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Sample records for sustainable marine aquaculture

  1. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPROACHES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF MARINE AQUACULTURE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable marine aquaculture (mariculture has become increasingly important with the dramatic growth of the sector. To ensure long-term sustainability, planning is an important process that will stimulate and guide the evaluation of the sector. Many of the mariculture issues are entirely spatial in nature (e.g. siting, zoning, or have important spatial elements (potential mariculture areas, impact of mariculture, competition for space with other users. Satellite remote sensing integrated with geographic information systems (GIS can play a major role in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of mariculture. The potential capabilities of evolving GIS and remote sensing for the sustainability of mariculture provide a powerful tool for the efficient and cost effective management. These technologies are also useful for facilitating the decision making process in relation to mariculture. In this paper attempt to simply describe a number of ways in which GIS and remote sensing could be usefully employed as an aid to support sustainable mariculture development.

  2. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  3. Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben; Hall, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild...

  4. Impact of aquaculture on coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    Since aquaculture is intimately linked with aquatic environmental quality, entry of pollutants to coastal waters constitutes the greatest threat to marine environmental quality and, hence, to long term viability of coastal aquaculture. Fish...

  5. Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sri Lanka is looking toward aquaculture for rural economic diversification and increased food production, especially in the northern and eastern provinces recently liberated from civil ... Knowledge of alternative production options is critical to ensure that aquaculture successfully contributes to sustainable rural livelihoods.

  6. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    environmental externalities. A sustainable supply of high-quality live feeds at reasonable prices is absolutely essential for aquaculture hatcheries because many commercially produced high-value marine fish larval species, such as flounder, grouper, halibut, tuna and turbot, require live feed for their early...

  7. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world's aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology.

  8. Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Huete-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  9. Scaling-up Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling-up Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Sri Lanka. The Government of Sri Lanka is increasingly emphasizing aquaculture development as a means to foster rural development, alleviate poverty, and increase food security. A two-year IDRC-funded project identified challenges to the sustainable management of ...

  10. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  11. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro H Buschmann

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  12. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world?s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the appl...

  13. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... comment on a draft national aquaculture policy that supports sustainable marine aquaculture in the United... national approach for supporting sustainable aquaculture. The NOAA Aquaculture Program will host national... of all forms of marine aquaculture, from shellfish farming and habitat restoration to the culture of...

  14. Aquaculture in Coastal and Marine US Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. The presence and location of...

  15. Aquaculture practices and the coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    . The size of the industry which is now beginning to emerge, the scale of its individual production units, raise questions concerning the high input rate of feed and chemical and a correspondingly high production of wastes. In intensive aquaculture system...

  16. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  17. Low head oxygenator performance characterization for marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of temperature (20 and 25 ºC), salinity (10, 15, and 20 ppt), and dissolved oxygen levels within low head oxygenator (LHO) outlet water on oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) of LHOs for a planned marine recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Test results indicated tha...

  18. Charting the Research Course for Sustainable Aquaculture in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vun L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to arising needs and demands, aquaculture is currently the fastest growing food production sector. In order to increase yield and yet to remain sustainable, the challenges would be to minimise impact on the environment and ecosystem services. Aquaculture activity contributes significantly to Malaysia and also the state of Sabah’s economy and food security. Hence, the future changes in the environment as a result of rapid population growth and development would pose as threats to this industry in terms of quality, quantity and sustainability. Unforeseen environmental changes such as environmental pollution from other sources, climate change and the changes in policies would jeopardize the sustainability of this industry. In order to anticipate such impacts to the aquaculture activities, this paper set to chart a sustainable course for its development. Four important research courses were proposed: establishment of a sustainable framework, assessment of impacts of climate change, viability and vulnerability assessment due to future environmental changes and food security. Such findings would eventually allow the stakeholders to plan and manage the resources and aquaculture activities in such a way that foster sustainable food security and resilient aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Atlantic salmon and eastern oyster breeding programs at the National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) focuses on the coldwater marine aquaculture industry’s highest priority research needs including development of improved genetic stocks. Coldwater aquaculture production has potential for expansion, and both Atlantic salmon and Eas...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Adsorption of aquaculture pollutants using a sustainable biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadinelo, Izabel Volkweis; Dos Santos, Lilian Dena; Cagol, Luana; de Muniz, Graciela Inês Bolzón; de Souza Neves Ellendersen, Luciana; Alves, Helton José; Bombardelli, Robie Allan

