WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable milk production

  1. Improving Buffalo Milk Production to Sustain the Production of Dadih by Small Farmers in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp buffalo which is found in many Asian regions is mainly raised for meat and draft purposes. However, in West Sumatera, it is also milked and the milk is mostly consumed as “dadih“, a well known traditional product from this area. Dadih is actually a product made from fresh buffalo milk, which is kept in bamboo tube for about 2-3 days under room temperature, without any application or addition of bacteria starter although the end product of this fermentation contains various bacteria, mould and khamir. As the natural fermented milk product, dadih is white in colour and the curd texture like tofu, tastes like yoghurt, and it is generally served as a complementing meal in some traditional occasion as well as delicacy from West Sumatera. Dadih is highly nutritive product, protein and fat contents are higher than those of yoghurt, rich in amino acids and bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp. and low in cholesterol. The raw material for dadih is limited due to the low productivity of fresh buffalo milk which is generally collected for about 0.5 – 2.0 litres/head/day. The effort in sustaining “dadih product“ is directed to the improving the management of the buffalo condition particularly those in lactating period. Feeding improvement is recommended in order to provide an adequate milk for raising its calf and to be milked for making dadih and to support the optimal reproductive activity of the buffalo dam. In future, the assessment on “dadih“ should also include the packaging improvement which can improve and prolong the storage time for the benefit of marketing purposes.

  2. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Shahin, E-mail: shahinrafiee@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Benyamin, E-mail: b_khoshnevisan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmental Specialist Research Team (ESRTeam), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Clark, Sean [Agriculture and Natural Resources Program, Berea College, Berea, KY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO{sub 2,eq}. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was

  3. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO_2_,_e_q. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was the

  4. Labeling strategies to overcome the problem of niche markets for sustainable milk products: The example of pasture-raised milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, S; Gassler, B; Spiller, A

    2017-06-01

    Pasture-raised milk is gaining in importance in some European countries and in the United States. The production of pasture-raised milk is linked to higher costs, as the milk is normally collected and processed separately from conventional barn milk. This could hinder the production of sustainable milk products. We discuss alternative labeling strategies that allow the mixing of pasture-raised (sustainable) and conventional milk to reduce costs and break free from the current niche market. The lower price would allow for more pasture-raised milk to be produced and enter the mainstream market. The aim of this study was to analyze consumers' willingness to pay for alternative labeling types using a discrete choice experiment with 1,065 German milk buyers. The 2 alternative labels, besides the classical labeling approach, are based on the mass balance approach (at least 50% pasture-raised milk in a package) and cause-related marketing (support of farmers who keep their cows on pasture). The discrete choice experiment was combined with a cluster analysis to get a deeper understanding of the buying behavior of the diverse consumer segments for milk. We found that all consumer groups prefer the classical label where products are segregated but also understand the benefits of cause-related marketing. The average consumer was willing to pay €0.50 more for pasture-raised milk certified with the classical label and €0.38 more for pasture-raised milk labeled with a cause-related marketing claim. However, differences between the clusters are strong: The smallest cluster of ethically involved consumers (15%) is willing to pay the highest premiums, especially for the classical label. Cause-related marketing is an interesting alternative for involved buyers under price pressure (41%), whereas the mass balance approach is little understood and thus less valued by consumers. From our results we concluded that cause-related marketing (in our case, the support of pasturing of

  5. Measures and metrics of sustainable diets with a focus on milk, yogurt, and dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2018-01-01

    The 4 domains of sustainable diets are nutrition, economics, society, and the environment. To be sustainable, foods and food patterns need to be nutrient-rich, affordable, culturally acceptable, and sparing of natural resources and the environment. Each sustainability domain has its own measures and metrics. Nutrient density of foods has been assessed through nutrient profiling models, such as the Nutrient-Rich Foods family of scores. The Food Affordability Index, applied to different food groups, has measured both calories and nutrients per penny (kcal/$). Cultural acceptance measures have been based on relative food consumption frequencies across population groups. Environmental impact of individual foods and composite food patterns has been measured in terms of land, water, and energy use. Greenhouse gas emissions assess the carbon footprint of agricultural food production, processing, and retail. Based on multiple sustainability metrics, milk, yogurt, and other dairy products can be described as nutrient-rich, affordable, acceptable, and appealing. The environmental impact of dairy farming needs to be weighed against the high nutrient density of milk, yogurt, and cheese as compared with some plant-based alternatives. PMID:29206982

  6. Scientific appraisal of the Irish grass-based milk production system as a sustainable source of premium quality milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Irish dairy industry is critically important to the economy and general well-being of a large section of the Irish population. Its quality, sustainability and maintenance are the key for a vibrant rural society in the future. Two important elements for the future of this industry include (a the quality, marketing and sale of dairy products on the export market and (b sustainability from the perspectives of people, planet and profit. This paper provides a short review of current scientific evidence in relation to a number of topics, each of which is important in maintaining and developing dairy product quality and the sustainability of the Irish dairy industry. The topics addressed in the paper are as follows: the parameters of milk composition; milk processing; hygiene quality and safety; farm management practices and the regulations that govern such practices; animal health and welfare; environmental impacts; economic implications for farm families and rural communities; and the overall future sustainability of the family-based dairy farm structure.

  7. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  8. Using manure as fertilizer for maize could improve sustainability of milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Jiménez-Calderón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of organic or chemical fertilization of maize on cow performance, economic outcomes, and greenhouse gas emission. Each type of maize silage according its different fertilization was used in two rations offered to two different groups of nine Friesian-Holstein cows throughout 4 months. The production cost of the maize silage was 8.8% lower for organic than for chemical fertilization. Both silages had similar nutritive value, except a higher concentration of starch in maize with organic fertilization, which allowed a reduction in the proportion of concentrate in the ration, saving 25.3 eurocents per cow in the daily ration, generating a positive balance of 21.8 eurocents per cow and day. The milk yield and composition were unaffected depending on the type of fertilization, whereas the estimation of CH4 and N2O emissions with chemical fertilization was higher than emissions with organic fertilization. As a result, it is possible to increase the sustainability and profitability of dairy production with reuse and recycling of manure.

  9. Using manure as fertilizer for maize could improve sustainability of milk production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Calderón, J.M.; Martínez-Fernández, A.; Prospero-Bernal, F.; Velarde-Guillén, J.; Arriaga-Jordán, C.M.; Vicente, F.

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of organic or chemical fertilization of maize on cow performance, economic outcomes, and greenhouse gas emission. Each type of maize silage according its different fertilization was used in two rations offered to two different groups of nine Friesian-Holstein cows throughout 4 months. The production cost of the maize silage was 8.8% lower for organic than for chemical fertilization. Both silages had similar nutritive value, except a higher concentration of starch in maize with organic fertilization, which allowed a reduction in the proportion of concentrate in the ration, saving 25.3 eurocents per cow in the daily ration, generating a positive balance of 21.8 eurocents per cow and day. The milk yield and composition were unaffected depending on the type of fertilization, whereas the estimation of CH4 and N2O emissions with chemical fertilization was higher than emissions with organic fertilization. As a result, it is possible to increase the sustainability and profitability of dairy production with reuse and recycling of manure.

  10. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  11. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  12. Sustaining Milk Production by use Sorghum Silage and Sweet Potato and Sweet Potato Vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, J.O

    2002-01-01

    Dairy sector in Kenya is an important source of rural employment and farm income besides provision of milk consumed in the urban centres. Dairy cattle nutrition and sustenance of production through out the year are constraints to production. Feeding during dry season is a major problem and can be alleviated through cultivation of high yielding fodder crops and feed conservation. The current work evaluated the nutritive value of sorghum silage (SS) and sweet potato vines (SPV) as feeds for dairy production in the dry highlands. On-station work involved performance trial of dairy cattle fed on varying proportions of SS and SPV while on farm work involved demonstration and popularization of sorghum and SPV utilization technology. The dry matter (DM), crude protein, (CP) neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents for SS ranged from 267.3-350.7, 50.0-70.6, 60.8 and 55.0-67.3 g kg - 1 respectively. The corresponding values for SPV were 129.5-190.4, 83.4-179.1, 300.9-383.5 and 61.5-68.0 g kg - 1. Daily milk yield ranged from 3.44 l d - 1 when SS alone was fed to 15 l d - 1 when combination of SS and SPV was fed to dairy cows. Most farmers rationed sorghum and fed as green chop besides SS especially during the dry season. Improvement and sustenance of milk production was observed on-farm, showing that sorghum and SPV utilization technology has generated great potential of enhancing dairy production

  13. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  14. Development of breeding strategy based on body coloration and phenotype in Holstein Friesian crossbreds for sustainable milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahjahan

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Holstein Friesian crossbreds were categorized based on white coloring in different body parts, hump status, and known generations derived from controlled breeding and recording. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of morphological features on milk production; grading of Holstein Friesian crossbreds and implement a sustainable breeding strategy based on phenotypic grading. Data of peak milk production and morphological characteristics were collected on 51 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows after primary sorting from three districts (Sirajganj, Chittagong and Mymensingh of Bangladesh. The data analyses were conducted following one-way ANOVA with descriptive statistics. The animals were graded according to the white coloring pattern (absent or present in horn, eyelid and eyelash, muzzle, hoof, tail switch, and the presence of a hump. It was observed that the presence of white color (18.86±1.01 to 22.00±1.57 liters in different body parts of Holstein Friesian crossbreds were significantly (p [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 498-504

  15. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Farmer, Chantal; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  16. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Novel trends in engineered milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Food engineering within the dairy sector is an ever developing field of study purely based on the application of engineering principles and concepts to any aspect of dairy product manufacturing and operations. The last 25 years of science and technology devoted to milk and milk products have led to major advances. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and current status of some engineered milk products and to speculate regarding future trends. Much of the advancement has been directed towards production capacity, mechanisation, automation, hygiene within the processing plant, safety, extensions in shelf life, and new product introductions that bring variety and convenience for the consumer. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. In addition, further improvements focused on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability have been made and will be needed in the future.

  18. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  19. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  20. Emergy sustainability index of a milk producing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although small, the impacts caused by agriculture and livestock productive activities change the environment, which in turn reflects the stress conditions it is under. Some authors these environmental changes occur for countless reasons, many so-called natural while others are due to anthropogenic interventions. This study aims to assess milk production sustainability using the emergy analysis of indicators, considering the annual cycles of production to help decision making. A conceptual model of the milk production system using the Emergy flow chart was built at the Livestock and Agricultural Production Unit (UPA of the Alto da Arauna Farm, located in Guzolândia, SP. After data processing, the emergy calculation table was elaborated. Several emergy sustainability indices were calculated and analyzed (indicators Renewability of Emergy Used Total, Index of Environmental Load Ratio of Investment Ratio Emergia beyond the calculations Tranformidades among others including the Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI. The results showed that the UPA has a high impact per unit of energy source used to produce milk for the general public. The agricultural production systems with ESI value less than one (1 can be considered unsustainable in the long term. The studied UPA has good working conditions and soil conservation, but has a highly disproportionate use of economy inputs in relation to natural resources, which results in low ESI value. The analysis of this ratio indicated low system efficiency. Several management practices and interventions were proposed aiming at improving sustainability indicators of the production system.  Furthermore, strategies were formulated for more sustainable management of this UPA, thus reducing the impacts of the production system in use. The adoption of methods similar to organic production, agroecological systems, integration between farming and livestock, and/or adoption of silvopastoral system are recommended to improve

  1. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...... prototyping of milk products such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during gelation of milk to yogurt. The influence of the colloidal aggregation on the optical properties is described by the static structure factor. As our method is noninvasive, we can use our setup for monitoring...

  2. 2008 Chinese Milk Products Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Milk is one of the most important food products for children’s growth and overall health.  Melamine (2,4,6-triazine-1,3,5-triamino) is an organic compound used in the manufacture of pesticides, plastics, sanitizers, and disinfectants.  Melamine when added to milk increases the overall amount of nitrogen in the milk thus fooling common tests for protein content.  Melamine is also extremely harmful when ingested, especially for young children.  Sanlu, one of China's largest dairy prod...

  3. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Korver, S.

    1992-01-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each

  4. Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Oyun, Tserenpurev; Ito, Takehiko Y; Purevdorj, Yadamjav; Shinoda, Masato; Ishii, Satomi; Buho, Hoshino; Morinaga, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P airag production and sustainable pasture use, our results provide insights useful for evaluating the effects of milking management on vegetation and soil in those pastures, for selecting the appropriate milking times and frequency, and for choosing the right timing to shift milking sites. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  6. The water and land footprints of meat and milk production and consumption in Kenya: implications for sustainability and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosire, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and production are increasingly becoming delinked due to enhanced agricultural productivity that has generated production surpluses in production areas and the globalization of trade. The environmental impact of food consumption is thus increasingly indirect, i.e. not immediately in

  7. Does milk increase mucus production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Jim; McGlashan, Susan Read

    2010-04-01

    Excessive milk consumption has a long association with increased respiratory tract mucus production and asthma. Such an association cannot be explained using a conventional allergic paradigm and there is limited medical evidence showing causality. In the human colon, beta-casomorphin-7 (beta-CM-7), an exorphin derived from the breakdown of A1 milk, stimulates mucus production from gut MUC5AC glands. In the presence of inflammation similar mucus overproduction from respiratory tract MUC5AC glands characterises many respiratory tract diseases. beta-CM-7 from the blood stream could stimulate the production and secretion of mucus production from these respiratory glands. Such a hypothesis could be tested in vitro using quantitative RT-PCR to show that the addition of beta-CM-7 into an incubation medium of respiratory goblet cells elicits an increase in MUC5AC mRNA and by identifying beta-CM-7 in the blood of asthmatic patients. This association may not necessarily be simply cause and effect as the person has to be consuming A1 milk, beta-CM-7 must pass into the systemic circulation and the tissues have to be actively inflamed. These prerequisites could explain why only a subgroup of the population, who have increased respiratory tract mucus production, find that many of their symptoms, including asthma, improve on a dairy elimination diet. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  9. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.M.I.; Afifi, L.M.; Fouzy, A.S.M.; Hegazi, B.

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14 C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  10. Enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Jers, Carsten; Michalak, Malwina

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of complex glycans that are abundant in human breastmilk. Breastfeeding infants is linked to several beneficial effects like promotion of bifidogenic growth,anti‐adhesive effects by blocking pathogens, and sialylated HMOs are moreover involved...... in infant brain development. Only trace amounts of these oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk‐based infantformula. In order to produce genuine HMOs, this project explores a sustainable way to develop anenzymatic process capable of converting certain kinds of food materials into the desired products....

  11. The Milk and Milk Products Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the milk and milk products value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to

  12. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS) and solid-non-fat (SNF) concentrations of individual milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  13. Fate of leptophos residues in milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mohammed, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The fate of leptophos residues in various milk products was studied using 14 C-phenyl labelled leptophos. Milk products were prepared from milk fortified with the radioactive insecticide by methods simulating those used in industry. The highest leptophos level was found in butter and the lowest in skim milk and whey. Analysis of the radioactive residues in all products showed the presence of leptophos alone. A trace of the oxon could be detected in whey. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that processing of milk did not affect the nature of leptophos to any appreciable extent. (author)

  14. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period.

  15. Energy use and sustainability in hay production in a intensive system of milk production; Uso de energia e sustentabilidade na producao de feno em sistema intensivo de producao de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir; Navarine, Franciele Clenice [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), M.C. Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the energy balance and the sustainability in the hay production through seven years data from a Intensive System of Milk Production, located in the region of Coronel Pacheco/MG Brazil. To the energy matrix determination, the categories of direct and indirect energy were considered. The energy inputs occurred in the implanting and establishing of the crop were distributed in the years considered as useful life. The direct energy, relative to the inputs, had larger participation that the indirect one, being the percentiles found of 93.05 and 6.95, respectively. The main consumer of indirect energy was the tractor, which turns on all the implements, followed by the irrigation system. The estimated energy efficiency by the process was of 3.19. Most of the used direct energy was that derived from fossil resources, in the form of fuel (diesel). The use of organic fertilizer, of poultry litter, promoted a relative reduction in the consumption of energy originated from fertilizer derived from fossil resources. With the obtained results, it was concluded that, despite of the several sources of energy consumption, the production of alfalfa hay is sustainable and efficient in the energy conversion. (author)

  16. Donkey milk production: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most common causes of food allergies among children under one year of age. No specific therapy exists for this allergy, and thus the only feasible response is to avoid assumption of milk and derived products. Studies conducted on the serum of children with hypersensi- tivity to milk have shown that caseins are the proteins with the greater allergenic potential. However, in some cases, children have also shown hypersensitivity to the β-lactoglobulines and to the α-lactal- bumins. When food intolerance is diagnosed in an infant, it is often necessary to impose a period of total parenteral feeding, followed by breast feeding, considered the most correct method of re-feeding. When human milk can not be given, alternative food sources must be sought. Clinical studies have demonstrated that donkey milk could substitute breast feeding in infants affected by severe Ig-E me- diated milk allergies. In these subjects, donkey milk is not only useful, but also safer than other types of milk. In fact donkey milk composition in lipids (high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid and pro- teins (low caseins content is very close to human milk. Lysozyme content in donkey milk resulted to be very high (mean value 1.0 mg/ml if compared to bovine (traces, caprine (traces and human milk. The high lysozyme content of donkey milk may be responsible of the low bacterial count reported in literature and also makes this milk suitable to prevent intestine infections to infants. Among seropro- teins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin content in donkey milk was respectively 3.75 and 1.80 mg/ml and remained substancially the same during the different stages of lactation.

  17. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... was not due to the use of AMS but was caused by a higher export of manure by the CMS farms. The number of veterinary treatments per cow per year was unaffected by AMS use, but culling rate was higher for the AMS farms (38%) than for the CMS farms (32%). There was no difference between the AMS and CMS farms...

  18. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co......-products. Insight is needed in the effect of choice on results of environmental analyses of agricultural products, such as milk. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate and compare ALCA and CLCA of an average conventional milk production system in The Netherlands. Materials and methods  ALCA describes...... the pollution and resource flows within a chosen system attributed to the delivery of a specified amount of the functional unit. CLCA estimates how pollution and resource flows within a system change in response to a change in output of the functional unit. For an average Dutch conventional milk production...

  19. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Kristensen, T.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and

  20. Effects of Fermented Milk Products on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Biver, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness. Bone mass accrual, bone homeostasis, and attenuation of sex hormone deficiency-induced bone loss seem to benefit from calcium, protein, pre-, or probiotics ingestion, which may modify gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Fermented milk products might also represent a marker of lifestyle promoting healthy bone health.

  1. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  2. Impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cattle producers' reports of milking labour management, milk production and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J; Rushen, J; Pajor, E A

    2018-04-04

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person. In total, 530 AMS farms were contacted between May 2014 and the end of June 2015. A total of 217 AMS producers participated in the General Survey (Part 1), resulting in a 41% response rate, and 69 of the respondents completed the more detailed follow-up questions (Part 2). On average, after adopting AMS, the number of employees (full- and part-time non-family labour combined) decreased from 2.5 to 2.0, whereas time devoted to milking-related activities decreased by 62% (from 5.2 to 2.0 h/day). Median milking frequency was 3.0 milkings/day and robots were occupied on average 77% of the day. Producers went to fetch cows a median of 2 times/day, with a median of 3 fetch cows or 4% of the herd per robot/day. Farms had a median of 2.5 failed or incomplete milkings/robot per day. Producers reported an increase in milk yield, but little effect on milk quality. Mean milk yield on AMS farms was 32.6 kg/cow day. Median bulk tank somatic cell count was 180 000 cells/ml. Median milk fat on AMS farms was 4.0% and median milk protein was 3.3%. At the time of the survey, 67% of producers were current participants of a DHI programme. Half of the producers who were not DHI participants had stopped participation after adopting AMS. Overall, this study characterized impacts of adopting AMS and may be a useful guide for making this transition.

  3. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...

  4. Quality of Milk for Cheese Production on Registered Agricultural Holdings in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vranješ Anka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, milk producers in Vojvodina on registered agricultural holdings (RAHs have great experience and knowledge in managing their farms, including primary production, processing and sales. However, for a smaller number of manufacturers, there is still room for organizational and technological improvement of production. Nowadays, goat breeding is a very important part of sustainable production, rural development, and represents a very important part of rural development and employment of people. The course of goat breeding in our country is milk-meat, where milk is usually a priority. For the successful production of cheese, the quality of raw milk plays a critical role. It affects the quality of cheese in terms of a chemical composition, microbiological quality, the presence of chemical residues and organoleptic properties. Cheese is mostly made from cow, goat and sheep milk. The valuable components of milk are proteins and fats. These can also be defined as parameters of utilization, since they indicate how much cheese can be obtained from milk. On average, cow milk contains 3.64% fat, 3.22% protein, and 8.52% non-fat dry matter (NFDM. Higher differences in milk fat content (minimum 3.25%, maximum 4.36% were found in milk from RAHs. Recently, the production of milk with higher fat content has become important, since in Serbian milk there is not enough milk fat, so some processors are obliged to import it in the form of butter and cream. In addition to the chemical composition, the microbiological quality of milk is important to maintain successful cheese production. Regarding our findings, the standard plate count (SPC and the somatic cell count (SCC in samples from most RAHs did not exceed the values specified in Regulation (EC 853/2004. Moreover, goat and sheep milk was in agreement with the technological quality of milk for cheese production, in terms of chemical composition.

  5. Lipolytic Changes in the Milk Fat of Raw Milk and Their Effects on the Quality of Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kirst, E.

    1986-01-01

    Lipolytic changes in milk rat affect sensory attributes and techno logicaI properties of milk and milk products. They are affectcd by physiologal, thermal . and biochemical factors as well as by the mechanics of fluids Lipolytic processes in milk are intensified by modern processing methods. In this review. special attention has been paid to runinant- related feeding of dairy cows. foaming of milk. mechanical and thermal influences and the growth of psycllrotrophic bacteria. Feeds defic...

  6. Towards sustainable food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie

    2011-01-01

    continuous innovation of supply chain network structures, reconsideration of business processes, relocation of logistics infrastructures and renewed allocation of chain activities to these infrastructures in order to achieve sustainable performances. This paper presents a scenario analysis of the spatial...... of pigs, processing of pork and pork consumption, is used to analyse the scenarios. The results reveal major opportunities for reductions in cost as well as in CO2 equivalent emissions if a European sector perspective is taken and some chain activities are relocated to other countries. However......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production...

  7. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  8. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  9. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemi......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase...... and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline...

  10. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  11. The fermented milk product of functional destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flavor component selected syrup made from viburnum. This berry is widely used in various forms in the food industry including the dairy. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the viburnum is a wild plant, and does not need to land and cultivation costs. Viburnum is rich in biologically active substances and raw materials is a drug. Fruits of Viburnum is rich in organic acids, in particular valeric acid. From berries contain minerals: manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper, chromium, iodine, selenium. Mass fraction of iron in Kalina in 2–3 times higher compared to other berries. The Kalina 70% more than the C vitamin, than lemon, it also contains vitamins A, E, P and K. In berries contains tannin, pectin, tannins, coumarins, resinous esters, glycoside viburnin (very useful in the composition of Viburnum, namely it makes bitter berries. It is suggested the use of syrup of viburnum in the production of fermented milk product. Since the biologically active substances is not destroyed by freezing and processing was freeze berries and added sucrose. The syrup had the gray edge-ruby color and a pleasant taste. Fermented milk product functionality produced reservoir method. Technological process of obtaining a fermented milk product is different from the traditional operations of preparation components and their introduction in the finished product. The consumption of 100 g of fermented milk product with a vitamin premix meets the daily requirement of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E 40–50%. According to the research developed formulation of dairy products, assessed their quality. Production of fermented milk product thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  12. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - 137 Cs and 90 Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. 137 Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than 90 Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  13. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  14. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  15. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon ...... throughout the value chain – from cow to consumer.......Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...... footprint (CF) of milk and dairy products, namely; estimating CH4 and N2O emissions; accounting for land use change; co-product handling; and defining the functional unit. In addition, the CF is calculated for different types of dairy products, and suggestions on various mitigation measures are presented...

  17. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  18. Cork for sustainable product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.; Gil, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable Product Design is currently accepted as one of the most promising trends in the “Sustainable Development” movement. It is often seen as a facilitation tool to implement Sustainability in practice, by improving the life cycle and eco-efficiency of products, by promoting dematerialization

  19. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  20. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  1. Assessing greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Patricia; Groen, Evelyne A.; Berg, Werner; Prochnow, Annette; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of food products, such as dairy, require many input parameters that are affected by variability and uncertainty. Moreover, correlations may be present between input parameters, e.g. between feed intake and milk yield. The purpose of this study was to

  2. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  3. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Marlies A.; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout; De Boer, Imke

    Background, aim and scope: Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  4. GOAT MILK PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC FARMING STANDARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Hartmut Rahmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has emerged from its niche. This holds true for organic goat milk, yoghurt and cheese as well. Particularly in the EU many dairy goat farms have converted or want to convert towards organic farming to profit from the positive image and the good prices for milk (+100% in Western Europe and Alpine regions. High performance dairy goats demand excellent feedstuffs, a sound environment and top management. It was not clear how organic farming can fulfil these demands. The restrictive factors influencing the productivity of the animals in organic farming are as follows: limited concentrate feeding (

  5. Association of Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins with Milk Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    For example, increasing the frequency of a milk protein genotype associated with ... date of milking, somatic cell count, daily milk yield, protein and fat ..... G sulla ripartizione percentuale delle caseine αS1, αS2, β e κ in vacche die razze. Bruna.

  6. [Milk, Daily products and Bone health.Milk or dairy products and bone:Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Junko

    2018-01-01

    An assessment of the association between the intake of milk or dairy products and bone density or the risk of fractures on the basis of epidemiological studies revealed the following findings:(1)a sufficient prepubertal intake of milk or dairy products could contribute to the increased bone growth and maximized peal bone mass because the intake of calcium in the corresponding stage in Japan is inadequate;(2)adequate milk intake could contribute to the maintenance of peal bone mass among menstruating adult females and the decrease of bone loss in postmenopausal females. Adequate milk intake could contribute to the decrease of aging-induced bone loss in elderly males, though there is no sufficient scientific evidence;and(3)a meta-analysis indicated no correlation between the increased milk intake and decreased risks of hip fractures in the elderly. As the intake of milk or dairy products in the Japanese elderly is rather less than that reported by the meta-analysis, the minimal intake of milk or dairy products is anticipated to elevate the risk of fractures in middle-aged or elderly males and females although the scientific evidence is inadequate.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  9. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  10. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  11. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children.

  12. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  14. Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The marketing chain for the commodity is simple and crude. It starts from the raw cow milk processors ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  15. BENCHMARKS FOR MILK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN THE PERNAMBUCO AGRESTE REGION, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLA CONCEIÇÃO OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and assess the technological, zootechnical and socioeconomic profiles and identify and quantify benchmarks for dairy cattle production systems, in a non-experimental approach, aiming to contribute to the sustainability and competitiveness of dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region, northeastern Brazil. Thirty-six milk production systems of family and corporate farming were evaluated during twelve months, in order to identify and quantify the benchmarks. The systems were characterized regarding their size and technological, zootechnical and economic profiles. The correlation coefficients of the return rate on invested capital were assessed and regression equations were developed for each indicator, according to four scenarios of annual return rates (4, 6, 8 and 10%. The indicators evaluated were milk production per dairy cows, milk production per area, average price of milk, effective operational cost, total operating cost, total cost per price of milk and profitability. The dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region pays the production costs, but tends to a not adequate remuneration of family labor and a need of external capital input for replacement of the assets. The productivity of production factors area and animals showed higher correlation with cost-effectiveness, denoting the need for increase the production through increases in land area and milk productivity per dairy cow. The identification and quantification of benchmarks may help to identify the weak points of dairy farming in the Agreste region, making it sustainable and competitive.

  16. Simulation and Flexibility Analysis of Milk Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    . Such flexible dairy production line can adjust its production pace in manufacturing different products without replacing existing equipment in the production line. In this work, the dairy process simulator is applied to study the flexibility of milk production line. In the same production line, various......In this work, process simulation method is used to simulate pasteurised market milk production line. A commercial process simulation tool - Pro/II from Simulation Science Inc. is used in the simulation work. In the simulation, a new model is used to calculate the thermal property of milk....... In this work, a simulator is obtained for the milk production line. Using the simulator, different milk processing situation can be quantitatively simulated investigated, such as different products production, capacity changes, fat content changes in raw milk, energy cost at different operation conditions etc...

  17. Peptides in fermented Finnish milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Kahala

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the rate of proteolysis and peptide profiles of different Finnish fermented milk products. The highest rate of proteolysis was observed in Biokefir, while the greatest change in the rate of proteolysis was observed in Gefilus®. Differences in starters and manufacturing processes reflected on the peptide profiles of the products. Most of the identified peptides originated from either the N- or C-terminal region of β-casein or from the N-terminal region of αs1-casein.

