitter systems strongly implicated in schizophrenia. Therefore, we propose that sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction contributes to the pathophysiology of dysfunctional brain network organization in schizophrenia.

  19. Dynamic optical fiber delivery of Ka-band packet transmissions for wireless access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Madsen, Peter; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2017-01-01

    A Reconfigurable Radio Access Unit is presented and experimentally demonstrated. In the unit, an optical switching system is set to dynamically deliver different packets to different points in the network. The packets are transmitted wirelesslty on the Ka-band (26–40 GHz), achieving BER values...

  20. Need for generic, innovative and geometric deliveries in developing self-sustaining capacity building in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Balamanikavelu, P. M.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    Everybody uses a bulb to illustrate an idea but nobody shows where the current comes from. Majority of remote sensing user community comes from natural and social sciences domain while remote sensing technology evolves from physical and engineering sciences. To ensure inculcation and internalization of remote sensing technology by application/resource scientists, trainer needs to transfer physical and engineering concepts in geometric manner. Here, the steering for the transfer of knowledge (facts, procedures, concepts and principles) and skills (thinking, acting, reacting and interacting) needs to take the trainees from Known to Unknown, Concrete to Abstract, Observation to Theory and Simple to Complex. In the initial stage of training/education, experiential learning by instructor led exploring of thematic details in false colour composite (FCC) as well as in individual black and white spectral band(s) imagery by trainees not only creates interest, confidence build-up and orientation towards purposeful learning but also helps them to overcome their inhibitions towards the physical and engineering basal. The methodology to be adopted has to inculcate productive learning, emphasizing more on thinking and trial and error aspects as opposed to reproductive learning based dominantly on being told and imitation. The delivery by trainer needs to ensure dynamic, stimulating and effective discussions through deluging questions pertaining to analysis, synthesis and evaluation nature. This would ensure proactive participation from trainees. Hands-on module leads to creative concretization of concepts. To keep the trainees inspired to learn in an auto mode during post-training period, they need to consciously swim in the current and emerging knowledge pool during training programme. This is achieved through assignment of seminar delivery task to the trainees. During the delivery of seminar, peers and co-trainees drive the trainee to communicate the seminar content not only

  1. A Social-ecological framework for urban stewardship network research to promote sustainable and resilient cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Romolini; R. Patrick Bixler; Morgan Grove

    2016-01-01

    To realize more sustainable and resilient urban social-ecological systems, there is great need for active engagement from diverse public agencies, non-profit organizations, businesses, natural resource managers, scientists, and other actors. Cities present unique challenges and opportunities for sustainability and resilience, as issues and organizations are frequently...

  2. How Sustainable are Benefits from Global Production Networks? Malaysia's Upgrading Prospects in the Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Ernst

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces an operational definition of industrial upgrading (IU and documents the emergence of complex, multi-tier "networks of networks" which provide new opportunities for IU, but which also raise threshold requirements for participating in these networks. I highlight structural weaknesses of the Malaysian electronics industry that constrain its upgrading prospects; assess current policies that try to link cluster development and global network integration; discuss adjustments in...

  3. Development of an Injectable Calcium Phosphate/Hyaluronic Acid Microparticles System for Platelet Lysate Sustained Delivery Aiming Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2016-11-01

    Despite the biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate (CaP) cements their low biodegradability hampers full bone regeneration. Herein the incorporation of CaP cement with hyaluronic acid (HAc) microparticles loaded with platelet lysate (PL) to improve the degradability and biological performance of the cements is proposed. Cement formulations incorporating increasing weight ratios of either empty HAc microparticles or microparticles loaded with PL (10 and 20 wt%) are developed as well as cements directly incorporating PL. The direct incorporation of PL improves the mechanical properties of the plain cement, reaching values similar to native bone. Morphological analysis shows homogeneous particle distribution and high interconnectivity between the HAc microparticles. The cements incorporating PL (with or without the HAc microparticles) present a sustained release of PL proteins for up to 8 d. The sustained release of PL modulates the expression of osteogenic markers in seeded human adipose tissue derived stem cells, thus suggesting the stimulatory role of this hybrid system toward osteogenic commitment and bone regeneration applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An overview of the analytical characterization of nanostructured drug delivery systems: Towards green and sustainable pharmaceuticals: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Concepción; Saurina, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical evaluation of nanostructured drug delivery systems prepared by scCO 2 . ► Physicochemical characterization by chromatography and spectroscopy. ► Particle characterization by microscopy and thermal analysis. ► Release assessment by batch, continuous and diffusion devices. - Abstract: The analytical characterization of drug delivery systems prepared by means of green manufacturing technologies using CO 2 as a processing fluid is here reviewed. The assessment of the performance of nanopharmaceuticals designed for controlled drug release may result in a complex analytical issue and multidisciplinary studies focused on the evaluation of physicochemical, morphological and textural properties of the products may be required. The determination of the drug content as well as the detection of impurities and solvent residues are often carried out by chromatography. Assays on solid state samples relying on X-ray, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies are of great interests to study the composition and structure of pharmaceutical forms. The morphology and size of particles are commonly checked by microscopy and complementary chemical information can be extracted in combination with spectroscopic accessories. Regarding the thermal behavior, calorimetric and thermogravimetric techniques are applied to assess the thermal transitions and stability of the samples. The evaluation of drug release profiles from the nanopharmaceuticals can be based on various experimental set-ups depending on the administration route to be considered. Kinetic curves showing the evolution of the drug concentration as a function of time in various physiological conditions (e.g., gastric, plasmatic or topical) are recorded commonly by UV–vis spectroscopy and/or chromatography. Representative examples are commented in detail to illustrate the characterization strategies.

  5. Sustained intra-cartilage delivery of low dose dexamethasone using a cationic carrier for treatment of post traumatic osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Bajpayee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs should reach their intra-tissue target sites at optimal doses for clinical efficacy. The dense, negatively charged matrix of cartilage poses a major hindrance to the transport of potential therapeutics. In this work, electrostatic interactions were utilised to overcome this challenge and enable higher uptake, full-thickness penetration and enhanced retention of dexamethasone (Dex inside rabbit cartilage. This was accomplished by using the positively charged glycoprotein avidin as nanocarrier, conjugated to Dex by releasable linkers. Therapeutic effects of a single intra-articular injection of low dose avidin-Dex (0.5 mg Dex were evaluated in rabbits 3 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT. Immunostaining confirmed that avidin penetrated the full cartilage thickness and was retained for at least 3 weeks. Avidin-Dex suppressed injury-induced joint swelling and catabolic gene expression to a greater extent than free Dex. It also significantly improved the histological score of cell infiltration and morphogenesis within the periarticular synovium. Micro-computed tomography confirmed the reduced incidence and volume of osteophytes following avidin-Dex treatment. However, neither treatment restored the loss of cartilage stiffness following ACLT, suggesting the need for a combinational therapy with a pro-anabolic factor for enhancing matrix biosynthesis. The avidin dose used caused significant glycosaminoglycan (GAG loss, suggesting the use of higher Dex : avidin ratios in future formulations, such that the delivered avidin dose could be much less than that shown to affect GAGs. This charge-based delivery system converted cartilage into a drug depot that could also be employed for delivery to nearby synovium, menisci and ligaments, enabling clinical translation of a variety of DMOADs.

  6. Value shaping in networked business modeling : Case studies of sustainability-oriented innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, I.F.; Bossink, Bart; de Man, Ard-Pieter

    2018-01-01

    A stream of literature is emerging where network development and business modeling intersect. Various authors emphasize that networks influence business models. This paper extends this stream of literature by studying two cases in which we analyze how business modeling and networking interact over

  7. The interaction between network ties and business modeling : Case studies of sustainability-oriented innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; Bossink, Bart; de Man, Ard Pieter

    2018-01-01

    A stream of literature is emerging where network development and business modeling intersect. Various authors emphasize that networks influence business models. This paper extends this stream of literature by studying two cases in which we analyze how business modeling and networking interact over

  8. The Interaction between network ties and business modeling : case studies of sustainability-oriented innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; Bossink, Bart; de Man, Ard-Pieter

    2018-01-01

    A stream of literature is emerging where network development and business modeling intersect. Various authors emphasize that networks influence business models. This paper extends this stream of literature by studying two cases in which we analyze how business modeling and networking interact over

  9. Realtime Delivery of Alarms and Key Observables in a Deployed Hydrological Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, I. W.; Price, M. C.; Li, H.; Boyd, N.; Boult, S.

    2007-12-01

    It has widely [1-3] been proposed that sensor networks are a good solution for environmental monitoring. However, this application presents a number of major challenges for current technology. In particular environmental science involves the study of coupled non-equilibrium dynamic processes that generate time series with non-stationary means and strongly dependent variables and which operate in the presence of large amounts of noise/interference (thermal, chemical and biological) and multiple quasi-periodic forcing factors (diurnal cycles, tides, etc). This typically means that any analysis must be based on large data samples obtained at multiple scales of space and time. In addition the areas of interest are large, relatively inaccessible and typically extremely hostile to electronic instrumentation. Our analysis of these factors has encouraged us to focus on this list of generic requirements; a) Node lifetime (between visits) should be 1 yr or greater b) Communication range should be ~250m c) Nodes should be portable, unobtrusive, low cost, etc. d) Networks are expected to be sparse since areas of interest are large and budgets are small However, the characteristics of each environment, the dominant processes operating in it and the measurements that are of interest are sufficiently different that the design of an appropriate sensor network solution is normally most determined by site specific constraints. Most importantly the opportunities for exploiting contextual correlation to disambiguate observations and improve the maintenance and robustness of a deployed sensor network are always site specific. We will describe the design and initial deployment of a hydrological sensor network we are developing to assess the hydro-dynamics of surface water drainage into Great Crowden Brook in the Peak District (UK). The complete network will observe soil moisture, temperature and rainfall on a number of transects across the valley, and will also investigate water quality

  10. Human resources for health strategies adopted by providers in resource-limited settings to sustain long-term delivery of ART: a mixed-methods study from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakumumpa, Henry; Taiwo, Modupe Oladunni; Muganzi, Alex; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-10-19

    Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009. A two-phase mixed-methods approach was adopted. In the first phase, a survey of a nationally representative sample of health facilities (n = 195) across Uganda was conducted. The second phase involved in-depth interviews (n = 36) with ART clinic managers and staff of 6 of the 195 health facilities purposively selected from the first study phase. Quantitative data was analysed based on descriptive statistics, and qualitative data was analysed by coding and thematic analysis. The identified strategies were categorized into five themes: (1) providing monetary and non-monetary incentives to health workers on busy ART clinic days; (2) workload reduction through spacing ART clinic appointments; (3) adopting training workshops in ART management as a motivation strategy for health workers; (4) adopting non-physician-centred staffing models; and (5) devising ART program leadership styles that enhanced health worker commitment. Facility-level strategies for responding to HRH constraints are feasible and can contribute to efforts to increase country ownership of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. Consideration of the human resources for health strategies identified in the study by ART program planners and managers could enhance the long-term sustainment of ART programs by providers in resource-limited settings.

  11. Evaluating time between birth to cry or bag and mask ventilation using mobile delivery room timers in India: the NICHD Global Network's Helping Babies Breathe Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somannavar, Manjunath S; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Revankar, Amit P; Moore, Janet L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Destefanis, Pablo; DeCain, Martha; Goco, Norman; Wright, Linda L

    2015-08-06

    The Golden Minute®, the first minute following birth of a newborn, is a critical period for establishing ventilation after delivery, as emphasized in the Helping Babies Breathe® and other resuscitation training programs. Previous studies have reinforced training through observers' evaluation of this time period; although observation is useful for research, it may not be a sustainable method to support resuscitation practice in low-resource settings where few birth attendants are available. In order to reinforce resuscitation within The Golden Minute®, we sought to develop a simple mobile delivery-room timer on an Android cell phone platform for birth attendants to use at the time of delivery. We developed and evaluated a mobile delivery room timer to document the time interval from birth to the initiation of newborn crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation in a convenience sample of women who delivered in five hospitals in Karnataka, India. The mobile delivery room timer is an Android cell phone-based application that recorded key events including crowning, delivery, and crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. The mobile delivery room timer recorded the birth attendant verbally indicating the time of crowning, birth-(defined as when the entire baby was delivered), crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. The mobile delivery room timer results were validated in a subsample by a trained observer (nurse) who independently recorded the time between delivery and initiation of crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. Of the total 4,597 deliveries, 2,107 (46%) were timed; a sample (n = 438) of these deliveries was also observed by a trained nurse. There was high concordance between the mobile delivery room timer and observed time elapsed between birth and crying/spontaneous respiration or ventilation (correlation =0.94, p cried/breathed spontaneously or received bag and mask ventilation by 1

  12. Effect of Discrete Fracture Network Characteristics on the Sustainability of Heat Production in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Damjanac, B.

    2013-12-01

    Viability of an enhanced or engineered geothermal reservoir is determined by the rate of produced fluid at production wells and the rate of temperature drawdown in the reservoir as well as that of the produced fluid. Meeting required targets demands sufficient permeability and flow circulation in a relatively large volume of rock mass. In-situ conditions such overall permeability of the bedrock formation, magnitude and orientation of stresses, and the characteristics of the existing Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) greatly affect sustainable heat production. Because much of the EGS resources are in formations with low permeability, different stimulation techniques are required prior to the production phase to enhance fluid circulation. Shear stimulation or hydro-shearing is the method of injecting a fluid into the reservoir with the aim of increasing the fluid pressure in the naturally fractured rock and inducing shear failure or slip events. This mechanism can enhance the system's permeability through permanent dilatational opening of the sheared fractures. Using a computational modeling approach, the correlation between heat production and DFN statistical characteristics, namely the fracture length distribution, fracture orientation, and also fracture density is studied in this paper. Numerical analyses were completed using two-dimensional distinct element code UDEC (Itasca, 2011), which represents rock masses as an assembly of interacting blocks separated by fractures. UDEC allows for simulation of fracture propagation along the predefined planes only (i.e., the trajectory of the hydraulic fracture is not part of the solution of the problem). Thus, the hydraulic fracture is assumed to be planar, aligned with the direction of the major principal stress. The pre-existing fractures were represented explicitly. They are discontinuities which deform elastically, but also can open and slip (Coulomb slip law) as a function of pressure and total stress changes. The fluid

  13. Conflicts when liberalising network industries: towards a sustainable development of the European power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.; Madlener, R.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of the changes in the industrial organisation of the (European) electricity supply industry pull in different directions. Pairs of largely antithetic issues in the transition towards a more liberalised electricity supply industry include: competition vs monopoly; efficiency vs equity and/or public service considerations; short-term vs long-term policy goals; slow vs rapid transition to a more competition-oriented industry structure; permanent vs temporary regulation; light-handed vs heavy-handed regulation; centralised vs decentralised regulation; and public vs private ownership. Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of sustainability, this paper aims to shed some light on the various impacts of electricity sector reform on sustainable development and, in turn, on how sustainable development policies tend to affect the electricity sector. We find that for a transition towards a more sustainable development in the electricity sector it is crucial that increased energy production and use does not outweigh the (efficiency, equity, social, environmental, etc.) gains that are, or have been, achieved towards sustainable development. In this respect an internalisation of external costs, which includes the abolition of subsidies for non-sustainable energy carriers ('first-best solution'), or an explicit accounting of the benefits offered by renewable and efficiency technologies ('second-best solution'), plus rigorous energy saving and energy efficiency promotion measures, are paramount on the path towards sustainability. (author)

  14. Application of Network Analysis to Identify and Map Relationships between Information Systems in the context of Arctic Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic Council is an intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic States and indigenous communities on issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the North. The work of the Council is primarily carried out by six Working Groups: Arctic Contaminants Action Program, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response, Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment, and Sustainable Development Working Group. The Working Groups are composed of researchers and representatives from government agencies. Each Working Group issues numerous scientific assessments and reports on a broad field of subjects, from climate change to emergency response in the Arctic. A key goal of these publications is to contribute to policy-making in the Arctic. Complex networks of information systems and the connections between the diverse elements within the systems have been identified via network analysis. This allowed to distinguish data sources that were used in the composition of the primary publications of the Working Groups. Next step is to implement network analysis to identify and map the relationships between the Working Groups and policy makers in the Arctic.

  15. Enhanced oral bioavailability and sustained delivery of glimepiride via niosomal encapsulation: in-vitro characterization and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Amira Mohamed; AbouSamra, Mona Mahmoud; ElShebiney, Shaimaa Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potency of niosomes, for glimepiride (GLM) encapsulation, aiming at enhancing its oral bioavailability and hypoglycemic efficacy. Niosomes containing nonionic surfactants (NIS) were prepared by thin film hydration technique and characterized. In-vitro release study was performed using a dialysis technique. In-vivo pharmacodynamic studies, as well as pharmacokinetic evaluation were performed on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. GLM niosomes exhibited high-entrapment efficiency percentages (E.E. %) up to 98.70% and a particle size diameter ranging from 186.8 ± 18.69 to 797.7 ± 12.45 nm, with negatively charged zeta potential (ZP). Different GLM niosomal formulation showed retarded in vitro release, compared to free drug. In-vivo studies revealed the superiority of GLM niosomes in lowering blood glucose level (BGL) and in maintaining a therapeutic level of GLM for a longer period of time, as compared to free drug and market product. There was no significant difference between mean plasma AUC 0-48 hr of GLM-loaded niosomes and that of market product. GLM-loaded niosomes exhibited seven-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability in comparison with free drug. These findings reinforce the potential use of niosomes for enhancing the oral bioavailability and prolonged delivery of GLM via oral administration.

  16. Optimization and Simulation of Collaborative Networks for Sustainable Production and Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, Giacomo; Kaihara, Toshiya; Stecca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Complex and delocalized manufacturing industries require high levels of integration between production and transportation in order to effectively implement lean and agile operations. There are, however, limitations in research and applications simultaneously embodying further sustainability dimen...

  17. Promoting Sustainable Food Provision; the Role of Networks in Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Food provision in contemporary societies is transforming due to challenges of globalization, sustainability and equity. The interactions between civil society organizations, governments, the food industry, consumers and producers constitute dynamic fields of environmental change in global food

  18. Understanding the influence of individual behaviour and social networks in sustainability transcactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Iljana

    2015-01-01

    A behaviour change towards sustainable food purchasing behaviour is crucially necessary for the survival of the planet. This thesis applied a mixed method approach, combining results from a cross-sectional online survey (N=474), a lab experiment (N=134) and an agent-based model (ABM) to explore how a change towards sustainable food purchasing may be achieved in society. The methodological approach of this thesis is quantitative confirmatory and exploratory. The online survey, based on main en...