    2017-11-27

    Intensive aquaculture needs to adopt techniques that are able to contribute towards sustainability. Closed systems that employ water recirculation can combine intensive production with environmental sustainability, since there is no exchange of water or discharge of effluents into the environment. In order to achieve this, effective filtration systems are required to ensure that the water quality is satisfactory for the cultivation of aquatic organisms. Chitosan, an industrial waste material derived from crustacean farming, is a renewable natural material that is biodegradable and possesses adsorbent characteristics. In this work, chitosan foam was incorporated in filters and was evaluated as an adsorbent of aquaculture pollutants, adding value to the material and at the same time providing a use for industrial waste. The foam was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, apparent density, and water absorption capacity. It was used to remove ammonia, nitrite, orthophosphate, and turbidity from aquaculture effluents. The foam consisted of a bilayer with smooth and porous sides, which presented low density, flexibility, and high water absorption capacity. The best proportion of the foam, in terms of the mass of foam per volume of solution (% m v-1), was 0.10, which resulted in removal of 32.8, 57.2, 89.5, and 99.9% of ammonia, nitrite, orthophosphate, and turbidity, respectively. This biopolymer produced is biodegradable, and when saturated with organic compounds from aquaculture, and no longer suitable for reuse as a filter material, it can be employed as a fertilizer, hence closing the sustainability cycle of the aquaculture production chain.

  2. Nutrient compensation as management tool– Sugar kelp production in sustainable aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmedes, Peter Søndergaard; Boderskov, Teis; Silva Marinho, Goncalo

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is theoretically a sustainable production form, which minimizes waste products from e.g. fish farms, by the co-production of bivalves or/and seaweed. For the Danish fish farmers the extractive organisms could be the solution for increasing fish production...... and robust mitigation tool for nitrogen removal and hopefully allow for future expansion of sustainable marine fish production in Denmark......., but do the principles of IMTA fully mitigate the nutrient impact from open net-pen fish production at realistic production scales? In this project, commercial scale cultivation of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) was investigated with regard to operation, yield, biofilter capacity and mapping...

  3. Looking for sustainable solutions in salmon aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bailey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development poses highly complex issues for those who attempt to implement it. Using the Brundtland Commission’s definition of sustainable development as a vantage point, this article discusses the issues posed by the production of one kind of food, farmed Atlantic salmon, as a means of illustrating the complexity, interconnectedness and high-data requirements involved in assessing whether a given industry is sustainable. These issues are explored using the three commonly accepted aspects of sustainability – its environmental, social and economic aspects – and the dilemmas posed by the need to make the trade-offs necessary among these. It concludes by arguing that decisions of this complexity require complex and multiple decision-making structures and suggests four that are essential for the task.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i1.1801

  4. Linked sustainability challenges and trade-offs among fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Julia L; Watson, Reg A; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Cottrell, Richard S; Nash, Kirsty L; Bryndum-Buchholz, Andrea; Büchner, Matthias; Carozza, David A; Cheung, William W L; Elliott, Joshua; Davidson, Lindsay N K; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Dunne, John P; Eddy, Tyler D; Galbraith, Eric; Lotze, Heike K; Maury, Olivier; Müller, Christoph; Tittensor, Derek P; Jennings, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Fisheries and aquaculture make a crucial contribution to global food security, nutrition and livelihoods. However, the UN Sustainable Development Goals separate marine and terrestrial food production sectors and ecosystems. To sustainably meet increasing global demands for fish, the interlinkages among goals within and across fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture sectors must be recognized and addressed along with their changing nature. Here, we assess and highlight development challenges for fisheries-dependent countries based on analyses of interactions and trade-offs between goals focusing on food, biodiversity and climate change. We demonstrate that some countries are likely to face double jeopardies in both fisheries and agriculture sectors under climate change. The strategies to mitigate these risks will be context-dependent, and will need to directly address the trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals, such as halting biodiversity loss and reducing poverty. Countries with low adaptive capacity but increasing demand for food require greater support and capacity building to transition towards reconciling trade-offs. Necessary actions are context-dependent and include effective governance, improved management and conservation, maximizing societal and environmental benefits from trade, increased equitability of distribution and innovation in food production, including continued development of low input and low impact aquaculture.

  5. Yeast derived from lignocellulosic biomass as a sustainable feed resource for use in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, Margareth; Skrede, Anders

    2017-02-01

    The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high-quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low-value and non-food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein-rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favourable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish, including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream processing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast-derived cell wall fractions. This review summarises current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Sustainable aquaculture of Asian arowana--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, S R; Yusoff, F M; Sharifhuddin, N; Shariff, M

    2016-07-01

    Asian arowana, Scleropages formosus is a highly valued aquarium fish in the world, particularly in Asian countries, and has been listed as one of the most highly endangered species. This is a freshwater, carnivorous, fairly large mouth breeding fish belonging to the family Osteoglossidae. Arowana can be found in different colour varieties such as green, red, silver and golden. Among these varieties, Malaysian golden is the most valuable fish and is endemic to the Krian riverine system, Malaysia. However, overexploitation, habitat change and pollution have caused a serious decline of this arowana variety. Recently, arowana aquaculture industry is expanding rapidly in Southeast Asian countries. However, difficulties in an accurate differentiation of sex and strains, causing imbalanced stocking ratios for optimum spawning, remain major obstacles in maximizing arowana production. In addition, problems in sustainable water sources of suitable quality and prevention of diseases need to be addressed. Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and bioremediation are two possible technologies that could be used to minimize pollution and ensure adequate high-quality water for arowana culture. In addition, the application of appropriate molecular markers for sex and strain identification is also an important strategy required for the improvement of captive breeding. This review discusses several issues such as the importance of arowana as an aquarium fish, its market demand, current problems in the arowana aquaculture industry and the possible technologies to enhance reproductive capacity and increase culture production. ?