  18. "Lost milk?": Counting the economic value of breast milk in gross domestic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of breastfeeding and mothers milk to the economy is invisible in economic statistics. This article demonstrates how the economic value of human milk production can be included in economic statistics such as gross domestic product (GDP) and provides estimates for Australia, the United States, and Norway. The contribution of human milk and lactation to GDP in these countries is estimated using United Nations (System of National Accounting) guidelines and conventional economic valuation approaches to measuring production in GDP. In Australia, current human milk production levels exceed $3 billion annually. The United States has the potential to produce human milk worth more than US$110 billion a year, but currently nearly two thirds of this value is lost due to premature weaning. In Norway, production valued at US$907 million annually is 60% of its potential value. The potential loss of economic value from not protecting women's lactation and milk production from competing market pressures is large. Failure to account for mothers' milk production in GDP and other economic data has important consequences for public policy. The invisibility of human milk reduces the perceived importance of programs and regulations that protect and support women to breastfeed. The value of human milk can be measured using accepted international guidelines for calculating national income and production. It is quantitatively nontrivial and should be counted in GDP.

  19. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  20. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H⁺]; wavelength of maximum absorption, λ(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ε, 8.1037 × 10⁷), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria

  1. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Perko, B.; Rogelj, I.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Skubic, V.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0·2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day

  2. Geographical influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To model the influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein dairy herds on pasture in South Africa, the maximum entropy (Maxent) modelling technique was used in a novel approach to model and map optimal milk-producing areas. Geographical locations of farms with top milk-producing Holstein herds on pasture ...

  3. A 100-Year Review: The production of fluid (market) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, David M

    2017-12-01

    During the first 100 years of the Journal of Dairy Science, dairy foods and dairy production dairy scientists have partnered to publish new data and research results that have fostered the development of new knowledge. This knowledge has been the underpinning of both the commercial development of the fluid milk processing industry and regulations and marketing policies for the benefit of dairy farmers, processors, and consumers. During the first 50 years, most of the focus was on producing and delivering high-quality raw milk to factories and improving the shelf life of pasteurized fluid milk. During the second 50 years, raw milk quality was further improved through the use of milk quality payment incentives. Due to changing demographics and lifestyle, whole fluid milk consumption declined and processing technologies were developed to increase the range of fluid milk products (skim and low-fat milks, flavored milks, lactose-reduced milk, long-shelf-life milks, and milks with higher protein and calcium contents) offered to the consumer. In addition, technology to produce specialty high-protein sports beverages was developed, which expanded the milk-based beverage offerings to the consumer. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  5. MILK PRODUCTION IN INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Z. Biavatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pasture degradation and thermic stress are in economic trouble for milk producers. The use of silvopastoral system (SSP is an important tool to minimize this loss, since it combines the production and conservation of natural resources, furthermore, provides the producer the potential to diversify the source of income of rural property, it is possible sale or own use of the products generated by the trees as timber, firewood and fruit. With the implementation of the SSP is possible to attenuate the effects of high temperatures caused by direct solar incidence on the animals, providing an ideal thermal comfort zone, resulting in increased production, it will expend less energy so that the animals are able to be as close as possible the necessary thermal comfort. Besides, with the adoption of this system, occurs a minor pasture degradation by promoting the formation of a microclimate favoring their establishment and maintenance, in addition to stabilizing soils, unpacked action of roots and preventing erosion. The purpose of this work was study the main aspects that affect the production of milk, proposing the use of integrated systems to minimize losses from thermal stress and degradation of pastures.

  6. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  7. Towards Sustainable Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulku, M. Ali; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    an environmentally conscious (green) consumer who will buy one of two available, horizontally differentiated products: a modular product (M) manufactured by Firm M or a standard product (S) manufactured by Firm S. Firm M can take advantage of its modular production technology and product return policy...... and numerical examples to render practical insights: The refund rate has a strong impact on profits; sensitivity of product greenness can be increased by conscientious advertising, and the reusability of modular parts encourages lower pricing and higher market share. We assert that modularity is a strong...... concept and practice in developing sustainable products and thereby in production, which, in turn, may enhance sustainable consumption. This study's findings have direct implications for reverse supply chain management, and firms should take these findings into account early in the product design phase....

  8. Radiocaesium transfer from whole milk to a range of milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, Catherine; Cunningham, J.D.; Mitchell, P.I.

    1990-12-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this report, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  9. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  10. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In each experiment, 10 randomly selected Holstein cows were fed the five diets according to a double 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. ... In the trial using a 50 : 50 mixture of LH and OH as roughage source, the fat content of milk ...

  11. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  12. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  13. The radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The situation in the area around the town of Kiel in a given period of time is taken as the example to explain the radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl fallout. The measured data reported refer to the nuclides I-131 and Cs-137 in milk, and are compared with data on the I-131 and Cs-137 activity measured in raw milk collected in southern Bavaria, and in other Lands of the F.R.G. (DG) [de

  14. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  15. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  16. Can collusion promote sustainable consumption and production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Spiegel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several competition authorities have taken public interest considerations, such as promoting sustainable consumption and production, into account in cartel proceedings.We show that when consumers value sustainable products and firms choose investments in sustainability before choosing output,

  17. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILKING LIVESTOCK AND MILK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milking livestock and milk production in Romania during the period 20072-012 and to establish the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat. The methods used in this study were: the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. While the number of dairy cows declined by 30 %, accounting for 1,265 thou heads in 2012, the number of female sheep and goats increased by 45 % reaching 8,726 thou heads. The farm size is very small, 1-2 cows/farm for 59 % holdings, 3-9 cows/farm for 38 % holdings and over 10 cows for only 3 % farms and the extensive technology is the most practiced one. Milk production declined by 20 %, accounting for 44,172 thou hl in 2012, of which 86 % is produced by cows. Milk production value contributes by 32 % to agricultural production value. Cow milk yield is small, only 3,417 kg/cow in 2012 and in decline. Only about 22 % of milk is delivered to dairies and the remaining is consumed on farm and directly sold in the market because of the low milk farm gate price and milk quality. The producer's price is the lowest in the EU, accounting for Euro 29.84/100 milk kg. As a conclusion, to rehabilitate the sector of milk producing, the farmers' associative forms are required to join the capital and financial resources, to apply for EU funding to modernize the farms, to produce a higher production and assure a high profitability and competitiveness.

  18. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... pasteurization are provided for by regulation, such as in part 133 of this chapter for curing of certain cheese...

  19. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed

  1. effect of gamma radiation on some properties of milk and milk products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M K

    1984-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma irradiation (safety doses to 0.75 M rad) on some properties of milk and some dairy products. Attention was focused on the behaviour of some nuisance and hazardous groups of microorganisms as well as some other properties towards irradiation of cows', buffaloes' and goats' milk. In addition , a study of the properties of their milk fat including its constants and fatty acids composition was undertaken . The utilization of this technique in the prolongation of the shelf life of some dairy products was also investigated.

  2. effect of gamma radiation on some properties of milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma irradiation (safety doses to 0.75 M rad) on some properties of milk and some dairy products. Attention was focused on the behaviour of some nuisance and hazardous groups of microorganisms as well as some other properties towards irradiation of cows', buffaloes' and goats' milk. In addition , a study of the properties of their milk fat including its constants and fatty acids composition was undertaken . The utilization of this technique in the prolongation of the shelf life of some dairy products was also investigated

  3. Production, composition and properties of mare’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most countries of the world, mare’s milk has always been appreciated due to the proposed therapeutic effects. Thus, it has been increasingly used in nutrition, cosmetics and pharmacy and as a substitute for human milk in newborn diets. According to some estimation, about 30 million people worldwide consume mare’s milk. Recently, mare’s milk has become an interesting product in Croatia because of its specific composition and properties. The optimal ratio of casein to whey proteins and the high digestibility make mare’s milk acceptable for the infant diet, why numerous researchers and discussions focus on it. The aim of this study was to establish chemical composition and the most important properties of mare’s milk, as well as possibilities of its utilization. Because of the high percentage of whey proteins, mare’s milk is a rich source of essential aminoacids and is also convenient for human consumption. In comparison to cow and human milk, mare’s milk lipids contain less triacylglycerols (c. 80 % mare vs c. 98 % cow and human, but it has a higher percentage of phospholipids (c. 5 % and free fatty acids (c. 9 %. Besides, mare’s milk is characterized by a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lactose, vitamins A, B and C, and by a lower content of cholesterol.

  4. Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

  5. Sustainability aspects of biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, L.; Cel, W.; Wójcik Oliveira, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, world development depends on the energy supply. The use of fossil fuels leads to two threats: depletion of resources within a single century and climate changes caused by the emission of CO2 from fossil fuels combustion. Widespread application of renewable energy sources, in which biofuels play a major role, is proposed as a counter-measure. The paper made an attempt to evaluate to what extent biofuels meet the criteria of sustainable development. It was shown that excessive development of biofuels may threaten the sustainable development paradigms both in the aspect of: intergenerational equity, leading to an increase of food prices, as well as intergenerational equity, resulting in degradation of the environment. The paper presents the possibility of sustainable biofuels production increase.

  6. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  7. Milk production potential of South African Boer and Nguni goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Given the ever-growing human population, particularly in the rural areas of ... of the NG were randomly allocated to extensive (veld) and intensive (high energy ... Table 1 Goat milk production and composition (7-100 days) for Boer and Nguni does. ... breeds to produced 0.75, 1.0 and 0.6 kg/milk/day respectively, which in ...

  8. Early provision of oropharyngeal colostrum leads to sustained breast milk feedings in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Snyder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal colostrum (OC application strategies have been shown to be feasible and safe for very low birth weight (VLBW infants. Evidence to support the nutritional and clinical advantages of OC care remains somewhat theoretical. The objectives of this study were to a confirm the feasibility and safety of OC application in preterm infants and b determine if OC application is associated with improved nutritional and clinical outcomes from birth to discharge. We hypothesized that OC application in the first few days would promote sustained breast milk feedings through discharge. Methods: An observational longitudinal study was conducted in 133 VLBW infants during 2013–14, after an OC protocol was adopted. Maternal and infant characteristics, infant vital signs during administration, nutritional outcomes, and common neonatal morbidities were assessed and compared to 85 age- and weight-matched VLBW infants from a retrospective control cohort from 2012, prior to the implementation of the OC protocol. Results: There were no adverse events or changes in vital signs during the application of OC. VLBW infants who received OC continued to receive the majority of their enteral feeds from human breast milk at six 6 of age and through discharge (p < 0.01. There was no difference in maternal characteristics known to affect breast milk production, and rates of common neonatal morbidities were statistically similar between groups. Conclusion: OC application for VLBW infants is safe and practical in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and is associated with increased rates of breast milk feeding. Key Words: oropharyngeal colostrum, infant nutrition, prematurity, neonatology

  9. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors

  10. Reproduction and milk production performances of Draa goats in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boujenane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was a contribution to the knowledge of Draa goats. The study concerned the analysis of reproduction and milk production performances of Draa goats at Skoura research station from 1989 to 2001. Age at first kidding, gestation period, kidding interval, and kidding to conception interval averaged 25.5 months, 153 days, 157 days and 206 days, respectively. The lactation period was 133 days. Daily milk production and total milk production were 0.46 and 61.3 kg, respectively. It was concluded that it would be interesting to make use of the genetic variability present in the breed for selection purposes.

  11. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  12. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  13. Impact of Climate change on Milk production of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashutosh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.

  14. Detection of E.coli and Staphylococcus in Milk and Milk Products in and around Pantnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar and Amit Prasad

    Full Text Available The study was designed with the aim to isolate Staphylococcus and E.coli from milk (dairy farm, vendors and house and milk products (viz; Dahi, Ice cream, Gulabjamun, Burfi, Khoa and Butter. All samples were inoculated on different bacteriological media and various biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of isolates. The result of the present study revealed that out of 135 samples, 25 samples were found contaminated with Staphylococcus (14 and E.coli (11. The highest rate of contamination was recorded in Burfi (5 while the lowest was recorded in Ice cream (1. These enteropathogenic bacteria may cause problems due to improper handling and processing of milk and milk products. These organisms are significant from public health point of view as they have been associated with the onset of food poisoning in human beings. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 495-496

  15. FACTORS TO CONSIDER ABOUT MILK PRODUCTION ON PASTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Wilson da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we addressed issues that permeate discussions related to some factors to consider about milk production on pasture, since the viability of milk production on pasture until the nutritional value of pasture for dairy cows. Analyze the theme of milk production on pasture and how it is inserted within the perspective of the viability of exploiting the cattle dairy pastures in Brazil is the objective of this work. In general, it was observed that the responses of production with grazing animals are conditioned on the rational use of pasture, so this factor of production represents an economical feed source for livestock destined for milk production. For that, it is evident the need to use land intensively, in order to obtain forage quantity and quality necessary to fully meet the nutritional needs of cows, lactating or not. It was observed in this study the great demand for information on pasture as a resource for the production of milk, which justifies this work. It was concluded that grazing managed properly represent a viable, low cost, animal nutrition in the production of bovine milk.

  16. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, N; Sanogo, O M; Rufino, M C; van Keulen, H; Giller, K E

    2015-07-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the 'white gold' for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially during the long dry season. This study combines earlier published results of farmer participatory experiments with simulation modelling to evaluate the lifetime productivity of cows under varying feeding strategies and the resulting economic performance at farm level. We compared the profitability of cotton production to the innovation of dairy. The results show that milk production of the West African Méré breed could be expanded if cows are supplemented and kept stall-fed during the dry season. This option seems to be profitable for better-off farmers, but whether dairy will replace (some of) the role of cotton as the white gold for these smallholder farmers will depend on the cross price elasticity of cotton and milk. Farmers may (partly) replace cotton production for fodder production to produce milk if the price of cotton remains poor (below US$0.35/kg) and the milk price relatively strong (higher than US$0.38/kg). Price ratios need to remain stable over several seasons given the investments required for a change in production strategy. Furthermore, farmers will only seize the opportunity to engage in dairy if marketing infrastructure and milk markets are further developed.

  17. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  18. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  19. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Can Collusion Promote Sustainable Consumption and Production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Spiegel, Y.

    Several competition authorities consider the exemption of horizontal agreements among firms from antitrust liability if the agreements sufficiently promote public interest objectives such as sustainable consumption and production. We show that when consumers value sustainable products and firms

  1. Associations between high prepregnancy body mass index, breast-milk expression, and breast-milk production and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Geraghty, Sheela R; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2011-03-01

    Breast-milk expression is widely practiced by American mothers, but little is known about who expresses milk, how expression affects breastfeeding, or whether overweight or obese women, who have less breastfeeding success than do normal-weight women, express milk differently. We investigated 1) whether breast-milk expression behavior differed by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) category and 2) whether the different breastfeeding behaviors of overweight (BMI: ≥25 and obese (BMI: ≥30) women resulted in different breastfeeding outcomes. The subjects (n = 2288) provided information on BMI and breast-milk production, feeding, and expression in mail-in questionnaires as part of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed by using regression procedures adjusted for confounding. Women of different BMI categories overall did not differ in whether, when, or why they expressed breast milk. Before 2 mo postpartum, however, obese women were more likely (P = 0.04, unadjusted) to try milk expression and were less likely (P = 0.01, unadjusted) to express milk successfully. In addition, overweight or obesity was associated (P milk production only in women who never expressed milk. In overweight or obese women, those who ever expressed milk had longer durations of breastfeeding (P milk. Breast-milk expression behaviors may differ by maternal BMI category only in the early postpartum period. In addition, breast-milk expression may reduce differences between BMI categories in the duration of breastfeeding and support longer durations of breastfeeding.

  2. Milk consumption and mucus production in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiara, Gurkaran; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-02-01

    Many parents of children with asthma are becoming increasingly reluctant to add milk to their children's diet because they believe it will worsen their children's asthma owing to increased mucus secretion. Recognizing the importance of milk as part of a healthy diet in supporting growth and calcium consumption, is it advisable to restrict milk in the diet? Dating back to the 12th century, milk has been proscribed for patients with asthma. However, to this very date studies have not been able to provide a definitive link for this recommendation. As there is a need for more conclusive evidence to determine the effect of milk among children with asthma and further understanding of mechanisms involved in mucus production, milk should not be eliminated or restricted. Health Canada recommends 2 servings of milk (0.5 L) a day for children 2 to 8 years of age and 3 to 4 servings of milk a day (0.75 to 1 L) for children 9 to 13 years of age for unrestricted healthy development.

  3. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  4. Relationships between Milk Progesterone Profiles and Genetic Merit for Milk Production, Milking Frequency, and Feeding Regimen in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles were determined from samples obtained twice weekly for 100 d postpartum in 100 Holstein primiparous cows at a Dutch experimental farm. Three treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with high-low genetic merit for overall production, high-low caloric

  5. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkvenik, Vesna; Perko, Bogdan; Rogelj, Irena; Doganoc, Darinka Z; Skubic, Valentin; Beek, Wim M J; Keukens, Henk J

    2004-02-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day ripened cheese; and whey, secondary whey and whey proteins obtained after cheese-making (albumin cheese). The concentration of the H2B1a component of IVM was analysed in these dairy products using an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The mean recovery of the method was, depending on the matrix, between 87 and 100%. Limits of detection in the order of only 0.1 microg H2B1a/kg of product were achieved. Maximum concentrations of IVM were detected mostly at 2 d after drug administration to the ewes. The highest concentration of IVM was found on day 2 in 60-day ripened cheese (96 microg H2B1a/kg cheese). Secondary whey was the matrix with the lowest concentration of IVM (milk fat and solid content were evident. During yoghurt production, fermentation and thermal stability of IVM was observed. During cheese production, approximately 35% of the IVM, present in the raw (bulk) milk samples, was lost. From the results it was concluded that the processing of ewes' milk did not eliminate the drug residues under investigation. The consequences of IVM in the human diet were discussed. Milk from treated animals should be excluded from production of fat products like cheese for longer after treatment with IVM than for lower fat products.

  6. The Production of Goat Milk under Organic Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has turned into a very important subject who consists in a food production label and it has become very popular. That is because, especially in the EU the majority of the dairy goat farms want or have already applied the organic farming in order to benefit not only from the good price of milk but also from the given positive image. The main issue of this study is the high production of goat milk using organic farming under specific regulations. Therefore, the organic farming is based on a safe environment, 100% organic feedstuffs, healthy animals (by prevention of diseases, natural mating, reduced stress in animal rearing, modern stables and milking equipment. A few feeding rations were established to improve the quantity and quality of goat milk.

  7. Transfer of 226Ra, 85Sr and 137Cs from milk to milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 226 Ra, 85 Sr and 137 Cs from cow and sheep milk to various Syrian dairy products has been evaluated. Dairy products include Kashkivan cheese, braided cheese, Haloom cheese, Sircassian cheese, liquid cheese, native cheese, cottage, thick yogurt, butter and milk cream. The results showed that the percentage of 226 Ra, 85 Sr and 137 Cs transferred from cow milk to milk cream (P t = food processing retention factor x processing efficiency x 100%) has reached 32%, 16% and 7%, respectively. Butter and liquid cheese were found to have the lowest percentage of transferred 226 Ra, 85 Sr and 137 Cs. Most of the obtained P t values of the studied radionuclides in thick yogurt were relatively low in spite of the high processing efficiencies of thick yogurt. Moreover, the transfer, P t , of the studied radionuclides from cow milk to the prepared cheese was higher than those values determined for sheep milk. This is due to differences in chemical compositions of each type of milk. On the other hand, the treatment of Native cheese, most commonly consumed cheese in Syria, with different concentrations of NaCl solutions showed that 137 Cs was completely removed from cheese soaking in 5% NaCl solution (soaking time of 48 hours), while 40% of 226 Ra and 80% of 85 Sr were also decontaminated using 0-2.5% NaCl solutions and soaking time of 48 hours. Based on the obtained results, industrialization processes of the dairy products that resulted the removal of radionuclides have been identified. (author)

  8. Protein carbonylation sites in bovine raw milk and processed milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Mnatsakanyan, Ruzanna; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-08-15

    During thermal treatment of milk, proteins are oxidized, which may reduce the nutritional value of milk, abolish protein functions supporting human health, especially important for newborns, and yield potentially harmful products. The side chains of several amino acids can be oxidized to reactive carbonyls, which are often used to monitor oxidative stress in organisms. Here we mapped protein carbonylation sites in raw milk and different brands of pasteurized, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated milk, and infant formulas (IFs) after digesting the precipitated proteins with trypsin. Reactive carbonyls were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine to enrich the modified peptides by avidin-biotin affinity chromatography and analyze them by nanoRP-UPLC-ESI-MS. Overall, 53 unique carbonylated peptides (37 carbonylation sites, 15 proteins) were identified. Most carbonyls were derived from dicarbonyls (mainly glyoxal). The number of carbonylation sites increased with the harsher processing from raw milk (4) to pasteurized (16) and UHT milk (16) and to IF (24). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J; Kenny, D A; Mee, J F; O'Mara, F P; Wathes, D C; Cook, M; Murphy, J J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency and increased dietary energy density in early lactation on milk production, energy balance, and subsequent fertility. Sixty-six spring-calving, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: once-daily milking on a standard diet (1xST); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (3xST); and 3-times daily milking on a high-energy diet. Treatments were imposed for the first 28 d of lactation, after which all groups were milked twice daily and fed the standard diet. During the treatment period, the 1xST cows had 19.6% lower milk yield and higher milk fat and milk protein concentrations (15.7 and 10.2%, respectively) compared with 3xST. Dry matter (DM) intake was similar between 1xST and 3xST during the treatment period (12.64 vs. 13.25 kg/ d; SED = 0.82). Daily energy balance was less negative for 1xST compared with 3xST during wk 1 to 3 of lactation [-3.92 vs. -5.30 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d; SED = 0.65; 1 UFL is equal to the net energy for lactation of 1 kg of standard air-dry barley]. During the treatment period, the cows on the high-energy diet had 17% higher milk yield, higher DM intake (15.5 vs. 13.9 kg/d; SED = 0.71), and similar energy balance (-4.45 vs. -4.35 UFL/d; SED = 0.65) compared to 3xST. Diet had no significant effect on any of the fertility variables measured. The interval to first ovulation was shorter for 1xST than 3xST (18.3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status.

  10. Enterotoxigenic coagulase positive Staphylococcus in milk and milk products, lben and jben, in northern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Abid, Mohammed; Bouteldoun, Nadine; Catelejine, Dierick; Lebbadi, Mariam

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxin genes (sea-seo) in Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CPS) isolated from unpasteurized milk and milk products. These results were compared with the results obtained by using the detection kit SET-RPLA for the specific detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA-SED). Eighty-one samples of milk and milk products were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus strains. Forty-six coagulase positive Staphylococcus isolates were tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA-SED) by using the reversed passive latex agglutination method. The strains were also tested for the presence of se genes (sea-seo) by polymerase chain reaction. One or more classical enterotoxin products (SEA-SED) were observed in 39% of the strains tested, while se genes were detected in 56.5%. SEA and sea were most commonly detected. For newly discovered se genes among CPS isolates tested in this study, except the seh gene which was revealed in four isolates (8.7 %), none of the strains harbored any of the other se genes (see, seg, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, seo and sen). The finding of a pathogen such as staphylococci-producing SEs and containing se genes in milk and milk products in northern Morocco may indicate a problem for public health in this region. The presence of enterotoxigenic strains in food does not always necessarily mean that the toxin will be produced. For that reason, the combination of both methods (RPLA and PCR) is a guarantee for success in diagnostic analysis tests.

  11. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  12. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  13. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products by direct saponification and capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletouris, D J; Botsoglou, N A; Psomas, I E; Mantis, A I

    1998-11-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products. Samples (0.2 g) are saponified in capped tubes with 0.5 M methanolic KOH solution by heating for 15 min at 80 degrees C. Water is added to the mixtures, and the unsaponifiable fractions are extracted with hexane to be further analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Because of the rapid sample preparation and gas chromatographic procedures, a single sample can be analyzed in 30 min. Overall recovery was 98.6%, and the linearity was excellent for the fortification range examined. Precision data that were based on the variation within and between days suggested an overall relative standard deviation value of 1.4%. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate cholesterol in a variety of milk products.

  15. Influence of Electrical Conductivity, Days in Milk and Parity on Milk Production and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ionel Neamț

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess milk production and chemical composition during the first 100 days of lactation, under the influence of electrical conductivity, parity and days in milk. Study was conducted at Research and Development Station for Bovine Arad, on 66 Romanian Spotted cows (20 primiparous, 46 multiparous. Significantly higher values (p≤0.017 of electrical conductivity were recorded for primiparous (10.15±0.09 mS/cm compared with multiparous (8.79±0.15 mS/cm. During the first 30 DIM electrical conductivity was higher (9.7±0.12 mS/cm than for 31 to 60 DIM (9.04±0.12 mS/cm; p≤0.001 and for 61 to 100 DIM (8.17±0.11 mS/cm, p≤0.001. Multifactorial regression model applied highlights significant influence of month of calving (p≤0.001 and DIM (p≤0.034 on the electrical conductivity, while parity had no influence (p>0.36. Medium and negative correlations were calculated between electrical conductivity and some chemical components (fat R=-0.15, protein R=-0.13, while to milk production correlation was positive (R=0.12. No significant correlations were obtained according to lactose content (R=-0.013. Dynamics of milk production and chemical composition have been significantly influenced by month of calving (p≤0.001, DIM (p≤0.001 and parity (p≤0.002. This study found no significant influence of milk electrical conductivity on milk production or chemical composition (p>0.59.

  16. Waste reuse and disposal practices in milk production in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Istvan Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six largest producers of milk cow in the world. In 2010, Brazilian milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data from IBGE. As stated by an IPARDES report in 2010, Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for an increased production of 71% between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to verify waste reuse and disposal in dairy cattle farming in Paraná. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, 79.4% of milk producers informed they have day-to-day practices to reuse wastes internally produced in farming. Main practice highlighted was the use of manure waste in agriculture. Only one producer in the sample adopted the use of poultry manure. Considering correct disposal of pesticide packaging, 84.4% of producers are in accordance to legal requirements; 10.1% of total interviewed producers do not follow legal requirement for packaging disposal, and 5% do not use pesticides at all, so not being concerned to that practice. Concerning appropriate disposal of medical

  17. Transfer of aflatoxin from feed to milk and curd in Sarda ewes with different milk production level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pulina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a toxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus growing in feedstuffs. Dairy animals fed with diet containing AFB1 excrete aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 into the milk. The carry over ratio (AFM1 excreted in milk/ AFB1 ingested has been found lower in sheep (Battacone et al., 2002a than in cattle (Veldman et al., 1992. Being AFM1 linked to milk proteins, its concentration in curd is higher than in milk. The AFM1 concentration in milk resulted not influenced by milk production level in cattle, therefore the total amount of AFM1 excreted in milk and, consequently, the carry-over ratio increased with milk yield (Munksgaard et al., 1987; Veldman et al., 1992...

  18. Milk production responses to feeding fatty acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    equation: peak yield (FCM) = 22,44 + 5,88 (kg fat suppl/ d). + 3,52 (body-weight loss/d) (n = 40; R = 0,57; P < 0,01), for the combined trial data. No significant differences were recorded for the butterfat and protein concentrations in the milk. A tendency towards increased weight losses, although non-significant, was recorded ...

  19. Characterization of casein phosphopeptides from fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Aruga, Kaori; Otani, Hajime

    2005-10-01

    This study dealt with the potential of fermented milk products as a source of functional casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) using plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses. The CPPs were prepared by tryptic digestion from four commercially available plain yogurts (P1-P4), five Camembert cheeses (C1-C5), and raw milk. From portions with a 1-g protein content of the plain yogurts, the Camembert cheeses, and the raw milk, 171 mg, 139 mg, and 146 mg of CPPs were obtained, respectively. The Camembert cheeses retained high amounts of organic phosphorus (32 microg) per 1 mg CPPs compared to the raw milk (15 microg) and plain yogurts (16 microg). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis showed that the elution patterns and retention times of the three major peaks of CPPs from P1 and C1 were similar to those from raw milk. Moreover, CPPs from P1 and C1 showed a mitogenic effect, while CPPs from C1 showed an IgA-enhancing effect in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that fermented milk products such as plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses generate functional CPPs in the body and exert beneficial effects on the immune system.