  19. Serving our communities better. Guidelines for planning and developing integrated delivery networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybil, L; Golden, P; Ballance, X

    1995-04-01

    In 1994 the Daughters of Charity National Health System-East Central (DCNHS-East Central) adopted 11 guidelines to help corporate staff and local leaders plan and develop integrated networks. Guideline 1 emphasizes needs-based strategic planning. Guideline 2 focuses on the community-based network planning process, recommending a team approach and ongoing communication with the local ordinary. In guidelines 3 through 5, the DCNHS-East Central Board of Directors spells out key issues that must be covered in proposals ultimately presented for governance action. Guideline 6 presents three core elements that should characterize all CBNs in which DCNHS-East Central institutions participate. Guideline 7 emphasizes that all CBN proposals and agreements must be clear with respect to the Catholic identity of DCNHS-East Central institutions. Guidelines 8 and 9 require that proposed changes to traditional policies and management practices be explicit in CBN proposals. The tenth guideline requires that all CBN proposals indicate an explicit evaluation function. The final guideline underscores that regardless of the strategic fit or how well a CBN is designed, it is unlikely to succeed unless both internal and external relationships are based on a solid foundation of honesty, mutual respect, and trust.

  20. The effectiveness of the PRISMA integrated service delivery network: preliminary report on methods and baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjean Hébert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The PRISMA study analyzes an innovative coordination-type integrated service delivery (ISD system developed to improve continuity and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of services, especially for older and disabled populations. The objective of the PRISMA study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this system to improve health, empowerment and satisfaction of frail older people, modify their health and social services utilization, without increasing the burden of informal caregivers. The objective of this paper is to present the methodology and give baseline data on the study participants. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with pre-test, multiple post-tests, and a comparison group was used to evaluate the impact of PRISMA ISD. Elders at risk of functional decline (501 experimental, 419 control participated in the study. Results: At entry, the two groups were comparable for most variables. Over the first year, when the implementation rate was low (32%, participants from the control group used fewer services than those from the experimental group. After the first year, no significant statistical difference was observed for functional decline and changes in the other outcome variables. Conclusion: This first year must be considered a baseline year, showing the situation without significant implementation of PRISMA ISD systems. Results for the following years will have to be examined with consideration of these baseline results.

  1. Anhydrous polymer-based coating with sustainable controlled release functionality for facile, efficacious impregnation, and delivery of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kaiyang; Saravanan, Rathi; Chong, Kelvin K L; Goh, Sharon H M; Chua, Ray R Y; Tambyah, Paul A; Chang, Matthew W; Kline, Kimberly A; Leong, Susanna S J

    2018-04-17

    Anhydrous polymers are actively explored as alternative materials to overcome limitations of conventional hydrogel-based antibacterial coating. However, the requirement for strong organic solvent in polymerization reactions often necessitates extra protection steps for encapsulation of target biomolecules, lowering encapsulation efficiency, and increasing process complexity. This study reports a novel coating strategy that allows direct solvation and encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides (HHC36) into anhydrous polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer-based dual layer coating. A thin 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) film is layered onto the peptide-impregnated PCL as a diffusion barrier, to modulate and enhance release kinetics. The impregnated peptides are eventually released in a controlled fashion. The use of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), as polymerization and solvation medium, induces the impregnated peptides to adopt highly stable turned conformation, conserving peptide integrity, and functionality during both encapsulation and subsequent release processes. The dual layer coating showed sustained antibacterial functionality, lasting for 14 days. In vivo assessment using an experimental mouse wounding model demonstrated good biocompatibility and significant antimicrobial efficacy of the coating under physiological conditions. The coating was translated onto silicone urinary catheters and showed promising antibacterial efficacy, even outperforming commercial silver-based Dover cather. This anhydrous polymer-based platform holds immense potential as an effective antibacterial coating to prevent clinical device-associated infections. The simplicity of the coating process enhances its industrial viability. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of diclofenac sodium loaded magnetic nanocarriers of pectin interacted with chitosan for targeted and sustained drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Raj Kumar; Sahu, Saurabh

    2012-09-01

    A novel spherical magnetic nanocarrier of 100-150 nm dimensions made of pectin interacted with chitosan (MPCh-DS0.05) resulted in 99.5% encapsulation efficiency of diclofenac sodium (DS) as a model drug. Similarly, magnetic nanocarrier made of only pectin crosslinked with Ca(2+) (MPDS-0.05) resulted in only 60.6% encapsulation efficiency of DS. The increase in drug encapsulation efficiency (%) in MPCh-DS0.05 batch was due to synergistic drug encapsulation properties of pectin and chitosan. The structural and morphological features of these magnetic nanocarriers were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared-spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetry, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The magnetic properties were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and superconducting quantum unit interference device measurements (SQUID). The in vitro drug release was pH sensitive and exhibited sustained release sequentially in simulated gastric fluid (negligible release in 0-2h), simulated intestinal fluid (~69% release in 2-5h), simulated colonic fluid (5-60 h) and also in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (0-48 h). The drug release profile in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 was in good agreement with swelling controlled mechanism on the basis of Korsemeyer-Peppas model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclodextrin-Modified Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Efficient Sustained Drug Delivery and Proliferation Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alexandra; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Almeida, Sérgio; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-10-21

    Over the past decade, the potential of polymeric structures has been investigated to overcome many limitations related to nanosized drug carriers by modulating their toxicity, cellular interactions, stability, and drug-release kinetics. In this study, we have developed a successful nanocomposite consisting of undecylenic acid modified thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (UnTHCPSi NPs) loaded with an anticancer drug, sorafenib, and surface-conjugated with heptakis(6-amino-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin (HABCD) to show the impact of the surface polymeric functionalization on the physical and biological properties of the drug-loaded nanoparticles. Cytocompatibility studies showed that the UnTHCPSi-HABCD NPs were not toxic to breast cancer cells. HABCD also enhanced the suspensibility and both the colloidal and plasma stabilities of the UnTHCPSi NPs. UnTHCPSi-HABCD NPs showed a significantly increased interaction with breast cancer cells compared to bare NPs and also sustained the drug release. Furthermore, the sorafenib-loaded UnTHCPSi-HABCD NPs efficiently inhibited cell proliferation of the breast cancer cells.

  4. Combination of adsorption by porous CaCO3 microparticles and encapsulation by polyelectrolyte multilayer films for sustained drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyang; He, Chengyi; Tong, Zhen; Liu, Xinxing; Ren, Biye; Zeng, Fang

    2006-02-03

    Combination of adsorption by porous CaCO(3) microparticles and encapsulation by polyelectrolyte multilayers via the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was proposed for sustained drug release. Firstly, porous calcium carbonate microparticles with an average diameter of 5 microm were prepared for loading a model drug, ibuprofen (IBU). Adsorption of IBU into the pores was characterized by ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) experiment and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adsorbed IBU amount Gamma was 45.1mg/g for one-time adsorption and increased with increasing adsorption times. Finally, multilayer films of protamine sulfate (PRO) and sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) were formed on the IBU-loaded CaCO(3) microparticles by the layer-by-layer self-assembly. Amorphous IBU loaded in the pores of the CaCO(3) microparticles had a rapider release in the gastric fluid and a slower release in the intestinal fluid, compared with the bare IBU crystals. Polyelectrolyte multilayers assembled on the drug-loaded particles by the LbL reduced the release rate in both fluids. In this work, polymer/inorganic hybrid core-shell microcapsules were fabricated for controlled release of poorly water-soluble drugs. The porous inorganic particles are useful to load drugs in amorphous state and the polyelectrolyte multilayer films coated on the particle assuage the initial burst release.

  5. Reversible pH-Sensitive Chitosan-Based Hydrogels. Influence of Dispersion Composition on Rheological Properties and Sustained Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Iglesias

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the synthesis of micro-structured biomaterials based on chitosan (CTS for their applications as biocompatible carriers of drugs and bioactive compounds. Twelve dispersions were prepared by means of functional cross-linking with tricarballylic acid (TCA; they were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their rheological properties were studied. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study has been carried out on the influence of CTS concentration, degree of cross-linking and drug loading on chitosan hydrogels for drug delivery systems (DDS and is investigated herein for the first time. The influence of dispersion composition (polymer concentration and degree of cross-linking revealed to exert a marked impact on its rheological properties, going from liquid-like to viscoelastic gels. The release profiles of a model drug, diclofenac sodium (DCNa, as well as their relationships with polymer concentration, drug loading and degree of cross-linking were evaluated. Similar to the findings on rheological properties, a wide range of release profiles was encountered. These formulations were found to display a well-controlled drug release strongly dependent on the formulation composition. Cumulative drug release under physiological conditions for 96 h ranged from 8% to 67%. For comparative purpose, Voltaren emulgel® from Novartis Pharmaceuticals was also investigated and the latter was the formulation with the highest cumulative drug release (85%. Some formulations showed similar spreadability values to the commercial hydrogel. The comparative study of three batches confirmed the reproducibility of the method, leading to systems particularly suitable for their use as drug carriers.

  6. How should a small company interact in its business network to sustain its exchange effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic alignment of network and business development of two small firms in the printing industry. Developments are followed over more than 8 years. The aim of the paper is to understand how small firms can manage their network relations by maintaining both their

  7. Facilitating sustainability through smart network design in combination with virtual power plant operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bakari, K.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    While smart grids are considered as an outcome to integrate a high penetration level of dispersed generation (DG) in the power system, most distribution networks are still passive controlled. To accelerate the transition towards smart grids network operators can take two important steps: 1.

  8. Sustained release of anticancer agent phytic acid from its chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles for drug-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Dorniani, Dena; Saifullah, Bullo; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with phytic acid (PTA) to form phytic acid-chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (PTA-CS-MNP). The obtained nanocomposite and nanocarrier were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermal analysis of MNPs and PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite confirmed the binding of CS on the surface of MNPs and the loading of PTA in the PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite. The coating process enhanced the thermal stability of the anticancer nanocomposite obtained. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite are pure magnetite. Drug loading was estimated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and showing a 12.9% in the designed nanocomposite. Magnetization curves demonstrated that the synthesized MNPs and nanocomposite were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetizations of 53.25 emu/g and 42.15 emu/g, respectively. The release study showed that around 86% and 93% of PTA from PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite could be released within 127 and 56 hours by a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and 4.8, respectively, in a sustained manner and governed by pseudo-second order kinetic model. The cytotoxicity of the compounds on HT-29 colon cancer cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The HT-29 cell line was more sensitive against PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite than PTA alone. No cytotoxic effect was observed on normal cells (3T3 fibroblast cells). This result indicates that PTA-CS-MNP nanocomposite can inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells without causing any harm to normal cell.

  9. Development of lovastatin-loaded poly(lactic acid microspheres for sustained oral delivery: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan QG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Qigang Guan,1 Wei Chen,2 Xianming Hu2 1Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical, Shenyang Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: A novel lovastatin (LVT-loaded poly(lactic acid microsphere suitable for oral administration was developed in this study, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics were evaluated. Methods: The designed microspheres were obtained by an improved emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The morphological examination, particle size, encapsulation ratio, drug loading, and in vitro release were characterized. Pharmacokinetics studies were used to show that microspheres possess more advantages than the conventional formulations. Results: By using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method, it was simple to prepare microspheres and easy to scale up production. The morphology of formed microspheres showed a spherical shape with a smooth surface, without any particle aggregation. Mean size of the microspheres was 2.65±0.69 µm; the encapsulation efficiency was 92.5%±3.6%, and drug loading was 16.7%±2.1%. In vitro release indicated that the LVT microspheres had a well-sustained release efficacy, and ex vivo studies showed that after LVT was loaded to microspheres, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable plasma concentration point and the extrapolation to time infinity increased significantly, which represented 2.63-fold and 2.49-fold increases, respectively, compared to suspensions. The rate of ex vivo clearance was significantly reduced. Conclusion: This research proved that poly(lactic acid microspheres can significantly prolong the drug circulation time in vivo and can also significantly increase the relative bioavailability of the drug. Keywords: lovastatin, microspheres, PLA, in vitro release, pharmacokinetics 

  10. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ciach

    Full Text Available To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients.Case control national study.Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant.Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries.Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast, Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA, Spain.All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies. Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%. None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during

  11. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciach, Katarzyna; Niedoszytko, Marek; Abacjew-Chmylko, Anna; Pabin, Izabela; Adamski, Przemyslaw; Leszczynska, Katarzyna; Preis, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Hanna; Wydra, Dariusz G; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita

    2016-01-01

    To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients. Case control national study. Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM). 23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant. Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries. Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast), Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA), Spain. All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies). Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%). None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during pregnancy

  12. The Capacity-Building Stewardship Model: assessment of an agricultural network as a mechanism for improving regional agroecosystem sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Duff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working lands have potential to meet agricultural production targets while serving as reservoirs of biological diversity and as sources of ecological services. Yet agricultural policy creates disincentives for this integration of conservation and production goals. While necessary, the development of a policy context that promotes agroecosystem sustainability will take time, and successful implementation will depend on a receptive agricultural audience. As the demands placed on working lands grow, there is a need for regional support networks that build agricultural producers' capacity for land stewardship. We used a social-ecological system framework to illustrate the Healthy Grown Potato Program as an agricultural network case study. Our Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reflects a 20-year experience working in collaboration with potato growers certified under an ecolabel in Wisconsin, USA. The model applies an evolving, modular farm stewardship standard to the entire farm - croplands and noncroplands. The model demonstrates an effective process for facilitating communication and shared learning among program participants, including agricultural producers, university extension specialists, nonprofit conservation partners, and industry representatives. The limitation of the model in practice has been securing funding to support expansion of the program and to ensure that the ecolabel standard is responsive to changes in the social-ecological system. Despite this constraint, the Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reveals an important mechanism for building regional commitment to conservation, with agricultural producers in a leadership role as architects, adopters, and advocates for stewardship behavior. Our experience provides important insight for the application of agri-environment schemes on private lands. The durability of a conservation ethic on working farms is likely to be enhanced when networks engage and support producers in an

  13. Inhibition of growth of experimental prostate cancer with sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, E; Bokser, L; Comaru-Schally, A M; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1991-02-01

    Inhibitory effects of the sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone N-Ac-[3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine1, 4-chloro-D-phenylalanine2, 3-(3-pyridyl)-D-alanine3, D-citrulline6, D-alanine10]LH-RH (SB-75) on the growth of experimental prostate cancers were investigated. In the first experiment, three doses of a microcapsule preparation releasing 23.8, 47.6, and 71.4 micrograms of antagonist SB-75 per day were compared with microcapsules of agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH liberating 25 micrograms/day in rats bearing Dunning R3327H transplantable prostate carcinoma. During 8 weeks of treatment, tumor growth was decreased by [D-Trp6]LH-RH and all three doses of SB-75 as compared to untreated controls. The highest dose of SB-75 (71.4 micrograms/day) caused a greater inhibition of prostate cancer growth than [D-Trp6]LH-RH as based on measurement of tumor volume and percentage change in tumor volume. Doses of 23.8 and 47.6 micrograms of SB-75 per day induced a partial and submaximal decrease, respectively, in tumor weight and volume. Tumor doubling time was the longest (50 days) with the high dose of SB-75 vs. 15 days for controls. The body weights were unchanged. The weights of testes, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate were greatly reduced in all three groups that received SB-75, and testosterone levels were decreased to nondetectable values in the case of the two higher doses of SB-75. LH levels were also diminished. Similar results were obtained in the second experiment, in which the animals were treated for a period of 8 weeks with microgranules of SB-75. Therapy with microgranules of SB-75 significantly decreased tumor growth as measured by the final tumor volume, the percentage change from the initial tumor volume, and the reduction in tumor weight. The results indicate that antagonist SB-75, released from sustained delivery systems, can produce a state of chemical castration and effectively

  14. Corporate Sustainability in the Process of Employee Recruitment through Social Networks in Conditions of Slovak Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milota Vetráková

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment strategy and policy are significantly affected by both the internal conditions of the enterprise and the external environment. It is important to anticipate and react to changes in the labor market in a timely manner, to eliminate potential threats and take advantage of opportunities to continuous staffing of current and future needs of the enterprise. The role of managers in deciding on possible techniques for recruiting employees is to respect the principles of sustainability both economically and socially. Due to the use of information technology, this trend is easier to apply in practice, as enterprises can present themselves and get information about potential job seekers. The success of the recruitment process is increasing if public awareness about the employer is positive. Designing the survey methodology was based on the axiom that traditional ways of recruiting employees are being replaced by techniques using the Internet and social networks. The aim of the paper is to present the views of domestic and foreign experts on the recruitment of employees using social networks. We compare the theoretical knowledge with the results of social networking research in SMEs in Slovakia and especially their use in the process of recruiting employees. A total of 324 enterprises with domestic and foreign capital share participated in the sociological questionnaire. The results have shown that enterprises with foreign capital share are more progressive in using the Internet to offer jobs and in gaining information on jobseekers through social networks.

  15. Dry Ports-Seaports Sustainable Logistics Network Optimization: Considering the Environment Constraints and the Concession Cooperation Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hairui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In China dry ports enter into a rapid development period now, however for many Chinese dry ports, the operation faces difficulties duo to inefficient logistics networks and cooperation relationship between dry ports and seaports. Focusing on the concession cooperation mechanism of seaports and dry ports, and the environmental constraints (carbon emissions and congestion cost, a bi-objective location-allocation MILP model for the sustainable hinterland-dry ports-seaports logistics network optimization is formulated, aiming at the system logistics costs and carbon emissions to be minimized. Moreover, for the cooperation mechanism of seaports to dry ports, a parameter called cooperation cost concession coefficient is proposed for the optimization model, and a new evaluation method based on the ordered weighted averaging (OWA operator is used to evaluate it. Then a location-allocation decision-making framework for the hinterland-dry port-seaport logistics network is proposed. The innovative aspect of the model is that it can proposes a effective and environment friendly dry ports location strategic and also give insights into the connective cooperation relationships, and cargo flows of the network. A case study involving configuration of dry ports in Henan Province is conducted, and the model is successfully applied.