  20. Immunofluorescence detection of milk protein in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are various vegetable protein additives intended for the manufacture of meat products in the food industry. These ingredients include both, plant-origin as well as animal-origin proteins. The most common vegetable additives include various types of flour, starch, fiber and plant protein. Among animal proteins, the most commonly used are plasma, collagen or milk protein. Milk protein is added to meat products due to its functional properties, such as emulsifying fats, improving the holding capacity of meat, improving juiciness, gel-forming capacity and affecting the taste of the product. Usage of these proteins, however, is currently limited by the effective legislation, not only in order to prevent consumer deception, but also because of their potential impact on consumers' health of. Thus, this issue has received considerable attention not only in the Czech Republic, but also globally. The main risk is the impossibility of selecting a suitable foodstuff for individuals with potential allergic reactions. The only option for allergic consumers to protect themselves is to strictly exclude the given allergen from their diet. Although the number of studies dealing with the reduction or loss of allergenicity is increasing, yet these practices are not common. Most of the population suffering from food allergies is thus still dependent on strict exclusion of foodstuffs causing adverse allergic reactions from their diet. Detection of allergens in foodstuffs is unfortunately quite difficult due to the fact that they occur in trace amounts and are often masked by different parts of the foodstuff. This research dealt with the detection of milk protein in meat products purchased in the market network of the Czech Republic, whereas declaration given by the manufacturer on the packaging for the small meat products purchased from the market was used to verify the detection of milk protein by the immunofluorescence method. 20 products were

  1. Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R

    2012-06-01

    Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf.

  2. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  3. Nutritional value of milk and meat products derived from cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Daniel; Dubarry, Michel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    The development and use of milk and meat products derived from cloning depends on their safety and on the nutritional advantages they can confer to the products as perceived by consumers. The development of such products thus implies (i) to demonstrate their safety and security, (ii) to show that their nutritional value is equivalent to the traditional products, and (iii) to identify the conditions under which cloning could allow additional nutritional and health benefit in comparison to traditional products for the consumers. Both milk and meat products are a source of high quality protein as determined from their protein content and essential amino acid profile. Milk is a source of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B2 and B12. Meat is a source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. An important issue regarding the nutritional quality of meat and milk is the level and quality of fat which usually present a high content in saturated fat and some modification of the fat fraction could improve the nutritional quality of the products. The role of the dietary proteins as potential allergens has to be taken into account and an important aspect regarding this question is to evaluate whether the cloning does not produce the appearance of novel allergenic structures. The presence of bio-activities associated to specific components of milk (lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, growth factors, anti-microbial components) also represents a promising development. Preliminary results obtained in rats fed cow's milk or meat-based diets prepared from control animals or from animals derived from cloning did not show any difference between control and cloning-derived products.

  4. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05 among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05 the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05 on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk

  5. Analysing trade-offs between milk, feed and manure production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Sabrina; Gardebroek, C.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The abolition of milk quota fuels environmental concerns in the Netherlands. A microeconomic model is developed to analyse the technical relations between milk, roughage and manure production. Production functions for milk, feed and roughage are estimated based on milk quota and manure constraints.

  6. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  7. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...] Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for... to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk... Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Recommended Requirements for Adoption by State...

  8. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.; Bammi, A.; Barger-Lux, M.J.; Heaney, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Whole milk, chocolate milk, yogurt, imitation milk (prepared from dairy and nondairy products), cheese, and calcium carbonate were labeled with 45 Ca and administered as a series of test meals to 10 healthy postmenopausal women. Carrier Ca content of the test meals was held constant at 250 mg and subjects fasted before each meal. The absorbability of Ca from the six sources was compared by measuring fractional absorption by the double isotope method. The mean absorption values for all six sources were tightly clustered between 21 and 26% and none was significantly different from the others using one-way analysis of variance. We conclude that none of the sources was significantly superior or inferior to the others

  9. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... 59 cows and 7100 kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively. Based on cow data, 22 herd variables were defined. A factor analysis identified 10 first-order factors and 5 second-order factors. The latter factors were valid indicators of replacement intensity, variability of milk production, potential...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The derived...

  10. CONSIDERATIONS UPON MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCT PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of milk production and dairy products in the USA during the period 2004-2006, based on USDA Statistics. The USA is a top produce of milk and dairy products in the world. Milk production accounted for 181,798 Millions Pounds in the year 2006. Its continuously increase during the last years has been positively influenced by the increasing number of dairy cows and average milk yield . The top states are California, Wisconsin, New York, Idaho and Pennsylvania, which all together achieve about 54 % of the country milk production. Over 99.37 % of Milk Production is marketed. Considering all milk marketings, Million USD 23,422 cash receiptscould be obtained from a dairy farm in the year 2006. The average return per Cwt was about USD 13 in 2006 . Milk is processed by about 1,000 manufacturing plants in a large variety of dairy products. Cheese production was about 9.5 Billion Pounds in the last analyzed years. The US also produces important amounts of butter , yogurt, ice cream etc. About 8.3 % of the US dairy products are exported, the most markets being Japan, Mexico and Canada.

  11. Price strategies for sustainable food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Sustainable products often suffer a competitive disadvantage compared with mainstream products because they must cover ecological and social costs that their competitors leave to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to identify price strategies for sustainable products that

  12. Partial Characterisation of Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus cereus Isolates from Milk and Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Bogović Matijašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one (19.2 % out of 161 Bacillus cereus isolates from raw milk and milk products were found to produce proteinaceous substances which inhibit the growth of other B. cereus isolates. The detection of antibacterial activity depended on medium and method used. Bactericidal activity was detected in 23 (14 % or 19 (12 % of the tested strains on the triptic soya agar and brain-heart infusion with glucose, respectively, while 11 (7 % of the strains produced bactericidal substances on both media. Nineteen percent of isolates from raw milk and 20 % of isolates from milk products were found to produce bacteriocins. Four B. cereus isolates inhibited the growth of individual test strains belonging to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus helveticus and L. casei species. The bacteriocins of four B. cereus isolates were studied in more detail. The production and activity of these substances were detected in stationary- phase of bacterial culture. Two of them were stable after heating at 60 °C, while only one was stable after heating at 75 °C for 15 minutes. All of them were active over a range of pH=3–10. The apparent molecular weights of four bacteriocins detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were in the range of 1 to 8 kDa.

  13. A statistical study on consumer's perception of sustainable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Izvercian, Monica; Ivaşcu, Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability and sustainable concepts are quite often but not always used correctly. The statistical research on consumer's perception of sustainable products has tried to identify the level of knowledge regarding the concept of sustainability and sustainable products, the selected criteria concerning the buying decision, the intention of purchasing a sustainable product, main sustainable products preferred by consumers.

  14. Conditions of milk production of family farms located in the municipality of Alegre – ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvalho Nascimento Neta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the conditions and practices of production of raw milk used by farmers, as well as the conditions of storage and of the facilities and structures of the locations of the four collective cooling tanks, in the municipality of Alegre – ES. Data on sanitization procedures and physical structure of barns, source and treatment of water, hygiene practices and health status of milkers, udder cleaning and disinfection procedures and sanitary control of the herd was collected. The physical structure of the locations of the tanks was also assessed. The barns were ventilated, protected from moisture and had covers, and few had cemented floor and milking parlor. A low percentage of producers performed pre (21% and post (6% dipping procedures. Only 1/4 of the farmers used the mug test. All equipment and tools were washed after milking, but few farmers (5% used sanitizers and 94% of the farms used untreated water. Only 8% of the milkers had the habit of washing their hands before milking, and 9% of them were aware of IN 62 regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. None of the facilities had protection against the entrance of insects, rodents and environmental contaminants. They were poorly sized, did not allow the application of adequate sanitary measures and sanitary conditions were deficient. The high level of nonconformities regarding good manufacturing practices for milk production reinforced the need for the implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in rural farms for the purpose of obtaining milk produced according to the quality standards, preventing losses and ensuring the sustainability of dairy production in the region.

  15. Ergonomic evaluation of workload by milk production - a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claudilaine Caldas; Pereira Moro, Antônio Renato; Ulbricht, Leandra; Belinelli, Marjorie; de Souza, Gilberto F M; Gabriel, Michele; Zattar, Izabel Cristina

    2017-09-21

    The purpose of this study was to select in a structured manner the relevant articles with scientific recognition, and simultaneously identify the characteristics of these publications that may scientifically enrich the theme in a portfolio of papers. The theme involves ergonomics in milk production as a criterion for evaluating and improving organizational performance in the milking sector. The study used ProKnow-C as a theoretical instrument for intervention. The main results show: i) a bibliographic portfolio of 18 items aligned with the view adopted by researchers which served as a theoretical framework for this research; ii) The article entitled "Wrist positions and movements as possible risk factors during machine milking", by Marianne Stål, Gert-Åke Hansson and Ulrich Moritz in 1999 and published in the Journal of Applied Ergonomics presented the highest scientific recognition, iii) the authors highlighted in the bibliographic portfolio or in its references researching the subject are Gert-Åke Hansson, Marianne Stål and Stefan Pinzke, and iv) the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics shows the highest number of scientific articles in the bibliographic portfolio. The studies selected using the methodology indicate research in ergonomics focused on the production of milk in rural areas, specifically in the milking sector, are generally related to the health and safety of the workers.

  16. Decreased antibiotic susceptibility and enhanced probiotic production potential of goat milk fermented curd in comparison with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Lakhanpal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to characterize and compare the production potential and antibiotic susceptibility of probiotics isolated from goat, cow and buffalo milk. The probiotics isolated from milk fermented curd were compared with regard to their number, morphology, gram staining, motility, bile salt tolerance, pH-resistance, catalase activity, oxidase production and antibiotic resistance. We demonstrated that the probiotics isolated from milk fermented curd of all three species were gram positive, motile, catalase negative, and oxidase negative and were able to produce lactic acid. Further, we observed that buffalo milk is more potent in forming curd with the highest count of probiotics per ml (3.53 × 10!5 as compared to cow (5.8 × 10!6 and goat milk (7×10!7; moreover, goat milk bacterial isolates were more tolerant to acidic pH but were less bile-salt tolerant than cow milk. Also, probiotics isolated from goat milk curd were more resistant to antibiotics (resistant to 12 out of 15 screened antibiotics than those from cow and buffalo milk (resistant to 8-9 antibiotics. This report shows that goat milk fermented products possess the highest antibacterial potential and are highly acid-tolerant.

  17. [Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jie; Cao, Jia; Shu, Wei-qun

    2011-01-01

    To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand, and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method. A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected in 40 samples of human milk (averaged at (10.58 ± 4.16) types per sample); 37 different types were detected in 12 samples of fresh cow milk (averaged at (8.67 ± 1.61) types per sample); while 31 types of organic components were detected in 3 samples of milk powder (averaged at (12.67 ± 0.58) types per sample). It was obvious that the types of organic components in milk powder were significantly higher than the other two groups (t = 2.09, 4.00, P milk and cow milk was 9-octadecenoic acid (45.00% (18/40) in human milk; 53.33% (8/15) in cow milk). DBP concentrations were (57.78 ± 35.42) µg/L, (20.76 ± 6.60) µg/L and (0.45 ± 0.05) mg/kg (equal to (66.78 ± 7.60) µg/L) in human milk, fresh cow milk and milk powder, respectively. The DBP concentration in fresh cow milk was significantly lower than those in human milk and milk powder (t = 37.02, 46.02, P milk and cow milk contain different types of organic pollutants, some of which have toxic effects on reproduction and human development.

  18. Application of ESL (Extended Shelf Life) Technology in Drinking Milk Production

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNVER, Naciye; ÇELİK, Şerafettin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays pasteurization andUHT are the best known and most commonly used technologies in milk production.While products which have shorter shelf life and fresh taste are obtained byusing pasteurization, products which have longer shelf life but less desirabletaste are obtained by UHT technology. ESL technology is a new method which wasdeveloped to obtain a longer shelf life product than pasteurized milk andbetter sensory quality product than UHT milk. ESL milk includes technologiessuch as mic...

  19. Production of ethanol and biomass starting to present lactose in the milk whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles-Ramirez, K.; Arana-cuenca, A.; Tellez-Jurado, A.

    2009-01-01

    Milk whey is a by-product of the milk industry, a highly polluting waste due to the quantity of COD and BOD that it contains. The contamination caused by milk whey is mostly due to its lactose content. The fermentation of milk whey to ethanol is a possible road to reduce the polluting effect. (Author)

  20. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 μg/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 μg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 μg/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 μg/kg) and Cd (0.01 μg/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 μg/kg and 0.8-1.0 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    1999-03-09

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 {mu}g/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 {mu}g/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 {mu}g/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 {mu}g/kg) and Cd (0.01 {mu}g/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 {mu}g/kg and 0.8-1.0 {mu}g/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Alternatives to cow’s milk products in infant nutrition: Goat’s milk-based formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Hozyasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing consumer awareness of the relationship between nutrition and health. Goat milk is a food of high nutrition value, with high biological value protein, and a good source of minerals and medium chain fatty acids. Infant formula manufacturers nowdays offer a wide range of products based on cow’s milk and non-bovine milks, trying to fulfill the needs of young children. The review discusses the key factors influencing the market demand for goat’s milk products.

  3. CIRP Design 2012 Sustainable Product Development

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    During its life cycle, a product produces waste that is over 20 times its weight. As such it is critical to develop products that are sustainable. Currently product development processes lack high quality methods and tools that are empirically validated to support development of sustainable products. This book is a compilation of over forty cutting edge international research papers from the 22nd CIRP International Design Conference, written by eminent researchers from 15 countries, on engineering design process, methods and tools, broadly for supporting sustainable product development.   A variety of new insights into the product development process, as well as a host of methods and tools that are at the cutting edge of design research are discussed and explained covering a range of diverse topics. The areas covered include: ·Sustainable design and manufacturing, ·Design synthesis and creativity, ·Global product development and product life cycle management, ·Design for X (safety, reliability, manufactu...

  4. Milk and dairy products in hotel daily menue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the portion of milk and dairyproducts as a source of macronutrients, energy, vitamins and minerals in average hotel menus for some category of hotel guests. For this purpose the evaluation of 66 whole day meals (breakfast, lunch and supper on daily menus was made. Meals were therefore mathematically and statistically analysed and compared with recommendations (RDA and DRI for middle aged and elderly guests, both genders. The obtained results indicated that the meals should be balanced according to nutritional principles, because of too high energy share derived from fats (average 47.95% while just about 37.57% of daily energy was from carbohydrates origin. The energy values were much higher than recommendations for both genders, respectively. The energy share from milk and dairy products origin was 11% of total energy what should be considered as a suitable. The most served dairy product was milk while the ice-cream took the second place. It is necessary to increase the yogurt and similar fermented products consumption, especially for the elderly guests. With milk and dairy products consumption males and females fulfill 92% RDA for calcium, and 61.80 % DRI for elderly, respectively.

  5. Correlation analysis of milk production traits across three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between milk production traits over whole lactations was evaluated across three generations of Simmental cows (between daughters, dams and granddams) by a corelation analysis with whole lactation traits in the daughter generation being used as the dependent variables (x1), and those in ...

  6. Evaluation of growth, milk and manure production in Norwegian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-02-20

    Feb 20, 2017 ... introducing NL goats, growth and productivity of milk have increased ... maintenance costs, are relatively inexpensive to keep, and require less fodder and .... LL was the total number of days from the day of kidding to the dry off date. ..... contribution to household food security in high potential areas of East ...

  7. [Composition of nutrients and minerals in some goat milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, R; Ganowiak, Z; Nabrzyski, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains results of determinations of protein, fat, carbohydrates, water and minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na, K) in 12 goat milk products. The nutrient components were determined by general approved analytical methods. Minerals like Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na and K were determined by the flame ASA method. Phosphorus was determined as phosphates by colorimetric method with ammonium molybdate. Mean percentage content of protein, fat, carbohydrates and water were: 9.7-25.7; 1.4-33.5; 2.2-70.2; and 3.0-77.4 respectively. The content of minerals according to the products of goat milk were as follow: 86-1113 mg% Ca; 96-846 mg% P; 0.2-2.4 mg% Fe; 6-148 mg% Mg; 0.002-0.284 mg% Mn; 0.071-0.754 mg% Cu; 1.1-3.9 mg% Zn; 63-1281 mg% K and 27-407 mg% Na. The levels of nutrients and mineral composition of the examined goat milk products were similar to that of the cows milk products.

  8. Quantitative aspects of crystalline lactose in milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetman, K.

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence of crystalline lactose in milk products and its influence on their physical properties are briefly reviewed. The importance of the quantitive determination of crystalline lactose for scientific and industrial purposes is indicated, and a summary is given of our earlier work. This

  9. The Bacteria Quality Of The Indigenously Fermented Milk Product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty samples of 'nono', a fermented milk product akin to yoghurt, were carefully collected from three markets in Maiduguri municipality, and were examined for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Twenty-eight percent of the samples were found to be contaminated with aciduric pathogenic bacteria that may cause ...

  10. Short lecture series in sustainable product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2005-01-01

    Three lectures in sustainable product development models, methods and mindsets should give insight into the way of thinking about the environment when developing products. The first two lectures will guide you through: . Environmental problems in industry & life-cycle thinking . Professional...... methods for analysing and changing products’ environmental profiles . Sustainability as a driver for innovation...

  11. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for Adoption by... sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk. These Recommended... comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk requirements...

  12. Studies on the decarboxylation of acetolactate in milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Britta

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different parameters on the decarboxylation of acetolactate (ALA) to diacetyl and acetoin were studied. The distillation volume and the milk solids concentration had no significant effect on decarboxylation of ALA, whereas breakdown of ALA increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. Oxygenation increased diacetyl production from ALA, but diacetyl was lost from the model system. Oxygenation did not have an effect on acetoin production from ALA. Metal ions (Cu2+, Fe2+...

  13. FACTORS INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Kremyanskaya E. V.

    2016-01-01

    The study justifies the need for improving the competitiveness of milk production in the commodity market, identifies the key indicators of improving the competitiveness of milk, which include the quality and level of costs. A direct dependence of the efficiency of realization of milk and incentives of operators of machine milking (milkers) on the quality of the raw milk produced is defined by means of the method of statistical groupings. A correlation and regression analysis of the quality o...

  14. A short course in sustainable product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2005-01-01

    This short course in sustainable product development models, methods and mindsets is designed to fit into the Unical course on Engineering Design Methods. Three modules (called “seminars”) will guide you through . The demands for sustainable development . Professional methods for analysing and ch...... and changing products’ environmental profiles . A new approach to product service system development, where the physical product becomes an incidental aspect in the final offering to the customer...

  15. Identification and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from the milk and milk products in and around Jammu region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Umar; Kotwal, S. K.; Gupta, Sanjolly; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence, identification, and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from 215 samples of different milk and milk products in and around Jammu region. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 215 samples of milk, rasgulla, burfi, rasmalai, kalaari, paneer, ice cream, and pastry were collected and analyzed for the isolation of the B. cereus using PEMBA, and antibiogram pattern was observed for all the milk and milk products. Results: B. cereus was detected in 61/215 samples with an overall prevalence of 28.37%. Biotyping revealed predominantly 5, 7, and 2 biotypes in raw milk. Burfi and ice cream revealed 2, 3, 5, and 7 biotypes. Rasgulla had 2, 3, and 5 biotypes; paneer and rasmalai had biotypes 2 and 5, while kalaari revealed biotype 5. Antibiogram pattern revealed that isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), intermediate to ampicillin (40.98%), tetracycline (31.14%), erythromycin (29.50%), and amoxicillin (26.22%), and high resistance against penicillin G (100%). Adulteration of starch was detected in 16.66 % raw milk samples. All starch positive samples were positive for B. cereus. However, 12 starch negative samples also yielded B. cereus. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that highest prevalence of B. cereus was found in ice cream. Several isolates of B. cereus showed toxigenic activity, so the presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products may be of public health hazard. The antibiogram pattern of B. cereus isolates showed sensitivity to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and resistance to penicillin-G and cephalexin. The presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products showed a strong association besides establishing the fact that starch adulteration can be indicative of the presence of B. cereus. PMID:29657402

  16. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  17. Radioprotective action of milk product fermented by strain LBL 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkova, M.; G'osheva, L.; Brankova, R.

    1992-01-01

    A food product containing L. Bulgaricus LBL 4 strain and lysozyme was studied for influence upon resistance of experimental animals to nonlethal radiation exposure. The effect was assessed by recording the response of the most radiosensitive body system, that of blood formation. Male Wistar rats were used. The milk product was given by mouth daily for 15 days (3x5 days) prior to 3-Gy gamma irradiation. On day 3 and day 10 in the postradiation period, measurements were made of spleen weight, spleen and bone-marrow cellularity, and peripheral leukocyte counts. The evidence obtained indicated that pretreatment by dietary intake of LBL--4-containing milk product increased the resistance of the blood forming system to nonlethal gamma irradiation, which could be explained by strengthening of the immune activity of the body.

  18. Issue Relating to The Production and Sale of Milk Products to SC Helvetika Milk SRL Pecica, Arad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Ioana Merce

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food quality and human health influences contemporary life. Today more than ever, quality products to be safe in terms of food to meet the needs and innocuity became major values ​​for all producers, processors, distributors, especially for food consumers who are becoming more aware that their health depends on the quality of the food they consume. The paper recently a case study in a Romanian company in the dairy industry and the manufacture of dairy products, and all commercial operations the object of transaction milk and milk products, a small company that combines managed but we consider traditionalism ( the products we offer to the market modernism ( European requirements, quick marketing, producer - client relationship etc. This paper analyzes the emergence and development aspects of the company, implementing and upgrading production technology, issues related to the introduction of quality management, promotion and sale of products, customer relations, etc. We believe that SC HELVETICA MILK SRL, the constant concern of food safety, raw material procurement stage till marketing - customer satisfaction by offering quality products and thereby ensure customer loyalty. In conclusion, we believe the company is a successful example of business succces Romanian food industry.

  19. Transitioning Wood Furniture Products towards Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lei; Zhang, WeiGuang; Zhang, WeiQing

    2008-01-01

    Wood Furniture Products (WFPs) play a significant role in both the global economy and the transition of society towards sustainability. This paper begins with a brief description of the industry and highlights the current challenges and compelling measures of WFPs from a systems perspective through the lens of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and by applying backcasting from sustainability principles (SPs). An examination of the challenges and opportunities of WFPs i...

  20. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.

    Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth

  1. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensor...

  2. Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

  3. Ergonomic evaluation of workload by milk production – a bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudilaine Caldas de Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    The studies selected using the methodology indicate research in ergonomics focused on the production of milk in rural areas, specifically in the milking sector, are generally related to the health and safety of the workers.

  4. Sustainability evaluation of nanotechnology processing and production

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa M. Mata; Nídia de Sá Caetano; António A. Martins

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the current situation and challenges posed by nanotechnology from a sustainability point of view. It presents an objective methodology to evaluate the sustainability of nanotechnology products, based on a life cycle thinking approach, a framework particularly suited to assess all current and future relevant economic, societal and environmental impacts products and processes. It is grounded on a hierarchical definition of indicators, starting from 3D indicators that take...

  5. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  6. Milk production and in sacco disappearance of pasture NDF in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding low (2.4 kg/d), medium (4.8 kg/d) and high (7.2 kg/d) levels of a barley-based concentrate on milk production and in sacco ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in Jersey cows grazing a Westerwold ryegrass pasture.

  7. Supporting Sustainability and Personalization with Product Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Taps, Stig B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass Customization, Personalization and Co-creation (MCPC) are continuously being adopted as a competitive business strategy. Consumers as well as governments are at the same time applying pressure on companies to adopt a more sustainable strategy, consumers request greener products and governments...... is a driver for MCPC and earlier research within product architecture has indicated that modularization could support sustainability. In this paper, work on the drivers for modularization with focus on sustainability and MCPC, will be presented. Several modularization methods and drivers are analyzed...

  8. Scenarios for the milk production chain in Brazil in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Giovinazzo Spers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian milk production has grown steadily and in 2004 the country became self-sufficient in dairy production. This article develops possible scenarios for the milk production chain in Brazil for the year 2020 in order to contribute to decisions that must be made by stakeholders. A literature review on foresight and the use of scenarios was conducted, and a scenario writing approach based on Wright and Spers (2006 was adopted, which includes the use of the Delphi method, Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces model, Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM (WRIGHT, 1991 and quantitative projections. This methodology provided four scenarios, with quantitative and qualitative elements: two exploratory scenarios ("milk, the new agribusiness star" and "a wasted future", a most probable scenario ("continuous but uneven growth" and a desired scenario ("competitive family agriculture". Overall, it is possible to note many market opportunities, as well as niche markets and the strengthening of cooperatives. Future prospects are also favorable to the dairy industry in general, but nearly all scenarios point to a concentration in the industrial sphere.

  9. [Therapeutic-prophylactic milk products with a new immunocorrector of natural origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besednova, N N; Epshteĭn, L M; Gazha, A K; Borovskaia, G A; Besednov, A L; Rozhzhov, I V; Smolina, T P

    1997-01-01

    Authors had received and investigated on experiment milk medical and prophylactic products (milk and kefir) with addition peptide, obtained from nervous tissue of squids. It has been established that addition of gangliin to the milk and kefir causes stimulation cellular and humoral factors of immunity answer at laboratory animals. Medical and prophylactic milk products with gangliin return to the normal state reduced immunity indexes of the mice with experimental immunodeficits.

  10. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  11. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Gary L. Benson; James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Divisions 5 Conference in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11-15, 2003, focused on issues surrounding sustainable foest management and forest products research. As the conference title "Forest Products Research: Providing for Sustainable Choices" suggests, the purpose of the conference was to...

  12. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Monensin increased milk production by 0.9 kg/cow/d in cows under 150 days in milk (DIM) (P < 0.05). Monensin decreased milk fat percentage by 0.18 percentage points during the whole lactation (P < 0.05). This decreasing effect was larger for component-fed cows (P < 0.05) and for cows being fed low levels of dietary physically effective particles (P < 0.05) when compared respectively to cows fed total mixed ration and cows fed high levels of dietary physically effective particles. The results of this study suggest that monensin influences milk production and milk composition of dairy cows, and that diet composition and feeding system influence those effects. PMID:20592825

  13. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  14. DETERMINANTS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN EURO-REGIONS WITH VERY BIG MILK FARMS AFTER 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Śmigla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper was to determine the diversity and factors deciding about the variation in milk production in selected EU macro-regions. Differentiation was determined using cluster analysis, which allowed for the creation of five homogeneous groups of regions. Based on the results of factor analysis factors having a decisive influence on the processes of economic adjustment of very large dairy farms were identified. Additionally, the European macro-regions that developed most after 2004 were mentioned, alongside with those that worsened their competitive position.

  15. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    Due to their generally positive carbon dioxide balance, biofuels are seen as one of the energy carriers in a more sustainable future transportation energy system, but how good is their environmental sustainability, and where lie the main potentials for improvement of their sustainability? Questions...... like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...

  16. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  17. Meat and milk products in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Hermansen, John Erik; Eder, P.

    2009-01-01

    The overall environmental impacts from consumption of meat and dairy products in EU-27 have been assessed by the use of hybrid life cycle assessment (input-output data supplemented by specific process data). For the impact assessment, we applied a flexible model that allows results to be presented...... both in 15 traditional environmental midpoint indicators (global warming potentials, photochemical ozone creation potential, etc.) and in monetary units (Euro). Specifically for this project, a damage model for aquatic eutrophication was developed. We identified and quantified the improvement options...... for all processes contributing more than 10% to each of the midpoint impact categories. Rebound effects, synergies and dysergies of the different options were taken into account and we show the importance of rebound effects and interrelationships of the improvement options, as well as market constraints...

  18. Is Danish venison production sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    It is a popular notion in Denmark that we should include more ingredients in our diet which are gathered, caught or hunted in nature rather than grown and harvested on farmed fields and waters. These ingredients include commodities like seafood, seaweed, mushrooms, herbs and venison (meat from free......-ranging wildlife). In the recommendations for the New Nordic Diet, the Danish consumers are, among other recommendations advised to consume 35 % less meat, with more than 4 % of the consumed meat being venison (Meyer et al. 2011). This may be an impossible target. The “wild” ingredients in a modern diet are all...... assumed to be both healthy and environmentally sustainable. But is this always true? More research is needed! The present study seeks to answer the question: ‘Does venison have less impact on the environment than the organic and conventionally produced meat types they replace?’ Six types of venison...

  19. Influence of milking number and frequency on milk production in Martina Franca breed asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in Martina Franca asses in order to study milk yield and udder healthy conditions in relation to daily milking number and frequency. Experiment I - A total of 15 asses were subdivided into three groups (N.5 corresponding to: one milking per day, after a 3 hour interval from foal separation by dams (Group A; three milkings per day with 3 hour frequency (Group B; three milkings per day with 2 hour frequency (Group 3M. Experiment II - Evaluation was made of the effect of a schedule of 6 milkings per day with frequency of 2 hours on milk yield (Group 6M; N. 5, compared to Group 3M. Healthy udder conditions in relation to the number of milking per day was monitored in 3M and 6M Groups, by somatic cell count. Average yield per milking was highest (P<0.01 following 3 rather 1 milkings per day and with milking frequency of 3 hours rather than 2 hours (P<0.01. A schedule of six milkings per day did not improve mean milk yield and determined an increase in somatic cell count compared to 3 daily milkings regimen (63.2 vs 17.5 x 1000/mL; P<0.05.