  16. Connecting research discovery with care delivery in dementia: the development of the Indianapolis Discovery Network for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boustani MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaz A Boustani,1–3 Amie Frame,1,2 Stephanie Munger,1,2 Patrick Healey,4 Jessie Westlund,5 Martin Farlow,6,7 Ann Hake,8 Mary Guerriero Austrom,6,9 Polly Shepard,10 Corby Bubp,10 Jose Azar,3 Arif Nazir,3 Nadia Adams,11 Noll L Campbell,1,2,12,13 Azita Chehresa,5 Paul Dexter2,31Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 2Regenstrief Institute, Inc, 3Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM, 4St Vincent Health Network, 5Community Health Network, 6Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, IUSM, 7Department of Neurology, IUSM, 8Eli Lilly and Company, 9Department of Psychiatry, IUSM, 10The Memory Clinic of Indianapolis, 11Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 12Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 13Department of Pharmacy, Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: The US Institute of Medicine has recommended an integrated, locally sensitive collaboration among the various members of the community, health care systems, and research organizations to improve dementia care and dementia research.Methods: Using complex adaptive system theory and reflective adaptive process, we developed a professional network called the “Indianapolis Discovery Network for Dementia” (IDND. The IDND facilitates effective and sustainable interactions among a local and diverse group of dementia researchers, clinical providers, and community advocates interested in improving care for dementia patients in Indianapolis, Indiana.Results: The IDND was established in February 2006 and now includes more than 250 members from more than 30 local (central Indiana organizations representing 20 disciplines. The network uses two types of communication to connect its members. The first is a 2-hour face-to-face bimonthly meeting open to all members. The second is a web-based resource center (http://www.indydiscoverynetwork.org. To date, the network has: (1 accomplished the

  17. Minutes from the 7th workshop of the EU Thematic Network Sustainability Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Strategic considerations about the problem of sustainable development were the theme for two outreach events in the cities, namely on regional restructuring at Roskilde County administration December 1 and on sustainability governance at Borups Højskole in Copenhagen on December 2, both...... in the evening. In daytime on December 2 og 3, an intensive programme of presentations and discussion was implemented at RUC concerning both themes of energy and of chemicals policies and the development of the EU, partly seen from a neighboorhod perspective in the Russian north, partly regarding the two...

  18. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  19. Cerebral networks of sustained attention and working memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study based on the Continuous Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartés-Serrallonga, M; Adan, A; Solé-Casals, J; Caldú, X; Falcón, C; Pérez-Pàmies, M; Bargalló, N; Serra-Grabulosa, J M

    2014-04-01

    One of the most used paradigms in the study of attention is the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). The identical pairs version (CPT-IP) has been widely used to evaluate attention deficits in developmental, neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the specific locations and the relative distribution of brain activation in networks identified with functional imaging, varies significantly with differences in task design. To design a task to evaluate sustained attention using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and thus to provide data for research concerned with the role of these functions. Forty right-handed, healthy students (50% women; age range: 18-25 years) were recruited. A CPT-IP implemented as a block design was used to assess sustained attention during the fMRI session. The behavioural results from the CPT-IP task showed a good performance in all subjects, higher than 80% of hits. fMRI results showed that the used CPT-IP task activates a network of frontal, parietal and occipital areas, and that these are related to executive and attentional functions. In relation to the use of the CPT to study of attention and working memory, this task provides normative data in healthy adults, and it could be useful to evaluate disorders which have attentional and working memory deficits.

  20. Drawbacks and benefits associated with inter-organizational collaboration along the discovery-development-delivery continuum: a cancer research network case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Provan, Keith G; Johnson, Kimberly J; Leischow, Scott J

    2012-07-25

    The scientific process around cancer research begins with scientific discovery, followed by development of interventions, and finally delivery of needed interventions to people with cancer. Numerous studies have identified substantial gaps between discovery and delivery in health research. Team science has been identified as a possible solution for closing the discovery to delivery gap; however, little is known about effective ways of collaborating within teams and across organizations. The purpose of this study was to determine benefits and drawbacks associated with organizational collaboration across the discovery-development-delivery research continuum. Representatives of organizations working on cancer research across a state answered a survey about how they collaborated with other cancer research organizations in the state and what benefits and drawbacks they experienced while collaborating. We used exponential random graph modeling to determine the association between these benefits and drawbacks and the presence of a collaboration tie between any two network members. Different drawbacks and benefits were associated with discovery, development, and delivery collaborations. The only consistent association across all three was with the drawback of difficulty due to geographic differences, which was negatively associated with collaboration, indicating that those organizations that had collaborated were less likely to perceive a barrier related to geography. The benefit, enhanced access to other knowledge, was positive and significant in the development and delivery networks, indicating that collaborating organizations viewed improved knowledge exchange as a benefit of collaboration. 'Acquisition of additional funding or other resources' and 'development of new tools and methods' were negatively significantly related to collaboration in these networks. So, although improved knowledge access was an outcome of collaboration, more tangible outcomes were not being

  1. Effects of the Use of Social Network Sites on Task Performance: Toward a Sustainable Performance in a Distracting Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Min

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the use of social network sites (SNS has become increasingly prevalent, its effect on sustainable performance has received much attention. The existing literature has taken either a positive or negative view of SNS, arguing that it either decreases performance by taking time and effort away from work, or increases performance by providing social benefits for enhancing performance. In contrast, this experimental study, investigates how SNS use can disturb or enhance the performance of different types of tasks differently, thus influencing the sustainability of task performance. Based on distraction-conflict theory, this study distinguishes between simple and complex tasks, examines the role of SNS, and analyzes data including electroencephalography data captured by a brain-computer interface. The results show that task performance can be sustainable such that SNS use positively influences performance when participants are engaged in a simple task and influences performance neither positively nor negatively when participants are engaged in a complex task. The study finds the former result is attributable to the positive effect of the psychological arousal induced by SNS use and the latter result to the negative effect of the psychological arousal offsetting the positive effect of reduced stress resulting from SNS use.

  2. Taste masking of ciprofloxacin by ion-exchange resin and sustain release at gastric-intestinal through interpenetrating polymer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to taste mask ciprofloxacin (CP by using ion-exchange resins (IERs followed by sustain release of CP by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN. IERs based on the copolymerization of acrylic acid with different cross linking agents were synthesised. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of drug to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared & evaluated for taste masking by following in vivo and in vitro methods. Human volunteers graded ADC 1:4, acrylic acid-divinyl benzene (ADC-3 resin as tasteless. Characterization studies such as FTIR, SEM, DSC, P-XRD differentiated ADC 1:4, from physical mixture (PM 1:4 and confirmed the formation of complex. In vitro drug release of ADC 1:4 showed complete release of CP within 60 min at simulated gastric fluid (SGF i.e. pH 1.2. IPN beads were prepared with ADC 1:4 by using sodium alginate (AL and sodium alginate-chitosan (AL-CS for sustain release of CP at SGF pH and followed by simulated intestinal fluid (SIF i.e. pH 7.4. FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of IPN beads. The release of CP was sustain at SGF pH (75%. The kinetic model of IPN beads showed the release of CP was non-Fickian diffusion type.

  3. On synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 1. Sustained boiler efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available situations. This paper presents a process integration technique for network synthesis using conceptual and mathematical analysis without compromising boiler efficiency. It was found that the steam flow rate to the HEN could be reduced while maintaining boiler...

  4. The Sustainable Development of Industry Clusters: Emergent Knowledge Networks and Socio Complex Adaptive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Nousala

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive global economy the development of sustainable, innovative responses from Industry is now vital. Many industries globally need to respond rather than react to current economic climate through sustainable (economically and environmentally development. The steel industry is a critical player in the urban landscape. Like many industries, small, medium enterprises (SMEs are vital players within the steel industry supply chain. The Australian SME steel housing sector (based in rural and regional areas are still developing systemic capabilities with the aim of realizing its full potential. The question of an effective sustainable industry is much larger than any one player. This paper aims to present a proposed methodological approach for sustainable cluster development based on previous industry wide investigations. Through the lens of scalability of a socio complex adaptive system, SME development becomes arguably the most significant player with regards to industry cluster development. By starting with SME development it's possible to build an understanding of a simultaneous two layered approach, "bottom up – top down" whilst including a very diversified group.

  5. Social learning in innovation networks: how multisectoral collaborations shape discourses of sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.L.P.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern day society has led to the emergence of a specific type of sustainability problems known as complex problems. These types of problems can be characterised by their cognitive complexity and inherent insecurity, their normative complexity that allows for

  6. The Bi-Modal Organization: Balancing Autopoiesis and Fluid Social Networks for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assist an organization to restructure as a bi-modal organization in order to achieve sustainability in today's highly complex business world. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and is based on relevant literature and the authors' research and practice. Findings: Although fluid…

  7. On Governance, Embedding and Marketing: Reflections on the Construction of Alternative Sustainable Food Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roep, D.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the reconstruction of the development of 14 food supply chain initiatives in 7 European countries, we developed a conceptual framework that demonstrates that the process of increasing the sustainability of food supply chains is rooted in strategic choices regarding governance, embedding,

  8. Energy-WEB. Greenhouse sector in a sustainable regional energy network. Starting paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liere, J.; Van Wunnik, A.W.M.; Van der Burgt, M.J.; Van Oosten, H.J.

    2004-08-01

    The horticulture sector can make use of surplus heat, produced within the greenhouses, and supply the heat to several energy consuming parties (other greenhouse businesses, buildings, etc.). Thus, a local or regional web of suppliers and consumers starts. This report is a starting memo which should inspire the debate on a sustainable energy supply for the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands [nl

  9. Efficacy and safety of sustained-delivery fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant in patients with chronic diabetic macular edema insufficiently responsive to available therapies: a real-life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pascale Massin, Ali Erginay, Bénédicte Dupas, Aude Couturier, Ramin Tadayoni Ophthalmology Department, Lariboisière Hospital, Paris, France Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sustained-delivery fluocinolone acetonide (FAc intravitreal implant for diabetic macular edema (DME. Patients and methods: Prospective study in patients with DME insufficiently responsive to laser and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF. Patients with history of rise of intraocular pressure after intravitreal corticosteroids were excluded. Results: The macular edema rapidly decreased both in group 1 (prior laser only; n=7 eyes and group 2 (prior laser and ≥3 monthly anti-VEGF therapy; n=10 eyes and central subfield thickness was reduced by -299 µm (P=0.008 and -251 µm (P=0.016 at 12 months, respectively. Mean area under the curve from baseline to last value for pseudophakic eyes was +4.2 letters in group 1 and +9.5 letters in group 2. Overall, the FAc implant was well tolerated. Conclusion: This prospective study confirms the efficacy of the FAc implant in DME patients insufficiently responsive to laser and anti-VEGF. Moreover, with a careful patient selection, our safety results would support an earlier use of FAc in the DME treatment pathway. Keywords: diabetic macular edema, intravitreal corticosteroid, corticosteroid intravitreal implant, fluocinolone acetonide

  10. Freeze-dried, mucoadhesive system for vaginal delivery of the HIV microbicide, dapivirine: optimisation by an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, A David; Umrethia, Manish L; Kett, Victoria L; Malcolm, R Karl

    2010-03-30

    Dapivirine mucoadhesive gels and freeze-dried tablets were prepared using a 3x3x2 factorial design. An artificial neural network (ANN) with multi-layer perception was used to investigate the effect of hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC): polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) ratio (X1), mucoadhesive concentration (X2) and delivery system (gel or freeze-dried mucoadhesive tablet, X3) on response variables; cumulative release of dapivirine at 24h (Q(24)), mucoadhesive force (F(max)) and zero-rate viscosity. Optimisation was performed by minimising the error between the experimental and predicted values of responses by ANN. The method was validated using check point analysis by preparing six formulations of gels and their corresponding freeze-dried tablets randomly selected from within the design space of contour plots. Experimental and predicted values of response variables were not significantly different (p>0.05, two-sided paired t-test). For gels, Q(24) values were higher than their corresponding freeze-dried tablets. F(max) values for freeze-dried tablets were significantly different (2-4 times greater, p>0.05, two-sided paired t-test) compared to equivalent gels. Freeze-dried tablets having lower values for X1 and higher values for X2 components offered the best compromise between effective dapivirine release, mucoadhesion and viscosity such that increased vaginal residence time was likely to be achieved. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of polymer network parameters of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogels on drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2014-01-30

    The present article deals with design of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogel drug delivery systems. The characterization of hydrogels has been carried out by SEMs, EDAX, FTIR, (13)C NMR, XRD, TGA/DTA/DTG and swelling studies. The correlation between reaction conditions and structural parameters of polymer networks such as polymer volume fraction in the swollen state (ϕ), Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links (M¯c), crosslink density (ρ) and mesh size (ξ) has been determined. The different kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi square root law, Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Hixson-Crowell cube root model were applied and it has been observed that release profile of amoxicillin best followed the first order model for the release of drug from the polymer matrix. The swelling of the hydrogels and release of drug from the drug loaded hydrogels occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in pH 7.4 solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RAF 0/047: Promoting the sustainability & networking of National Nuclear Institutions (NNI) for Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjala, F.

    2017-01-01

    RAF/0/047 is being participated by Eleven Countries, namely, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia. The Main objective of the project is to enhance the sustainability of African nuclear institutions by improving their performance and relevance to development programmes through good managerial practices, partnership building and marketing, including upgrading and strengthening of human resources capabilities”. There is government commitment to support and promote the development and training in nuclear science and technology. Inadequate or aging equipment equipment’s in some fields of nuclear science and technology is one of weakness in implementing this project. Income generating activities remain the most powerful force that influences NNI’s sustainability

  13. On Governance, Embedding and Marketing: Reflections on the Construction of Alternative Sustainable Food Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Roep, Dirk; Wiskerke, Johannes S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the reconstruction of the development of 14 food supply chain initiatives in 7 European countries, we developed a conceptual framework that demonstrates that the process of increasing the sustainability of food supply chains is rooted in strategic choices regarding governance, embedding, and marketing and in the coordination of these three dimensions that are inextricably interrelated. The framework also shows that when seeking to further develop an initiative (e.g., through scaling ...

  14. Mobile Virtual Network Operator Information Systems for Increased Sustainability in Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Hallur Leivsgard; Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    sales from efficiency of business processes, underlying information systems, and the ability to make the link from consumption to cost visual and transparent to consumers. The conclusion is that the energy sector should look into other sectors and learn from information systems which ease up business......, sales and buying processes are separated from physical networks and energy production. This study aims to characterise and evaluate information systems supporting the transformation of the free market-orientation of energy and provision of utilities in a cross-sectorial proposition known as Mobile...... Virtual Network Operator (MVNO). Emphasis is particularly on standardised information systems for automatically linking consumers, sellers and integration of network infrastructure actors. The method used is a feasibility study assessing business and information processes of a forthcoming utilities market...

  15. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  16. Zone-Aware Service Platform: A New Concept of Context-Aware Networking and Communications for Smart-Home Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsung Byun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in networking and communications removed the restrictions of time and space in information services. Context-aware service systems can support the predefined services in accordance with user requests regardless of time and space. However, due to their architectural limitations, the recent systems are not so flexible to provide device-independent services by multiple service providers. Recently, researchers have focused on a new service paradigm characterized by high mobility, service continuity, and green characteristics. In line with these efforts, improved context-aware service platforms have been suggested to make the platform possible to manage the contexts to provide the adaptive services for multi-user and locations. However, this platform can only support limited continuity and mobility. In other words, the existing system cannot support seamless service provision among different service providers with respect to the changes of mobility, situation, device, and network. Furthermore, the existing context-aware service platform is significant reliance on always-on infrastructure, which leads to great amounts of energy consumption inevitably. Therefore, we subsequently propose a new concept of context-aware networking and communications, namely a zone-aware service platform. The proposed platform autonomously reconfigures the infrastructure and maintains a service session interacting with the middleware to support cost- and energy-efficient pervasive services for smart-home sustainability.

  17. An information technology enabled sustainability test-bed (ITEST) for occupancy detection through an environmental sensing network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Bing; Lam, Khee Poh; Zhang, Rui; Chiou, Yun-Shang [Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Andrews, Burton; Hoeynck, Michael; Benitez, Diego [Research and Technology Center, Robert BOSCH LLC, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper describes a large-scale wireless and wired environmental sensor network test-bed and its application to occupancy detection in an open-plan office building. Detection of occupant presence has been used extensively in built environments for applications such as demand-controlled ventilation and security; however, the ability to discern the actual number of people in a room is beyond the scope of current sensing techniques. To address this problem, a complex sensor network is deployed in the Robert L. Preger Intelligent Workplace comprising a wireless ambient-sensing system, a wired carbon dioxide sensing system, and a wired indoor air quality sensing system. A wired camera network is implemented as well for establishing true occupancy levels to be used as ground truth information for deriving algorithmic relationships with the environment conditions. To our knowledge, this extensive and diverse ambient-sensing infrastructure of the ITEST setup as well as the continuous data-collection capability is unprecedented. Final results indicate that there are significant correlations between measured environmental conditions and occupancy status. An average of 73% accuracy on the occupancy number detection was achieved by Hidden Markov Models during testing periods. This paper serves as an exploration to the research of ITEST for occupancy detection in offices. In addition, its utility extends to a wide variety of other building technology research areas such as human-centered environmental control, security, energy efficient and sustainable green buildings. (author)

  18. Social Innovation and Sustainable Rural Development: The Case of a Brazilian Agroecology Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Rover

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food is central to human beings and their social life. The growing industrialization of the food system has led to a greater availability of food, along with an increasing risk perception and awareness in consumers. At the same time, there is an increasing resistance from citizens to the dominant model of production and a growing demand for healthy food. As a consequence, an increasing number of social networks have been formed worldwide involving the collaboration between producers and consumers. One of these networks, the Ecovida Agroecology Network, which operates in Southern Brazil, involves farming families, non-governmental organizations, and consumer organizations, together with other social actors. Using a qualitative approach based on participant observation and an analysis of documents, the article examines this network. The theoretical framework used is social innovation, which is commonly recognized as being fundamental in fostering rural development. Results show that Ecovida has instigated innovations that relate to its horizontal and decentralized structure, its participatory certification of organic food, and its dynamic relationship with the markets based on local exchanges and reciprocal relations. Furthermore, such innovation processes have been proven to impact on public sector policies and on the increasing cooperation between the social actors from rural and urban areas.