  20. Implementation of HACCP system in production of UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the Croatian Food Law (NN 46/07 which demands implementation of food safety management system based on HACCP principles became mandatory at the January 01st 2009. According to that regulation all subjects in food production and retail sector including the dairy industry too are obligant to implement HACCP system in their production processes. In the process of HACCP implementation many problems occur which result in delaying the implementation, scarce performance of assigned monitoring actions and inadequate maintenance and improvement of the system. All of the latter mentioned problems disable proactive functioning and may lead to disturbance of food safety of the end product. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the interpretation of each steps that have to be taken in the process of implementation of HACCP system in the production of UHT milk. Thereby many practical informations and examples have been gathered while reviewing the HACCP system in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac, Croatia. This paper contains the examples of all indentified hazards, all assigned control actions, hazard analysis and critical control point determination for the process of UHT milk production in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac. Furthermore, also examples and ideas for the traceability, verification and validation, product recall and withdrawal procedures are given.

  1. Lactose hydrolysis and milk powder production: technological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Kelis Ferreira Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The food industry has the challenge and the opportunity to develop new products with reduced or low lactose content in order to meet the needs of a growing mass of people with lactose intolerance. The manufacture of spray dried products with hydrolyzed lactose is extremely challenging. These products are highly hygroscopic, which influence the productivity and conservation of the powders, not to mention the undesirable and inevitable technological problem of constant clogging of drying chambers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and > 99% of enzymatic lactose hydrolysis on the production and storage of whole milk powder. The samples were processed in a pilot plant and characterized in relation to their composition analysis; to their degree of hydrolysis of lactose; and to their sorption isotherms. The results indicated the hydrolysis of lactose may affect the milk powder production due to a higher extent of powder adhesion within the spray dryer chambers and due to a higher tendency to absorb water during storage.

  2. Diet and bioclimatic conditions on production and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Campos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to analyze the productive performance of lactating cows on isoprotein fed diets, at differentiated environmental conditions. Eight Holstein cows were used, grouped in two 4 × 4 balanced Latin squares design. The treatments were evaluated in 2 × 2 factorial designs: sources of roughage (corn silage – CS plus concentrate, and the combination of corn silage with sugarcane - CSSC, 1:1 on DM, plus concentrate and distinct environment (with= WS and without= OS, fan and nebulizers system= Sfn. The estimation of dry matter intake (DMI, productive performance and physicochemical parameters of milk were evaluated. There was no interaction effect of environment factors and source of forage. There was signiÀ cant effects for the source forage factors, where the DMI for the CSSC based diet was higher than the CS based diet in the effect of forage (4.22 vs. 4.06% BW, and 22.3 vs. 21.7 kg/d, respectively, P≤0.05, but with similar milk production correcting 3.5% fat (23.01 vs. 22.62, CSSC and CS; 22.85 vs. 22.78 kg/day, WS and OS, respectively, P≥0.05. The feed efÀ ciency and conversion was similar in both factors (102.8 vs. 104.7% and 0.99 vs. 1.0, CSSC and CS; 102.5 vs. 104.9% and 1.0 vs. 0.99, WS and OS, respectively, P≥0.05. The beneÀ t-diet cost ratio was higher for CS-based diet than for CSSC (7.44 vs. 6.97, P≤0.05. There were effects only in the forage factor for CP milk (3.26 vs. 3.23%, P≤0.05, lactose (4.54 vs. 4.49%, P≤0.05 and urea nitrogen in milk (23.21 vs. 20.71 mg/dL, P≤0.05 and the superiority arising from the CSSC-based diet in comparison to the CS diet. There was higher for T and THI (28.1 vs. 23.6°C and 75.1 vs. 71.1, respectively, P≤0.05, and lower RH to 2:00 pm (47.7 vs. 64.5%, P≤0.05. The linear score showed negative correlations with DMI, milk production, lactose and urea nitrogen (-0.36, -0.69, -0.44 and -0.32, P≤0.05, respectively. The use of the diet based on CSSC proposed increases in DMI and

  3. Associations between variants of the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifei; Jiang, Li; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Shengli; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-25

    The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  4. Towards Sustainable Production of Biofuels from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Ragnar Giselrød

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and carbon neutral biofuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. The viability of the first generation biofuels production is however questionable because of the conflict with food supply. Microalgal biofuels are a viable alternative. The oil productivity of many microalgae exceeds the best producing oil crops. This paper aims to analyze and promote integration approaches for sustainable microalgal biofuel production to meet the energy and environmental needs of the society. The emphasis is on hydrothermal liquefaction technology for direct conversion of algal biomass to liquid fuel.

  5. Sustainability and democracy in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2005-01-01

    The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generated...... a proposal for a democratic legitimate concept of sustainable bread production...

  6. Effect of Supplementation with Antioxidants on the Quality of Bovine Milk and Meat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health. PMID:24348176

  7. Effect of supplementation with antioxidants on the quality of bovine milk and meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-11-21

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  8. Effect of Supplementation with Antioxidants on the Quality of Bovine Milk and Meat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  9. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  10. HPLC-MS Analysis of Chloramphenicol Residues in Milk and Powdered Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnir, J.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAP is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with bacteriostatic action but also has toxic properties, which is why its presence in food and feed is prohibited in Croatia and the European Union.In the aim of consumer protection it is essential to develop a sensitive analytical method for detection of CAP fractions lower than w = 0.3 µg kg-1. For the efficient control and monitoring of CAP, a rapid, sensitive, and selective method for its identification and quantification, using highperformance liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry LC-MS, has been developed.The cleaning procedure was based on the AOAC official method 993.32. HPLC-MS analysis used the ODS Hypersile column and the water/acetonitrile gradient. Electrospray negative ionization (neg ESI was used before single ion monitoring (SIM detection of three m/z 321, 323 and 325. As additional criteria, the ratio between these masses in real and spiked milk samples was also investigated in accordance with theoretical values of the isotope pattern for 2 chlorine atoms present in the analyte.The detection limit of 0.1 µg kg-1 was achieved. The mean value of recovery was 94 %, the correlation coefficient of the calibration curves calculated for 2 m/z values was higher than 0.99.Fourty samples of milk and milk products were tested with the HPLC-MS method, and obtained results showed that samples had CAP 0.37, 0.29, 0.39 µg kg-1, respectively. All the other analysed samples contained CAP concentrations below the detection limit.

  11. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Late gestation heat stress of dairy cattle programs dam and daughter milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, G E; Tao, S; Laporta, J

    2017-12-01

    Anticipated increases in the world population to 9 billion people will lead to increased demand for food. Dairy products represent one of the most sustainable animal sources of food protein because ruminants can utilize byproduct and forage feeds unsuitable for human consumption. Continued improvements in productivity will depend on deeper understanding of the biology of lactation, including developmental programming of tissues critical to that process. Although prenatal programming of postnatal phenotype is well documented for growth, behavior, and disease, there may also be instances of "programming" that last for a specific physiological stage (e.g., lactation). We distinguish between these 2 terms by the use of developmental programming to describe a permanent effect, whereas the more general term is used to describe nonpermanent impacts on the mammary gland. Despite this complexity, here we review the evidence that exposure to elevated temperature and humidity during late gestation can program reduced yields in the subsequent lactation, largely through effects at the mammary gland. Furthermore, we provide emerging evidence that adult capacity for milk synthesis can be programmed in the calf that dam is carrying by events during fetal life occurring 2 yr before. Specifically, calves born to dams that are heat stressed for the final 6 wk of gestation produce 19% less milk in lactation relative to calves from dams provided with evaporative cooling. Importantly, the increased milk yield in animals derived from dams under evaporative cooling occurred without a greater decline in BW that accompanies negative energy balance during early lactation. Therefore, the increase in milk production suggests an increase in the efficiency of conversion of feed to milk. These data indicate that a brief period of heat stress late in development reduces the physiological efficiency of the cow in a coordinated manner to result in a substantial decline in productivity. It is likely

  12. Challenging the sustainability of micro products development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2006-01-01

    Environmental aspects are one of the biggest concerns regarding the future of manufacturing and product development sustainability. Furthermore, micro products and micro technologies are often seen as the next big thing in terms of possible mass market trend and boom. Many questions are raised...... and the intermediate parts which can be in-process created. Possible future trends for micro products development scheme involving environmental concerns are given....

  13. Nuclear energy for sustainable Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that hydrogen as an universal energy carrier could play increasingly important role in energy future as part of a set of solutions to a variety of energy and environmental problems. Given its abundant nature, hydrogen has been an important raw material in the organic chemical industry. At recent years strong competition has emerged between nations as diverse as the U.S., Japan, Germany, China and Iceland in the race to commercialize hydrogen energy vehicles in the beginning of 21st Century. Any form of energy - fossil, renewable or nuclear - can be used to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen production by nuclear electricity is considered as a sustainable method. By our presentation we are trying to evaluate possibilities for sustainable hydrogen production by nuclear energy at near, medium and long term on EC strategic documents basis. The main EC documents enter water electrolysis by nuclear electricity as only sustainable technology for hydrogen production in early stage of hydrogen economy. In long term as sustainable method is considered the splitting of water by thermochemical technology using heat from high temperature reactors too. We consider that at medium stage of hydrogen economy it is possible to optimize the sustainable hydrogen production by high temperature and high pressure water electrolysis by using a nuclear-solar energy system. (author)

  14. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  15. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  16. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILK PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milk and dairy products market in Romania in the period 2007-2012 and to set up the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat and using the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. Milk production for consumption reached 210 thou tons in 2012 registering a descending trend. Despite that milk production decreased in the period 2007-2012, the production diversification applied by dairies supported the growth of dairy products output as follows: by 13.54 % for milk, by 3.45 % for sour cream, and by 13 % for butter. The forecast for the year 2015 provides that the production of dairy products will account for: 223,936.6 tons milk for consumption, 48,709.4 tons sour cream, 166,674.2 tons acidulated milk, 9,937.6 tons butter and 66,584.4 tons cheese. The development of milk processing imposes the improvement of production technologies, products quality, efficiency and competitiveness. Due to the unbalanced demand/offer ratio, after the elimination of milk quota, the Romanian milk and dairy products market will be invaded by foreign products.

  17. SANITARY EVALUATION OF MILK PRODUCTS IN MOUNTAIN DAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available between 2006 and 2007 881 samples of “malga” (little mountain dairies milk products were analysed to estimate their hygienic characteristics. Several samples showed high counts for Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, while Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were absent in all of the samples; 0,9% of cheese samples, 4,1% of butter samples and 4,7% of “ricotta” samples were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, so as 14,7% of cheese samples for staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  18. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.G.; Sutton, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  19. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    Summer transhumance of dairy cows to high Alpine pastures is still practiced in many mountainous areas. It is important for many permanent dairy farms because the use of highland pastures increases milk production and high-priced typical local dairy products often boost farm income. As traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures in Alpine pastures are central to this dairy system, the objective of this study was to characterize the quality and efficiency of products and their relationships with the quality and availability of grass during the grazing season. The milk from 148 cows from 12 permanent farms reared on a temporary farm located in Alpine pastures was processed every 2wk during the summer (7 cheesemakings from late June to early September). During each processing, 11 dairy products (4 types of milk, 2 by-products, 3 fresh products, and 2 ripened cheeses) were sampled and analyzed. In addition, 8 samples of fresh forage from the pasture used by the cows were collected and analyzed. At the beginning of the pasture season the cows were at 233±90d in milk, 2.4±1.7 parities, and produced 23.6±5.7kg/d of milk. The milk yield decreased with the move from permanent to temporary farms and during the entire summer transhumance, but partly recovered after the cows returned to the permanent farms. Similar trends were observed for the daily yields of fat, protein, casein, lactose, and energy, as we found no large variations in the quality of the milk, with the exception of the first period of Alpine pasture. The somatic cell counts of milk increased during transhumance, but this resulted from a concentration of cells in a lower quantity of milk rather than an increase in the total number of cells ejected daily from the udder. We noted a quadratic trend in availability of forage (fresh and dry matter weight per hectare), with a maximum in late July. The quality of forage also varied during the summer with a worsening of chemical composition. The evening milk

  20. Milk consumption does not lead to mucus production or occurrence of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello; Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara; Sieber, Robert

    2005-12-01

    There is a belief among some members of the public that the consumption of milk and dairy products increases the production of mucus in the respiratory system. Therefore, some who believe in this effect renounce drinking milk. According to Australian studies, subjects perceived some parameters of mucus production to change after consumption of milk and soy-based beverages, but these effects were not specific to cows' milk because the soy-based milk drink with similar sensory characteristics produced the same changes. In individuals inoculated with the common cold virus, milk intake was not associated with increased nasal secretions, symptoms of cough, nose symptoms or congestion. Nevertheless, individuals who believe in the mucus and milk theory report more respiratory symptoms after drinking milk. In some types of alternative medicine, people with bronchial asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower respiratory tract, are advised not to eat so-called mucus-forming foods, especially all kinds of dairy products. According to different investigations the consumption of milk does not seem to exacerbate the symptoms of asthma and a relationship between milk consumption and the occurrence of asthma cannot be established. However, there are a few cases documented in which people with a cow's milk allergy presented with asthma-like symptoms.

  1. Microbiological detection of probiotic microorganisms in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, to reach health benefits, the concentration of probiotics have to be 106 CFU/g of a product. For assessing of required probiotic bacteria quantity, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Five bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar and BSM (Bifidus selective medium agar under different culture conditions.Seven selected fermented milk products with probiotic culture were analyzed for their bacterial populations using the described selective bacteriological media and culture conditions. All milk products contained probiotic microorganisms claimed to be present in declared quantity (106–107/g.

  2. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  3. Nature tourism: a sustainable tourism product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Martínez Quintana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature tourism has emerged in the tourism field as a result of a logical evolution in line with public policies and academic research. After negative outcomes from traditional models first raised the alarm, the entire sector has tried to foster local development based on models of responsibility and sustainability. This article revises key concepts of nature – based tourism and shows new tendencies and the perception of cultural landscapes that are seen as tourism products. Finally, it concludes by analysing new tendencies to foster alternative nature – based tourism. It also presents a planning proposal based on a responsible and sustainable tourism model to guarantee a sustainable tourism product within the natural and cultural heritage context.

  4. Economic analysis of milk production and consumption in the Middle East and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk products are considered as the essential food commodities for humans. Milk products contain essential elements for the human body such as protein, glucose, minerals and vitamins. Moreover, milk is considered the cheapest source of animal protein, an important resource for some related transformation industries and provides employment opportunities for a large number of small producers in both rural and urban areas. The aim of this paper is to analyze the factors which determine the supply and demand for liquid milk (henceforth milk in the Middle East and North Africa in order to point out the main problems and constraints obstructing the milk production in this region. The research also attempts to understand the drivers for the development in milk production in the Middle East and North Africa.Total milk production in the Middle East and North Africa increased from about 12.57 million tons in 1990 to about 25.18 millions tons in 2008. This paper attempts to identify the factors which influence the effectiveness of production, consumption and foreign trade of milk in the Middle East and North Africa. The most important factors affecting consumption is the population, per capita income and produced quantity where a 1% increase in all of them results in increasing the quantity consumed by 1.3%, 2.86% and 0.611%, respectively. Milk sector provides employment opportunities for more than 25% of the working force in some Middle East and North Africa countries.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A M

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  7. Effect of length of productive life on genetic trend of milk production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy cattle. Including this trait in a breeding scheme, increases profit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between length of productive life (LPL), genetic trend of milk production and profitability of herds. LPL has been defined as time from first calving to culling.

  8. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  9. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Mawengkang, Herman; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J

    2013-01-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  10. Molecular detection of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to temperature in milk and its products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutejo, Stephani Valentina Harda; Amarantini, Charis; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus on milk can cause intoxication and infection by Staphylococcal enterotoxin. It has nuc gene, coding thermonuclease enzyme (TNase) that is responsible for nature of resistance in the heating process. This study was conducted to identify nuc gene of as S. aureus isolated from milk and its products like ultra-high temperature, sterile milk, sweetened condensed milk, formula milk, café/milk street traders and fresh milk. Biochemical identification was conducted by using carbohydrate fermentation tests and confirmed by API Staph. Molecular confirmation by amplification of nuc gene using PCR. Based on the results of confirmation using API Staph, all isolates were confirmed as S. aureus with index determinant percentage of 97%. An amplicon product of 270 bp was gained in all isolates. It is concluded that isolate of S. aureus has nuc gene.

  11. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a

  12. Relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.; Berends, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with

  13. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus species isolated from raw milk and milk products (lben and jben) in North Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Lebbadi, Mariam; Ennanei, Latifa; Essadqui, Fatima Z; Abid, Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the incidence and antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal strains isolated from milk and milk products and to trace the ecological origin of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated. Eighty-one samples of raw milk, lben (whey) and jben (cheese) were analyzed for the presence of staphylococcal strains. Isolates were identified by Gram stains, tests for coagulase, the API staph system and the WalkAway 40/96, which also determines the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. The S. aureus strains were biotyped, and variable regions of the coagulase gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. The identification results showed a predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (54 %). Coagulase-positive staphylococci that were identified were divided into 3 groups comprising S. aureus (40%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2 %) and Staphylococcus hyicus (4%). Among the S. aureus that was isolated, biotype C was the predominant biotype. Among 40 coagulase gene PCR-amplification products, 37 produced a single band, while 3 isolates produced two bands. The antimicrobial susceptibility-profile of the staphylococcal strains revealed a high incidence of S. aureus to penicillin G. In addition, Staphylococcus lentus presented considerable resistance to the oxacillin, erythromycin and lincomycin. The presence of staphylococci in raw milk, lben and jben in areas of northern Morocco poses a health hazard, so it is necessary for the public health inspectors to properly examine the conditions during production, storage and commercialization of all products made with unpasteurized milk.

  15. A method to define breeding goals for sustainable dairy cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H M; Christensen, L G; Odegård, J

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to present a method to define breeding goals for sustainable dairy cattle production by adding nonmarket values to market economic values for functional traits in the breeding goal. A nonmarket value can represent the value of improved animal welfare or societal influences for animal production. The nonmarket value for mastitis resistance, conception rate, and stillbirth were derived based on how much farmers or breeding companies were willing to lose in selection response for milk yield to improve functional traits. The desired response for milk yield corresponding to a given percent loss was obtained using desired gain indices. By allowing a 5% loss in the selection response for milk yield, the nonmarket value was found to be 40.4 euro for mastitis resistance, 16.1 euro for conception rate, and 9.7 euro for stillbirth. The nonmarket value increased proportionally with increasing loss in the selection response for milk yield, but the selection response was lower for conception rate than for mastitis resistance because of differences in market economic value and heritability. To increase the response for conception rate, the nonmarket value was also derived for 2 situations, in which the desired responses for milk yield, mastitis resistance, and conception rate were specified. The method can be used to define breeding goals for sustainable production and to increase the response for traits that are at critically low levels. When defining breeding goals for sustainable production, breeding organizations should predict the selection response based on market economic value and add non-market value for traits with unacceptable selection responses.

  16. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  17. Sustainable solutions: developing products and services for the future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charter, Martin; Tischner, Ursula

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Martin Charter, The Centre for Sustainable Design, UK, and Ursula Tischner, econcept, Germany part 1: 1. Background to Sustainable Consumption and Production...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS... the same nature and butterfat content. ...

  19. Operability and flexibility of a milk production line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The operability and flexibility of an existing milk treatment process are investigated through flowsheet modelling and simulation. From the flowsheet simulation, a process operating region was determined using incoming milk flow viscosity and heat exchanger pressure drop as characteristic...

  20. Sustainability Assessment Model in Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Omar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Faster and more efficient development of innovative and sustainable products has become the focus for manufacturing companies in order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. Furthermore, consumers, investors, shareholders and even competitors are basing their decisions on what to buy or invest in, from whom, and also on what company report, and sustainability is one of a critical component. In this research, a new methodology of sustainability assessment in product development for Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of green project management, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This method will help design engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable design concept evaluation, enable them to make better-informed decisions before finalising their choice and consequently create value to the company or industry. The new framework is expected to provide an alternative to existing methods.

  1. Considerations on Cattle Stock and Cow Fresh Milk Production in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the evolution of cattle stock and cow milk production in order to point out the main trends and differences between the EU-27 member states in the period 2004-2008. The data collected from FAO Stat, 2010 have been processed calculating the fixed basis index, average annual rhythm index and also the share of each EU state in cow milk production at the EU and world level.The main trends in the EU concerning cow milk sector are the continuous decrease in cattle stock, the increase of cow milk yield under the conditions of keeping a constant milk production and also milk production per capita. In 2008, the EU-27 was raising 90,478 thou cattle, and produced 149,388 thou tons cow fresh milk. The EU -27 is placed on the 5th position for number of cattle and on the 1st position for cow milk production, producing 25.8 % of world production. The largest milk producers in the EU-27 are Germany, France, United Kingdom, Poland, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Romania and Denmark, whose contribution to the EU productions is 82.82 %.

  2. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in the United States but is used in other countries (e.g., the

  3. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  4. Technical efficiency in milk production in underdeveloped production environment of India*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Dwaipayan; Sharma, Murari Lal

    2013-12-01

    The study was undertaken in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state of India with the objective of estimating technical efficiency in milk production across different herd-size category households and factors influencing it. Total of 60 farm households having representation from different herd-size categories drawn from six randomly selected villages of plain and hilly regions of the division constituted the ultimate sampling units of the study. Stochastic frontier production function analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency in milk production. Multivariate regression equations were fitted taking technical efficiency index as the regressand to identify the factors significantly influencing technical efficiency in milk production. The study revealed that variation in output across farms in the study area was due to difference in their technical efficiency levels. However, it was interesting to note that smallholder producers were more technically efficient in milk production than their larger counterparts, especially in the plains. Apart from herd size, intensity of market participation had significant and positive impact on technical efficiency in the plains. This provides definite indication that increasing the level of commercialization of dairy farms would have beneficial impact on their production efficiency.

  5. Transitions in Sustainable Product Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    By the early 1990s, sustainable product innovation (or ecodesign, or Design for environment) had gained sufficient critical mass in academic research to be identified as a distinct research area. In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media...... of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, which together provide a historic account of how academic research into sustainable product innovation had matured. In conclusion, a number of possible future transitions or extensions of the research area are discussed......., this research area has expanded considerably; from a bunch of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to make products better recyclable into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number...

  6. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  7. USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mamaev; K. Leshukov; S. Stepanova

    2012-01-01

    The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various c...

  8. APPLICATION EXPERIENCE OF GOAT'S MILK BASED PRODUCTS AMONG CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Malanicheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to study the efficiency of the diet therapy against atopic dermatitis by means of the goat's milk based products among children at different age. The researchers observed 188 children aged between 3 months and 18 years, suffering from atopic dermatitis aggravated by the mycotic infection. Patients of the main group (102 children under 3 received goat's milk based products within the hypo allergic diet — «Nanny» and «Nanny — Zolotaya Kozochka» adapted milk formulas, while children over 3 received «Amal Tea» instant goat's milk. The research findings have showed that the introduction of the goat's milk based products into the food ration leads not only to the positive short term results — achievement of the clinical remission on 12th–20th day from the moment the therapy starts, but also to the positive long term effect — remission extension, reduction of the disease recurrences, reduction of the general IgE level in blood serum and offending IgE allergens to the cow milk proteins and casein. Thus, the replacement of the cow milk based products within the ration of patients for «Nanny» and «Nanny — Zolotaya Kozochka» adapted milk formulas and «Amal Tea» instant goat's milk allows for optimization of the atopic dermatitis diet therapy among children at different age.Key words: atopic dermatitis, diet therapy, goat's milk.

  9. Milk consumption and mucus production in children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thiara, Gurkaran; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Many parents of children with asthma are becoming increasingly reluctant to add milk to their children’s diet because they believe it will worsen their children’s asthma owing to increased mucus secretion. Recognizing the importance of milk as part of a healthy diet in supporting growth and calcium consumption, is it advisable to restrict milk in the diet?

  10. Milk hydrolysis products may retain their allergenic reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Background: Milk allergy is one of the most common allergies in small children. Extensively hydrolyzed milk formulas are therefore an important source of nutrients for infants being predisposed for allergy and not being breastfeed and to infants with cows milk allergy. The aim of this study was t...

  11. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  12. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  13. Soil management practices for sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalos, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)

  14. Influence of pumpkin seed cake and extruded linseed on milk production and milk fatty acid profile in Alpine goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, Z; Castro-Montoya, J M; Novoselec, J; Molkentin, J; Domacinovic, M; Mioc, B; Dickhoefer, U; Antunovic, Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of substituting pumpkin seed cake (PSC) or extruded linseed (ELS) for soya bean meal in goats' diets on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acids profile of milk fat. In total, 28 dairy goats were divided into three groups. They were fed with concentrate mixtures containing soya bean meal (Control; n=9), ELS (n=10) or PSC (n=9) as main protein sources in the trial lasting 75 days. Addition of ELS or PSC did not influence milk yield and milk gross composition in contrast to fatty acid profile compared with Control. Supplementation of ELS resulted in greater branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and total n-3 fatty acids compared with Control and PSC (PLA, C18:2n-6; 2.10 and 2.28 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) proportions compared with Control (2.80 g/100 g fatty acids; PLA/ALA ratio (3.81 v. 7.44 or 6.92, respectively; Psoya bean meal with ELS in hay-based diets may increase beneficial n-3 fatty acids and BCFA accompanied by lowering LA/ALA ratio and increased C18:0. Pumpkin seed cake completely substituted soya bean meal in the diet of dairy goats without any decrease in milk production or sharp changes in fatty acid profile that may have a commercial or a human health relevancy.

  15. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW β-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (β-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow β-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  16. Potential of functional strains, isolated from traditional Maasai milk, as starters for the production of fermented milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Mathara, Julius Maina; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this research was the evaluation of technological features and of the ability of functional LAB strains with desirable sensory characteristics, to produce fermented milk. Eight strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactococcus lactis, isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk in Kenya and previously tested for their probiotic properties, were selected for this investigation. Technological features such as growth kinetics in fresh heat-treated whole milk medium and survival in the final product during storage at 4 degrees C, were studied. The strains Lb. acidophilus BFE 6,059, Lb. paracasei BFE 5,264 and Lc. lactis BFE 6,049 showed the best potential and were thus selected for use as starter cultures in further trials with the objective to improve their technological performance and to optimise the sensory features of fermented milk obtained. The effects of fat (F), non-fat milk solids (S) and fermentation temperature (T), modulated according to a Central Composite Design, on fermentation rates and viability losses during refrigerated storage of the chosen starters, and on product texture parameters, were studied. From the data analysis, it was possible to select optimum conditions for enhancing positive sensory traits of final products and for improving the survival of these potentially probiotic cultures.

  17. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Hope; Clarke, Holly J.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very little quantitative

  18. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran N. Kilcawley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very

  19. Milk Production in the Sylvopastoral Zone of Senegal: Variation Factors and Local Populations’ Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Diop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahelian region of Senegal, milk production in pastoral systems is subjected to inter- and intra-annual variations because the animal feed is almost exclusively based on natural resources. Studies conducted from a monitoring set-up in pastoralist settlements and in station, and data from Nestle Company have shown that milk production was highly related to the milk collection date, but with a low correlation with the total amount of rainfall. The relationship between total milk production and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was polynomial. The production peak was reached when the water content in forage was 70%. Surveys on pastoralists (men and women belonging to different ethnic groups and living in different production subsystems (Walo, Djoloff and Ferlo showed that the duration of lactation, number of cows and animal species were the main factors of variation of milk production. The actors in charge of milk production management differed depending on the ethnic group. Milk curdling and butter making were the two preserving methods used, and five types of gourds were used in the process. Dairy products still held a major place in farmers’ incomes and skim milk curd was the most marketed product.

  20. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  1. Role of Lanthanides in the Traceability of the Milk Production Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Musso, Davide; Calà, Elisa; Arieri, Fabio; Oddone, Matteo

    2017-05-24

    The traceability and authentication of milk were studied using trace and ultratrace elements as chemical markers. Among these variables, the group of lanthanides resulted in being particularly useful for this purpose as a result of their homogeneous distribution inside milk, which showed on the contrary to be intrinsically inhomogeneous from the elemental point of view. Using in this pilot study milk samples from a factory in Piedmont (Italy), we demonstrated that the distribution of lanthanides can be used as a fingerprint to put into relation the soil of the pasture land on which cows graze and the bottled milk produced in the factory. In fact, the distribution is maintained nearly unaltered along the production chain of milk, apart from the passage into the stomachs of the cows. Using the same variables, it was possible to discriminate between milk produced in the factory and milk samples taken from the large-scale retail trade.

  2. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  3. The sustainability indicators of power production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onat, Nevzat [Vocational School of Technical Studies, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Bayar, Haydar [Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important elements of economical and social development is to provide uninterrupted electric energy to consumers. The increasing world population and technological developments rapidly increase the demand on electric energy. In order to meet the increasing demand for sustainable development, it is necessary to use the consumable resources of the world in the most productive manner and minimum level and to keep its negative effects on human health and environment in the lowest level as much as possible. In this study, alignment of hydrogen fuel cells, hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sourced electric energy systems, in addition to fossil fueled coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants, in respect to sustainability parameters such as CO{sub 2} emission, land use, energy output, fresh water consumption and environmental and social effects is researched. Consequently, it has been determined that the wind and nuclear energy power plants have the highest sustainability indicators. The fuel cells that use hydrogen obtained by using coal and natural gas are determined as the most disadvantageous transformation technologies in respect to sustainability. This study contains an alignment related to today's technologies. Using of renewable energy resources especially in production of hydrogen, output increases to be ensured with nanotechnology applications in photovoltaic systems may change this alignment. (author)

  4. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  5. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  6. Psychrotrophic bacteria and their negative effects on milk and dairy products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of bacterial populations in raw milk at the time of processing has a significant influence on shelf-life, organoleptic quality, spoilage and yields of raw milk, processed milk as well as on the other dairy products. Unfortunately, cold and extended storage of raw milk, as a common practice in dairy sector today, favour the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. Therefore, their count in the refrigerated milk is more than the ideal limit of 10 % of the mesophilic count. Psychrotrophic bacteria are generally able to form extracellular or intracellular thermo-resistant enzymes (proteases, lipases, phospolipases which can contribute to milk and dairy products spoilage. In addition, besides exhibiting spoilage features, some species belonging to the psychrotrops are considered as emerging pathogens that carry innate resistance to antibiotics or produce toxins. In sense of quality, psychrotrophic bacteria have become major problem for today’s dairy industry as leading cause in spoilage of cold-storage milk and dairy products. This review article focuses on the impact of psychrotrops on quality problems associated with raw milk as well as on th final dairy products. Means of controlling the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for undesirable activities in milk and dairy products were also discussed.

  7. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and ...

  8. DCT-Based Characterization of Milk Products Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use the two-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for decomposition of diffuse reflectance images of laser illumination on milk products in different wavelengths. Based on the prior knowledge about the characteristics of the images, the initial feature vectors are formed at ea...... discriminate milk from yogurt products better....

  9. Nuclear-derived techniques improve cattle productivity and milk quality in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    Increasing agricultural production and improving the quality of milk and meat are key to combating poverty and increasing food security in Africa. Countries such as Cameroon are increasingly turning to innovative, nuclear and nuclear-derived techniques to control and prevent diseases among livestock, and boost cattle and milk production.

  10. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and weight gain of preterm ...

  11. Life cycle assessment of conventional and organic milk production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Calker, van K.J.; Smits, M.C.J.; Iepema, G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production of milk causes environmental side effects, such as emission of greenhouse gases and nutrient enrichment in surface water. Scientific evidence that shows differences in integral environmental impact between milk production systems in the Netherlands was underexposed. In this paper, two

  12. Letters: Milk and Mortality : Study used wrong assumption about galactose content of fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Michaëlsson and colleagues’ proposed mechanism for the effect of milk intake on the risk of mortality and fractures is based on the assumption that fermented dairy products (which had the opposite effects to those of non-fermented milk) are free of galactose.1 For most fermented dairy products,

  13. Effects of information technology on dairy farms in The Netherlands: an empirical analysis of milk production records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Asseldonk, M A; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A; Tomaszewski, M A; Harbers, A G

    1998-10-01

    This study empirically quantified the effects of the adoption of an automated concentrate feeder, on-line measurement of milk production, and activity measurement on milk production and reproduction. The data comprised annual results of Dutch farms operating in a milk quota system from 1987 to 1996; data included both adopters and nonadopters as well as farm results before and after adoption. The use of an automated concentrate feeder improved the annual carrier production of milk, milk protein, and milk fat (102, 4.95, and 5.52 kg per cow, respectively). In contrast, on-line measurement of milk production did not significantly affect milk production records. Calving interval was shortened by 5.7 d after the adoption of an activity measurement system but was not affected by the adoption of an automated concentrate feeder or by the measurement of on-line milk production.

  14. Sustainability of cosmetic products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Pereira, Neila

    2009-09-01

    The most recent research in the area of cosmetics to sustainability has focused on obtaining formulations rich in nontraditional oils and butters from seeds and fruits native to Brazilian tropical flora. These have contributed to aggregate value for the raw materials and involvement of small farms forming rural production in Brazil, since the plants are cultivated in preservation areas sponsored by companies who are partners in the Government Program for Brazilian Sustainability. Given that the oils extracted from seeds have the potential to replace these cutaneous constituents, it has been verified that new products of strong commercial impact show an increasing tendency to incorporate in their formulas the oils of plants grown in Brazilian soil.

  15. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  16. Towards Sustainable Production of Formic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulushev, Dmitri A; Ross, Julian R H

    2018-03-09

    Formic acid is a widely used commodity chemical. It can be used as a safe, easily handled, and transported source of hydrogen or carbon monoxide for different reactions, including those producing fuels. The review includes historical aspects of formic acid production. It briefly analyzes production based on traditional sources, such as carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane. However, the main emphasis is on the sustainable production of formic acid from biomass and biomass-derived products through hydrolysis and oxidation processes. New strategies of low-temperature synthesis from biomass may lead to the utilization of formic acid for the production of fuel additives, such as methanol; upgraded bio-oil; γ-valerolactone and its derivatives; and synthesis gas used for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons. Some technological aspects are also considered. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO 2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  18. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  19. ANALYSES OF FACTORS THAT AFFECT MILK PRODUCTION AT FARM LEVEL AND BY BRAZILIAN ESTATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geicimara Guimarães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate some technical indexes that affect milk production by rural producer and by state of federation. In the first study, information were obtained from 50 rural producers, suppliers of a milk dairy plant in the south region of Rio de Janeiro, including the daily production of milk by a producer, the total area of the property, area for the dairy herd, lactating cows only and total cows from the herd, cooling mode, type and number of milkings, breeds and genetic improvement. In the second study, data were collected from EMBRAPA and IBGE in the years 2004-2006, where the emphasis was on milk production by State instead of production per producer. In both cases, the increase in milk production happens by increase in the number of animals in the herd (r=0.94; first case and milking cows (r=0.93 and 0.95, respectively, with low correlation between productivity per animal and per area with milk production (r

  20. Growth and enterotoxin production of Bacillus cereus in cow, goat, and sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Necidová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare Bacillus cereus growth rates and diarrhoeal enterotoxin production in raw and pasteurized goat, sheep, and cow milk in terms of storage conditions. Milk samples were inoculated with B. cereus (CCM 2010, which produces diarrhoeal enterotoxins. Enterotoxin production was tested by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and the count of B. cereus was determined by the plate method. With raw cow milk, B. cereus growth and enterotoxin production can be completely suppressed; in raw goat and sheep milk, enterotoxin was produced at 22 °C. In pasteurized cow, goat, and sheep milk, the B. cereus count increased under all storage conditions, with more rapid growth being observed at 15 °C (sheep milk and 22 °C (cow and goat milk. Enterotoxin presence was detected at 15 °C and 22 °C, and with pasteurized cow milk also at 8 °C. Our model experiments have determined that B. cereus multiplication and subsequent enterotoxin production depend on storage temperature and milk type.

  1. Use of Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 for Manufacturing Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Lukic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 isolated from human intestines shows antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and during fermentation in milk releases peptides with demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, it was found that strain BGRA43 exhibits antimicrobial activity against human pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strain BGRA43 was able to survive in simulated gastric juice containing milk and retained cell number stability during the incubation in simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, LC/MS/MS analysis showed the ability of BGRA43 to hydrolyze β-lactoglobulin. Abundant growth of strain BGRA43 occurred in the presence of prebiotics inulin or concentrated oat bran β-glucan (Nutrim®, even when used as the sole carbon source. Similarly, strain BGRA43 grew satisfactorily in pure cow's or goat's milk as well as in the milk containing inulin or Nutrim®. Using the probiotic strain BGRA43 as a single starter strain, fermented milk products obtained from cow's or goat's milk with or without inulin or Nutrim® contained about 107 CFU/mL. The products were homogeneous and viscous and the best sensory scores were observed for fermented milk beverage made from reconstituted skimmed milk, whole cow's milk and whole goat's milk supplemented with 1 % inulin.

  2. Effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on test-day milk production traits throughout lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenhuis, Henk; Visker, H P W; van Valenberg, H J F

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism has a major effect on milk production traits. It is less clear how effects of DGAT1 on milk production traits change throughout lactation, if dominance effects of DGAT1 are relevant, and whether DGAT1...... also affects lactose content, lactose yield, and total energy output in milk. Results from this study, using test-day records of 3 subsequent parities of around 1,800 cows, confirm previously reported effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on milk, fat, and protein yield, as well as fat and protein content....... In addition, we found significant effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on lactose content and lactose yield. No significant effects on somatic cell score were detected. The effect of DGAT1 on total energy excreted in milk was only significant in parity 1 and is mainly due to a higher energy output in milk...

  3. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  4. The Halal status of additives in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midhat Jašić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The market of halal products in the world keeps growing and there are more and more requests for certifying and proving the halal status of a food product. Halal in Islamic regulations means allowed for eating. Islamic laws related to the food, strictly forbid the use of food originating from pork, alcohol, blood and other products that are not in accordance with Islamic rules. In order to get the halal status, dairy products have to prove that they do not contain raw mater and additives that are forbidden. Level of allowance is related with their status which can be Halal (permitted, Haram (forbidden and Mashbuh (suspected. In establishing the system for Halal foodprocessing, proactive preventive process approach is used. In validation of the process there are analytical methods to prove the origin of the food. Specially difficult is to prove the presence of additives which during the process experience chemical transformations. The ELISA PCR, HLPC methods are used for the validation. This paper presents additives that are the most common in milk processing and can have Haram (forbidden by Islamic rules and Mashbuh (suspected origin.

  5. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  6. Relationship between milk production and some blood constituents in Egyptian Baladi goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, G A; el-Nouty, F D; Samak, M A; Salem, M H

    1986-01-01

    Under the conditions of a high ambient temperature and the lack of green fodder goats are very important for milk production. During 16 weeks of lactation period, the milk yield of 10 Baladi goats was 55 kg. The amount of milk exhibited a positive relation to the globulin and glucose content of the blood. There was a highly negative correlation with the albumin content and the number of leucocytes.

  7. USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mamaev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various concentration of silver ions showed minor difference in organoleptic, physic-chemical, microbiological parameters and shelf life span. In this connection it appears reasonable to use the smallest concentration of silver ions - 50 micrograms per liter for milk shelf life prolongation as it is considered the least harmful for person's organism. Infusion of silver ions in the concentration of 50 micrograms per liter allows to prolong raw and pasteurized milk shelf life by two days.

  8. Milk production of Tswana goats fed diets containing different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to characterize the milk yield of the Tswana goat of Botswana. Twenty-one Tswana goat does were allocated to one of three diets formulated to provide energy for maintenance and a milk yield of either 1.5 kg/d, 1.0 kg/d or 0.5 kg/d. Intake, milk yield and kid growth rate was monitored for 14 ...

  9. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  10. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  11. 75 FR 56528 - EPA's Role in Advancing Sustainable Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... action if you manufacture, distribute, label, certify, verify, and purchase or use consumer, commercial... particular, how do you see EPA's role in: Assembling information and databases. Identifying sustainability ``hotspots'' and setting product sustainability priorities. Evaluating the multiple impacts of products...

  12. Perception of Not Having Enough Milk and Actual Milk Production of First-Time Breastfeeding Mothers: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, Roseline; Dumas, Louise; Lepage, Mario

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived insufficient milk supply (PIMS) and actual insufficient milk supply (AIMS) and the relative contributions of physiological and psychosocial variables on both PIMS and AIMS of first-time breastfeeding mothers. Data were collected among 123 breastfeeding mothers at a Canadian, French-speaking maternal care hospital. Birth events, breastfeeding practices, infant and maternal capacities, and PIMS and AIMS were collected at 48 hours after birth, postnatal weeks 2 and 6. No significant relationship was found between PIMS and AIMS. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and number of feeds were related to PIMS at week 2, and skin-to-skin contact at birth and number of feeds were related to AIMS as measured by 24-hour milk production at week 2. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy impacts PIMS. Interventions should be directed to increase maternal confidence in breastfeeding, which in turn influences breastfeeding duration.

  13. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduct......Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources....... This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed......, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors...

  14. Carbery milk products in Ireland produces alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R

    1980-01-01

    A brief illustrated description is given of alcohol production by Carbery Milk Products Ltd., introduced in 1976 as an alternative to whey drying. The initial investment into the new alcohol factory was 1.6 million. The process includes whey ultrafiltration at a rate of 125,000 gallons/day, fermentation of the premeate in 6 fermentation tanks (total capacity 42,000 gallons) in batch operation, each requiring on average 6 hours; efficiency of lactose conversion to alcohol is 86% of the theoretical yield. After separation of the yeasts, the liquor is pasteurized and heated to the correct temperature for distillation which is carried out in a plant consisting of six 32-metre high cylinders incorporating rectification towers. The finished alcohol is stored under customs supervision in 3 storage tanks, each with a capacity of 125000 gallons. The waste products from the fermentation and distillation stages necessitated the installation of a purification plant for treating daily about 200000 gallons effluent with 9000 lb BOD, in addition to another plant handling 400 000 gallons with also 9000 lb BOD of normal dairy waste water.

  15. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for forecasting rubber milk production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Nurmawan; Sembiring, S.; Syahputra, M. F.; Fadli

    2018-02-01

    Natural Rubber is classified as the top export commodity in Indonesia. Its high production leads to a significant contribution to Indonesia’s foreign exchange. Before natural rubber ready to be exported to another country, the production of rubber milk becomes the primary concern. In this research, we use adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to do rubber milk production forecasting. The data presented here is taken from PT. Anglo Eastern Plantation (AEP), which has high data variance and range for rubber milk production. Our data will span from January 2009 until December 2015. The best forecasting result is 1,182% in term of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE).

  16. Cyanobacteria: Promising biocatalysts for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, Cory J; Ungerer, Justin; Wangikar, Pramod P; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2018-04-06

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes showing great promise as biocatalysts for the direct conversion of CO 2 into fuels, chemicals, and other value-added products. Introduction of just a few heterologous genes can endow cyanobacteria with the ability to transform specific central metabolites into many end products. Recent engineering efforts have centered around harnessing the potential of these microbial biofactories for sustainable production of chemicals conventionally produced from fossil fuels. Here, we present an overview of the unique chemistry that cyanobacteria have been co-opted to perform. We highlight key lessons learned from these engineering efforts and discuss advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    or more of the four aspects, e.g., pollution and antibiotic use, biodiversity (environmental aspects), conditions for farm workers and animal welfare (social aspects), governance of the food chain (institutional aspects), and the development of poultry from a valuable food to a cheap staple food...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...... and contribute to such systems and to the livelihood of households around the globe, with special emphasis on women. Furthermore, local production provides potential for production with minimum transport and, concomitantly, minimum usage of fossil fuels. Among the terrestrial animals, poultry has the best...

  18. Evaluation of Milk Production in Western Whiteface and Navajo-Churro Ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Brindley, Marla Faye

    1995-01-01

    Western Whiteface and Navajo-Churro Ewes, two types of sheep present in the Intermountain West, were compared for their milk production ability. Amount of milk produced per individual and the group milk composition were analyzed for butterfat, lactose, somatic cell count, protein, calcium, and phosphorous. Ewes were fed ad libitum alfalfa hay and had access to free-choice grain while in the milking parlor. Lambs were weaned at 35 d of age and removed to another holding area and placed on c...

  19. Genetic comparison of milk production and composition in three maternal rabbit lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gamal Fawzy EL Nagar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare 3 Spanish maternal rabbit lines (A, V and LP in terms of milk production and composition. These lines were founded on different criteria but selected for litter size at weaning. A total of 194 mature does in their third or higher parity were used. The milk yield of does was recorded at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 17 d post-partum (dpp. The milk production traits studied were weekly milk yield (WMY; g/wk and milk conversion ratio (MCR; grams of litter gain per grams of milk suckled during the first 21  dpp. The milk composition traits studied were fat (%, protein  (%, ash (%, lactose (% and total solids (%. The milk samples to be analysed were collected from each doe at 18 dpp. Data were analysed using single trait mixed and fixed models with and without covariates; the covariates were number born alive (NBA and doe weight at kindling (DW. The overall mean of WMY, during the first 3 wk, was 1547±16 g/wk. Milk yields during the different lactation weeks were for line A 872±39, 1503±39 and 1865±39 g for first, second and third lactation weeks, respectively. In line V, the corresponding values were 919±35, 1633±35 and 2004±35  g, and in line LP, they were 1043±36, 1819±36 and 2254±36  g. Means of MCR were 0.41±0.01, 0.41±0.01 and 0.42±0.01 for A, V and LP lines, respectively. Overall means of fat, protein, ash, lactose and total solids (% were 14.62±0.17, 11.10±0.07, 1.89±0.04, 2.67±0.12 and 30.27±0.24, respectively. The differences between lines for milk production traits were significant except for MCR, while the differences between lines for milk composition traits were not significant. NBA had significant effects on all milk yield traits but had no significant effects on milk composition traits. DW only had a significant effect on weekly milk yield. The parity order had no significant effect either for milk production traits or milk composition traits in multiparous does, except

  20. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, Peggy M; Nutter, Darin W

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change, driven by the buildup of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, is challenging the dairy industries in the United States and throughout the world to develop sustainable initiatives to reduce their environmental impact. The U.S. dairy industry has committed to lowering the GHG emissions, primarily CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2), in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain which extends from the farm, to the processing plant, and to distribution of the packaged product, where it is refrigerated by the retailer and then the consumer. This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle analysis (LCA) technique and its use in identifying the GHG emissions in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain, from cradle to grave, and the best practices and research that is currently being conducted to reduce or mitigate GHG emissions in each sector. We also discuss the use of on-farm and off-farm process simulation as tools for evaluating on-farm mitigation techniques, off-farm alternative processing scenarios, and use of alternative energy management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Graham, N M; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, R M

    1990-02-01

    In the first of three studies investigating the widely held belief that "milk produces mucus," 60 volunteers were challenged with rhinovirus-2, and daily respiratory symptoms and milk and dairy product intake records were kept over a 10-day period. Nasal secretion weights were obtained by weighing tissues collected and sealed immediately after use. Information was obtained on 51 subjects, yielding 510 person-days of observation. Subjects consumed zero to 11 glasses of milk per day (mean, 2.7; SE, 0.08), and secretion weights ranged from zero to 30.4 g/day (mean, 1.1; SE, 0.1). In response to an initial questionnaire, 27.5% reported the practice of reducing intake of milk or dairy products with a cold or named milk or dairy products as bad for colds. Of the latter group, 80% stated the reason as "producing more mucus/phlegm." Milk and dairy product intake was not associated with an increase in upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms of congestion or nasal secretion weight. A trend was observed for cough, when present, to be loose with increasing milk and dairy product intake; however, this effect was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Those who believe "milk makes mucus" or reduce milk intake with colds reported significantly more cough and congestion symptoms, but they did not produce higher levels of nasal secretions. We conclude that no statistically significant overall association can be detected between milk and dairy product intake and symptoms of mucus production in healthy adults, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, with rhinovirus infection.

  2. Evaluation of microbial content of some soybean milk products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the microbiological content of soybean milk, highly consumed by the public is the aim of this research work. Ten samples of soybean milk, locally prepared by different manufacturers were used for the study. The microbial load and identity of the microorganisms present were determined using standard ...

  3. Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether on-line somatic cell count (SCC) assessment, when combined with electrical conductivity (EC), should be implemented at the udder quarter or at the cow level. Data were collected from 3 farms with automatic milking systems, resulting in 3,191 quarter milkings used

  4. Economic values for dairy production traits under different milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuthbert

    A well-defined breeding objective forms the basis of a sound breeding programme. .... (ZAR per unit) by breed under different milk payment systems. Milk Buyer. Breed. Trait. A. B. C .... Veerkamp, R.F., Dillon, P., Kelly, A.R. & Groen, A.F., 2002.

  5. Effect of dietary starch source on milk production and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of four sources of starch on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites of lactating Holstein cows. Four multiparous Holstein cows (708 ± 70 kg of body weight; 83 ± 9 days in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods.

  6. Genetic correlations between milk production and health and fertility dependent on herd environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    High milk production in dairy cattle can have negative side effects on health and fertility traits. This paper explores the genetic relationship of milk yield with health and fertility depending on herd environment. A total of 71,720 lactations from heifers calving in 1997 to 1999 in the Netherlands

  7. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The mothers control group (n = 21) received only the same advice on supportive ... The daily breast milk production of mothers and weight gain of ... Breast milk is the ideal form of nutrition for the .... Pediatrics 2005;115:496-6.

  8. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  9. Economics of milk production of major dairy buffalo breeds by agro-ecological zones in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aujla, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to compare costs of rearing and returns received from major dairy buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundhi) in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainous-AJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of milk production. Milk production of buffaloes of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds were 2889 and 2375 liter per annum, respectively. Total costs of milk production of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breeds were Rs.96155 and Rs.90604 per annum, respectively. Net income per liter from milk of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds was Rs.12 and Rs.11, and benefit-cost ratios were 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. Hence, Nili-Ravi buffalo breed is more productive and yields better returns over Kundhi breed. Moreover, buffalo milk production is a profitable business in the country except in coastal areas of Sindh, where investment in milk production just covers the cost of production due to comparatively higher feed prices and low milk prices. Econometric analysis of milk production in the country revealed that use of green fodder and concentrates contribute positively and significantly to milk production. (author)

  10. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  11. The Effect of “Insufficient Milk Supply” Concept Intervention on Mother's Perception of Breast Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekar Dwi Anggraeni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organisation (WHO recommends every mother to provide exclusive breastfeeding for their infants because of its benefits. However the exclusive breastfeeding rate in Indonesia was only 35%in 2013. One of the main factors affecting low exclusive breastfeeding rate was maternal perception of having low breastmilk supply. There were no previous studies examining the effect of "Insufficient Milk Supply" concept intervention on mother’s perception of low breastmilk production. This research was an innovation in nursing. Aim: To investigate the effect of intervention program based on “Insufficient Milk Supply” concept on mother’s perception of low breastmilk supply. Methods: This study was a quasy experiment pretest-posttest. Postpartum mothers were provided an intervention using a module based on the concept of "Insufficient Milk Supply". The perception of breastmilk production was measured using the Nine-items of Lactation Scale. Data were analyzed using independent t test and paired t test. Results: The t test assumptions were examined and yielded that the data were normally distributed and the variances were homogeneous. The results showed there were significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test in the intervention group (t = -9,03, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This study offers evidence that Insufficient Milk Supply can be used in nursing practice as a concept to improve the perception of the mother's breastmilk supply.

  12. Sustainability Performance of an Italian Textile Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Lenzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Companies are more and more interested in the improvement of sustainability performance of products, services and processes. For this reason, appropriate and suitable assessment tools supporting the transition to a green economy are highly necessary. Currently, there are a number of methods and approaches for assessing products’ environmental impact and improving their performances; among these, the Life Cycle Thinking (LCT approach has emerged as the most comprehensive and effective to achieve sustainability goals. Indeed, the LCT approach aims to reduce the use of resources and emissions to the environment associated with a product’s life cycle. It can be used as well to improve socio-economic performance through the entire life cycle of a product. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, Life Cycle Costing (LCC and Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA are undoubtedly the most relevant methodologies to support product-related decision-making activities for the extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, distribution, use, reuse, maintenance, recycling and final disposal. While LCA is an internationally standardized tool (ISO 14040 2006, LCC (except for the ISO related to the building sector and S-LCA have yet to attain international standardization (even if guidelines and general frameworks are available. The S-LCA is still in its experimental phase for many aspects of the methodological structure and practical implementation. This study presents the application of LCA and S-LCA to a textile product. The LCA and S-LCA are implemented following the ISO 14040-44:2006 and the guidelines from UNEP/SETAC (2009, respectively. The functional unit of the study is a cape knitted in a soft blend of wool and cashmere produced by a textile company located in Sicily (Italy. The system boundary of the study includes all phases from cradle-to-gate, from raw material production through fabric/accessory production to the manufacturing process of the

  13. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  14. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinschink K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota and a high degree of seasonality persisted, extra processing capacities would be required to cope with peak supplies. Alternatively, existing capacities could be used more efficiently by distributing the milk volume more evenly during the year. In this analysis, an optimisation model was applied to analyse the costs and economies arising to an average Irish milk-processing business due to changes to the monthly distribution of milk deliveries and/or the total annual milk pool. Of the situations examined, changing from a seasonal supply prior to expansion to a smoother pattern combined with an increased milk pool emerged as the most beneficial option to the processor because both the processor’s gross surplus and the marginal producer milk price increased. In practice, it may however be the case that the extra costs arising to the producer from smoothing the milk intake distribution exceed the processor’s benefit. The interlinkages between the stages of the dairy supply chain mean that nationally, the seasonality trade-offs are complex and equivocal. Moreover, the prospective financial implications of such strategies will be dependent on the evolving and uncertain nature of international dairy markets in the post-quota environment.

  16. CLIMATE CHANGES AS THE RISK FACTOR IN MILK PRODUCTION IN WIELKOPOLSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chaberski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pilot researches were conducted in Wielkopolska. They aimed initial identifi cation of cows reaction on changing of THI, which are likened to temperature and humidity conditions of air. The subjected cows characterize with high productivity, exceeding 40kg of milk per day, independently from lactation stages. The results display that the day s production of raw milk, as well as fat and protein content, do not only depend on lactation stage but also on the value of THI factors. Higher THI is accompanied by loss in the weight of milk and drop in its technological utility. The climate warming may escalate the risk of production loss during the heats.

  17. [Genetic improvement of technological characteristics of starters for fermented milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, G G; Barsegian, A A; Grigorian, N G; Toptsian, A V

    2010-01-01

    Possibility for improvement of technological characteristics of lactobacilli using mutations of resistance to rifampicin (rif(r)) and streptomycin (str(r)) was studied. Using starter model of Narine Lactobacillus acidophilus INMIA-9602 Armenian diet milk product, it was showed that a possibility for selecting strains with increased rate of milk fermentation and acid production is higher in Rif(r) and Str(r) mutants induced by nitrosoguanidine than in cultures sensitive to antibiotics. The milk products obtained using Rif(r) and Str(r) strains had high viscosity, improved texture, increased amount of alive cells and good organoleptic features.

  18. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10 7  cfu g -1 of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  19. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  20. The effect of processing parameters on the structure of fermented milk products with transglutaminase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effect of concentration of transglutaminase (TG, content of milk fat and starter culture type (probiotic and kombucha on the structure of fermented milk products. The application of TG significantly improved textural characteristics of the fermented milk products. The firmness of the samples produced from milk with 0.1g100g-1 and 0.9g100g-1 fat content with probiotic starter were by 33% and 17.6% higher, respectively, compared to the control samples. During ten days of storage, the value of the hysteresis loop area of all samples produced from milk with 0.9g100g-1 fat content with TG addition, decreased by 14%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  1. An experimental study of the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products produced by the Irish dairy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, C.

    1990-07-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this thesis, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  2. Factors affecting sustainable dairy production: A case study from Uva Province of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilaka, D.; De Silva, S.; Deshapriya, R. M. C.; Gunaratne, L. H. P.

    2018-05-01

    Dairy farming has been playing a key role by improving household incomes and food security for rural communities in Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, it has failed to meet the expected self-sufficiency. In 2015, Sri Lanka imported 51percent of the national milk requirement spending US 251 million from its debt-ridden economy. This paper aims to analyse socio-economic characteristics of dairy farmers and factors affecting dairy production efficiency in the Uva Province of Sri Lanka, a highly potential area comprising all the dairy value chain actors. Surveyed was conducted to farmers, key informants from input suppliers, collectors, transporters, processors, sellers and support service providers. Result revealed that intensive farmer’s milk yields per cow was only 7.97 L/day, which was 35% and 60% higher than the yields of semi-intensive and extensive farmers respectively. The highest profit of Rs. 53.30 per litre was earned by extensive farmers, whereas it was Rs. 47.63 for semi-intensive and Rs. 44.76 for intensive farmers respectively if family labour cost was not taken into the account. The Technical Efficiency Analysis revealed that 37.1% and 20% milk production of intensive farmers and semi-intensive is being loss due to inefficiency and could be increased without any additional inputs. The main factors affecting efficiency in milk production included farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and farm characteristics. Based on the results it can be concluded that sustainability dairy production depends on farmer training, collectivizing farmers into farmer societies, culling unproductive male animals, increasing the availability and access to AI/other breading programs and low-cost quality concentrate feed and other supplements, and, thus appropriate measures should be taken to provide these conditions if Sri Lanka aims to achieve self-sufficiency in milk production.