  19. Collecting sustainability data in different organisational settings of the European Farm Accountancy Data Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, H.C.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Keszthelyi, Szilard

    2016-01-01

    The European Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) collects detailed financial economic information on a sample of farms in Europe. These data are used intensively for the evaluation of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy. Owing to changes in policies, there is a need for a broader set of

  20. Lessons Learnt from and Sustainability of Adopting a Personal Learning Environment & Network (Ple&N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Eric; Sabetzadeh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the feedback from the configuration and deployment of a Personal Learning Environment & Network (PLE&N) tool to support peer-based social learning for university students and graduates. An extension of an earlier project in which a generic and PLE&N was deployed for all learners, the current PLE&N is a…

  1. A compartmentalized out-of-equilibrium enzymatic reaction network for sustained autonomous movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijemeisland, M.; Abdelmohsen, L.K.E.A.; Huck, W.T.S.; Wilson, D.A.; van Hest, J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Every living cell is a compartmentalized out-ofequilibrium system exquisitely able to convert chemical energy into function. In order to maintain homeostasis, the flux of metabolites is tightly controlled by regulatory enzymatic networks. A crucial prerequisite for the development of lifelike

  2. The Sustained Delivery of Resveratrol or a Defined Grape Powder Inhibits New Blood Vessel Formation in a Mouse Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaie Kanavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch’s membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV.

  3. The Sustained Delivery of Resveratrol or a Defined Grape Powder Inhibits New Blood Vessel Formation in a Mouse Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaie; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati; Wang, Shoujian; Azari, Amir A.; Farnoodian, Mitra; Kenealey, Jason D.; van Ginkel, Paul R.; Albert, Daniel M.; Sheibani, Nader; Polans, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch’s membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV. PMID:25361423

  4. Energy Sustainable Mobile Networks via Energy Routing, Learning and Foresighted Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gambin, Angel Fernandez; Scalabrin, Maria; Rossi, Michele

    2018-01-01

    The design of self-sustainable base station (BS) deployments is addressed in this paper: BSs have energy harvesting and storage capabilities, they can use ambient energy to serve the local traffic or store it for later use. A dedicated power packet grid allows energy transfer across BSs, compensating for imbalance in the harvested energy or in the traffic load. Some BSs are offgrid, i.e., they can only use the locally harvested energy and that transferred from other BSs, whereas others are on...

  5. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    edu, Janet. twomey@wichita. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2010-04-30

    This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  6. Sustaining Employability: A Process for Introducing Cloud Computing, Big Data, Social Networks, Mobile Programming and Cybersecurity into Academic Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Bologa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a process for introducing modern technological subjects into the academic curricula of non-technical universities. The process described may increase and contribute to social sustainability by enabling non-technical students’ access to the field of the Internet of Things and the broader Industry 4.0. The process has been defined and tested during a curricular reform project that took place in two large universities in Eastern Europe. In this article, the authors describe the results and impact, over multiple years, of a project financed by the European Union that aimed to introduce the following subjects into the academic curricula of business students: cloud computing, big data, mobile programming, and social networks and cybersecurity (CAMSS. The results are useful for those trying to implement similar curricular reforms, or to companies that need to manage talent pipelines.

  7. Radio-over-optical waveguide system-on-wafer for massive delivery capacity 5G MIMO access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Le N.

    2017-01-01

    Delivering maximum information capacity over MIMO antennae systems beam steering is critical so as to achieve the flexibility via beam steering, maximizing the number of users or community of users in Gb/s rate per user over distributed cloud-based optical-wireless access networks. This paper gives an overview of (i) demands of optical - wireless delivery with high flexibility, especially the beam steering of multi-Tbps information channels to information hungry community of users via virtualized beam steering MIMO antenna systems at the free-license mmW region; (ii) Proposing a novel photonic planar integrated waveguide systems composing several passive and active, passive and amplification photonic devices so as to generate mmW carrier and embedded baseband information channels to feed to antenna elements; (iii) Integration techniques to generate a radio over optical waveguide (RoOW) system-on-wafer (SoW) comprising MIMO planar antenna elements and associate photonic integrated circuits for both up- and down- links; (iv) Challenges encountered in the implementation of the SoW in both wireless and photonic domains; (v) Photonic modulation techniques to achieve maximum transmission capacity per wavelength per MIMO antenna system. (vi) A view on control-feedback systems for fast and accurate generation of phase pattern for MIMO beam steering via a bank of optical phase modulators to mmW carrier phases and their preservation in the converted mmW domain . (vi) The overall operational principles of the novel techniques and technologies based on the coherent mixing of two lightwave channels The entire SoW can be implemented on SOI Si-photonic technology or via hybrid integration. These technological developments and their pros- and cons- will be discussed to achieve 50Tera-bps over the extended 110 channel Cband single mode fiber with mmW centered at 58.6GHz and 7GHz free-license band.

  8. Women's social networks and use of facility delivery services for uncomplicated births in North West Ethiopia: a community-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E

    2017-12-28

    High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to

  9. Ubiquitous Integrity via Network Integration and Parallelism—Sustaining Pedestrian/Bike Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen Hsu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the concern regarding environmental issues, establishing pedestrian/bike friendly urbanism is widely encouraged. To promote safety-assured, mobile communication environments, efficient, reliable maintenance, and information integrity need to be designed, especially in highly possibly interfered places. For busy traffic areas, regular degree-3 dedicated short range communication (DSRC networks are safety and information featured with availability, reliability, and maintainability in paths of multi-lanes. For sparsely populated areas, probes of wireless sensors are rational, especially if sensor nodes can be organized to enhance security, reliability, and flexibility. Applying alternative network topologies, such as spider-webs, generalized honeycomb tori, and cube-connected cycles, for comparing and analyzing is proposed in DSRC and cellular communications to enhance integrity in communications.

  10. The perspective of sustainability in networked knowledge society: governance, education, ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MINGUET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to stimulate thinking about entering the perspective of sustainability in new information societies and knowledge supported by ICTs, and characterized by globalization is far from inclusive. It involves the construction of a global system that promotes the pursuit of environmental quality, social justice and an equitable economy and viable long term. UNESCO has identified three basic ways to get it: governance, education and ethics.Governance can promote equitable social connectivity, changes in patterns of production and consumption and application search and real solutions to the socio-environmental. Education can foster continuing education of those critical, responsible and committed attitudes of respect and harmony with the natural and social environment, international organizations like the OECD, UN and governments through the development of their educational systems, have shaped the competency-based training model, including skills for sustainability are key consider. And all from ethical approaches to guide human capacity to think, act and promote the defense of life on our planet.

  11. On Governance, Embedding and Marketing: Reflections on the Construction of Alternative Sustainable Food Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roep, Dirk; Wiskerke, Johannes S C

    Based on the reconstruction of the development of 14 food supply chain initiatives in 7 European countries, we developed a conceptual framework that demonstrates that the process of increasing the sustainability of food supply chains is rooted in strategic choices regarding governance , embedding, and marketing and in the coordination of these three dimensions that are inextricably interrelated. The framework also shows that when seeking to further develop an initiative (e.g., through scaling up or product diversification) these interrelations need continuous rebalancing. We argue that the framework can serve different purposes: it can be used as an analytical tool by researchers studying food supply chain dynamics, as a policy tool by policymakers that want to support the development of sustainable food supply chains, and as a reflexive tool by practitioners and their advisors to help them to position themselves, develop a clear strategy, find the right allies, develop their skills, and build the capacities that they need. In this paper, we elaborate upon the latter function of the framework and illustrate this briefly with empirical evidence from three of the initiatives that we studied.

  12. Networked remote area dental services: a viable, sustainable approach to oral health care in challenging environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Kate; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the cost effectiveness of a model of remote area oral health service. Retrospective financial analysis. Rural and remote primary health services. Clinical activity data and associated cost data relating to the provision of a networked visiting oral health service by the Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health formed the basis of the study data frameset. The cost-effectiveness of the Centre's model of service provision at five rural and remote sites in Western Australia during the calendar years 2006, 2008 and 2010 was examined in the study. Calculations of the service provision costs and value of care provided were made using data records and the Fee Schedule of Dental Services for Dentists. The ratio of service provision costs to the value of care provided was determined for each site and was benchmarked against the equivalent ratios applicable to large scale government sector models of service provision. The use of networked models have been effective in other disciplines but this study is the first to show a networked hub and spoke approach of five spokes to one hub is cost efficient in remote oral health care. By excluding special cost-saving initiatives introduced by the Centre, the study examines easily translatable direct service provision costs against direct clinical care outcomes in some of Australia's most challenging locations. This study finds that networked hub and spoke models of care can be financially efficient arrangements in remote oral health care. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Sustaining Economic Exploitation of Complex Ecosystems in Computational Models of Coupled Human-Natural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Neo D.; Tonin, Perrine; Bauer, Barbara; Rael, Rosalyn C.; Singh, Rahul; Yoon, Sangyuk; Yoon, Ilmi; Dunne, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding ecological complexity has stymied scientists for decades. Recent elucidation of the famously coined "devious strategies for stability in enduring natural systems" has opened up a new field of computational analyses of complex ecological networks where the nonlinear dynamics of many interacting species can be more realistically mod-eled and understood. Here, we describe the first extension of this field to include coupled human-natural systems. This extension elucidates new strat...

  14. Museum networks and sustainable tourism management : the case study of marche region's museums (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Cerquetti, Mara; Montella, Marta Maria

    2015-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, research on cultural tourism has sought to find a balance between tourism development and cultural heritage conservation. However scholars have not focused on the enhancement of local cultural heritage as an asset to raise awareness of new cultural destinations and to prevent overcrowding in just a few cultural cities. After a discussion of literature on heritage tourism management, this paper presents the results of a survey on museum networks in...

  15. Cost-effective DWDM ROADM design for flexible sustainable optical metro–access networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento Hernández, Samael; Altabas, Jose Antonio; Izquierdo, David; Garces, Ignacio; Spadaro, Salvatore; Lázaro Villa, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes,creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works Architectural changes are required for the underlying networks to support the expected Internet data traffic vol...

  16. Mode of anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery: secondary analysis from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Caesarean Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwick, A J; El-Sayed, Y Y; Blumenfeld, Y J; Osmundson, S S; Weiniger, C F

    2015-08-01

    Preterm delivery is often performed by Caesarean section. We investigated modes of anaesthesia and risk factors for general anaesthesia among women undergoing preterm Caesarean delivery. Women undergoing Caesarean delivery between 24(+0) and 36(+6) weeks' gestation were identified from a multicentre US registry. The mode of anaesthesia was classified as neuraxial anaesthesia (spinal, epidural, or combined spinal and epidural) or general anaesthesia. Logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristic, obstetric, and peripartum risk factors associated with general anaesthesia. Within the study cohort, 11 539 women had preterm Caesarean delivery; 9510 (82.4%) underwent neuraxial anaesthesia and 2029 (17.6%) general anaesthesia. In our multivariate model, African-American race [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.7-2.2], Hispanic ethnicity (aOR=1.5; 95% CI=1.2-1.8), other race (aOR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1-1.9), and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome or eclampsia (aOR=2.8; 95% CI=2.2-3.5) were independently associated with receiving general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Women with an emergency Caesarean delivery indication had the highest odds for general anaesthesia (aOR=3.5; 95% CI=3.1-3.9). For every 1 week decrease in gestational age at delivery, the adjusted odds of general anaesthesia increased by 13%. In our study cohort, nearly one in five women received general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Although potential confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that early gestational age at delivery, emergent Caesarean delivery indications, hypertensive disease, and non-Caucasian race or ethnicity are associated with general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and green closed-loop supply chain network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Hamed; Govindan, Kannan; Saghafi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    recycling raw material recycling. Modeling this chain is carried out by accounting for environmental considerations, total profit optimization, and reduction of lost working days due to occupational accidents, we well as maximizing responsiveness to customer demand. In order to solve the model, genetic...... algorithm has been used and multiple scenarios with different aspects have been studied. Solving this model provides decisions regarding opening or closing of each of the components of the network and the optimal product flow among them. The results prove the feasibility of the presented model...... and the applicability of the developed solution methodology....

  18. Design and Implementation of a MAC Protocol for Timely and Reliable Delivery of Command and Data in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Vinh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and implements a new TDMA-based MAC protocol for providing timely and reliable delivery of data and command for monitoring and control networks. In this kind of network, sensor nodes are required to sense data from the monitoring environment periodically and then send the data to a sink. The sink determines whether the environment is safe or not by analyzing the acquired data. Sometimes, a command or control message is sent from the sink to a particular node or a group of nodes to execute the services or request further interested data. The proposed MAC protocol enables bidirectional communication, controls active and sleep modes of a sensor node to conserve energy, and addresses the problem of load unbalancing between the nodes near a sink and the other nodes. It can improve reliability of communication significantly while extending network lifetime. These claims are supported by the experimental results.

  19. Engineering and development projects for the sustainment and enhancement of the IMS infrasound network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, J.; Martysevich, P.; Kramer, A.; Haralabus, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in infrasound source localization and characterization. This capability is based on the processing of data recorded by the infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This infrasound network consists of sixty stations, among which forty-five are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. It is the responsibility of the Engineering and Development Section of the IMS Division to ensure the highest quality for IMS infrasound data. This includes the design of robust and reliable infrasound stations, the use of accurate and calibrated infrasound measuring chains, the installation of efficient wind noise reduction systems and the implementation of quality-control tools. The purpose of this paper is to present ongoing PTS infrasound engineering and development projects related to the testing and validation of wind noise reduction system models, the implementation of infrasound data QC tools, the definition of guidelines for the design of IMS power supply systems and the development of a portable infrasound calibrator and of field kits for site survey and certification.

  20. Building beyond the Evaluation Of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development in African Schools and Communities: The Women Global Green Action Network (WGGAN) Africa Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Community Health Education and School Sanitation (CHESS) Project, an initiative by the Women Global Green Action Network International to support community-based environmental projects in Africa. The CHESS Project uses women, children and youth to develop more sustainable health and sanitation systems in urban and rural…

  1. Network Governance for Sustainable Development. A case study of the Swedish Energy Agency's Sustainable Municipality Programme 2003 - 2007; Den globala politikens lokala foerverkligande. En fallstudie av Energimyndighetens program Uthaallig kommun 2003-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Astrid (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Dept. of Business Administration and Social Sciences)

    2008-01-15

    The view of networks has changed within the field of policy studies. Once they were considered as hampering the policy process, but today they are accepted as a legitimate policy instrument. The Swedish Government, for instance, makes use of networks to steer society. One attempt to do so is the Sustainable Municipality Programme launched by the Swedish Energy Agency in 2003. Five municipalities where selected to participate in this collaborative process to further sustainable energy policies. This thesis explores the potential of network governance theory as a model for describing policy making. A case study addressing three questions was conducted. Firstly, can the Sustainable Municipality Programme be described within the framework of network governance theory? Secondly, is this governance network successful in its struggle to achieve its goals? Thirdly, can this example of network governance further a discussion exploring a scenario where inter-municipality network governance might pose a challenge to the principle of local government? The first and second question is answered by focusing on four functions that the governance network should fulfil; to give priority to projects; to mobilize resources, to complete projects and, to evaluate the process. In order to answer the first question the case study focuses on the interaction within the governance network. Is the process organised in a fashion recognisable as network governance, as an ideal type of coordination? The analysis shows that network governance theory provides an analytic framework well suited to shed light on the process. The analysis also shows that the three first functions were achieved. Through negotiations the network gave priority to different projects. The thesis focuses on three of these. The first project includes the education of maintenance personnel. The second is a research project, investigating different actors' possibilities to plan for a more sustainable use of energy. The

  2. MicroRNA delivery for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W

    2015-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages and disadvantages. A number of studies have demonstrated success in augmenting osteogenesis, improving cardiogenesis, and reducing fibrosis among many other tissue engineering applications. A scaffold-based approach with the possibility of local and sustained delivery of miRNA is particularly attractive since the physical cues provided by the scaffold may synergize with the biochemical cues induced by miRNA therapy. Herein, we first briefly cover the application of miRNA to direct stem cell fate via replacement and inhibition therapies, followed by the discussion of the promising viral and nonviral delivery systems. Next we present the unique advantages of a scaffold-based delivery in achieving lineage-specific differentiation and tissue development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the coordination of integrated health service delivery networks by the primary health care: COPAS questionnaire validation in the Brazilian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Goyatá, Sueli Leiko Takamatsu; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Yamamura, Mellina; Deon, Keila Christiane; Lapão, Luis Miguel Veles; Santos Neto, Marcelino; Uchoa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2015-07-22

    Health systems organized as networks and coordinated by the Primary Health Care (PHC) may contribute to the improvement of clinical care, sanitary conditions, satisfaction of patients and reduction of local budget expenditures. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate a questionnaire - COPAS - to assess the coordination of Integrated Health Service Delivery Networks by the Primary Health Care. A cross sectional approach was used. The population was pooled from Family Health Strategy healthcare professionals, of the Alfenas region (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Data collection was performed from August to October 2013. The results were checked for the presence of floor and ceiling effects and the internal consistency measured through Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was verified through convergent and discriminant values following Multitrait-Multimethod (MTMM) analysis. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory; as was the convergent validity, with a few correlations lower then 0.30. The discriminant validity values of the majority of items, with respect to their own dimension, were found to be higher or significantly higher than their correlations with the dimensions to which they did not belong. The results showed that the COPAS instrument has satisfactory initial psychometric properties and may be used by healthcare managers and workers to assess the PHC coordination performance within the Integrated Health Service Delivery Network.

  4. A sustained increase in plasma NEFA upregulates the Toll-like receptor network in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Sophie E; Lum, Helen; Alvarez, Andrea; Cipriani, Yolanda; Garduño-Garcia, Jesús; Anaya, Luis; Dube, John; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-sensitive tissues (muscle, liver) of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are in a state of low-grade inflammation, characterised by increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and TLR-driven signalling. However, the cause of this mild inflammatory state is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a prolonged mild increase in plasma NEFA will increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (nuclear factor κB [NFκB] and mitogen-activated kinase [MAPK]) and impair insulin action in muscle of lean healthy individuals. Twelve lean, normal-glucose-tolerant participants were randomised to receive a 48 h infusion (30 ml/h) of saline or Intralipid followed by a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and during the clamp. Lipid infusion impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01). The elevation in circulating NEFA increased expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR5, and several MAPK (MAPK8, MAP4K4, MAP2K3) and inhibitor of κB kinase-NFκB (CHUK [IKKA], c-REL [REL] and p65 [RELA, NFKB3, p65]) signalling genes (p < 0.05). The lipid infusion also increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce the content of inhibitor of kappa Bα (p = 0.09). The muscle content of most diacylglycerol, ceramide and acylcarnitine species was unaffected. In summary, insulin resistance induced by prolonged low-dose lipid infusion occurs together with increased TLR-driven inflammatory signalling and impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. A sustained, mild elevation in plasma NEFA is sufficient to increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (NFκB and MAPK) in lean individuals. The activation of this pathway by NEFA may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01740817.