  3. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  4. Comparative milk production and prevalence study of parasites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: dairy cattle, feeding, season, mastitis, prevalence, parasites, milk .... Fecal samples for parasitological examination were collected from the rectum ... 1 considered negative, while those with CMT scores above of 1 were considered.

  5. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2007-10-01

    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  6. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using computer simulation modelling. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... into the model allowed for the introduction of variation between individuals and generations.

  7. Studies of 90Sr presence in milk and commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, M.; Solecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present the studies of radiological level of some commercial dairy products in Mazovian, Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lublin regions. They were carried out for 27 commercial dairy products such as two specimens of lean cottage cheese, three specimens of cottage cheese containing a limited percentage of fat, three specimens of fat cottage cheese, three specimens of milk containing 3.2% of fat, three specimens of milk containing 2.0% of fat, two specimens of sour cream containing 12% of fat, three specimens of sour cream containing 18% of fat, one specimen of 30% whipping cream, two specimens of homogenized (strawberry and vanilla) cheese, three specimens of hard rennet cheese, one specimen of powdered milk, one specimen of goat milk. For the given commercial dairy products there were calculated effective doses (?Sv) obtained after consumption of 1 kg contaminated product for different age groups. (author)

  8. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL LOAD OF SHEEP MILK FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION TO ITS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Farkašová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the breeding with the average number of 220 sheep (zošľachtená valaška with traditional hand milking in the Eastern Slovakia the microbiological load of milk during the process of primary production, transport, before and after pasteurisation as well as during dairy processing to cheese curd was observed. The results in three seasons were compared to those obtained at finishing of milking in the season before. The microbiological load of milk was observed using the bacteriological methods for determination of the presence of Staphylococcus sp. and other bacteria, and determination of the total number of staphylococci: a  in milliliter of pool milk sample; b  the transport control – smears from transport tank and determination of the total number of staphylococci in the tank milk sample; c bacteriological examination of bulk tank milk in the dairy plant before and after pasteurisation, including examination of cheese curd. After pasteurisation no staphylococci were recorded as in milk as in cheese. Out of 112 strains of Staphylococcus aureus only four strain produced staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE, but in another 7 strains a gene for production of SE, type C was found. The measures introduced during the following season led to the fact that total numbers of coagulase-positive staphylococci in milk within the process of primary production and transport did not exceed the limit permitted by legislation, and after pasteurisation of milk and cheese curd they were not found at all.  doi:10.5219/58

  9. 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the important programmatic outcomes from the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was the adoption of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP) on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP).

  10. Duurzaamheid en grondstoffen voor diervoeding = Sustainability and feed commodity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Bos, J.F.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study creates a preliminary framework to judge the sustainability of production of agricultural commodities for the purpose of animal nutrition. Criteria are selected according to the economic, societal and ecological dimensions of sustainability.

  11. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield...... This study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  12. Achieving sustainable biomass conversion to energy and bio products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    The present effort in to maximize biomass conversion-to-energy and bio products is examined in terms of sustain ability practices. New goals, standards in practice, measurements and certification are needed for the sustainable biomass industry. Sustainable practices produce biomass energy and products in a manner that is secure, renewable, accessible locally, and pollution free. To achieve sustainable conversion, some new goals are proposed. (Author)

  13. MARKET SUCCESS FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Fleith de Medeiros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates dimensions and factors that according to the perception of business managers drive the market success of environmentally sustainable products. Initially, publications related to new products introduced to the market (with or without environmental focus were evaluated. Four complementary dimensions were identified as responsible for proper performance: (i Market Knowledge, (ii Interfunctional Collaboration, (iii Knowledge Integration Mechanisms, and (iv Generative Learning. Considering the above, an exploratory study following a qualitative approach was conducted with managers that work in the Brazilian market. For the choice of the respondents, some characteristics were considered, such as growth in the sector of activity where the organization works, and the area that they manage. Results lead to the validation and ranking of the factors and dimensions mentioned in the literature. They also allowed the identification of new factors as: technological domain, competitive price, quality, company's brand, and payback. Moreover, considering the variables described and the relationships established among them, it was inferred that technological domain can be considered as a dimension. This suggestion is based on the respondents' perception concerning "technological domain", such as: specialized people, research budget, and also budget for facilities and equipment. The study also shows deeper difference among practice areas than among sectors. Based on the list of factors that was generated, new studies are recommended to measure the impact of the factors and dimensions on the success of green products.

  14. Soil quality: key for sustainable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Benedetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years several definitions of “soil quality” have been advanced, but among them the most appreciated is “the ability of soils to interact with the ecosystem in order to maintain the biological productivity, the environmental quality and to promote animal and vegetal health” as defined by Doran and Parkin in 1994. Many researchers place more emphasis on its conceptual meaning for land planning and farm management, while others consider that definition to be worth nothing in order to understand soil properties and the concept of soil quality looks like the concept of “to be suitable for”. For this reason a definition of “soil use” is needed. The food quality is characterized by several properties: the healthiness and the nutritional value, the amount of the production, the typicalness and organoleptic properties, etc.. A lot of these properties depend on environmental quality and, in particular, on soil quality. In fact soil represents the natural substrate for growth and productivity of most of the plants that live on the Hearth because they get all the essential nutritional elements from it for their own development; consequently each nutritional element present into the soil as bioavailable form for the plants is potentially destined to entry in the animal (and human food chain. In the quality process of food productive process it will be important to assure the best soil quality as possible, without any unwanted element (which will not be discussed in this note and with the right amount of fertility elements in order to guarantee the best production. In this paper the relationships between soil quality, soil biodiversity and crop sustainability will be discussed. Finally the concept of soil “biota” as nodal point for the environment regulation and the application of the indicators for soil quality will be discussed.

  15. Soil quality: key for sustainable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mocali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years several definitions of “soil quality” have been advanced, but among them the most appreciated is “the ability of soils to interact with the ecosystem in order to maintain the biological productivity, the environmental quality and to promote animal and vegetal health” as defined by Doran and Parkin in 1994. Many researchers place more emphasis on its conceptual meaning for land planning and farm management, while others consider that definition to be worth nothing in order to understand soil properties and the concept of soil quality looks like the concept of “to be suitable for”. For this reason a definition of “soil use” is needed. The food quality is characterized by several properties: the healthiness and the nutritional value, the amount of the production, the typicalness and organoleptic properties, etc.. A lot of these properties depend on environmental quality and, in particular, on soil quality. In fact soil represents the natural substrate for growth and productivity of most of the plants that live on the Hearth because they get all the essential nutritional elements from it for their own development; consequently each nutritional element present into the soil as bioavailable form for the plants is potentially destined to entry in the animal (and human food chain. In the quality process of food productive process it will be important to assure the best soil quality as possible, without any unwanted element (which will not be discussed in this note and with the right amount of fertility elements in order to guarantee the best production. In this paper the relationships between soil quality, soil biodiversity and crop sustainability will be discussed. Finally the concept of soil “biota” as nodal point for the environment regulation and the application of the indicators for soil quality will be discussed.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus growth and enterotoxin production in different types of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdana Janštová, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess Staphylococcus aureus growth and the time of first detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins type A, B and C (SEA, SEB, SEC in different type of milk, depending on the strain and storage conditions. Raw, pasteurized, and UHT milk were inoculated with three strains of S. aureus, and growth patterns were determined by the plate method in accordance with EN ISO 6888-1. Baird-Parker agar medium was used for the detection of S. aureus and the Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA used with a miniVIDAS analyzer tested the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins. The results of model experiments showed the dependence of the growth rate and subsequent production of staphylococcal enterotoxins on incubation (storage temperature, S. aureus strain, and type of milk. A significant finding was that the growth of S. aureus and production of enterotoxins in raw milk was inhibited by natural microflora, and production of enterotoxins was therefore not detected in raw milk within 102 hours of storage either at 15 °C or 22 °C. The highest risk of SEs production is associated with secondary contamination of pasteurized and UHT milk when stored at room temperature, where production was first detected after 12 hours of incubation.

  17. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in powdered milk and sweetened condensed milk products in several cities in Java with HPLC-fluorescence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, H.; Wardayanie, N. I.; Widjajanti, R.; Silitonga, R. F.

    2018-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by lactating animals due to consuming AFB1-contaminated feed. AFM1 can be found in dairy products because it is resistant to heat during processing. This study aimed to detect AFM1 in powdered milk and sweetened condensed milk sold in several cities in Java. The amount of powdered milk sample was 20, while the amount of sweetened condensed milk sample was 16. AFM1 detection in powdered milk and sweetened condensed milk was conducted by HPLC-fluorescence method. The results showed that the concentration of AFM1 in powdered milk ranged from undetectable to 0.549 μg/kg and the highest data (55%) was distributed in concentration range of >0.05 μg/kg - 0.2 μg/kg. On the other hand, AFM1 levels in sweetened condensed milk ranged from undetectable to 0.056 μg/kg and 43.75% data was distributed in concentration range of >0.025 μg/kg - 0.05 μg/kg. All powdered milk and sweetened condensed milk samples have met the maximum level of AFM1 according to Indonesian regulation.

  18. Progress in nutritional and health profile of milk and dairy products: a novel drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemucci, Giovanni; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing focus on diet as a tool to maintain human health and prevent disease. Milk and milk products of ruminants are important source of fat and saturated fatty acids, which are not considered to be very favourable to human health, but are valuable sources of nutrients including bioactive fatty acids (FA), vitamins, and minerals, which can promote positive health effects. The nutritional characteristics of milk and dairy products are related to their composition, which depends on the source species, and varies due to numerous factors, among which the animal diet is the most important. An improvement in milk FA composition and other micronutrients can be reached through an animal feeding strategy. Natural pasture-based farming systems increase microconstituents that are beneficial to human health (CLA, PUFAs, n-3 FAs, antioxidants, vitamins A and E, and Se) and volatile compounds (flavour, and terpenes) in milk and cheese. There are still uncertainties about the health benefits of various milk FAs and other compounds; deep and extensive long-term clinical studies with humans are needed. The contamination of milk and dairy products by heavy metals or dioxins has dramatic negative consequences for human and livestock health and necessitates very urgent consideration and intervention.

  19. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  20. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  1. The carbon footprint of integrated milk production and renewable energy systems - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Doriana Eurosia Angela

    2017-12-31

    Dairy farms have been widely acknowledged as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for a more environmentally friendly milk production system will likely be important going forward. Whereas methane (CH 4 ) enteric emissions can only be reduced to a limited extent, CH 4 manure emissions can be reduced by implementing mitigation strategies, such as the use of an anaerobic digestion (AD). Furthermore, implementing a photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation system could mitigate the fossil fuels used to cover the electrical needs of farms. In the present study to detect the main environmental hotspots of milk production, a Life Cycle Assessment was adopted to build the Life Cycle Inventory according to ISO 14040 and 14044 in a conventional dairy farm (1368 animals) provided by AD and PV systems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tiered approach was adopted to associate the level of emission with each item in the life cycle inventory. The functional unit refers to 1kg of fat-and-protein-corrected-milk (FPCM). In addition to milk products, other important co-products need to be considered: meat and renewable energy production from AD and PV systems. A physical allocation was applied to attribute GHG emissions among milk and meat products. Renewable energy production from AD and PV systems was considered, discounting carbon credits due to lower CH 4 manure emissions and to the minor exploitation of fossil energy. The CF of this farm scenario was 1.11kg CO 2 eq/kg FPCM. The inclusion of AD allowed for the reduction of GHG emissions from milk production by 0.26kg CO 2 eq/kg FPCM. The PV system contribution was negligible due to the small dimensions of the technology. The results obtained in this study confirm that integrating milk production with other co-products, originated from more efficient manure management, is a successful strategy to mitigate the environmental impact of dairy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  3. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  4. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rybak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence o f fatglobules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions.It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  5. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  6. Globally sustainable manganese metal production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelstein, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The "cradle to grave" concept of managing chemicals and wastes has been a descriptive analogy of proper environmental stewardship since the 1970s. The concept incorporates environmentally sustainable product choices-such as metal alloys utilized steel products which civilization is dependent upon. Manganese consumption is related to the increasing production of raw steel and upgrading ferroalloys. Nonferrous applications of manganese include production of dry-cell batteries, plant fertilizer components, animal feed and colorant for bricks. The manganese ore (high grade 35% manganese) production world wide is about 6 million ton/year and electrolytic manganese metal demand is about 0.7 million ton/year. The total manganese demand is consumed globally by industries including construction (23%), machinery (14%), and transportation (11%). Manganese is recycled within scrap of iron and steel, a small amount is recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Recycling rate is 37% and efficiency is estimated as 53% [Roskill Metals and Minerals Reports, January 13, 2005. Manganese Report: rapid rise in output caused by Chinese crude steel production. Available from: http://www.roskill.com/reports/manganese.]. Environmentally sustainable management choices include identifying raw material chemistry, utilizing clean production processes, minimizing waste generation, recycling materials, controlling occupational exposures, and collecting representative environmental data. This paper will discuss two electrolytically produced manganese metals, the metal production differences, and environmental impacts cited to date. The two electrolytic manganese processes differ due to the addition of sulfur dioxide or selenium dioxide. Adverse environmental impacts due to use of selenium dioxide methodology include increased water consumption and order of magnitude greater solid waste generation per ton of metal processed. The use of high grade manganese ores in the electrolytic process also

  7. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  8. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species...

  9. Affordability for sustainable energy development products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clean cookstoves that also generate electricity improve affordability. • Excel spreadsheet model to assist stakeholders to choose optimum technology. • Presents views for each stakeholder villager, village and country. • By adding certain capital costs, affordability and sustainability are improved. • Affordability is highly dependent on carbon credits and social understandings. - Abstract: Clean burning products, for example cooking stoves, can reduce household air pollution (HAP), which prematurely kills 3.5 million people each year. By careful selection of components into a product package with micro-finance used for the capital payment, barriers to large-scale uptake of products that remove HAP are reduced. Such products reduce smoke from cooking and the lighting from electricity produced, eliminates smoke from kerosene lamps. A bottom-up financial model, that is cognisant of end user social needs, has been developed to compare different products for use in rural areas of developing countries. The model is freely available for use by researchers and has the ability to assist in the analysis of changing assumptions. Business views of an individual villager, the village itself and a country view are presented. The model shows that affordability (defined as the effect on household expenses as a result of a product purchase) and recognition of end-user social needs are as important as product cost. The effects of large-scale deployment (greater that 10 million per year) are described together with level of subsidy required by the poorest people. With the assumptions given, the model shows that pico-hydro is the most cost effective, but not generally available, one thermo-acoustic technology option does not require subsidy, but it is only at technology readiness level 2 (NASA definition) therefore costs are predicted and very large investment in manufacturing capability is needed to meet the cost target. Thermo-electric is currently the only

  10. EFFECT OF CONSUMING TEMULAWAK (CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA ROXB. EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyntia Desbriyani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dominant factor inhibiting breastfeeding is the lack of milk production. The extract of temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb is considered having an effect to increase breast milk production. Objective: To examine the effect of temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract to increase milk production in postpartum mothers in the working area of Ambarawa Community Health Center. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with non-equivalent control group design conducted on October-December 2016. There were 38 respondents included using consecutive sampling, with 19 assigned in the intervention and control group. Paired t-test and independent test were used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that there were significant increases of prolactin hormone (p = 0.000, breast milk volume (p = 0.001, baby’s urinary frequency (p = 0.001, baby’s defecation frequency (p = 0.000, and baby’s sleep duration (p = 0.000 after given temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract. Conclusion: Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract has a significant effect in increasing breast milk production and prolactin levels in postpartum mothers. Thus, it is recommended that temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract can be an option for postpartum mother to increase milk production.

  11. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  12. Production of isometric forces during sustained acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, D P; Girgenrath, M; Bock, O; Pongratz, H

    2003-06-01

    The operation of high-performance aircraft requires pilots to apply finely graded forces on controls. Since they are often exposed to high levels of acceleration in flight, we investigated to what extent this ability is degraded in such an environment. Twelve healthy non-pilot volunteers were seated in the gondola of a centrifuge and their performance was tested at normal gravity (1 G) and while exposed to sustained forces of 1.5 G and 3 G oriented from head to foot (+Gz). Using an isometric joystick, they attempted to produce force vectors with specific lengths and directions commanded in random order by a visual display. Acceleration had substantial effects on the magnitude of produced force. Compared with 1 G, maximum produced force was about 2 N higher at 1.5 G and about 10 N higher at 3 G. The size of this effect was constant across the different magnitudes, but varied with the direction of the prescribed force. Acceleration degrades control of force production. This finding may indicate that the motor system misinterprets the unusual gravitoinertial environment and/or that proprioceptive feedback is degraded due to increased muscle tone. The production of excessive isometric force could affect the safe operation of high-performance aircraft.

  13. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Shaozeng Dong

    2017-01-01

    The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustai...

  14. EFFECT OF MUSA BALBISIANA COLLA EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyan Wahyuningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa balbisiana Colla, known as Jantung Pisang Klutuk/Pisang Batu, is considered as a traditional food that can increase breast milk production. Little is known about its benefit in Indonesia. Thus, to examine the impact of musa balbisiana colla on the production of breast milk is needed. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of the extract of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla to increase milk production of breastfeeding mothers. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pre-posttest control group design. This study was conducted in the working area of the Health Center (Puskesmas of Pesantren II in January – February 2017. There were 16 respondents were recruited by accidental sampling, divided to intervention group (8 respondents and control group (8 respondents. Randomization was performed to select the respondent in each group. The quantity of milk production was measured based on the volume of milk production, while the quality of milk production was based on the levels of prolactin in early (pre and late (post using Electro chemilumi-nescence Immunoassay (ECLIA method. Independent t-Test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of the volume of the breast milk production in the experiment group was 470.681 ml, and in the control group was 364.650 ml with SD 113.502. While the mean of prolactin levels in the experiment group was 35.337 nanogram, and in the control group was -38.381 nanogram. There was a significant effect of consuming Musa balbisiana Colla extract on the volume of breast milk production (p-value 0.003 and prolactin levels (p-value 0.001 (<0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla extract on breast milk production and prolactin level in breastfeeding mothers. The findings of this study could be used to be alternative daily menu for postpartum mothers and a solution for midwives to deal with those who have inadequate

  15. Milk production parameters in early lactiation: potential risk factors of cystic ovarian disease in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, G.A.; Oijen, van M.A.A.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate whether the incidence of cystic ovarian disease (COD) in dairy cows was related to milk production parameters (milk yield, milk fat and protein) in early lactation with special emphasis on the negative energy balance (NEB). The diagnosis of COD was made

  16. Molds contamination of raw milk and dairy products: Occurrence, diversity and contamination source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moshtaghi Maleki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the occurrence and diversity of mold species in raw milk and its products along with the identification of potential contamination sources. For this reason, a total of 260 samples consisting of 80 raw milk, 100 dairy products (i.e., pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese and buttermilk and 80 environmental (i.e. ingredients, packaging materials, surface of processing equipments and air specimens were collected. Using culture assay and microscopic observation, the occurrence as well as the diversity of mold species was investigated. According to the results, 82.3% of the samples were identified as positive for mold contamination. The percentage of mold contamination for raw milk was estimated as 97.5%. In the case of pasteurized milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, cheese and environmental samples, it was determined as 52%, 76%, 52%, 56% and 96.25%, respectively. Mold diversity among various samples consisted of Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Penicillium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.01 correlation between kind of mold species isolated from raw milk and dairy products. Similarly, a correlation was observed between dairy products and environmental sources. Regarding the high occurrence of mold contamination in raw milk and environmental sources, it seems that in some instances heat treatment was not effective enough to inactivate all molds; whereas in some other cases, cross contamination may have resulted in mold contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain hygienic conditions during raw milk handling as well as processing steps. These practices could efficiently reduce the occurrence of mold contaminations in dairy products.

  17. Sustainable Product Indexing: Navigating the Challenge of Ecolabeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S. Golden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing scientific evidence that improving the sustainability of consumer products can lead to significant gains in global sustainability. Historically, environmental policy has been managed by bureaucracies and institutions in a mechanistic manner; this had led to many early successes. However, we believe that if policy concerning product sustainability is also managed in this way, negative unintended consequences are likely to occur. Thus, we propose a social-ecological systems approach to policy making concerning product sustainability that will lead to more rapid and meaningful progress toward improving the environmental and social impacts of consumer products.

  18. Nonfermented milk and other dairy products: associations with all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Gianluca; Nilsson, Lena M; Shungin, Dmitry; Lissner, Lauren; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Renström, Frida; Wennberg, Maria; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-06-01

    Background: A positive association between nonfermented milk intake and increased all-cause mortality was recently reported, but overall, the association between dairy intake and mortality is inconclusive. Objective: We studied associations between intake of dairy products and all-cause mortality with an emphasis on nonfermented milk and fat content. Design: A total of 103,256 adult participants (women: 51.0%) from Northern Sweden were included (7121 deaths; mean follow-up: 13.7 y). Associations between all-cause mortality and reported intakes of nonfermented milk (total or by fat content), fermented milk, cheese, and butter were tested with the use of Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, education, energy intake, examination year, and physical activity. To circumvent confounding, Mendelian randomization was applied in a subsample via the lactase LCT - 13910 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with lactose tolerance and milk intake. Results: High consumers of nonfermented milk (≥2.5 times/d) had a 32% increased hazard (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.48) for all-cause mortality compared with that of subjects who consumed milk ≤1 time/wk. The corresponding value for butter was 11% (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21). All nonfermented milk-fat types were independently associated with increased HRs, but compared with full-fat milk, HRs were lower in consumers of medium- and low-fat milk. Fermented milk intake (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) and cheese intake (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96) were negatively associated with mortality. Results were slightly attenuated by lifestyle adjustments but were robust in sensitivity analyses. Mortality was not significantly associated with the LCT -13910 C/T genotype in the smaller subsample. The amount and type of milk intake was associated with lifestyle variables. Conclusions: In the present Swedish cohort study, intakes of nonfermented milk and butter are

  19. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  20. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  1. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Verardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed.

  2. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important...... is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic...... and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared...

  3. (igf1/igf1r) with milk production tr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gosia

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) (TaiI and MspI restriction enzymes) and amplification-created restriction site (ACRS) (SnaBI ... is the first association study based on polymorphisms of the primary genes encoding the IGF-1 system in a small herd of .... However, protein content was highest in milk ...

  4. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Usman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Listeria (L. monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap. Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25% were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9% of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2% from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8% from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A, when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified.

  5. Detection of relevant amounts of cow's milk protein in non-pre-packed bakery products sold as cow's milk-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendelenburg, V; Enzian, N; Bellach, J; Schnadt, S; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no mandatory labelling of allergens for non-pre-packed foods in the EU. Therefore, consumers with food allergy rely on voluntary information provided by the staff. The aim of this study was to characterize allergic reactions to non-pre-packed foods and to investigate whether staff in bakery shops were able to give advice regarding a safe product choice. Questionnaires were sent to 200 parents of children with a food allergy. Staff of 50 bakery shops were interviewed regarding selling non-pre-packed foods to food-allergic customers. Bakery products being recommended as 'cow's milk-free' were bought, and cow's milk protein levels were measured using ELISA. A total of 104 of 200 questionnaires were returned. 25% of the children experienced an allergic reaction due to a non-pre-packed food from bakery shops and 20% from ice cream parlours. Sixty percent of the bakery staff reported serving food-allergic customers at least once a month, 24% once a week. Eighty four percent of the staff felt able to advise food-allergic consumers regarding a safe product choice. Seventy three 'cow's milk-free' products were sold in 44 bakery shops. Cow's milk could be detected in 43% of the bakery products, 21% contained >3 mg cow's milk protein per serving. Staff in bakery shops felt confident about advising customers with food allergy. However, cow's milk was detectable in almost half of bakery products being sold as 'cow's milk-free'. Every fifth product contained quantities of cow's milk exceeding an amount where approximately 10% of cow's milk-allergic children will show clinical relevant symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  7. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  8. Milk production and nutrient digestibility responses to increasing levels of stearic acid supplementation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; de Souza, J; Lock, A L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0.80, 1.50, or 2.30% of diet dry matter (DM). Periods were 21 d with the final 5 d used for data and sample collection. Dry matter intake increased linearly as SA supplementation increased. Supplementation of SA had no effect on the yield of milk or milk components. Due to the increase in DM intake, SA linearly reduced the ratio of energy-corrected milk to DM intake. Supplementation of SA did not affect body weight. Increasing SA reduced digestibility of 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total fatty acids (FA), with the reduction in digestibility of 18-carbon FA being approximately 30 percentage units from the 0.0 to 2.30% SA supplemented diets. Supplementation of SA linearly increased concentrations of preformed milk fatty acids (FA) but did not affect the yield of preformed milk FA. Yields of C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1 were increased by SA supplementation; however, the increase from 0 to 2.3% SA was only 16 g/d. The concentration and yield of de novo and 16-carbon milk FA were unaffected by SA supplementation. In conclusion, increasing doses of SA decreased FA digestibility and had little effect on production parameters. Although SA increased the yield of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat, it had no overall effect on milk fat yield. The lack of production responses to a C18:0-enriched fat supplement was most likely associated with the marked decrease in FA digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Model test on the relationship feed energy and protein ratio to the production and quality of milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, R.; Jantra, M. A. C.; Santosa, S. A. B.; Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find an appropriate relationship model between the feed energy and protein ratio with the amount of production and quality of milk proteins. This research was conducted at Getasan Sub-district, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia using 40 samples (Holstein Friesian cattle, lactation period II-III and lactation month 3-4). Data were analyzed using linear and quadratic regressions, to predict the production and quality of milk protein from feed energy and protein ratio that describe the diet. The significance of model was tested using analysis of variance. Coefficient of determination (R2), residual variance (RV) and root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) were reported for the developed equations as an indicator of the goodness of model fit. The results showed no relationship in milk protein (kg), milk casein (%), milk casein (kg) and milk urea N (mg/dl) as function of CP/TDN. The significant relationship was observed in milk production (L or kg) and milk protein (%) as function of CP/TDN, both in linear and quadratic models. In addition, a quadratic change in milk production (L) (P = 0.003), milk production (kg) (P = 0.003) and milk protein concentration (%) (P = 0.026) were observed with increase of CP/TDN. It can be concluded that quadratic equation was the good fitting model for this research, because quadratic equation has larger R2, smaller RV and smaller RMSPE than those of linear equation.

  10. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  12. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...... of primary, secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol content upon 32 days storage at 2 °C and 28 days storage at 5 °C, respectively. Analyses of particle size distribution, viscosity and microbial growth were also performed. In addition, sensory attributes such as sour, fishy and rancid flavor...

  13. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  14. Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Schanler, Richard J; Lee, Martin L; Rechtman, David J

    2014-01-01

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (pmilk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants.

  15. Milk and dairy products presence in boarding school meals in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritive quality and variety of food intake are the most important issues for young people growing and developing. Nutritional habits of each individual are also very important. High values of proteins, mineral matters and vitamins in milk show the importance of milk consumption in meals for children and young people.In order to gain a precise insight into nutritive status of young people in Croatian boarding schools, a "closed type group" was selected. The examined groups included girls and boys at the age of 14-18 years, accommodated in 39 boarding schools. The questionnaires, organised in order to determine preferences in consumption of different food groups including milk and dairy products, are conducted as well. From the meals analysed one can recommend the improvements in meal preferences. Average values per day showed that 52 % of girls and 63 % of boys consume milk and dairy products only if includedin boarding school meals. Only 27 % of girls and 21 % of boys consumed milk or dairy products on daily basis. Results of milk and dairy product preferences are different with regards to different regions of Croatia. Region 3, Lika and Gorski Kotar, shows the highest values of dairy products consumption. The aim of the work is to determine quality of the energy and nutritive intake by nutrition analysis, and to determine nutritional irregularities with a special reference to milk and dairy products consumption. Furthermore, nutritional improvements, by including the results of meal preferences in accordance with the needs and DRI recommendations considering gender and age, are proposed.

  16. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... whether these attitudes coincide with people's general attitudes towards sustainability, on one hand, and their consumption of specific pork products, on the other. A conjoint experiment was designed to evaluate citizens' preferences towards pig production systems with varying sustainability levels....... Conjoint analysis results were then used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify international citizen clusters across the three continents. Respondents' sociodemographic profile, attitudes towards sustainability issues, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used to profile...

  17. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... whether these attitudes coincide with people's general attitudes towards sustainability, on one hand, and their consumption of specific pork products, on the other. A conjoint experiment was designed to evaluate citizens' preferences towards pig production systems with varying sustainability levels....... Conjoint analysis results were then used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify international citizen clusters across the three continents. Respondents' sociodemographic profile, attitudes towards sustainability issues, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used to profile...

  18. Productive, economic and risk assessment of grazing dairy systems with supplemented cows milked once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Lyons, N; Hendrikse, L; Baudracco, J

    2018-05-01

    Milking cows once a day (OAD) is a herd management practice that may help to reduce working effort and labour demand in dairy farms. However, a decrease in milk yield per cow occurs in OAD systems compared with twice a day (TAD) systems and this may affect profitability of dairy systems. The objective of this study was to assess productive and economic impact and risk of reducing milking frequency from TAD to OAD for grazing dairy systems, using a whole-farm model. Five scenarios were evaluated by deterministic and stochastic simulations: one scenario under TAD milking (TADAR) and four scenarios under OAD milking. The OAD scenarios assumed that milk yield per cow decreased by 30% (OAD30), 24% (OAD24), 19% (OAD19) and 10% (OAD10), compared with TADAR scenario, based on experimental and commercial farms data. Stocking rate (SR) was increased in all OAD scenarios compared to TADAR and two levels of reduction in labour cost were tested, namely 15% and 30%. Milk and concentrate feeds prices, and pasture and crop yields, were allowed to behave stochastically to account for market and climate variations, respectively, to perform risk analyses. Scenario OAD10 showed similar milk yield per ha compared with TADAR, as the increased SR compensated for the reduction in milk yield per cow. For scenarios OAD30, OAD24 and OAD19 the greater number of cows per ha partially compensated for the reduction of milk yield per cow and milk yield per ha decreased 21%, 15% and 10%, respectively, compared with TADAR. Farm operating profit per ha per year also decreased in all OAD scenarios compared with TADAR, and were US$684, US$161, US$ 303, US$424 and US$598 for TADAR, OAD30, OAD24, OAD19, OAD10, respectively, when labour cost was reduced 15% in OAD scenarios. When labour cost was reduced 30% in OAD scenarios, only OAD10 showed higher profit (US$706) than TADAR. Stochastic simulations showed that exposure to risk would be higher in OAD scenarios compared with TADAR. Results showed that OAD

  19. Optimization of culture conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid production in fermented adzuki bean milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Yi Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA, a nonprotein amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and fulfills several physiological functions. In this study, various lactic acid strains commonly used to produce fermented milk products were inoculated into adzuki bean milk for producing GABA. The high GABA producing strain was selected in further experiment to improve the GABA production utilizing culture medium optimization. The results demonstrated that adzuki bean milk inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increased GABA content from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.44 mg/mL after 36 hours of fermentation, which showed the greatest elevation in this study. Furthermore, the optimal cultural condition to adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG to improve the GABA content was performed using response surface methodology. The results showed that GABA content was dependent on the addition of galactose, monosodium glutamate, and pyridoxine with which the increasing ratios of GABA were 23–38%, 24–68%, and 8–36%, respectively. The optimal culture condition for GABA production of adzuki bean milk was found at the content of 1.44% galactose, 2.27% monosodium glutamate, and 0.20% pyridoxine. Under the optimal cultural condition, the amount of GABA produced in the fermented adzuki bean milk was 1.12 mg/mL, which was 22.4-fold higher than that of the unfermented adzuki bean milk (0.05 mg/100 mL. The results suggested that the optimized cultural condition of adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG can increase GABA content for consumers as a daily supplement as suggested.

  20. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  1. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  2. Emerging sustainable/green cleaning products: health and environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Mehmet Cihan; Işik, Ercan; Ulu, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development aims to bring a new perspective to our lives without compromising customer needs and quality. Along with sustainable development many innovative solutions came out. One of them is sustainable green cleaning products and techniques. Today, emissions from conventional cleaning products may cause severe health and environmental issues. Especially sick building syndromes such as eye, skin and respiratory irritations are main health effects of them. They may also contrib...

  3. Towards Sustainability-driven Innovation through Product Service Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of anthropogenic impacts on the planet has lead to efforts to reduce negative environmental impacts in product development for several decades. Benefits to companies who focus on sustainability initiatives have been put forth more recently, leading to many efforts to incorporate sustainability considerations in their product innovation processes. The majority of current sustainability considerations in industry constrain design space by emphasizing reduced material and en...

  4. EFFECT OF PROTEIN UNDEGRADED SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION OF MILK IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Widyobroto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of undegraded protein supplementation on nutrientsintake, production and milk composition in dairy cows. The purpose of this research was to provideinformation on the undegraded protein supplementation to increase milk production and composition indairy cows. The research was conducted for 3 months in Boyolali-Central Java. The study used 20lactation cows (<3 months of lactation, aged 3 to 3.5 years with body weight from 350 to 400 kg. Thecows were then randomly divided into 2 groups of ten based on their body weight, milk production,lactation period and age. The first group (control and the second group (treated, both were fed dietbased on NRC (1987. The second group was added undegraded protein (UDP of 30 g/l milk that mixedby concentrate. The observed variables were dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crudeprotein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, milk production and milk composition including fat, proteinand solid non fat (SNF. Data obtained were examined by t-test.The results showed that intake of DM, OM, and the NDF of treated and control groups were notdifferent (9.57; 8.49; 4.98 vs 9.44; 8.38; 5.40 kg/cow/d, respectively; however, protein intake of treatedgroup was higher (P<0.01 than that of the control group (1097 vs. 1210g/cow/d. Milk production ofcows receiving UDP supplementation tended to be higher than that in the control group (+ 1:45kg/cow/d. Although they tended to be lower in fat (4.13 vs. 3.88%, protein (2.45 vs. 2.27% and SNF(7.26 vs. 6.94%, but protein and fat production were higher for cows receiving UDP supplementation(366 each; 214 vs. 330; 196g/cow/d. It can be concluded that UDP supplementation increased milk, fatproduction and milk protein but it tended to reduce the level of fat, protein and SNF milk.

  5. Nature-Inspired Design : Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability.

  6. Sustainable production and consumption in a regional policy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main challenges regions face in sustainable development is changing their production and consumption patterns. This paper focuses on the role of regional government in sustainable production and consumption polices, one of the specific topics in the framework of the European Regional

  7. Structural model for sustainable consumption and production adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Mangla, Sachin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    . “Governmental policies and regulations to develop sustainable consumption and production focused system” and “Management support, dedication and involvement in sustainable consumption and production implementation” have been found as the most influencing drivers and “Gaining the market edge and improving...

  8. Physical and textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, kombucha fermented milk products were produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat using 10% (v/v kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint and stinging nettle. The fermentation process was conducted at temperatures of 37, 40 and 43°C. Fermentation was stopped when the pH value of 4.5 was reached. The fermentation process was shortened with an increase of temperature. Physical characteristics of the fermented products were determined by using standard methods of analysis. Textural characteristics were determined by texture profile analysis. The obtained products showed good physical and textural characteristics, typical for the yoghurt-like products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  9. Analysis of the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production using graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Sholeh; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Masoudi Nejad, Ali; Nasiri, Mohammad; Asgari, Yazdan

    2015-06-01

    Understanding cattle metabolism and its relationship with milk products is important in bovine breeding. A systemic view could lead to consequences that will result in a better understanding of existing concepts. Topological indices and quantitative characterizations mostly result from the application of graph theory on biological data. In the present work, the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production was reconstructed and analyzed based on available bovine genome information using several public datasets (NCBI, Uniprot, KEGG, and Brenda). The reconstructed network consisted of 3605 reactions named by KEGG compound numbers and 646 enzymes that catalyzed the corresponding reactions. The characteristics of the directed and undirected network were analyzed using Graph Theory. The mean path length was calculated to be4.39 and 5.41 for directed and undirected networks, respectively. The top 11 hub enzymes whose abnormality could harm bovine health and reduce milk production were determined. Therefore, the aim of constructing the enzyme centric network was twofold; first to find out whether such network followed the same properties of other biological networks, and second, to find the key enzymes. The results of the present study can improve our understanding of milk production in cattle. Also, analysis of the enzyme network can help improve the modeling and simulation of biological systems and help design desired phenotypes to increase milk production quality or quantity.

  10. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL MILK PRODUCTION IN SMALL-SCALE DAIRY FARMING IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himawan Arif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm, which produces calf and milk jointly, is expected to raise household’s income in rural areas where potential resources are available. This study aims at examing the optimal production of milk and calf by estimating a relationship between both productions. The study was conducted in Sleman,Yogyakartawhere dairy farms exist. Theory used in this study is economies scope in joint production. The results of study indicate that the level of joint production is still low such that there is no degree in economies of scope. Consequently, household’s income generated from this farm has not been maximised. To increase the income, it can be conducted by two consecutive steps. First, is to increase the production milk and calf jointly until the degree of economies of scope reached. Second, is to produce milk and calf in the best combination after reaching economies of scope. Recently, the best way to maximise income is to produce calf as low as possible, and to increase the period of producing milk.  

  11. Genetic parameters of blood β-hydroxybutyrate predicted from milk infrared spectra and clinical ketosis, and their associations with milk production traits in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, T K; Svendsen, M; Kowalski, Z M; Ådnøy, T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) predicted from milk spectra and for clinical ketosis (KET), and to examine genetic association of blood BHB with KET and milk production traits (milk, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and milk fat, protein, and lactose contents). Data on milk traits, KET, and milk spectra were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System with legal permission from TINE SA (Ås, Norway), the Norwegian Dairy Association that manages the central database. Data recorded up to 120 d after calving were considered. Blood BHB was predicted from milk spectra using a calibration model developed based on milk spectra and blood BHB measured in Polish dairy cows. The predicted blood BHB was grouped based on days in milk into 4 groups and each group was considered as a trait. The milk components for test-day milk samples were obtained by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometer with previously developed calibration equations from Foss (Hillerød, Denmark). Veterinarian-recorded KET data within 15 d before calving to 120 d after calving were used. Data were analyzed using univariate or bivariate linear animal models. Heritability estimates for predicted blood BHB at different stages of lactation were moderate, ranging from 0.250 to 0.365. Heritability estimate for KET from univariate analysis was 0.078, and the corresponding average estimate from bivariate analysis with BHB or milk production traits was 0.002. Genetic correlations between BHB traits were higher for adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Predicted blood BHB at first test day was moderately genetically correlated with KET (0.469) and milk traits (ranged from -0.367 with protein content to 0.277 with milk yield), except for milk fat content from across lactation stages that had near zero genetic correlation with BHB (0.033). These genetic correlations indicate that a lower BHB is genetically

  12. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  13. Milk and dairy products in hotel daily menue

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Krešić; Irena Colić Barić; Borislav Šimundić

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the portion of milk and dairyproducts as a source of macronutrients, energy, vitamins and minerals in average hotel menus for some category of hotel guests. For this purpose the evaluation of 66 whole day meals (breakfast, lunch and supper) on daily menus was made. Meals were therefore mathematically and statistically analysed and compared with recommendations (RDA and DRI) for middle aged and elderly guests, both genders. The obtained results indicated t...

  14. Supply chain implications of sustainable design strategies for electronics products

    OpenAIRE

    De Coster, R; Bateman, RJ; Plant, AVC

    2012-01-01

    Increasing legislative and consumer pressures on manufacturers to improve sustainability necessitates that manufacturers consider the overall life cycle and not be scope restricted in creating products. Product strategies to improve sustainability have design implications as many of the decisions made during the design stage will then determine the environmental performance of the final product. Coordination across the supply chain is potentially beneficial as products with improved energy ef...

  15. Importance of Decision Support Systems About Food Safety in Raw Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecem Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In raw milk production decision support systems for control of food safety hazards has not been developed but main points of this system are available. The decision support systems’ elements include data identification at critical points in the milk supply chain, an information management system and data exchange. Decision supports systems has been developed on the basis of these elements. In dairy sector decision support systems are significant for controlling of food safety hazards and preferred by producers. When these systems are implemented in the milk supply chain, it can be prevented unnecessary sampling and analysis. In this article it will be underlined effects of decision support system elements on food safety of raw milk.

  16. Human milk fat substitute from butterfat: production by enzymatic interesterification and evaluation of oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Xu, Xuebing; Zhang, Long

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of fats in infant formulas should be as similar to human milk fat as possible to obtain optimal fat and calcium absorption from the infant formula. This work investigated the possibilities of using enzyme technology...... and butterfat as a material to produce a fat similar to human milk fat with respect to the above parameters. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the enzyme modified human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was compared to the fat blend used for the production of HMFS. Using a combination of enzyme technology......, fractionation and batch deodorization and with butterfat in combination with soybean oil and rapeseed oil as raw materials it was possible to produce HMFS with a molecular structure and fatty acid composition that was very similar to that of human milk fat. The oxidative stability of the HMFS oil was lower than...

  17. Effects of the foal at the milking and dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil on jennet milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Giosuè

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the foal at the milking and the extra virgin olive oil supplementation in the diet, on the milk obtained by 12 Ragusana jennets were studied. The jennets were each fed 3.5+1.5 kg/d of concentrate+bran, and hay ad libitum. They were divided into 2 equal groups with one group receiving an additional dietary supplement of 100 ml/d of olive oil. Milk was collected at day 20 post foal- ing and every 15-18 d for 5 times. At each collection period jennets were milked 4-times per day. At 07:30 h foals were separated from the jennets and after a 4 hour interval were milked manually (1MNF;1st milking, foal absent. At the end of the 1MNF, each jennet was milked again, with the foals kept near the udder, but prevented from suckling (2MYF; 2nd milking, foal present. After 2MYF, foals were removed a second time and the sequence repeated after another 4 hour interval for the 3rd (3MNF and 4th (4MYF milkings. Milk yield was recorded at each milking and samples analyzed for qualitative variables. The milk yield was 26% higher than that reported by Giosuè et al. (2008 in similar conditions. The milk fat content were positively influenced by the presence of the foal at the milking but was not effect by the dietary supplement of olive oil.

  18. Effect of Foot Reflexology on Milk Production in Mothers with Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshgizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Premature infants need breastfeeding milk in infancy in order to achieve optimal growth more than ever and not having enough milk in breast feeding, is a common problem for women who have premature infants. Reflexology massage is one of the proposed treatments to help with this issue. The current study is aimed to determine the effect of reflexology on milk production in mothers with premature infants. Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 mothers with premature infants admitted to Shohada Hospital in Quchan city, in 2016, were selected through convenient sampling and randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received foot reflexology massage for 3 consecutive days for 20 minutes and the control group received routine care only. The volume of milk was measured before and 30 minutes after massage on the first and third day of the study. Data were analyzed by SPSS 22 using Chi-square, independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Findings: There was no significant difference in the mean volume of milk on the first day after reflex massage between the intervention group and the control group (p=0.79, but on the third day, there was a significant difference in the mean volume of milk after reflex massage between the intervention group and the control group (p=0.02. The difference in mean volume of milk on the third day, after intervention compared to before intervention was not significant (p=0.187. Conclusions: Reflexology massage is not effective on milk production in mothers with premature infants.

  19. Sustaining Design and Production Resources. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schank, John F; Riposo, Jessie; Birkler, John; Chiesa, James

    2005-01-01

    ... the nation's forces do not deteriorate to the point at which they cannot support defence requirements. An important factor in ensuring the sustainability of the industrial base is the scheduling of major weapon system acquisition programmes...

  20. Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumwenda, M.S.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

  1. Effects of Feed Supplementation in Friesien Holstein Crossbreed Cows at the First Quarter on the Production and Quality of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharyono; Hardani, S. N. W.; Sitoresmi, P. D.; Adiarto

    2018-02-01

    Nine heads of dairy cows were used in the study. The dairy cows were in 7-8 months pregnant condition, lactation II and were expected calving soon.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of feed supplementation to increase the production and quality of milk. The feeding treatment was divided into 3 groups, G1 (control) given the usual feed given by livestock owners, G11 was given GI+500 g UMMB/h/d and G111 was given GI + 500 g MFS/h/d. Variables observed were feed and nutritional consumption, average milk production, milk quality, cumulative milk production, average 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) production, peak milk production. The experimental design used a completely randomized design of direct pattern, continued by Duncan’s new multiple range test (DMRT) if there were a significant difference of variable values between treatments. The results showed that the addition of dietary supplement significantly affected the mean consumption of crude protein between GIII and G1 and G11, respectively 1.22 kg/d versus 0.99 and 0.33 kg/d. The average milk production was also influenced by the addition of dietary supplement that was between G1; G11 and G111, respectively 9.55; 10.69 and 11.85 l/d. Cumulative milk and 4% FCM production were also significantly different at P milk production.

  2. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  3. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  4. Milk quality in high production systems during dry and rainy seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the milk quality of crossbred cows from five production systems according to the quality parameters required by Normative Instruction No. 62 (NI 62). Five different production systems were used, with different environmental and sanitary conditions, and with animals from different breeds in two ...

  5. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were

  6. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  7. Study the nature of changes in the dynamic viscosity of milk and fruit products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the dynamic viscosity of dairy products and fruit puree with the free run-off on the vertical wall of the vacuum chamber with a two-stage vacuum evaporation was studied. The effect of evaporation temperature and product moisture on the rheological properties of milk and fruit blends was investigated.

  8. Effect of length of productive life on genetic trend of milk ... - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy cattle. Including this trait in a breeding scheme, increases profit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between length of productive life. (LPL), genetic trend of milk production and profitability of herds. LPL has been defined as time from.

  9. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  10. Short communication: immediate and deferred milk production responses to concentrate supplements in cows grazing fresh pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Grala, T M; Sheahan, A J; White, H M; Phyn, C V C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the increase in milk production from supplementation that occurred after supplementation ceased. This portion of the total response (i.e., the deferred response), although accepted, is generally not accounted for in short-term component research projects, but it is important in determining the economic impact of supplementary feeding. Fifty-nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered a generous allowance of spring pasture [>45 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day) and were supplemented with 0, 3, or 6 kg (DM)/d of pelleted concentrate (half of the allowance at each milking event) in a complete randomized design. Treatments were imposed for the first 12 wk of lactation. Treatments were balanced for cow age (5.4 ± 1.68 yr), calving date (July 27 ± 26.0 d), and genetic merit for milk component yield. During the period of supplementation, milk yield and the yield of milk components increased (1.19 kg of milk, 0.032 kg of fat, 0.048 kg of protein, and 0.058 kg of lactose/kg of concentrate DM consumed), but neither body condition score nor body weight was affected. After concentrate supplementation ceased and cows returned to a common diet of fresh pasture, milk and milk component yields remained greater for 3 wk in the cows previously supplemented. During this 3-wk period, cows that previously received 3 and 6 kg of concentrate DM per day produced an additional 2.3 and 4.5 kg of milk/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of fat/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of protein/d, and 0.10 and 0.19 kg of lactose/d, respectively, relative to unsupplemented cows. This is equivalent to an additional 0.19 kg of milk, 0.006 kg of fat, 0.006 kg of protein, and 0.008 kg of lactose per 1 kg of concentrate DM previously consumed, which would not be accounted for in the immediate response. As a result of this deferred response to supplements, the total milk production benefit to concentrate supplements is between 7% (lactose yield) and 32% (fat yield) greater

  11. Relationships between milk mid-IR predicted gastro-enteric methane production and the technical and financial performance of commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhez, P; Wyzen, B; Dalcq, A-C; Colinet, F G; Reding, E; Vanlierde, A; Dehareng, F; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H

    2017-12-22

    Considering economic and environmental issues is important in ensuring the sustainability of dairy farms. The objective of this study was to investigate univariate relationships between lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric methane (CH4) production predicted from milk mid-IR (MIR) spectra and technico-economic variables by the use of large scale and on-farm data. A total of 525 697 individual CH4 predictions from milk MIR spectra (MIR-CH4 (g/day)) of milk samples collected on 206 farms during the Walloon milk recording scheme were used to create a MIR-CH4 prediction for each herd and year (HYMIR-CH4). These predictions were merged with dairy herd accounting data. This allowed a simultaneous study of HYMIR-CH4 and 42 technical and economic variables for 1024 herd and year records from 2007 to 2014. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess significant relationships (P<0.05). Low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with, amongst others, lower fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) yield (r=0.18), lower milk fat and protein content (r=0.38 and 0.33, respectively), lower quantity of milk produced from forages (r=0.12) and suboptimal reproduction and health performance (e.g. longer calving interval (r=-0.21) and higher culling rate (r=-0.15)). Concerning economic results, low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with lower gross margin per cow (r=0.19) and per litre FPCM (r=0.09). To conclude, this study suggested that low lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric CH4 production tended to be associated with more extensive or suboptimal management practices, which could lead to lower profitability. The observed low correlations suggest complex interactions between variables due to the use of on-farm data with large variability in technical and management practices.

  12. Fast method and ultra fast screening for determination of 90Sr in milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, E.; Hornung, L.; Savkin, B.T.; Poppitz-Spuhler, A.; Hiersche, L.

    2011-01-01

    In emergency situation or in case of defence against nuclear hazards, the rapid analysis of radioisotopes in food products is essential. Radiostrontium is one of the most interesting isotopes in case of emergency. The determination of radiostrontium in milk and dairy products plays an important role especially for infants. The procedures described here were tested for fast determination of 90 Sr. The typical chemical recovery of the proposed fast procedure for determination of strontium from milk and dairy products was 90% and the time needed for analysis was one working day. The achieved detection limit for milk is 0.8 Bq/l. An ultra fast screening method allows the determination of radiostrontium with quantitative recovery within 1 hour. The minimum detectable activity in this case is 230 Bq/l.

  13. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  14. Genetic strain and diet effects on grazing behavior, pasture intake, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R

    2011-07-01

    Understanding how dairy cows adjust their grazing behavior in response to feed supplements is important for the development of management strategies that optimize profit from supplementation. New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows have been selected for milk production on a predominantly pasture-based diet; in comparison, HF cows of North American (NA) ancestry have been selected almost exclusively for milk yield and fed diets high in nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). We hypothesized, therefore, that supplementation would have differing effects on grazing behavior, pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production in these genetic strains at peak, mid, and late lactation. A study was conducted over 2 consecutive lactations, with NA and NZ cows randomly allocated at calving to 0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/day concentrate plus unrestricted access to pasture. Pasture DMI, milk production, and grazing behavior were recorded at peak, mid, and late lactation. Concentrates were fed in equal amounts at morning and afternoon milking. The NA cows produced more milk and milk components, and had a greater pasture DMI, despite spending less time grazing. Declines in time spent grazing and pasture DMI were associated with increasing concentrate DMI. Grazing behavior following morning supplementation was different from that recorded following afternoon supplementation. Grazing ceased following morning supplementation before rumen fill could be a limiting factor, and the length of the grazing interval was inversely proportional to the amount of concentrate offered; these results suggest that physiological rather than physical stimuli were responsible for grazing cessation. The decrease in time spent grazing with increasing concentrate DMI is consistent with changes in neuroendocrine factors secreted in response to the presence of food in the digestive tract or with circulating products of digestion. After afternoon supplementation, sunset signaled the end of grazing irrespective of

  15. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  16. A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT IMPACT MILK PRODUCTION FROM FAMILY FARMS LOCATED NORTH OF THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha Píccolo Ramos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in São Mateus, ES, is a traditional and important socioeconomic activity for family farmers and for the state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production characteristics of four rural communities, coded as A, B, C and D, as well as the microbiological quality of raw milk in one of these locations. The four communities were based on family farms. Community A was composed of 4 farmers; community B was composed of 12 farmers; community C was composed of 10 farmers and community D was composed of 2 farmers, totaling 28 family farms in the city of São Mateus, northern region of the State of Espírito Santo. The quality of milk samples from 10 producers of community C was assessed after milking, as well as samples from the collective cooling tank, in five repetitions. A structured questionnaire based on the requirements of the legislation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply was sent to each farmer from the 28 farms. The questions included cleaning and physical structure of the barn, quality of water, hygiene practice of milkers and animals and tests for detection of mastitis. None of the farms performed pre-dipping and post-dipping. Thirty (30 samples (55.0% and 25 samples (45.5% of the total 55 samples assessed did not meet the standards for total bacterial count (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC, respectively. Nonconformities were detected in the stages of production, and milk samples did not meet microbiological standards. Milk production should be improved and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP should be implemented in the farms to ensure food safety and the sustainability of the segment in the northern region of the state of Espírito Santo.

  18. Maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in elderly hypertensive subjects following detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de; Santos, Neucilane Silveira Dos; Aguiar, Larissa Pereira; Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects after detraining. Twenty-eight elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise training program followed by 6 weeks of detraining, and were classified according to milk and dairy products intake as low milk (exercise training, there was a significant reduction (pexercise training benefits related to pressure levels, lower extremity strength and aerobic capacity, is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects following 6 weeks of detraining.

  19. Partial budget analysis of prepartum antimicrobial therapy and Escherichia coli J5 vaccination of dairy heifers and their effect on milk production and milk quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renison T. Vargas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to determine whether prepartum antimicrobial and/or Escherichia coli J5 vaccination in dairy heifers influence the milk production, milk quality, and estimate their economic benefit. Thus, 33 dairy heifers were enrolled in four groups using a split-splot design. Groups were: (G1 prepartum antimicrobial infusion and vaccination with an E. coli J5 bacterin, (G2 prepartum antimicrobial infusion, (G3 vaccination with an E. coli J5 bacterin, and (G4 control heifers. Composite milk samples for somatic cell count, total bacteria count and milk composition were collected 15 days after calving and every 15 days until the end of the experiment. Bacteriological analysis was carried out at the end of study. The milk production and the incidence of clinical cases of mastitis, as well as the costs associated with them were recorded. The results demonstrate a reduction on clinical mastitis rates by preventive strategies, which implicated in lower volume of discarded milk (0.99, 1.01, 1.04 and 3.98% for G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively and higher economic benefit. Thus, in well-managed dairy herds the prevention of heifer mastitis by vaccination or antimicrobial therapy can reduce the amount of antimicrobials needed to treat clinical mastitis cases and the days of discarded milk.

  20. Ongoing nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with internationally distributed infant milk products, France, December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie; Fabre, Laetitia; Robinson, Eve; Fournet, Nelly; Nisavanh, Athinna; Bruyand, Mathias; Mailles, Alexandra; Serre, Estelle; Ravel, Magali; Guibert, Véronique; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Renaudat, Charlotte; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Septfons, Alexandra; de Valk, Henriette; Le Hello, Simon

    2018-01-01

    On 1 December 2017, an outbreak of Salmonella Agona infections among infants was identified in France. To date, 37 cases (median age: 4 months) and two further international cases have been confirmed. Five different infant milk products manufactured at one facility were implicated. On 2 and 10 December, the company recalled the implicated products; on 22 December, all products processed at the facility since February 2017. Trace-forward investigations indicated product distribution to 66 countries.

  1. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... allow optional characterizing flavoring ingredients used in milk (e.g., chocolate flavoring added to... lower-calorie flavored milk would particularly benefit school children who, according to IDFA and NMPF...

  2. Investigating Consumer Preferences towards Sustainability in Product Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This research-oriented thesis investigates to which extent German consumers consider the sustainability aspect of a product package as their main factor in preferring a product. The research was conducted based on a comparison between two specific smoothies from the Company A and Company B brands. Company A smoothies are packed in glass bottles, whereas Company B smoothies are sold in plastic bottles. For the scope of the thesis, sustainable product packaging was defined regarding its contrib...

  3. Real-time PCR detection of Paenibacillus spp. in raw milk to predict shelf life performance of pasteurized fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Matthew L; Ivy, Reid A; Mitchell, W Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-08-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (C(T)) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (C(T) > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (C(T) = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 10(1) CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (≥1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product.

  4. Sustainability analysis of agave production in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide food production is done in different types of agricultural production systems. The main difference is whether it is an intensive or extensive system. The agave production in Mexico has been developed in these two different ways. Firstly, agave f

  5. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dätwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products.

  6. Production of enterotoxins of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of mastitis in herd of 430 sheep of breed zoslachtena valaska with hand milking technology examined two times during one lactation season. Individual examination consisted from clinical examination of udder and microbiological examination of milk samples. By PCR was determined presence of genes coding production of enterotoxins, and by ELISA methods production individual types of enterotoxins. From individual forms of mastitis were frequently detected subacute (6.7%, subclinical (5.7% and acute (2.9%. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were identified in 102 (65.4% from all 156 positive isolates. The CNS and S. aureus caused subacute (5.1%, subclinical (3.9% and acute (2.4% forms of mastitis. The most frequently isolated were S. epidermidis, followed by S. chromogenes and S. xylosus from ewes with subacute and subclinical mastitis. From acute and chronical forms of mastitis were  predominantly isolated S. aureus, S. uberis and S. epidermidis. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE - SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and the presence of genes sec (3, sea (2, seb (2 and sed (2 were determined in S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi and S. chromogenes, respectively. The results suggested on the high occurrence (12.4% of subacute and subclinical forms. Confirmed production of enterotoxins and presence of genes coding their production present a risk for human health and decreased a quality of milk and products from sheep´s milk.