  5. The Kuwait-Scotland eHealth Innovation Network (KSeHIN): a sustainable approach to quality improvement in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, N T; Wotayan, R Al; Alkuzam, A; Al-Refaei, F F; Badawi, D; Barake, R; Bell, A; Boyle, G; Chisholm, S; Connell, J; Emslie-Smith, A; Goddard, C A; Greene, S A; Halawa, N; Judson, A; Kelly, C; Ker, J; Scott, M; Shaltout, A; Sukkar, F; Wake, D; Morris, A; Sibbald, D; Behbehani, K

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Kuwait represents a significant challenge for the country's healthcare system. Diabetes care in Scotland has improved by adopting a system of managed clinical networks supported by a national informatics platform. In 2010, a Kuwait-Dundee collaboration was established with a view to transforming diabetes care in Kuwait. This paper describes the significant progress that has been made to date. The Kuwait-Scotland eHealth Innovation Network (KSeHIN) is a partnership among health, education, industry and government. KSeHIN aims to deliver a package of clinical service development, education (including a formal postgraduate programme and continuing professional development) and research underpinned by a comprehensive informatics system. The informatics system includes a disease registry for children and adults with diabetes. At the patient level, the system provides an overview of clinical and operational data. At the population level, users view key performance indicators based on national standards of diabetes care established by KSeHIN. The national childhood registry (CODeR) accumulates approximately 300 children a year. The adult registry (KHN), implemented in four primary healthcare centres in 2013, has approximately 4000 registered patients, most of whom are not yet meeting national clinical targets. A credit-bearing postgraduate educational programme provides module-based teaching and workplace-based projects. In addition, a new clinical skills centre provides simulator-based training. Over 150 masters students from throughout Kuwait are enrolled and over 400 work-based projects have been completed to date. KSeHIN represents a successful collaboration between multiple stakeholders working across traditional boundaries. It is targeting patient outcomes, system performance and professional development to provide a sustainable transformation in the quality of diabetes healthcare for the growing population of

  6. Agroecology to Promote Just Sustainability Transitions: Analysis of a Civil Society Network in the Rwenzori Region, Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Isgren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology is gaining ground within the debate on how to address systemic social and environmental problems in agriculture. However, it remains marginalized in agricultural research and development plans around the world. This paper analyzes agroecology as a socio-technical niche in Uganda, where its emergence in part can be seen as an unintended consequence of neoliberalist development. The case studied is a civil society network that links farmer groups and non-governmental organizations across different levels. Through the analytical lens of regime dimensions, we find that agroecology is practiced as a smallholder-centric approach that champions collective action, locally appropriate technologies, participatory methods in research and extension, and calls for more active state guidance of agricultural change along specific principles. However, two major concerns are raised; the niche converges with the dominant discourse around commercialization, and policy advocacy is hampered by the apolitical history of NGOs and an increasingly tense political climate. These two areas are critical for agroecology to contribute to just sustainability transitions, and civil society organizations with strong links to smallholder farmers need to be included in the growing scholarly debate both to inform it and to receive guidance from it. Transition frameworks can help facilitate the development of viable institutional designs and explicitly transformative strategies, but we also point towards the need for engagement with theories on civil society collective action and political mobilization.

  7. Macro-perspective on the first decade of South African housing delivery and its contribution towards the formation of sustainable settlements and communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available to the developmental challenges of municipalities Graham Tate – Manager: Information and Technology Services, DBSA..............................126 CIDB Infrastructure Delivery Management Toolkit Dean Barnes – Programme and Project Manager: Construction Industry...

  8. Understanding Process in Group-Based Intervention Delivery: Social Network Analysis and Intra-entity Variability Methods as Windows into the "Black Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy Elreda, Lauren; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gest, Scott D; Ram, Nilam; Bamberger, Katharine

    2016-11-01

    Although the majority of evidence-based programs are designed for group delivery, group process and its role in participant outcomes have received little empirical attention. Data were collected from 20 groups of participants (94 early adolescents, 120 parents) enrolled in an efficacy trial of a mindfulness-based adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program (MSFP). Following each weekly session, participants reported on their relations to group members. Social network analysis and methods sensitive to intraindividual variability were integrated to examine weekly covariation between group process and participant progress, and to predict post-intervention outcomes from levels and changes in group process. Results demonstrate hypothesized links between network indices of group process and intervention outcomes and highlight the value of this unique analytic approach to studying intervention group process.

  9. Evaluating strategies for sustainable intensification of U.S. agriculture through the Long-Term Agroecosystem Research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable intensification is an emerging model for agriculture designed to reconcile accelerating global demand for agricultural products with long-term environmental stewardship. Defined here as increasing agricultural production while maintaining or improving environmental quality, sustainable i...

  10. A Survivable Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network with Both Point-to-Point Service and Broadcast Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuejiao; Gan, Chaoqin; Deng, Shiqi; Huang, Yan

    2011-11-01

    A survivable wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network enabling both point-to-point service and broadcast service is presented and demonstrated. This architecture provides an automatic traffic recovery against feeder and distribution fiber link failure, respectively. In addition, it also simplifies the protection design for multiple services transmission in wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks.

  11. Shared and disorder-specific task-positive and default mode network dysfunctions during sustained attention in paediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obsessive/compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Norman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load. Performance and brain activation were compared between groups. Only ADHD patients were impaired in performance. Group by sustained attention load interaction effects showed that OCD patients had disorder-specific middle anterior cingulate underactivation relative to controls and ADHD patients, while ADHD patients showed disorder-specific underactivation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. ADHD and OCD patients shared left insula/ventral IFG underactivation and increased activation in posterior default mode network relative to controls, but had disorder-specific overactivation in anterior default mode regions, in dorsal anterior cingulate for ADHD and in anterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex for OCD. In sum, ADHD and OCD patients showed mostly disorder-specific patterns of brain abnormalities in both task positive salience/ventral attention networks with lateral frontal deficits in ADHD and middle ACC deficits in OCD, as well as in their deactivation patterns in medial frontal DMN regions. The findings suggest that attention performance in the two disorders is underpinned by disorder-specific activation patterns.

  12. Assay of 6-gingerol in CO2 supercritical fluid extracts of ginger and evaluation of its sustained release from a transdermal delivery system across rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-07-01

    Ginger has been widely used as healthy food condiment as well as traditional Chinese medicine since antiquity. Multiple potentials of ginger for treatment of various ailments have been revealed. However, the biological half-life of 6-gingerol (a principal pungent ingredient of ginger) is only 7.23 minutes while taken orally. Delivery of ginger compositions by routes other than oral have scarcely been reported. Therefore, we studied a noninvasive transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of ginger to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism, avoid gastrointestinal degradation and achieve long persistent release of effective compositions. After establishment of a HPLC analysis method of 6-gingerol, assays of 6-gingerol were performed to compare two kinds of ginger extracts. Then, the characteristics of transdermal delivery of 6-gingerol in TDDS were exhibited. The results showed that the contents of 6-gingerol in two kinds of ginger extracts were significantly different. The maximal delivery percentage of 6-gingerol across rat skin at 20 h was more than 40% in different TDDS formulations. TDDS may provide long-lasting delivery of ginger compounds.

  13. Effect of subsequent vaginal delivery on bowel symptoms and anorectal function in women who sustained a previous obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Polly A; Naidu, Madhu; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2018-03-29

    Our primary objective was to prospectively evaluate anorectal symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) in women who followed the recommended mode of subsequent delivery following index obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) using our unit's standardised protocol. Our secondary objectives were to evaluate the role of internal anal sphincter defects and also to compare outcomes in a subgroup of symptomatic women with normal anorectal physiology. This is a prospective follow-up study of pregnant women with previous OASIs who were counselled regarding subsequent mode of delivery between January 2003 and December 2014. Assessment involved the St Mark's Incontinence Score (SMIS), anal manometry and EAUS at both antepartum and 3-month postpartum visits. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests. Three hundred and fifty women attended the perineal clinic over the study period, of whom 122 met the inclusion criteria (99 vaginal delivery [VD], 23 caesarean section). No significant worsening of anorectal symptoms was observed following subsequent delivery in the VD group (p = 0.896), although a reduced squeeze pressure was observed at 3 months postpartum (p delivery. In the absence of a randomised study, use of this protocol can aid clinicians in their decision-making.

  14. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  15. Multi-agent system based active distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis gives a particular vision of the future power delivery system with its main requirements. An investigation of suitable concepts and technologies which creates a road map forward the smart grid has been carried out. They should meet the requirements on sustainability, efficiency, flexibility and intelligence. The so called Active Distribution Network (ADN) is introduced as an important element of the future power delivery system. With an open architecture, the ADN is designed to in...

  16. A fully electronic intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) process implemented in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify, and delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement an electronic method to perform and analyze intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) using an aSi megavoltage electronic portal imaging device in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify (R&V), and delivery systems. A verification plan was generated in the treatment planning system using the actual treatment plan of a patient. After exporting the treatment fields to the R&V system, the fields were delivered in QA mode with the aSi imager deployed. The resulting dosimetric images are automatically stored in a DICOM-RT format in the delivery system treatment console computer. The relative dose density images are subsequently pushed to the R&V system. The absolute dose images are then transferred electronically from the treatment console computer to the treatment planning system and imported into the verification plan in the dosimetry work space for further analysis. Screen shots of the gamma evaluation and isodose comparison are imported into the R&V system as an electronic file (e.g. PDF) to be reviewed prior to initiation of patient treatment. A relative dose image predicted by the treatment planning system can also be sent to the R&V system to be compared with the relative dose density image measured with the aSi imager. Our department does not have integrated planning, R&V, and delivery systems. In spite of this, we are able to fully implement a paperless and filmless IMRT QA process, allowing subsequent analysis and approval to be more efficient, while the QA document is directly attached to its specific patient chart in the R&V system in electronic form. The calculated and measured relative dose images can be compared electronically within the R&V system to analyze the density differences and ensure proper dose delivery to patients. In the absence of an integrated planning, verifying, and delivery system, we have shown that it is nevertheless possible to develop a

  17. Primary health care service delivery networks for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: using social network methods to describe interorganisational collaboration in a rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Julie; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Harris, Mark Fort

    2011-01-01

    Adults with type 2 diabetes or with behavioural risk factors require comprehensive and well coordinated responses from a range of health care providers who often work in different organisational settings. This study examines three types of collaborative links between organisations involved in a rural setting. Social network methods were employed using survey data on three types of links, and data was collected from a purposive sample of 17 organisations representing the major provider types. The analysis included a mix of unconfirmed and confirmed links, and network measures. General practices were the most influential provider group in initiating referrals, and they referred to the broadest range of organisations in the network. Team care arrangements formed a small part of the general practice referral network. They were used more for access to private sector allied health care providers and less for sharing care with public sector health services. Involvement in joint programs/activities was limited to public and non-government sector services, with no participation from the private sector. The patterns of interactions suggest that informal referral networks provide access to services and coordination of care for individual patients with diabetes. Two population subgroups would benefit from more proactive approaches to ensure equitable access to services and coordination of care across organisational boundaries: people with more complex health care needs and people at risk of developing diabetes.

  18. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  19. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) Cross Linked Polymeric Network for the Delivery of Analgesic Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Ahmad, M.; Minhas, M. U.; Aamir, M. F.; Sohail, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the study was to synthesize a chemically cross-linked poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel (p(HEMA-co-MAA hydrogel)) for pH-responsive, controlled drug delivery of Flurbiprofen. pH-sensitive hydrogel drug delivery system was synthesized with the help of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) by using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker. The monomers (HEMA and MAA) were successfully cross linked through free radical polymerization process, initiated by benzoyl peroxide in an aqueous medium. All formulations were loaded with Flurbiprofen as a model drug and evaluated at pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 to investigate pH-responsive nature of the system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to confirm the cross-linking of copolymer while thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the system. Swelling studies and in-vitro release studies were carried out to evaluate pH-responsive nature of the hydrogels. FTIR confirmed that monomers were successfully cross-linked to form a copolymer. Hydrogel system showed less swelling at lower pH while at higher pH, it showed higher swelling, releasing drug in the same fashion. It was concluded that a stable hydrogel network was chemically cross-linked showing pH-responsive nature and thus, synthesized p(HEMA-co-MAA) hydrogels can be successfully employed as potential candidate for controlled drug delivery. (author)

  1. From public to private and back again: sustaining a high service-delivery level during transition of management authority: a Cambodia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bart; Thomé, Jean-Marc; Overtoom, Rob; Sam, Sam Oeun; Indermühle, Lorenz; Price, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Contracting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has been shown to increase health service delivery output considerably over relatively short time frames in low-income countries, especially when applying performance-related pay as a stimulus. A key concern is how to manage the transition back to government-operated systems while maintaining health service delivery output levels. In this paper we describe and analyse the transition from NGO-managed to government-managed health services over a 3-year period in a health district in Cambodia with a focus on the level of health service delivery. Data are derived from four sources, including cross-sectional surveys and health management and financial information systems. The transition was achieved by focusing on all the building blocks of the health care system and ensuring an acceptable financial remuneration for the staff members of contracted health facilities. The latter was attained through performance subsidies derived from financial commitment by the central government, and revenue from user fees. Performance management had a crucial role in the gradual handover of responsibilities. Not all responsibilities were handed back to government over the case study period-notably the development of performance indicators and targets and the performance monitoring.

  2. What A Long Strange Trip It's Been: Lessons Learned From NASA EOS, LTER, NEON, CZO And On To The Future With Sustainable Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    The traditional, small-scale, incremental approach to environmental science is changing as researchers embrace a more integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to understanding how our natural systems work today and how they may respond in the future to forcings such as climate change. In situ networks are evolving in response to these challenges so as to provide the appropriate measurements to develop high-resolution spatial and temporal data sets across a wide range of platforms from microbial measurements to remote sensing. These large programs provide a unique set of challenges when compared to more traditional programs. Here I provide insights learned from my participation in a number of large programs, including NASA EOS, LTER, CZO, NEON, and WSC and how those experiences in environmental science can help us move forward towards more applied applications of environmental science, including sustainability initiatives. I'll chat about the importance of managerial and management skills, which most of us scientists prefer to avoid. I'll also chat about making decisions about what long-term measurements to make and when to stop. Data management is still the weakest part of environmental networks; what needs to be done. We have learned that these networks provide an important knowledge base that can lead to informed decisions leading to environmental, energy, social and cultural sustainability.

  3. Utilizing a vast and complex wireless communication network in a sustainable biosystem for the production of fiber for use in bioenergy, paper and solid wood production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, N. [GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm, Boardman, OR (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a tree farm in eastern Oregon that using a sophisticated communication system to irrigate and chemigate the trees. The GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm (GWR BTF) covers about 100 km{sup 2}. A wireless network of 134 radio modems supports the irrigation and chemigation on 1,930 hectares of very high-value agriculture crops, including organic crops. This large network comprises 2 totally independent licensed wireless networks using a combination of Standard and High-Power industrial strength radio modems. One of the most advanced and sophisticated Irrigation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (I-SCADA) systems in the world uses this dual wireless network to operate the worlds largest contiguous drip irrigated farm and also the largest Tree Farm in US. This I-SCADA system has more than 2,800 sensors that remotely monitor a massive irrigation system of 19 individual pump stations with 100 pumps, 46 center pivots, 369 individual blocks of fields, 850 kilometers of buried pipe and 31,000 kilometres of drip line. The reliability of the I-SCADA system and wireless network has enabled BTF to sustain its position as a world leader in large scale drip irrigation efficiency.

  4. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  5. Clinical social networking--a new revolution in provider communication and delivery of clinical information across providers of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolowitz, Brian J; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Venturella, James; Georgiev, Veliyan; Barone, Michael; Deible, Christopher; Shrestha, Rasu

    2014-04-01

    The adoption of social media technologies appears to enhance clinical outcomes through improved communications as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). The ability of providers to more effectively, directly, and rapidly communicate among themselves as well as with patients should strengthen collaboration and treatment as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). This paper is a case study in one organization's development of an internally designed and developed social technology solution termed "Unite." The Unite system combines social technologies' features including push notifications, messaging, community groups, and user lists with clinical workflow and applications to construct dynamic provider networks, simplify communications, and facilitate clinical workflow optimization. Modeling Unite as a social technology may ease adoption barriers. Developing a social network that is integrated with healthcare information systems in the clinical space opens the doors to capturing and studying the way in which providers communicate. The Unite system appears to have the potential to breaking down existing communication paradigms. With Unite, a rich set of usage data tied to clinical events may unravel alternative networks that can be leveraged to advance patient care.

  6. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: analysing the contextual and social network factors influencing the use of sustainability indicators in a health system--a comparative study in Nepal and Somaliland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Palmer, Jennifer; Palanchowke, Raju; Boggs, Dorothy; Jama, Ali; Girois, Susan

    2014-08-26

    Health systems strengthening is becoming a key component of development agendas for low-income countries worldwide. Systems thinking emphasizes the role of diverse stakeholders in designing solutions to system problems, including sustainability. The objective of this paper is to compare the definition and use of sustainability indicators developed through the Sustainability Analysis Process in two rehabilitation sectors, one in Nepal and one in Somaliland, and analyse the contextual factors (including the characteristics of system stakeholder networks) influencing the use of sustainability data. Using the Sustainability Analysis Process, participants collectively clarified the boundaries of their respective systems, defined sustainability, and identified sustainability indicators. Baseline indicator data was gathered, where possible, and then researched again 2 years later. As part of the exercise, system stakeholder networks were mapped at baseline and at the 2-year follow-up. We compared stakeholder networks and interrelationships with baseline and 2-year progress toward self-defined sustainability goals. Using in-depth interviews and observations, additional contextual factors affecting the use of sustainability data were identified. Differences in the selection of sustainability indicators selected by local stakeholders from Nepal and Somaliland reflected differences in the governance and structure of the present rehabilitation system. At 2 years, differences in the structure of social networks were more marked. In Nepal, the system stakeholder network had become more dense and decentralized. Financial support by an international organization facilitated advancement toward self-identified sustainability goals. In Somaliland, the small, centralised stakeholder network suffered a critical rupture between the system's two main information brokers due to competing priorities and withdrawal of international support to one of these. Progress toward self

  7. Ensuring Support for Research and Quality Improvement (QI) Networks: Four Pillars of Sustainability?An Emerging Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holve, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional research and quality improvement (QI) projects using electronic clinical data (ECD) hold great promise for improving quality of care and patient outcomes but typically require significant infrastructure investments both to initiate and maintain the project over its duration. Consequently, it is important for these projects to think holistically about sustainability to ensure their long-term success. Four ?pillars? of sustainability are discussed based on the experiences of...

  8. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  9. Efficient data replication for the delivery of high-quality video content over P2P VoD advertising networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chien-Peng; Yu, Jen-Yu; Lee, Suh-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in modern television systems have had profound consequences for the scalability, stability, and quality of transmitted digital data signals. This is of particular significance for peer-to-peer (P2P) video-on-demand (VoD) related platforms, faced with an immediate and growing demand for reliable service delivery. In response to demands for high-quality video, the key objectives in the construction of the proposed framework were user satisfaction with perceived video quality and the effective utilization of available resources on P2P VoD networks. This study developed a peer-based promoter to support online advertising in P2P VoD networks based on an estimation of video distortion prior to the replication of data stream chunks. The proposed technology enables the recovery of lost video using replicated stream chunks in real time. Load balance is achieved by adjusting the replication level of each candidate group according to the degree-of-distortion, thereby enabling a significant reduction in server load and increased scalability in the P2P VoD system. This approach also promotes the use of advertising as an efficient tool for commercial promotion. Results indicate that the proposed system efficiently satisfies the given fault tolerances.

  10. Policy and Regulatory Roadmaps for the Integration of Distributed Generation and the Development of Sustainable Electricity Networks. Final Report of the SUSTELNET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-08-01

    The SUSTELNET project has been created to identify criteria for a regulatory framework for future electricity markets and network structures that create a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation and facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources (RES). Furthermore, the objective of the project was to develop regulatory roadmaps for the transition to a sustainable electricity market and network structure. This report summarizes the results of the project. These results consist of: criteria, guidelines and rationales for a future electricity policy and regulatory framework, an outline for the development of regulatory roadmaps and nine national regulatory roadmaps (for Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia), recommendations for a European regulatory policy on distributed generation and a benchmark study of current Member States policies towards distributed generation

  11. Integrated clinical and quality improvement coaching in Son La Province, Vietnam: a model of building public sector capacity for sustainable HIV care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimi, Lisa A; Dam, Huong V; Nguyen, Thai Q; Ho, Huyen T; Do, Phuong T; Duc, Duat N; Nguyen, Huong T; Gardner, Bridget; Libman, Howard; Pollack, Todd; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2015-07-17

    The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy included extensive training and onsite support to build the capacity of HIV health care workers. However, traditional efforts aimed at strengthening knowledge and skills often are not successful at improving gaps in the key health systems required for sustaining high quality care. We trained and mentored existing staff of the Son La provincial health department and provincial HIV clinic to work as a provincial coaching team (PCT) to provide integrated coaching in clinical HIV skills and quality improvement (QI) to the HIV clinics in the province. Nine core indicators were measured through chart extraction by clinic and provincial staff at baseline and at 6 month intervals thereafter. Coaching from the team to each of the clinics, in both QI and clinical skills, was guided by results of performance measurements, gap analyses, and resulting QI plans. After 18 months, the PCT had successfully spread QI activities, and was independently providing regular coaching to the provincial general hospital clinic and six of the eight district clinics in the province. The frequency and type of coaching was determined by performance measurement results. Clinics completed a mean of five QI projects. Quality of HIV care was improved throughout all clinics with significant increases in seven of the indicators. Overall both the PCT activities and clinic performance were sustained after integration of the model into the Vietnam National QI Program. We successfully built capacity of a team of public sector health care workers to provide integrated coaching in both clinical skills and QI across a province. The PCT is a feasible and effective model to spread and sustain quality activities and improve HIV care services in a decentralized rural setting.

  12. Sustainable Innovation in Network-Bound Systems: Implications for the Consumption of Water, Waste Water and Electricity Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Network-bound systems are crucial in environmental governance as the usage of their services embody significant environmental impacts. Conditions for network-bound systems providing services to consumers have altered dramatically over the last decades. Liberalization and privatization have led to a

  13. Ninety-five orthotopic transplantations in 74 women of ovarian tissue after cytotoxic treatment in a fertility preservation network: tissue activity, pregnancy and delivery rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Ven, H; Liebenthron, J; Beckmann, M; Toth, B; Korell, M; Krüssel, J; Frambach, T; Kupka, M; Hohl, M K; Winkler-Crepaz, K; Seitz, S; Dogan, A; Griesinger, G; Häberlin, F; Henes, M; Schwab, R; Sütterlin, M; von Wolff, M; Dittrich, R

    2016-09-01

    What is the success rate in terms of ovarian activity (menstrual cycles) as well as pregnancy and delivery rates 1 year after orthotopic ovarian transplantations conducted in a three-country network? In 49 women with a follow-up >1 year after transplantation, the ovaries were active in 67% of cases and the pregnancy and delivery rates were 33 and 25%, respectively. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue in advance of cytotoxic therapies and later transplantation of the tissue is being performed increasingly often, and the total success rates in terms of pregnancy and delivery have been described in case series. However, published case series have not allowed either a more detailed analysis of patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or calculation of success rates based on the parameter 'tissue activity'. Retrospective analysis of 95 orthotopic transplantations in 74 patients who had been treated for cancer, performed in the FertiPROTEKT network from 2008 to June 2015. Of those 95 transplantations, a first subgroup (Subgroup 1) was defined for further analysis, including 49 women with a follow-up period >1 year after transplantation. Of those 49 women, a second subgroup (Subgroup 5) was further analysed, including 40 women who were transplanted for the first time and who were diagnosed with POI before transplantation. Transplantation was performed in 16 centres and data were transferred to the FertiPROTEKT registry. The transplantations were carried out after oncological treatment had been completed and after a remission period of at least 2 years. Tissue was transplanted orthotopically, either into or onto the residual ovaries or into a pelvic peritoneal pocket. The success rates were defined as tissue activity (menstrual cycles) after 1 year (primary outcome) and as pregnancies and deliveries achieved. The average age of all transplanted 74 women was 31 ± 5.9 years at the time of cryopreservation and 35 ± 5.2 at the time of transplantation. Twenty

  14. The Traffic Light Cosmos: Quasi-ethnographic approach to sustainable urban relational from the Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts are the same as lists: One notices right away when something is missing. I warn the reader that the text I present here wants to capture the overall sense, but she knows that here and there gaps and simplifications are unavoidable and make this task difficult. The reader is aware of it not only because it is any abstract’s destiny, but because a map which is the same size as the territory represented does not go anywhere. It has to necessarily be something else than the territory. Thus, this abstract is something other than the thesis to which it refers. In this text that follows I will discuss the platform where I deployed the instances that shaped my research. Secondly, I will refer to two of the several counter-intuitions that populate my thesis in relation to my view on the issue of sustainability, namely, to patience and perseverance in the sustainable future I oppose the presentist impatience of the sustainable instant and, at the end of this section, I will briefly discuss relational urban sustainability, specifically, the normative framework or, if you will, the vindication of control as an instance for sustainability. Third, I will offer some conclusions of my work.

  15. Sustained ocular delivery of Dorzolamide-HCl via proniosomal gel formulation: in-vitro characterization, statistical optimization, and in-vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Nagwa Hussein; Abdelrehim, Randa Tag; Hegazy, Doaa Abdelmagid; Habib, Basant Ahmed

    2018-11-01

    Glaucoma is the second cause of blindness worldwide. Frequent administration of traditional topical dosage forms may lead to patient incompliance and failure of treatment. Our study aims to formulate proniosomal gel formulations that sustain the release of the water-soluble anti-glaucoma drug Dorzolamide-HCl (Dorz). Proniosomal gel formulations were prepared using coacervation phase separation method according to a 5 2 full factorial design. The effects of Cholesterol and surfactant (Span 40) amounts (independent variables) on the percentage entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size (PS), and the percent of drug released after 8 h (Q8h) (dependent variables (DVs)) were investigated. An optimized formulation (OF) was chosen based on maximizing EE% and Q8h and minimizing PS. An intraocular pressure (IOP) pharmacodynamic study was performed in rabbits to evaluate the in-vivo performance of the OF-gel compared to the marketed Trusopt ® eye drops. The results showed that the independent variables studied significantly affected EE%, PS, and Q8h. OF was the one containing 60 mg Cholesterol and 540 mg Span 40. It had desirability of 0.885 and its actually measured DVs deviated from the predicted ones by a maximum of 4.8%. The in-vivo pharmacodynamic study showed that OF could result in higher reduction in IOP, significantly sustain that reduction in IOP and increase Dorz bioavailability compared to Trusopt ® eye drops. Thus the OF-gel is very promising for being used in glaucoma treatment.

  16. Data Delivery Latency Improvements And First Steps Towards The Distributed Computing Of The Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network Earthquake Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubailo, I.; Watkins, M.; Devora, A.; Bhadha, R. J.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    The USGS/Caltech Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) is a modern digital ground motion seismic network. It develops and maintains Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) data collection and delivery systems in southern California as well as real-time EEW algorithms. Recently, Behr et al., SRL, 2016 analyzed data from several regional seismic networks deployed around the globe. They showed that the SCSN was the network with the smallest data communication delays or latency. Since then, we have reduced further the telemetry delays for many of the 330 current sites. The latency has been reduced on average from 2-6 sec to 0.4 seconds by tuning the datalogger parameters and/or deploying software upgrades. Recognizing the latency data as one of the crucial parameters in EEW, we have started archiving the per-packet latencies in mseed format for all the participating sites in a similar way it is traditionally done for the seismic waveform data. The archived latency values enable us to understand and document long-term changes in performance of the telemetry links. We can also retroactively investigate how latent the waveform data were during a specific event or during a specific time period. In addition the near-real time latency values are useful for monitoring and displaying the real-time station latency, in particular to compare different telemetry technologies. A future step to reduce the latency is to deploy the algorithms on the dataloggers at the seismic stations and transmit either the final solutions or intermediate parameters to a central processing center. To implement this approach, we are developing a stand-alone version of the OnSite algorithm to run on the dataloggers in the field. This will increase the resiliency of the SCSN to potential telemetry restrictions in the immediate aftermath of a large earthquake, either by allowing local alarming by the single station, or permitting transmission of lightweight parametric information rather than continuous

  17. Sustainable Innovation in Network-Bound Systems: Implications for the Consumption of Water, Waste Water and Electricity Services

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Network-bound systems are crucial in environmental governance as the usage of their services embody significant environmental impacts. Conditions for network-bound systems providing services to consumers have altered dramatically over the last decades. Liberalization and privatization have led to a differentiation in providers, technologies, products and services, very a-typical for sectors that were formerly characterized by public and uniform modes of provision and consumption. The paper gi...

  18. Integrating evidence into policy and sustainable disability services delivery in western New South Wales, Australia: the 'wobbly hub and double spokes' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Craig; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Gallego, Gisselle; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Brentnall, Jennie; Griffiths, Scott

    2012-03-21

    Policy that supports rural allied health service delivery is important given the shortage of services outside of Australian metropolitan centres. The shortage of allied health professionals means that rural clinicians work long hours and have little peer or service support. Service delivery to rural and remote communities is further complicated because relatively small numbers of clients are dispersed over large geographic areas. The aim of this five-year multi-stage project is to generate evidence to confirm and develop evidence-based policies and to evaluate their implementation in procedures that allow a regional allied health workforce to more expeditiously respond to disability service need in regional New South Wales, Australia. The project consists of four inter-related stages that together constitute a full policy cycle. It uses mixed quantitative and qualitative methods, guided by key policy concerns such as: access, complexity, cost, distribution of benefits, timeliness, effectiveness, equity, policy consistency, and community and political acceptability. Stage 1 adopts a policy analysis approach in which existing relevant policies and related documentation will be collected and reviewed. Policy-makers and senior managers within the region and in central offices will be interviewed about issues that influence policy development and implementation. Stage 2 uses a mixed methods approach to collecting information from allied health professionals, clients, and carers. Focus groups and interviews will explore issues related to providing and receiving allied health services. Discrete Choice Experiments will elicit staff and client/carer preferences. Stage 3 synthesises Stage 1 and 2 findings with reference to the key policy issues to develop and implement policies and procedures to establish several innovative regional workforce and service provision projects. Stage 4 uses mixed methods to monitor and evaluate the implementation and impact of new or adapted

  19. How transformational learning promotes caring, consultation and creativity, and ultimately contributes to sustainable development: Lessons from the Partnership for Education and Research about Responsible Living (PERL) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Victoria Wyszynski

    2017-12-01

    Oases of learning which are transformative and lead to significant behavioural change can be found around the globe. Transformational learning has helped learners not only to understand what they have been taught but also to re-conceptualise and re-apply this understanding to their daily lives. Unfortunately, as many global reports indicate, inspirational transformational learning approaches for sustainable development are rare and have yet to become the norm - despite calls for such approaches by several outstanding educators and organisations. This article examines three learning approaches developed by the network of the Partnership for Education and Research about Responsible Living (PERL). These approaches are structured around core elements of transformative learning for sustainable development, yet focus particularly on the ability to care, consult with others and be creative. They seem to depend on the learners' ability to articulate their perceptions of sustainable development in relation to their own values and to identify how these are actualised in their daily life. Together with other core elements of transformative learning, an almost magical (not precisely measurable) synergy then emerges. The intensity of this synergy appears to be directly related to the individual learner's understanding of the contradictions, interlinkages and interdependencies of modern society. The impact of this synergy seems to be concurrent with the extent to which the learner engages in a continual learning process with those with whom he/she has contact. The findings of this study suggest that mainstreaming transformational learning for sustainable development in ways that release the "magic synergy of creative caring" can result in the emergence of individuals who are willing and able to move from "business as usual" towards more socially just, economically equitable, and environmentally sensitive behaviour.

  20. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  1. Education and energy sustainability: Ten-year contribution of UNESCO Chair TU Sofia and REgional Network Engineering for Development (RENED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchaud, S.

    2006-01-01

    The United Nations Organization (UNO) implemented and supported all the recommendations and conclusions of the World Summit on the Earth State and more recently on Sustainable Development. Since 1952, UNESCO has received the tasks to develop studies and training on Education and Energy Sustainability. The UNESCO Chair 'Engineering for Development' established at the Technical University of Sofia (Bulgaria) in 1994 contributed from the beginning to these tasks. This paper will summarise the activities developed and the results reached as well some proposals of improvements in the near future. After some historical data about the Tempus-Tacis project and how Uchinsa has been involved as partner institution, the paper describes the actions promoted by Uchinsa and the first results achieved. Some first conclusions and recommendations and the next steps to be made by Uchinsa and the Ukrainian partners institutions to continue the cooperation even after the end of this project, are proposed. (author)

  2. In Vitro Sustained Release Study of Gallic Acid Coated with Magnetite-PEG and Magnetite-PVA for Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Bin Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of two nanocarriers polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol magnetic nanoparticles coated with gallic acid (GA) was accomplished via X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis, and TEM. X-ray diffraction and TEM results showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were pure iron oxide having spherical shape with the average diameter of 9 nm, compared with 31 nm and 35 nm after coating with polyethylene glycol-GA (FPEGG) and polyvinyl alcohol-GA (FPVAG), respectively. Thermogravimetric analyses proved that after coating the thermal stability was markedly enhanced. Magnetic measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) revealed that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles could be successfully coated with two polymers (PEG and PVA) and gallic acid as an active drug. Release behavior of gallic acid from two nanocomposites showed that FPEGG and FPVAG nanocomposites were found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Anticancer activity of the two nanocomposites shows that the FPEGG demonstrated higher anticancer effect on the breast cancer cell lines in almost all concentrations tested compared to FPVAG. PMID:24737969

  3. In Vitro Sustained Release Study of Gallic Acid Coated with Magnetite-PEG and Magnetite-PVA for Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Dorniani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two nanocarriers polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol magnetic nanoparticles coated with gallic acid (GA was accomplished via X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis, and TEM. X-ray diffraction and TEM results showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were pure iron oxide having spherical shape with the average diameter of 9 nm, compared with 31 nm and 35 nm after coating with polyethylene glycol-GA (FPEGG and polyvinyl alcohol-GA (FPVAG, respectively. Thermogravimetric analyses proved that after coating the thermal stability was markedly enhanced. Magnetic measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR revealed that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles could be successfully coated with two polymers (PEG and PVA and gallic acid as an active drug. Release behavior of gallic acid from two nanocomposites showed that FPEGG and FPVAG nanocomposites were found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Anticancer activity of the two nanocomposites shows that the FPEGG demonstrated higher anticancer effect on the breast cancer cell lines in almost all concentrations tested compared to FPVAG.

  4. Sustained delivery of exogenous melatonin influences biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in summer-stressed anestrous water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Narayanan, K; Das, G K; Soni, Y K; Singh, Mahak; Mahla, A S; Srivastava, N; Verma, M R

    2015-06-01

    High ambient temperature during summer in tropical and subtropical countries predisposes water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to develop oxidative stress having antigonadotropic and antisteroidogenic actions. Melatonin is a regulator of seasonal reproduction in photoperiodic species and highly effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the effect of sustained-release melatonin on biomarkers of oxidative stress i.e., the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). For the study, postpartum buffaloes diagnosed as summer anestrus (absence of overt signs of estrus, concurrent rectal examination, and RIA for serum progesterone) were grouped as treated (single subcutaneous injection of melatonin at 18 mg/50 kg body weight dissolved in sterilized corn oil as vehicle, n = 20) and untreated (subcutaneous sterilized corn oil, n = 8). Blood sampling for estimation of serum TAC and MDA (mmol/L) and NO (μmol/L) was carried out at 4 days of interval from 8 days before treatment till 28 days after treatment or for the ensuing entire cycle length. Results showed serum TAC concentration was higher in the treatment group with a significant (P stress resulting in the induction of cyclicity in summer-stressed anestrous buffaloes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incorporating pTGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles with fibronectin into 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds: Efficient, sustained gene delivery to stem cells for chondrogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare a 3-dimensional nanoparticle gene delivery system (3D-NGDS based on collagen/chitosan scaffolds, in which plasmid transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles mixed with fibronectin (FN were used to transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterise the microstructure of 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds. An analysis performed to quantify the TGF-b1 concentrations in MSC cultures revealed that the MSCs transfected with the 3D-NGDS showed remarkably high levels of TGF-b1 over long periods, retaining a concentration of TGF-b1 of approximately 10 ng/mL within two weeks, with the highest level (12.6 ng/mL being observed on the 6th day. An immunohistochemistry analysis for collagen type II revealed that much higher production of collagen II from the 9th to 15th day was observed in the 3D-NGDS-transfected MSCs than that in MSCs transfected by the Lipofectamine 2000 method. The glycosaminoglycan content of the 3D-NGDS was comparable to those treated with TGF-β1 as well as TGF-β1 plus dexamethasone, and was significantly higher than those treated with free plasmid and Lipofectamine 2000. A remarkable type I collagen expression inhibition of the 3D-NGDS at day 21 was observed via ELISA. These results suggested that transfection with the 3D-NGDS could successfully induce MSC chondrogenic differentiation in vitro without dexamethasone. In summary, the 3D-NGDS could be developed into a promising alternative method to transfer exogenous nucleic acid to MSCs in clinical trials.