  7. Application of multi attribute failure mode analysis of milk production using analytical hierarchy process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucitra, A. L.

    2018-03-01

    Pusat Koperasi Induk Susu (PKIS) Sekar Tanjung, East Java is one of the modern dairy industries producing Ultra High Temperature (UHT) milk. A problem that often occurs in the production process in PKIS Sekar Tanjung is a mismatch between the production process and the predetermined standard. The purpose of applying Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was to identify the most potential cause of failure in the milk production process. Multi Attribute Failure Mode Analysis (MAFMA) method was used to eliminate or reduce the possibility of failure when viewed from the failure causes. This method integrates the severity, occurrence, detection, and expected cost criteria obtained from depth interview with the head of the production department as an expert. The AHP approach was used to formulate the priority ranking of the cause of failure in the milk production process. At level 1, the severity has the highest weight of 0.41 or 41% compared to other criteria. While at level 2, identifying failure in the UHT milk production process, the most potential cause was the average mixing temperature of more than 70 °C which was higher than the standard temperature (≤70 ° C). This failure cause has a contributes weight of 0.47 or 47% of all criteria Therefore, this study suggested the company to control the mixing temperature to minimise or eliminate the failure in this process.

  8. Milk and dairy products in adolescent diet according to sex and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the portion of the milk and dairy products as source of energy, macronutrients and calcium in average daily diet of adolescents according to sex and living area. A group of four hundred and forty one adolescents (46 % from rural, and 54 % from urban area in Croatia, both sexes, between 15 to 18 years of age, who attended high school represented the study subject. Weight and height were determined using standard techniques and following the norms of the WHO. Food frequencyquestionnaire (FFQ for mass and frequency as well as energy and nutritional components of dairy products intake were used. The results indicated that adolescents in urban area consumed statistically significant (p<0.05 higher amount of milk and dairy products. Higher intake of energy, protein and calcium from milk and dairy products among adolescents in urban area was also observed. Average intake of calcium according to recommendation (RDA is adequate for sex and age among subjects in urban are. Lower calcium intake was observed among the girls. In terms of food types, higher fat content dairy products were consumed among adolescents in both living areas, while according to sex, girls mostly consumed less fat milk and dairy products. According to body mass index (BMI adolescents in both living areas were nourished well.

  9. Design for Sustainability : Current Trends in Sustainable Product Design and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, G.; Kosoris, J.; Nguyen Hong, L.; Crul, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Design for Sustainability (D4S) concept outlines methodologies for making sustainable improvements (social, economic and environmental) to products by applying elements of life cycle thinking. D4S builds on the work of ecodesign to include economic and social concerns, and its methodology

  10. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    . Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...... of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content......Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties...

  11. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties....... Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...... of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content...

  12. Sustainable production: transporting animals or meat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, W.H.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Lambooij, E.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2009-01-01

    For the EU the impact of a ban on international transport of pigs and horses is assessed, based on three sustainability criteria. The paper concludes that the risks of welfare problems will be reduced, the CO2 emission and transport costs will be lowered but that there will be substantial shifts in

  13. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  14. Introduction--the Socially Sustainable Egg Production project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Thompson, P B

    2011-01-01

    The social and political pressure to change egg production from conventional cage systems to alternative systems has been largely driven by the desire to provide more behavioral freedom for egg-laying hens. However, a change of this magnitude can affect other components of the production system and may result in unintended outcomes. To understand this issue, a Socially Sustainable Egg Production project was formed to 1) conduct a holistic and integrated systematic review of the current state of knowledge about various aspects of sustainable egg production, and 2) develop a coordinated grant proposal for future extramural funding based on the research priorities identified from the review. Expert study groups were formed to write evidence-based papers in 5 critical sustainability areas: hen health and welfare, economics, food safety and quality, public attitudes, and environmental impacts. These papers were presented as the PSA Emerging Issues Symposium on Social Sustainability of Egg Production at the 2010 Poultry Science Association meeting.

  15. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgish A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate. Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17 and 83 to 135 (n = 13 days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (P P  Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  16. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  17. Production and composition of buffalo milk supplemented with agro industrial byproducts of the african palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Bustamante Hinojosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal for this applied research was to assess the production and composition of buffalo milk when Oil Palm kernel flour and Oil Palm kernel cake are supplemented to their diet. Thirty buffaloes from the grasslands of the Andes valleys in Colombia with 1 to 3 lactations and an average weight of 575 kg were selected for the experimental. The animals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: (T1 Control Group with no diet supplements, (T2 1000 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel cake and 350 g·day-1 of molasses diet supplement, and (T3 1150 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel flour. During the first 100 days of lactation, the milk livestock were individually weighed and milked. Milking was scheduled every 15 days, for a total of seven samples. The supplement consumption was recorded and a bromatological analysis of grasses was performed. The chemical composition of the milk was determined using an ultrasonic Ekomilk analyzer and a fatty acid full profile analysis was made using High Liquid Pressure Chromatography (HLPC. A 7 x 3 multiple variable statistical analysis was performed by sampling seven fifteen day periods and three types of diet. The average values of milk components observed were: 3.54% protein; 7.4% fat; total solids 16.9%; non-fat solids 9.5%; 2.1 fats to protein ratio. The profile of fatty acids showed 2.34% of polyunsaturated; 33.1% of monounsaturated; 64.6% of unsaturated fatty acids; and 0.96% of Omega 6 acids. In conclusion was observed partial effect to fat supplementation in the buffaloes milk production.

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  19. Study on isolation, molecular detection of virulence gene and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to isolate pathogenic E. coli from milk and various milk products, detection of virulence gene using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and investigate their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: Altogether 250 milk and various milk products samples consisting of raw milk (50, cheese (50, ice-cream (50, mawa (50 and dahi (50 were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city, under aseptic precautions. For the enrichment of the organism from the collected samples, MacConkey broth was used and inoculation was carried out on MacConkey agar and EMB agar. Later on, to confirm the isolates, various biochemical tests such as IMViC test, Urease test were performed. Evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli was assessed by disk diffusion method. Finally the E. coli isolates were screened for the presence of virulence associated genes by PCR . Results: The prevalence of E. coli was observed 32 % in the samples comprising of milk (52.00%, cheese (28.00%, icecream (20.00%, mawa (44.00%, and dahi (16.00%. Antibiotic sensitivity was recorded high for Co-trimoxazole (100% followed by Gentamicin (96.73%, Trimithoprime (93.47% and Doxycycline hydochloride (92.39%. Least sensitivity was recorded for Ampicillin (8.69%. In this study, out of 80 E. coli isolates, 25 isolates (31.25% were positive for stx genes, of which 7 (8.75% isolates were positive for stx1 gene only, while 12 (15.00% isolates were positive for stx2 gene only and 5 (6.25% isolates were positive for both stx1 and stx2, 7 isolates (8.75% were positive for eaeA gene and all the isolate were negetive for rfb O157 gene. Conclusions: Current study supports the finding that raw milk and various milk products can be regarded as critical source of pathogenic E. coli This explains the need of strict monitoring and surveillance for effective measures of hygiene and sanitary practice during production of milk and various milk

  20. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...

  1. Challenges for Marketers in Sustainable Production and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Oates

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the biggest issues facing today’s global society, sustainability cuts across all areas of production and consumption and presents challenges for marketers who attempt to understand and incorporate sustainability in their everyday practices [1–3]. [...

  2. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  3. Sustainable Production of Chemicals--An Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissen, Marco

    2012-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a very general term and the question arises how to specify it within daily laboratory work. In this regard, appropriate metrics could support a socially acceptable, ecological and economic product development. The application of metrics for sustainability should be strengthened in education, because they do not belong…

  4. Design decision support for sustainable, healthier and more productive buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Maaijen, H.N.; Maassen, W.H.; Morawska, L.; Dear, de R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a clear need for more sustainable, healthier and thus more productive solutions within the built environment. However at the moment the initial investment costs for applying new and more sustainable solutions for a good Indoor Air Quality within buildings are higher than the traditional

  5. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  6. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  7. Early Determination of Animals with Favorable Genes in Milk Production for Profitable Private Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Ilie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. The use of milk protein polymorphisms as detectable molecular markers has been studied intensively because of their effect on the yield and processing properties of milk and its products. Thus, molecular markers are promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. Kappa-casein (CSN3 and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG are two of the most important proteins in the milk of mammals that play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation, an essential process for cheese and butter. The A and B variant of k-casein and β-lactoglobulin were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 108 Romanian Simmental and 60 Holstein Friesian cattle.

  8. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P  0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred.

  9. Aggregated effects of combining daily milk consumption and aerobic exercise on short-term memory and sustained attention among female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, In-Tyng; Moghadam, Sedigheh; Hashim, Hairul A

    2015-02-01

    Regular aerobic exercise and milk consumption have been found to have positive effects on certain cognitive functions such as short-term memory and sustained attention. However, aggregated effects of combining these modalities have not been explored. This study examined the combined effects of milk supplementation and aerobic exercise on the short-term memory and sustained attention of female students aged 16 yr. (N = 81). The intervention involved serving of 250 ml of regular milk during school days and/or a 1-hr. aerobic exercise period twice per week for 6 weeks. The Digit Span Test and Digit Vigilance Test were used to measure short-term memory and sustained attention, respectively. The combination group (milk and exercise) and exercise group performed significantly better than did the milk and control groups in terms of short-term memory. No significant interaction or group differences were found for sustained attention. The results suggest benefits of regular exercise for students' short-term memory.

  10. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, β-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000 cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000 cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred

  11. How "Sustainability" is Changing How We Make and Choose Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl O' Brien

    2006-07-01

    What does Sustainability mean, and why should people in the thermophysical properties business care? This paper will describe sustainability in the context of product development, which is where much of the buzz is currently being generated. Once described, it will discuss how expectations for Sustainability are changing product lines, and then discuss the controversial issues now emerging from trying to measure Sustainability. One of the most organized efforts in the U.S. is the U.S. Green Building Council revolutionizing how the built environment is conceptualized, designed, built, used, and disposed of - and born again. The appeal of the US Green Building Council is that it has managed to checklist how to "do" Sustainability. By following this checklist, better described as a rating system, a more Sustainable product should be achieved. That is, a product that uses less energy, less water, is less noxious to the user, and consumes fewer resources. We care because these Sustainable products are viewed as preferable by a growing number of consumers and, consequently, are more valuable. One of the most interesting aspects of the Sustainability movement is a quantitative assessment of how sustainable a product is. Life Cycle Assessment techniques (not to be confused with life cycle economic costs) developed since the early 1990s are gaining ground as a less biased method to measure the ultimate "bad" consequences of creating a product (depletion of natural resources, nutrification, acid rain, air borne particulates, solid waste, etc.). For example, one assertion is that these studies have shown that recycling can sometimes do more environmental harm than good.

  12. The estimated possibilities of process monitoring in milk production by the simple thermodynamic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adámek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and monitoring of thermal processes in thermodynamic systems can be performed using the thermodynamic sensors (TDS. The basic idea of thermodynamic sensor is possible to use in many various applications (eq. monitoring of frictional heat, thermal radiation, pollution of cleaning fluid, etc.. One of application areas, where the thermodynamic sensor can find the new area for a using, is a production of milk products - cheese, yogurt, kefir, etc. This paper describes the estimated possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of the use of thermodynamic sensors in diary productions and simple experiments for characterization and monitoring of basic operations in milk production process by thermodynamic sensors. The milk products are often realized by fermenting or renneting process. Final stages of fermentation and renneting processes are often determined on the base of sensory evaluation, pH measurement or by analytical method. The exact time of the fermentation process completion is dependent on various parameters and is often the company know-how. The fast, clean and simple non-analytical non-contact method for monitoring and for the determination of process final stages does not exist in this time. Tests of fermentation process, renneting process and yoghurt process by thermodynamic sensors were characterized and measured in this work. Measurement of activity yeasts was tested in first series of experiments. In second series of experiments, measurement of processes in milk production was tested. First results of simple experiments show that the thermodynamic sensors might be used for determination of time behaviour of these processes. Therefore, the milk products (cheese, yogurt, kefir, etc. is opened as a one of new application areas, where the thermodynamic sensor can be used.

  13. Position of Serbia on the international market of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool

    OpenAIRE

    Đorović Milutin; Stevanović Simo; Lazić Verica

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both world and domestic markets of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. Namely, for the past 20 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis was used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading ex...

  14. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustainable product strategy. The level of sustainability is determined by the trade-off between profitability and costs occurred and if more consumers value sustainable products, the firm will increase its sustainable level and get a higher profit. This is because of a combination effect of an increasing marginal profit and demand expansion. Moreover, the model has been further extended to address a situation where the firm could manage consumer segmentation. Depending on parameter settings, the firm may target different consumer segments and there is always a threshold of cost for managing consumer segments. When converting regular consumers to be environmentally conscious is not costly, the firm will convert all consumers to be environmentally conscious with great efforts; otherwise, the firm will convert part of consumers to be environmentally conscious.

  15. Recent Advances and Challenges towards Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourmentza, Constantina; Plácido, Jersson; Venetsaneas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals production is a critical matter that research teams around the globe are focusing on nowadays. Polyhydroxyalkanoates represent one of the biomaterials of the future due to their physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...

  16. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  17. Sustained attention in language production: An individual differences investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meyer, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it has long been assumed that most linguistic processes underlying language production happen automatically, accumulating evidence suggests that these processes do require some form of attention. Here we investigated the contribution of sustained attention: the ability to maintain alertness

  18. setting sustainable standards for biofuel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Director for Research, Training and International Development, Institute for Oil, Gas, ..... Table 3 presents the five stages in the product lifecycle for biofuel production ..... Principles on Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade and Investment.

  19. Sustainable evolution of product line infrastructure code

    OpenAIRE

    Patzke, T.

    2011-01-01

    A major goal in many software development organizations today is to reduce development effort and cost, while improving their products' quality and diversity by developing reusable software. An organization takes advantage of its products' similarities, exploits what they have in common and manages what varies among them by building a product line infrastructure. A product line infrastructure is a reuse repository that contains exactly those common and variable artifacts, such as requirements...

  20. Position of Serbia on the international market of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both world and domestic markets of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. Namely, for the past 20 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis was used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading exporters and importers of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool were defined, with special emphasis on importance of Serbia, i.e. its position in the global market for these products. Pursuant to the above, and importance of analyzed product groups for the domestic market, i.e. agroindustry and the economy as a whole, this paper specially studies balances, structure, dynamics and regional orientation of foreign trade in milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. In addition, the paper points to the needs, capabilities, measures and directions of further development of domestic production and export of products analyzed.

  1. Social and Zootechnical Organization of Dairy Products Management under Sahelian Conditions: The Milk Sphere. Case of the Senegal River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corniaux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Sahelian environment, the concession is a common, social, but also complex organization. An example is provided by dairy products management in pastoral and agropastoral environments. A schema of the social and zootechnical organization of such management was developed based on field work concerning farmers living in the Senegal River delta. Milking is a crucial step of milk management. It helps to shape the “milk sphere”, which contains both livestock and people who drive them. The proposed model distinguished different decision making levels: that of milkers/farmers who decided on milked quantities (production, and that of women collectors who decided individually if milked milk was for self-consumption, trade or gift. Besides, the present model helped avoid the common trap of confusing herd manager or concession head with dairy farm head.

  2. Milk and Dairy Products Consumers Behavior and Preferences in Vojvodina – Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current research was to evaluate milk and dairy derived consumer’s behaviour and preferences in Vojvodina (Central Banat District from the Republic of Serbia, in order to be able to further formulate advice and strategies to farmers, farm-advisors and policy makers, to help improve the overall farmer’s competiveness and increase the economic returns of dairy enterprises. Data was collected following questionnaire based-interviews, between January and June 2016. There were 76 persons who answered a face-to-face interview, and had to answer to a 15 questions based questionnaire, all respondents were from Vojvodina (Central Banat District, Republic of Serbia. The main five categories of products purchased were pasteurized milk (11.33%, yogurts (23.44%, sour cream (18.75%, butter (10.55% and cheeses (21.48%. The least dairy derived products categories purchased and consumed were UHT milk (4.30%, refrigerated milk (3.91%, raw milk (5.86% and frozen milk (0.00%. The most important selection criterions of the surveyed consumers were ‘freshness’ (21.72%, expiring date (13.64%, taste characteristics (10.10%, price/quality ratio (13.13% and nutritive value (16.16%.  Results of the current study should be taken into consideration by both farmers and dairy factories, in order to possible identify niche markets, in order to add value to the food chain and improve their economic returns by producing and selling products that have among higher demands from consumers.

  3. New Sustainable Tourism Product Development for Russian Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Racheeva, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable tourism is a new concept for tourism sector; it is tourism that reduces negative tourism impacts and brings benefits instead. The current problem of sustainable tourism is lack of attractive tourism products. Their development is crucial since customers seek for experiences at a destination. Russians are an important segment for Finnish tourism, therefore their consumer behaviours has to be studied. The aim of this research is to find how to develop a tourism product for susta...

  4. Economic sustainability of sheabutter production in Kwara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of sheabutter has the economic potentials in sustaining income generation for rural dwellers. The potentials of shea nuts productivity could only be achieved when technical efficiency of the processing becomes relevant. The study examines the patterns, efficiency and productivity of processing harvested shea ...

  5. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw

  6. Production of human milk oligosaccharides by enzymatic and whole-cell microbial biotransformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Georg A; Baumgärtner, Florian; Albermann, Christoph

    2017-09-20

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are almost unique constituents of breast milk and are not found in appreciable amounts in cow milk. Due to several positive aspects of HMO for the development, health, and wellbeing of infants, production of HMO would be desirable. As a result, scientists from different disciplines have developed methods for the preparation of single HMO compounds. Here, we review approaches to HMO preparation by (chemo-)enzymatic syntheses or by whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant bacterial cells. With lactose as acceptor (in vitro or in vivo), fucosyltransferases can be used for the production of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, or more complex fucosylated core structures. Sialylated HMO can be produced by sialyltransferases and trans-sialidases. Core structures as lacto-N-tetraose can be obtained by glycosyltransferases from chemical donor compounds or by multi-enzyme cascades; recent publications also show production of lacto-N-tetraose by recombinant Escherichia coli bacteria and approaches to obtain fucosylated core structures. In view of an industrial production of HMOs, the whole cell biotransformation is at this stage the most promising option to provide human milk oligosaccharides as food additive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Meat and milk production scenarios and the associated land footprint in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosire, Caroline; Krol, Martinus S.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Ogutu, J.O.; de Leeuw, J.; Lannerstad, M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for meat and milk in developing countries and the associated production growth are driving the expansion of agriculture at the expense of environmental conservation and other land uses. While considerable attention has been directed at improving crop yields to alleviate the

  8. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  9. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact of SCK

  10. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbaša, Radomir; Jevrić, Lidija; Lončar, Eva; Vitas, Jasmina; Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Sanja; Milanović, Spasenija; Kovačević, Strahinja

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, relationships between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with various teas were investigated by using chemometric analysis. The presented data which describe numerically the textural characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity) were analysed. The quadratic correlation was determined between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained at fermentation temperatures of 40 and 43 °C, using milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat and kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint, stinging nettle, wild thyme and winter savory. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to identify the similarities among the fermented products. The best mathematical models predicting the textural characteristics of investigated samples were developed. The results of this study indicate that textural characteristics of sample based on winter savory have a significant effect on textural characteristics of samples based on peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme, which can be very useful in the determination of products texture profile.

  11. Comparison of holstein and jersey milk production with a new stochastic animal reproduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsteins and Jerseys are the most popular breeds in the US dairy industry. We built a stochastic, Monte Carlo life events simulation model in Python to test if Jersey cattle’s higher conception rate offsets their lower milk production. The model simulates individual cows and their life events such ...

  12. Modeling a production scale milk drying process: parameter estimation, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, A.; Gutierrez, S.; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    A steady state model for a production scale milk drying process was built to help process understanding and optimization studies. It involves a spray chamber and also internal/external fluid beds. The model was subjected to a comprehensive statistical analysis for quality assurance using...

  13. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  14. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Werven, van T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health

  15. Production of milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus subtilis B1 from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... average percentages of starch, proteins, moisture, crud fibers, ash and others in ... To confirm optimum reaction temperature, the milk samples were previously equilibrated at ... casein digestion method (Shieh et al., 2009). One unit of ..... medium for α-amylase production from a hyper-producing Bacillus.

  16. Enzyme catalysed production of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides by Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Michalak, Malwina

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium strains in single culture fermentations. The trans-sialidase also catalysed the transfer of sialic acid from CGMP to galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and to the human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) backbone lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) to produce 3′-sialyl-GOS, including doubly sialylated GOS products, and 3...

  17. Temperature effect on formation of advanced glycation end products in infant formula milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Cheng, Hong; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    For a standard infant formula milk powder, browning reactions were shown to become limiting for shelflife for storage at higher temperature rather than lipid oxidation. Advanced glycation end (AGE) products were found in the temperature range 65e115 C to have an energy of activation...

  18. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  19. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  1. Design for Sustainability: Current Trends in Sustainable Product Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Crul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Design for Sustainability (D4S concept outlines methodologies for making sustainable improvements (social, economic and environmental to products by applying elements of life cycle thinking. D4S builds on the work of ecodesign to include economic and social concerns, and its methodology includes both incremental and radical innovation. The United Nations Environment Programme and the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, in concert with key partners, work to support, illustrate, and diffuse targeted D4S demonstration efforts, including the European Commission-funded Cleaner Production for Better Products project in Vietnam, that are needed to change unsustainable consumption and production patterns.

  2. Procurement as driver of sustainable product-service innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bratt, Cecilia; Broman, Göran; Robèrt, Karl-Henrik; Sophie, Hallstedt

    2012-01-01

    Current patterns of production and consumption need to change and they need to do so radically. For this shift sustainability-oriented product-services are highly potential contributors. Product-services have been described as a market proposition that extends the functionality of a product beyond the traditional view by inclusion of additional services into the product-service system. From a producer perspective this opens up for a differentiation from competitors and thereby for strategic m...

  3. Gastrointestinal parasites presence during the peripartum decreases total milk production in grazing dairy Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, A F; Mejía, M E; Licoff, N; Lazaro, L; Miglierina, M; Ornstein, A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-06-10

    Parasitism in cattle is known to impair growth and development. Recent findings suggest that productivity of adult animals is also affected, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms involved. Furthermore, development of nematode resistance to drugs makes imperative the search of management practices that avoid whole herd treatment. We undertook an epidemiological and endocrine study in a grass based dairy farm in Argentina to study the effect of parasites on milk production and the underlying mechanisms involved, and identify individual animals that would benefit from antiparasitic treatment. All the cows in the dairy were followed monthly for egg parasite output in feces. Samples were cultured for genera determination. Milk production and reproductive results were recorded and periodical bleedings for hormone determination were performed. Nematode egg output (EPG) was maximal in late Summer and Autumn and minimal in Spring in coincidence with the Ostertagia inhibition-disinhibition cycle as this genus had the highest prevalence in all the study. The highest proportion of positive samples was found in the high producing herd and maximal counts were found in the peripartal period. Milk production did not correlate with EPG mean values but, when cows were grouped by EPG positivity around parturition, a significant difference in total milk production between EPG null and positive cows was observed. Positive cows produced 7%, 12% or 15% less milk than null EPG cows, depending on the sampling month/s chosen for classification. The highest difference was seen when both prepartum and postpartum samples were taken into account. No difference in lactation length and a marginal effect on partum to first service interval were encountered. Endocrine studies revealed a decrease in serum growth hormone (GH), type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and prolactin during lactation in cows with positive EPG in the first postpartum sample with respect to null EPG cows

  4. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  5. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  6. Effect of live yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Peter Szucs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc 47 on milk yield, milk composition and some blood parameters of dairy cows during their early lactation on farm conditions. The live yeast culture was given in the diet of heifers and cows (5 g day-1 solid Actisaf for 14 days before calving and exclusively for the treated cows 12 g day-1 dissolved in 500 ml of water, during 14 days after calving. The experiment took until 100th day of lactation on farm conditions. Yeast culture supplementation was the most effective for the performance of primiparous cows: It was advantageous for blod plasma parameters: decreased the beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHB content and free fatty acids (FFA which indicated the protection of the animals against ketosis or other metabolic disorders. Increased the daily milk production and the lactose /glucose content of the milk. The live yeast culture increased the lactose content of the milk and decreased the somatic cell count of multiparous cows. The listed parameters were not significant (P<0.05 compare to the results of positive control groups. The applied live yeast culture supplementation did not significant affect for other performance of the cows.

  7. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez V.H.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 ± 60 liters produced more (p < 0.066 milk liters than UG (171.9 ± 52.2 and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041 MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus infection.

  8. Dystocia in Friesian cows and its effects on postpartum reproductive performance and milk production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamiah, Sh. M.; El-Hamd, M. A. Abu; Shitta, A. A.; El-Din, M. A. Tag

    2010-01-01

    A total of 1,243 records for 585 dairy Friesian cows from 1997–2004 were used to study the factors affecting dystocia and its effects on reproductive performance and milk production. The overall incidence of dystocia was 6.9%. The percentage of dystocia decreased with increasing live body weight, age, and parity of cows (P dystocia was detected in winter season, but the least percentage was in summer season (P dystocia was significantly (P dystocia was significantly (P dystocia had adverse effects on reproductive performance and milk yield. The service interval, service period, days open, and calving interval were significantly (P dystocia compared to normal cows. The conception rate was lower (P dystocia compared to normal cows (60.5% vs. 73.0% and 3.4 vs. 2.7, respectively). Average daily milk yield was lower (P dystocia compared to normal cows. PMID:20835761

  9. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Turgish A; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Bhattacharjee, Jayonta; Islam, Mohammad F; Khan, Saiful I; Ahmed, Jalal U

    2012-05-03

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers' inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10-12 and Days 22-24. Defatted milk was preserved at -80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70-90. Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17) and 83 to 135 (n = 13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  10. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Sanogo, O.; Rufino, M.C.; Keulen, van H.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the ‘white gold’ for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially

  11. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  12. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  13. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainability, environmental, and safety aspects in the production of biocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank

    Future product design requires sustainbale processes and may with great benefit prtially be based on composites made from agricultural by-products. the EU project Biocomp addressed the manufacturing and the parallel assessment of the world wide sustainability of such an approach as well as the en......Future product design requires sustainbale processes and may with great benefit prtially be based on composites made from agricultural by-products. the EU project Biocomp addressed the manufacturing and the parallel assessment of the world wide sustainability of such an approach as well...

  15. Systematic Computer-Aided Framework for Sustainable Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Kalakul, Sawitree

    -physical property needs and the process/application needs. Process/application and property needs are connected through an analysis of the property influence on the process/application models and thermodynamic relations. The sustainability is considered through product and process/application performance, economics......-designing demand increased sustainability and minimal trade-off with system performance. In the CAPD formulation, the product properties are related to the needs of heat pump cycle and its components through sensitivity analysis of the thermodynamic models and energy balances of the system. Furthermore, simple...... models are included for efficient assessment of the sustainability and design criteria of both the cycle and its components. It will be demonstrated that the working fluid product designed is optimal with respect to the sustainability and the heat pump cycle performance....

  16. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  17. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  18. Effects of restriction of silage fermentation with formic acid on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JAAKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silage fermentation quality and type of supplementation on milk production. Thirty two Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-day experimental periods and 4 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Silage fermentation was modified with formic acid (FA, which was applied at the rates equivalent to 0 (FA0, 2 (FA2, 4 (FA4 or 6 (FA6 litres t-1 grass of pure formic acid (as 100% FA. Dietary treatments consisted of four silages, a protein supplementation (no supplement or rapeseed meal 1.8 kg d-1 and a glucogenic substrate (no supplement or propylene glycol 225 g d-1. Increasing the application rate of FA restricted silage fermentation curvilinearly, as evidenced by higher concentrations of ammonia N and butyric acid in FA4 than FA2 silage. Similarly the use of FA resulted in curvilinear changes in the silage dry matter intake and milk yield. The highest milk and protein yields were achieved with FA6, while the milk yield with FA2 was higher than with FA4. Interactions were observed between silage type and supplementation. Rapeseed meal increased milk yield irrespective of the extent of silage fermentation, but the magnitude of response was variable. Propylene glycol was most beneficial with restrictively fermented silages FA4 and FA6. In conclusion, restriction of silage fermentation with a high rate of formic acid is beneficial in milk production. Interactions between silage composition and concentrate types suggest that the responses to supplementary feeding depend on silage fermentation characteristics.;

  19. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  20. Microbial production of lysine from sustainable feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhihao; Grishkova, Maria; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Lysine is produced in a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum. And even though production strains have been improved for decades, there is still room for further optimization.......Lysine is produced in a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum. And even though production strains have been improved for decades, there is still room for further optimization....