  6. The Role of Social Networks in Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating adaptation into subsistence farming systems is an important strategy to reduce damages related to climate change and to protect livelihoods in developing countries. Using a dataset of 450 farm households collected from three agro-ecological zones, this study examines rural networks, assesses farm-level institutional support and documents any existing structural gaps on climate change adaptation in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. For this purpose, a social network analysis method is used. The study findings reveal that farmers reported a decrease in crop production and increase in pests and diseases due to climate change. Further, changing crop varieties, sowing dates, input mixes and planting trees are the key measures adopted by farmers. Lack of information, finances and resources are the key adaptation constraints. The study findings show that only 28% and 13% of the respondents do not have access to financial services and climate adaptation knowledge, respectively. Support to farmers mainly consists of marketing information and farm equipment from community-based organizations, while private institutions offer weather forecasting services. Public institutions are poorly represented in the network analysis. We also found that extension services are key institutions in the climate adaptation network, while agricultural credits, post-harvest services and marketing of produce were dominant but weakly connected in the financial support network. We also found that with an increase in the provision of services at the farm level, farmers not only adapt more but also move from low-cost and short-term measures to advanced measures. This study proposes an integrated framework to improve the stakeholders’ networking through different kind of partnerships and better adaptation to climate change.

  7. Production of CNT-taxol-embedded PCL microspheres using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid: as a sustained drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeol; Hwang, Ji-Young; Seo, Jae-Won; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-03-15

    We describe a one-pot method for the mass production of polymeric microspheres containing water-soluble carbon-nanotube (w-CNT)-taxol complexes using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid. Polycaprolactone (PCL), trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC; liquid state from -20 to 240°C), and taxol were used, respectively, as a model polymer, room temperature ionic liquid, and drug. Large quantities of white colored PCL powder without w-CNT-taxol complexes and gray colored PCL powders containing w-CNT-taxol (1:1 or 1:2 wt/wt) complexes were produced by phase separation between the hydrophilic TOMAC and the hydrophobic PCL. Both microsphere types had a uniform, spherical structure of average diameter 3-5μm. The amount of taxol embedded in PCL microspheres was determined by HPLC and (1)H NMR to be 8-12μg per 1.0mg of PCL (loading capacity (LC): 0.8-1.2%; entrapment efficiency (EE): 16-24%). An in vitro HPLC release assay showed sustain release of taxol without an initial burst over 60days at an average rate of 0.003-0.0073mg per day. The viability patterns of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) for PCTx-1 and -2 showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects. In the presence of PCTx-1 and -2, the MCF-7 cells showed high viability in the concentration level of, respectably, <70 and <5μg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Governance Strategies for a Sustainable Digital World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Linkov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization is changing society by the increased connectivity and networking that digital technologies enable, such as enhancing communication, services, and trade. Increasingly, policymakers within various national governments and international organizations such as the United Nations (UN and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD are examining the original sustainability policy concepts applied within the Brundtland Report of 1987 through the lens of digitalization. While the growth of a digital economy may increase productivity and benefit local and global economies, digitalization also raises potential sustainability challenges pertaining to social (i.e., the benefits or costs imposed by disruptive digital technologies upon social networks and ways of life, including threats to economic sustainability and the rise of economic disparity and environmental wellbeing (i.e., natural resource stewardship and concern for future generations driven by the automation of information processing and delivery of services. Various perspectives have been raised regarding how the process of digitalization might be governed, and national governments remain at odds regarding a single best strategy to promote sustainable digitalization using the Brundtland concept to meet the development needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations (i.e., social and environmental well-being. This paper reviews three governance strategies that countries can use in conjunction with adaptive governance to respond to digitalization sustainability threats: (i a laissez-faire, industry-driven approach; (ii a precautionary and preemptive strategy on the part of government; and (iii a stewardship and “active surveillance” approach by government agencies that reduce the risks derived from digitalization while promoting private sector innovation. Regardless of a state’s digital governance response and how it is shaped by

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT OF THE PARTNERSHIP NETWORKS IN THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Butenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the theoretical background and develops practical recommendations on green activities of partner networks. Particular attention is focused on the ability of domestic enterprises to implement eco-efficient business strategy and find the appropriate balance between making a profit, environmental conservation and social justice.

  10. Hydroxyapatite hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres: rapid, sustainable microwave-hydrothermal synthesis by using creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source and application in drug delivery and protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2013-04-22

    Hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres of hydroxyapatite (HAP) are a promising biomaterial, owing to their excellent biocompatibility and porous hollow structure. Traditionally, synthetic hydroxyapatite is prepared by using an inorganic phosphorus source. Herein, we report a new strategy for the rapid, sustainable synthesis of HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres by using creatine phosphate disodium salt as an organic phosphorus source in aqueous solution through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-obtained products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorptometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM micrographs show that HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres consist of HAP nanosheets or nanorods as the building blocks and DLS measurements show that the diameters of HAP hollow microspheres are within the range 0.8-1.5 μm. The specific surface area and average pore size of the HAP porous hollow microspheres are 87.3 m(2) g(-1) and 20.6 nm, respectively. The important role of creatine phosphate disodium salt and the influence of the experimental conditions on the products were systematically investigated. This method is facile, rapid, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres show a relatively high drug-loading capacity and protein-adsorption ability, as well as sustained drug and protein release, by using ibuprofen as a model drug and hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein, respectively. These experiments indicate that the as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres are promising for applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Resting-state connectivity of the sustained attention network correlates with disease duration in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Maneshi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, a normal electroencephalogram between generalized spike and wave (GSW discharges is believed to reflect normal brain function. However, some studies indicate that even excluding GSW-related errors, IGE patients perform poorly on sustained attention task, the deficit being worse as a function of disease duration. We hypothesized that at least in a subset of structures which are normally involved in sustained attention, resting-state functional connectivity (FC is different in IGE patients compared to controls and that some of the changes are related to disease duration. METHOD: Seeds were selected based on a sustained attention study in controls. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data was obtained from 14 IGE patients and 14 matched controls. After physiological noise removal, the mean time-series of each seed was used as a regressor in a general linear model to detect regions that showed correlation with the seed. In patients, duration factor was defined based on epilepsy duration. Between-group differences weighted by the duration factor were evaluated with mixed-effects model. Correlation was then evaluated in IGE patients between the FC, averaged over each significant cluster, and the duration factor. RESULTS: Eight of 18 seeds showed significant difference in FC across groups. However, only for seeds in the medial superior frontal and precentral gyri and in the medial prefrontal area, average FC taken over significant clusters showed high correlation with the duration factor. These 3 seeds showed changes in FC respectively with the premotor and superior frontal gyrus, the dorsal premotor, and the supplementary motor area plus precentral gyrus. CONCLUSION: Alterations of FC in IGE patients are not limited to the frontal areas. However, as indicated by specificity analysis, patients with long history of disease show changes in FC mainly within the frontal areas.

  12. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  13. Use of Bayesian Networks to Analyze Port Variables in Order to Make Sustainable Planning and Management Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Molina Serrano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic, social and political environment, society demands a greater variety of outcomes from the public logistics sector, such as efficiency, efficiency of managed resources, greater transparency and business performance. All of them are an indispensable counterpart for its recognition and support. In case of port planning and management, many variables are included. Use of Bayesian Networks allows to classify, predict and diagnose these variables and even to estimate the subsequent probability of unknown variables, basing on the known ones. Research includes a data base with more than 40 variables, which have been classified as smart port studies in Spain. Then a network was generated using a non-cyclic conducted grafo, which shows port variable relationships. As conclusion, economic variables are cause of the rest of categories and they represent a parent role in the most of cases. Furthermore, if environmental variables are known, subsequent probability of social variables can be estimated.

  14. Regulation of a TGF-β1-CD147 self-sustaining network in the differentiation plasticity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lu, M; Li, Y; Shang, Y-K; Wang, S-J; Meng, Y; Wang, Z; Li, Z-S; Chen, H; Chen, Z-N; Bian, H

    2016-10-20

    Cellular plasticity has an important role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, the involvement of a TGF-β1-CD147 self-sustaining network in the regulation of the dedifferentiation progress was fully explored in HCC cell lines, hepatocyte-specific basigin/CD147-knockout mice and human HCC tissues. We demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation upregulated CD147 expression and mediated the dedifferentiation of HCC cells, whereas all-trans-retinoic acid induced the downregulation of CD147 and promoted differentiation in HCC cells. Overexpression of CD147 induced the dedifferentiation and enhanced the malignancy of HCC cells, and increased the transcriptional expression of TGF-β1 by activating β-catenin. CD147-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production activated pro-TGF-β1. The activated TGF-β1 signaling subsequently repressed the HNF4α expression via Smad-Snail1 signaling and enhanced the dedifferentiation progress. Hepatocyte-specific basigin/CD147-knockout mice decreased the susceptibility to N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced tumorigenesis by suppressing TGF-β1-CD147 signaling and inhibiting dedifferentiation in hepatocytes during tumor progression. CD147 was positively correlated with TGF-β1 and negatively correlated with HNF4α in human HCC tissues. Positive CD147 staining and lower HNF4α levels in tumor tissues were significantly associated with poor survival of patients with HCC. The overexpression of HNF4α and Smad7 and the deletion of CD147 by lentiviral vectors jointly reprogrammed the expression profile of hepatocyte markers and attenuated malignant properties including proliferation, cell survival and tumor growth of HCC cells. Our results highlight the important role of the TGF-β1-CD147 self-sustaining network in driving HCC development by regulating differentiation plasticity, which provides a strong basis for further investigations of the differentiation therapy of HCC targeting TGF-β1 and CD147.

  15. The Ne3LS Network, Quebec's initiative to evaluate the impact and promote a responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Charles-Anica; Emond, Claude; Battista, Renaldo; Parizeau, Marie-Helene; Beaudry, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The spectacular progress made by nanosciences and nanotechnologies elicits as much hope and fear. Consequently, a great number of research and training initiatives on the ethical, environmental, economic, legal and social issues regarding nanotechnology development (Ne 3 LS) are emerging worldwide. In Quebec, Canada, a Task Force was mandated by NanoQuebec to conceive a Ne 3 LS research and training strategy to assess those issues. This Task Force brought together experts from universities, governments or industry working in nanosciences and nanotechnologies or in Ne 3 LS. Their resulting action plan, made public in November 2006, contained several recommendations, including the creation of a knowledge network (Ne 3 LS Network). In the following years, after consulting with numerous key players concerned with the possible impacts of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in Quebec, the Ne 3 LS Network was launched in January 2010 in partnership with the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies, the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la societe et la culture and the Fonds de la recherche en sante du Quebec, NanoQuebec, the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauve en sante et en securite du travail as well as the University of Montreal. Its objectives are to 1) Foster the development of Ne 3 LS research activities (grants and fellowships); 2) Spearhead the Canadian and international Ne 3 LS network; 3) Take part in the training of researchers and experts; 4) Encourage the creation of interactive tools for the general public; 5) Facilitate collaboration between decision-makers and experts; 6) Involve the scientific community through a host of activities (symposium, conferences, thematic events); 7) Build multidisciplinary research teams to evaluate the impact of nanotechnology.

  16. The IAEA network on environmental management and remediation (ENVIRONET) - promoting sustainable uranium production operations by taking environmental remediation under a life-cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monken-Fernandes, H.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the past uranium production operations have caused extensive environmental problems. The lack of appropriate regulatory framework in addition to the fact that environmental issues were not conveniently addressed in the operations contributed to this situation. Nowadays, this situation has changed dramatically and lessons learned from the past have led to the implementation of responsible operations from both environmental and social perspectives. Involvement of different stakeholders in the decision making process turned out to be a mandatory issue in many countries. With the so called 'Renascence of Nuclear Power' new production sites will come into play. The sustainability of the uranium industry will depend on the adoption of good practices in these operations under a life-cycle perspective. The recently launched IAEA initiative - the ENVIRONET is aimed at contributing to expedite the transfer of experience amongst its members. It brings together private and state-owned companies, research institutes, and governmental organizations providing a forum for information and experience exchange. Sharing of practical experience is to be addressed by means of training courses and workshops. In addition to this long distance training and educational material will be made available. This paper will present the ENVIRONET and describe how networking can contribute to the implementation of sustainable and responsible uranium production operations worldwide. (author)

  17. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  18. The Talloires Network and the MacJannet Prize for Global Citizenship: Explorations on sustainable and innovative leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianda Hernandez Cavalcanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education does not exist in a vacuum. Institutions of higher learning should serve as vibrant and dynamic anchors to their communities and to society. Civic engagement and community service should be inextricable from research, teaching and learning. The Talloires Network is an international coalition of higher education institutions founded on such a vision. It is because of this vision that the MacJannet Foundation approached the Talloires Network in 2009 to establish the MacJannet Prize for Global Citizenship. Following in the footsteps of founders Donald and Charlotte MacJannet, the international Foundation is dedicated to providing pathways for individuals and institutions to use their skills for the good of their communities. The MacJannet Prize recognizes exceptional student community engagement initiatives at Talloires Network member universities and contributes financially to their ongoing public service efforts. This special edition journal of Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement features articles from five first-place MacJannet Prize winners and one second-place winner. The articles offer a glimpse of university civic engagement projects in six countries created to help marginalised and vulnerable communities. They highlight the complexity of civic engagement efforts in different institutional environments and regions of the world and provide insight into the pedagogy and practice of engagement. Further, the articles highlight the many challenges associated with this type of work, not only with scaling up the initiatives but with institutionalising them. Finally, these accounts serve as a reminder of the critical importance higher education institutions have in the success of these initiatives and the dedication of the individuals who lead them.

  19. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  20. Financing investment in the European electricity transmission network: Consequences on long-term sustainability of the TSOs financial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriot, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the ability of European TSOs to meet the demand for substantial investments in the electricity transmission grid over the next two decades. We employ quantitative analysis to assess the impact of the required capital expenditures under a set of alternative financing strategies. We consider a best-case scenario of full cooperation between the European TSOs. It appears that under current trends in the evolution of transmission tariffs, only half the volumes of investment currently planned could be funded. A highly significant increase in transmission tariffs will be required to ensure the whole-scale investments can be delivered. Finally, alternative strategies can dampen the impact on tariffs but they can only partially substitute for this increase in charges paid by network users. -- Highlights: •We applied balance-sheet modelling to a single European Electricity TSO. •Investments planned will not be achievable under current tariffs evolution. •A three-fold higher growth of transmission network tariffs would be necessary. •New financing strategies can dampen the impact on tariffs, to a minor extent

  1. Local level sustainability policies in the Baltic Sea area: Local Agenda 21 within the Union of the Baltic Cities network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, M; Grönholm, B

    2001-08-01

    Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes have 2 central goals. i) On the basis of some of the empirical evidence in this study, the primary goal is to improve democratic (environmental) policy-making processes in such a manner that a larger share of the population will be able to participate in planning and decision making and will also be able to understand the consequences of these decisions. ii) The LA21 processes seek to improve (at least indirectly) the broadly defined environmental situation locally in a manner that takes into account both the local and the global contexts. The first part of this article discusses the concept and methods of LA21 and sheds light on the different action areas that are central to the Baltic LA21 processes. In addition, the study will describe and display the LA21 situation within one network of cities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Networking, including transfer of information, models and ideas, has been among the main tools for the diffusion of LA21 ideas especially into newly democratized societies. Finally, the article will conclude with an overall assessment of the LA21 situation on the Baltic rim.

  2. The B-MYB transcriptional network guides cell cycle progression and fate decisions to sustain self-renewal and the identity of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming; Riordon, Daniel R; Yan, Bin; Tarasova, Yelena S; Bruweleit, Sarah; Tarasov, Kirill V; Li, Ronald A; Wersto, Robert P; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent and have unlimited self-renewal capacity. Although pluripotency and differentiation have been examined extensively, the mechanisms responsible for self-renewal are poorly understood and are believed to involve an unusual cell cycle, epigenetic regulators and pluripotency-promoting transcription factors. Here we show that B-MYB, a cell cycle regulated phosphoprotein and transcription factor critical to the formation of inner cell mass, is central to the transcriptional and co-regulatory networks that sustain normal cell cycle progression and self-renewal properties of ESCs. Phenotypically, B-MYB is robustly expressed in ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and it is present predominantly in a hypo-phosphorylated state. Knockdown of B-MYB results in functional cell cycle abnormalities that involve S, G2 and M phases, and reduced expression of critical cell cycle regulators like ccnb1 and plk1. By conducting gene expression profiling on control and B-MYB deficient cells, ChIP-chip experiments, and integrative computational analyses, we unraveled a highly complex B-MYB-mediated transcriptional network that guides ESC self-renewal. The network encompasses critical regulators of all cell cycle phases and epigenetic regulators, pluripotency transcription factors, and differentiation determinants. B-MYB along with E2F1 and c-MYC preferentially co-regulate cell cycle target genes. B-MYB also co-targets genes regulated by OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG that are significantly associated with stem cell differentiation, embryonic development, and epigenetic control. Moreover, loss of B-MYB leads to a breakdown of the transcriptional hierarchy present in ESCs. These results coupled with functional studies demonstrate that B-MYB not only controls and accelerates cell cycle progression in ESCs it contributes to fate decisions and maintenance of pluripotent stem cell identity.

  3. Sustainability analysis. Development of various indicators of sustainability for technical environmental analysis and evaluation of local heat supply networks on the basis of regenerative energies in comparison to fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehenberger-Risse, Diana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this thesis is to define indicators to evaluate local heat supply systems based on renewable energy compared to fossil energy reference scenarios. With these indicators a assessment matrix was developed as a planning instrument for the realization of sustainable and energy-efficient local heat supply systems. Further inferences from single projects on regions can be done. In these thesis a method was developed to assess the sustainability of local heat supply systems with the focus on ecology under consideration of economically and social aspects. This method uses a set of indicators composed of Input-, Output-, Efficiency- and Balance indicators. To realize advancement in comparison to present situations, an environmental quality target to advance the environmental impacts of minimum 75% was defined. For the developing and application of the indicators different examples from projects and scenarios of combined heat production from Biomass, Biogas, Solar heat combined with near-surface geothermal storage; geothermal energy and fossil peakload supply were calculated. These scenarios were related to a basis fossil energy scenario. Overall, the two district heating projects Speichersdorf and Mitterteich were compared. In this case, the project Speichersdorf with different coverage areas and decrease heat densities was investigated. The lengths of electrical grid of two areas are 10,828 m and 6,027 m. Those were opposed to the biomass district-heating project Mitterteich with a grid length of 360 m and a higher heat density decrease. Furthermore, a scenario for heat supply was designed and calculated using geothermal plant operating in duplicate to provide heat to the large coverage area for the storage project village. The calculation of the various processes and scenarios was performed with the program GEMIS 4.8 based on the total heat generated (final energy) by the respective supply type. The study examined the main system components; boilers, solar heat

  4. H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Alami, Raouf; Benkahla, Alia; Brandful, James; Doumbia, Seydou; Everett, Dean; Fadlelmola, Faisal M.; Gaboun, Fatima; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Ghazal, Hassan; Hazelhurst, Scott; Hide, Winston; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Jaufeerally Fakim, Yasmina; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Joubert, Fourie; Kassim, Samar; Kayondo, Jonathan; Kumuthini, Judit; Lyantagaye, Sylvester; Makani, Julie; Mansour Alzohairy, Ahmed; Masiga, Daniel; Moussa, Ahmed; Nash, Oyekanmi; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Panji, Sumir; Patterton, Hugh; Radouani, Fouzia; Sadki, Khalid; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki; Ulenga, Nzovu

    2016-01-01

    The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet. PMID:26627985

  5. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  6. Characterization of the periplasmic redox network that sustains the versatile anaerobic metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica N. Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The versatile anaerobic metabolism of the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (SOMR-1 relies on a multitude of redox proteins found in its periplasm. Most are multiheme cytochromes that carry electrons to terminal reductases of insoluble electron acceptors located at the cell surface, or bona fide terminal reductases of soluble electron acceptors. In this study, the interaction network of several multiheme cytochromes was explored by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, activity assays followed by UV-visible spectroscopy and comparison of surface electrostatic potentials. From these data the small tetraheme cytochrome (STC emerges as the main periplasmic redox shuttle in SOMR-1. It accepts electrons from CymA and distributes them to a number of terminal oxidoreductases involved in the respiration of various compounds. STC is also involved in the electron transfer pathway to reduce nitrite by interaction with the octaheme tetrathionate reductase (OTR, but not with cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR. In the main pathway leading the metal respiration STC pairs with flavocytochrome c (FccA, the other major periplasmic cytochrome, which provides redundancy in this important pathway. The data reveals that the two proteins compete for the binding site at the surface of MtrA, the decaheme cytochrome inserted on the periplasmic side of the MtrCAB-OmcA outer-membrane complex. However, this is not observed for the MtrA homologues. Indeed, neither STC nor FccA interact with MtrD, the best replacement for MtrA, and only STC is able to interact with the decaheme cytochrome DmsE of the outer-membrane complex DmsEFABGH. Overall, these results shown that STC plays a central role in the anaerobic respiratory metabolism of SOMR-1. Nonetheless, the trans-periplasmic electron transfer chain is functionally resilient as a consequence of redundancies that arise from the presence of alternative pathways that bypass/compete with STC.

  7. Lack of evolvability in self-sustaining autocatalytic networks constraints metabolism-first scenarios for the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Vera; Szathmáry, Eörs; Santos, Mauro

    2010-01-26

    A basic property of life is its capacity to experience Darwinian evolution. The replicator concept is at the core of genetics-first theories of the origin of life, which suggest that self-replicating oligonucleotides or their similar ancestors may have been the first "living" systems and may have led to the evolution of an RNA world. But problems with the nonenzymatic synthesis of biopolymers and the origin of template replication have spurred the alternative metabolism-first scenario, where self-reproducing and evolving proto-metabolic networks are assumed to have predated self-replicating genes. Recent theoretical work shows that "compositional genomes" (i.e., the counts of different molecular species in an assembly) are able to propagate compositional information and can provide a setup on which natural selection acts. Accordingly, if we stick to the notion of replicator as an entity that passes on its structure largely intact in successive replications, those macromolecular aggregates could be dubbed "ensemble replicators" (composomes) and quite different from the more familiar genes and memes. In sharp contrast with template-dependent replication dynamics, we demonstrate here that replication of compositional information is so inaccurate that fitter compositional genomes cannot be maintained by selection and, therefore, the system lacks evolvability (i.e., it cannot substantially depart from the asymptotic steady-state solution already built-in in the dynamical equations). We conclude that this fundamental limitation of ensemble replicators cautions against metabolism-first theories of the origin of life, although ancient metabolic systems could have provided a stable habitat within which polymer replicators later evolved.

  8. After Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... A Listen En Español After Delivery After your baby arrives, your body begins to recover from the ...

  9. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Contributions to Strengthening Resilience and Sustainability for the East African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Galu, G.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development (PREPARED) is a multi-organizational project aimed at mainstreaming climate-resilient development planning and program implementation into the East African Community (EAC). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has partnered with the PREPARED project to address three key development challenges for the EAC; 1) increasing resiliency to climate change, 2) managing trans-boundary freshwater biodiversity and conservation and 3) improving access to drinking water supply and sanitation services. USGS FEWS NET has been instrumental in the development of gridded climate data sets that are the fundamental building blocks for climate change adaptation studies in the region. Tools such as the Geospatial Climate Tool (GeoCLIM) have been developed to interpolate time-series grids of precipitation and temperature values from station observations and associated satellite imagery, elevation data, and other spatially continuous fields. The GeoCLIM tool also allows the identification of anomalies and assessments of both their frequency of occurrence and directional trends. A major effort has been put forth to build the capacities of local and regional institutions to use GeoCLIM to integrate their station data (which is not typically available to the public) into improved national and regional gridded climate data sets. In addition to the improvements and capacity building activities related to geospatial analysis tools, FEWS NET will assist in two other areas; 1) downscaling of climate change scenarios and 2) vulnerability impact assessments. FEWS NET will provide expertise in statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model output fields and work with regional institutions to assess results of other downscaling methods. Completion of a vulnerability impact assessment (VIA) involves the examination of sectoral consequences in identified climate "hot spots". FEWS NET

  10. Sustained release of stem cell factor in a double network hydrogel for ex vivo culture of cord blood-derived CD34+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Pan, Xiuwei; Shi, Zhen; Cai, Haibo; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Weian

    2018-04-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is considered as a commonly indispensable cytokine for proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which is used in large dosages during ex vivo culture. The work presented here aimed to reduce the consumption of SCF by sustained release but still support cells proliferation and maintain the multipotency of HSCs. Stem cell factor was physically encapsulated within a hyaluronic acid/gelatin double network (HGDN) hydrogel to achieve a slow release rate. CD34 + cells were cultured within the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogel for 14 days. The cell number, phenotype and functional capacity were investigated after culture. The HGDN hydrogels had desirable properties and encapsulated SCF kept being released for more than 6 days. SCF remained the native bioactivity, and the proliferation of HSCs within the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogel was not affected, although the consumption of SCF was only a quarter in comparison with the conventional culture. Moreover, CD34 + cells harvested from the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogels generated more multipotent colony-forming units (CFU-GEMM). The data suggested that the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogel could support ex vivo culture of HSCs, thus providing a cost-effective culture protocol for HSCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading......Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  12. Integrated delivery systems: the cure for fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, Alain C

    2009-12-01

    Our healthcare system is fragmented, with a misalignment of incentives, or lack of coordination, that spawns inefficient allocation of resources. Fragmentation adversely impacts quality, cost, and outcomes. Eliminating waste from unnecessary, unsafe care is crucial for improving quality and reducing costs--and making the system financially sustainable. Many believe this can be achieved through greater integration of healthcare delivery, more specifically via integrated delivery systems (IDSs). An IDS is an organized, coordinated, and collaborative network that links various healthcare providers to provide a coordinated, vertical continuum of services to a particular patient population or community. It is also accountable, both clinically and fiscally, for the clinical outcomes and health status of the population or community served, and has systems in place to manage and improve them. The marketplace already contains numerous styles and degrees of integration, ranging from Kaiser Permanente-style full integration, to more loosely organized individual practice associations, to public-private partnerships. Evidence suggests that IDSs can improve healthcare quality, improve outcomes, and reduce costs--especially for patients with complex needs--if properly implemented and coordinated. No single approach or public policy will fix the fragmented healthcare system, but IDSs represent an important step in the right direction.

  13. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  14. On the Creation, Utility and Sustaining of Rare Diseases Research Networks: Lessons learned from the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, the Japanese Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium and the European Registry and Network for Intoxication Type Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, Marshall L; Endo, Fumio; Kölker, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades has seen a rapid expansion in the scientific and public interest in rare diseases and their treatment. One consequence of this has been the formation of registries/longitudinal natural history studies for these disorders. Given the expense and effort needed to develop and maintain such programs, we describe our experience with three linked registries on the same disease group, urea cycle disorders. The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) was formed in the U.S. in 2003 in response to a request for application from the National Institutes of Health (NIH); the European Registry and Network for Intoxication Type Metabolic Diseases (E-IMD) was formed in 2011 in response to a request for applications from the Directorate-General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO) of the EU; and the Japanese Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (JUCDC) was founded in 2012 as a sister organization to the UCDC and E-IMD. The functions of these groups are to collect natural history data, educate the professional and lay population, develop and test new treatments, and establish networks of excellence for the care for these disorders. The UCDC and JUCDC focus exclusively on urea cycle disorders while the E-IMD includes patients with urea cycle disorders and organic acidurias. More than 1400 patients have been enrolled in the three consortia, and numerous projects have been developed and joint meetings held including an international UCDC/E-IMD/JUCDC Urea Cycle meeting in Barcelona in 2013. This article summarizes some of the experiences from the three groups regarding formation, funding, and models for sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The development of a new district heating concept: Network design and optimization for integrating energy conservation and renewable energy use in energy sustainable communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Rosa, A.

    2012-07-01

    PART I of this doctoral thesis consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the main issues caused by the use of energy resources. They involve ecological, economic, demographical and socio-political topics that are linked together and define the background of the thesis. Chapter 2 describes the state-of-the-art of District Heating (DH) systems, with focus on the present and future situation in Denmark. The core of the thesis consists of the development of a new DH paradigm, the ''Low- Temperature District Heating (LTDH)'', the study of its potential, and investigations of technical options which improve its applicability in terms of energy performance and socio-economy. Chapter 3 describes the whole idea about LTDH. Chapter 4 presents the hypotheses of the studies, draws the boundaries between the focus area of the thesis and other relevant aspects of the subject, describes the limitations of the work and lists the methods which were used. Chapter 5 explains the results of the scientific content reported in the articles in PART II. Article I introduces the technical and organizational strategies that can facilitate the establishment of a successful energy planning in a community. It analyses the state-of-the-art in community energy planning, discusses critical issues, and points at the role of DH in moving towards sustainable heat supply. The articles II and III aim at providing science-based knowledge for the development of improved solutions for the DH networks; they focus on the performance simulation of DH pipelines through models for assessing the energy performance of innovative pipe geometries, materials or system configurations. The models were validated against experimental measurements on real DH pipes. Article II considers the detailed steady-state modelling and analysis of heat losses in pre-insulated DH pipes. Article III focuses on the modelling and computation of the transient heat transfer in service pipes, which are important

  16. Reaching Rural Handicapped Children: The Transportation Situation in Rural Service Delivery. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jamie; And Others

    Almost everyone who responded to three transportation surveys of rural Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) projects identified transportation as a critical problem in the delivery of services to handicapped children in rural areas. Transportation problems encountered were attributed to environmental/geographic factors,…

  17. Fault Tolerant Real-Time Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakhor, Avideh; Henzinger, Thomas; Trevedi, Kishor; Ammar, Mostafa; Lynch, Nancy; Shin, Kang

    2007-01-01

    .... We have focused on multimedia delivery in traditional client-server architectures, both in the case of the Internet and wireless networks, as well as on peer-to-peer content delivery and on mobile ad-hoc networks...

  18. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-23

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  19. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-17

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  20. Evaluating Student Perceptions of Course Delivery Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramorski, Tom; Madan, Manu S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate effectiveness of course delivery mode on three dimensions: values, networking opportunities and learning. While students and their future employers are two important customers for the business program, we focus on the perception of students regarding the effectiveness of course delivery mode on program performance. The…

  1. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  2. Receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in Dunning R3327 prostate cancers and rat anterior pituitaries after treatment with a sustained delivery system of LHRH antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Radulovic, S; Korkut, E; Schally, A V

    1990-12-01

    Membrane receptors for LHRH were evaluated in Dunning R3327 prostate cancers and rat anterior pituitaries. The receptors were characterized both in untreated animals and after in vivo treatment with microcapsules of the agonist D-Trp6-LHRH and a sustained delivery system releasing different doses (23.8, 47.6, 71.4 micrograms/day) of LHRH antagonist [Ac-D-Nal(2)1-D-Phe(4Cl)2-D-Pal(3)3,D-Cit6, D-Ala10]-LHRH (SB-75). The therapy, which lasted 8 weeks, strongly inhibited tumor growth. A group of normal Sprague-Dawley male rats was also treated for 6 weeks with microcapsules of SB-75 releasing 25 micrograms/day. In the Dunning tumors from the control group, ligand [125I, D-Trp6]-LHRH was bound to two classes of binding sites [dissociation constant, class a (Kda) = 1.01 +/- 0.30 x 10(-9) M; Kdb = 1.71 +/- 0.41 x 10(-6) M; maximal binding capacity of receptors, class a (Bmaxa) = 48.66 +/- 22.13 fmol/mg of protein; Bmaxb = 92.10 +/- 29.40 pmol/mg of protein] in both kinetic and equilibrium studies. Treatment with D-Trp6-LHRH produced down-regulation of membrane receptors for LHRH in Dunning tumors. Microcapsules of SB-75 resulted in dose-dependent up-regulation of binding sites for LHRH in Dunning tumors. Analysis of the binding data showed that interaction of labeled D-Trp6-LHRH with binding sites in anterior pituitaries was consistent with the presence of a single class of noncooperative receptors (Kd = 43.75 x 10(-9) M; Bmax = 5.25 pmol/mg membrane proteins). Prolonged treatment with microcapsules of D-Trp6-LHRH reduced both Bmax and Kd. Lower doses of SB-75 (23.8 and 47.6 micrograms/day) produced up-regulation, whereas the highest dose (71.4 micrograms/day) resulted in down-regulation of binding sites for LHRH in rat pituitaries. In normal Sprague-Dawley rats, treatment with microcapsules of SB-75 (25 micrograms/day) for 6 weeks produced a slight increase in the number of available binding sites (Bmax = 2.35 +/- 0.82 pmol/mg membrane protein) and a moderate decrease in

  3. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal ... Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is ...

  4. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  5. Mathematical algorithm to transform digital biomass distribution maps into linear programming networks in order to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  6. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  7. Bridging gaps to promote networked care between teams and groups in health delivery systems: a systematic review of non-health literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess non-health literature, identify key strategies in promoting more networked teams and groups, apply external ideas to healthcare, and build a model based on these strategies. Design A systematic review of the literature outside of healthcare. Method Searches guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) of ABI/INFORM Global, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases following a mind-mapping exercise generating key terms centred on the core construct of gaps across organisational social structures that uncovered 842 empirical articles of which 116 met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and content analysis via data mining techniques were performed on these articles. Results The research involved subjects in 40 countries, with 32 studies enrolling participants in multiple countries. There were 40 studies conducted wholly or partly in the USA, 46 wholly or partly in continental Europe, 29 wholly or partly in Asia and 12 wholly or partly in Russia or Russian federated countries. Methods employed included 30 mixed or triangulated social science study designs, 39 qualitative studies, 13 experimental studies and 34 questionnaire-based studies, where the latter was mostly to gather data for social network analyses. Four recurring factors underpin a model for promoting networked behaviours and fortifying cross-group cooperation: appreciating the characteristics and nature of gaps between groups; using the leverage of boundary-spanners to bridge two or more groups; applying various mechanisms to stimulate interactive relationships; and mobilising those who can exert positive external influences to promote connections while minimising the impact of those who exacerbate divides. Conclusions The literature assessed is rich and varied. An evidence-oriented model and strategies for promoting more networked systems are now available for application to healthcare. While caution needs to be exercised in translating

  8. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jao, Dave; Xue, Ye; Medina, Jethro; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based pol...

  9. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  10. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P

    2009-01-01

    Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)'s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C eye drops. In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years. Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients' glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision. The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C eye drops since December 2001. Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued repurchase behavior program, including testimonials from buyers. With these figures, researchers judged on the

  11. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Babizhayev

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark A Babizhayev1, Leslie Burke2, Philip Micans3, Stuart P Richer4,51Innovative Vision Products, Inc., County of New Castle, Delaware, USA; 2Wise Choice Products LLC, London, England, United Kingdom; 3IAS Group, Sark, United Kingdom; 4Eye Clinic DVA Medical Center, North Chicago, Illinois, USA; 5Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USABackground: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™ designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops.Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance, and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years.Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9

  12. Artificial intelligence model for sustain ability measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navickiene, R.; Navickas, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)

  13. Electricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    2003-11-01

    The sustainable development is a political project. Its purpose is to erase the contradictions between the requirements of Environment and social development. the first article of the law of February 10, 2000 erects a sustainable electricity. For the first time. a law integrates the environmental requirements into the electrical industry. The starting point of this study is in the observation of the effects of this integration in a central sector for the developed countries. electricity is the motive of social development. However, it is carried by a Network. This network results from the confusion between the energy policy and the rules which aim at ensuring the construction and the management of structures of production and transport. Nevertheless, if the energy policy integrates the requirements of the environment, the structures subject them to a dominant social logic which aim is to satisfy an increasing demand for electricity. (author)

  14. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  15. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  16. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01