  7. Antibacterial activity of oxytetracycline photoproducts in marine aquaculture's water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J F; Henriques, I S; Correia, A; Santos, E B H; Esteves, V I

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. The main concern related to its use is the bacterial resistance, when ineffective treatments are applied for its removal or inactivation. OTC photo-degradation has been suggested as an efficient complementary process to conventional methods used in intensive fish production (e.g.: ozonation). Despite this, and knowing that the complete mineralization of OTC is difficult, few studies have examined the antibacterial activity of OTC photoproducts. Thus, the main aim of this work is to assess whether the OTC photoproducts retain the antibacterial activity of its parent compound (OTC) after its irradiation, using simulated sunlight. For that, three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio sp. and Aeromonas sp.) and different synthetic and natural aqueous matrices (phosphate buffered solutions at different salinities, 0 and 21‰, and three different samples from marine aquaculture industries) were tested. The microbiological assays were made using the well-diffusion method before and after OTC has been exposed to sunlight. The results revealed a clear effect of simulated sunlight, resulting on the decrease or elimination of the antibacterial activity for all strains and in all aqueous matrices due to OTC photo-degradation. For E. coli, it was also observed that the antibacterial activity of OTC is lower in the presence of sea-salts, as demonstrated by comparison of halos in aqueous matrices containing or not sea-salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic analysis of the environmental impact on marine cage lobster aquaculture in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Nguyen Thi Y

    2009-01-01

    In Vietnam, marine cage lobster aquaculture has been expanding significantly over the last years. Besides the economic contribution for locals living in the coastal areas in Central of Vietnam, this industry has created some problems that are relating to the marine environmental protection where trash fish feed is predominant. This paper investigates the environmental impact on cage marine lobster aquaculture in Vietnam by using the Change of Productivity method in which nitrogen releasing fr...

  9. New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: a perspective on environmental sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schneider, O.; Blancheton, J.P.; Roque dÓrbcastel, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The dual objective of sustainable aquaculture, i.e., to produce food while sustaining natural resources is achieved only when production systems with a minimum ecological impact are used. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) provide opportunities to reduce water usage and to improve waste

  10. From eco-sustainability to risk assessment of aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, G; Ababouch, L; Anichini, L

    2009-09-01

    The increasing demand for fishery products and the technical and commercial opportunities now available make the development of aquaculture an important subject for the policy of the fishery sector, in particular concerning aspects of its environmental and ecological sustainability. The latest studies show that it is possible to apply an ecological approach to the aquaculture sector and hence increase the interactions between fisheries and other activities such as fish/molluscs, fish/seaweed, rice-growing/fish. In this way we take part in the improvement of the environment thanks to the recycling of organic food, the reduction of pesticide use and the control of environmental euthrophication. In order to support and facilitate trade, but at the same time ensure the safety and quality of products, a harmonization of the policies for food safety protecting the products throughout the whole food chain is required (from the sea to the table). The above mentioned policy, based on scientific knowledge, relies on the analysis of risks from the competent Authorities and on the proper application of HACCP from the industries of the sector.

  11. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  12. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  13. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Joesting; R. Blaylock; P. Biber; A. Ray

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics), but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was t...

  14. Use of ozone for sustainable brackishwater industrial aquaculture and management of environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, S.N.

    The use of ozones for sustainable brakish water industrial aquaculture and the management of the environment is discussed. In sample survey conducted in the farms, it was seen that oxygen level was not adequate for high production. Replacement...

  15. Marine Spatial Planning Makes Room for Offshore Aquaculture in a Crowded Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J.

    2016-12-01

    Offshore aquaculture is an emerging industry predicted to contribute significantly to global seafood production and food security. However, aquaculture farms can generate conflicts by displacing existing ocean user groups and impacting ecosystems. Further, there are multiple farm types with different seafood species, productivity levels and impacts. Thus, it is important to strategically and simultaneously plan farm type and location in relation to the seascape in order to most effectively maximize aquaculture value while also minimizing conflicts and environmental impacts. We address this problem and demonstrate the value of multi-objective planning with a case study that integrates bioeconomic modeling with ecosystem service tradeoff analysis to inform the marine spatial planning (MSP) of mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture farms in the already-crowded Southern California Bight (SCB) ecosystem. We considered four user groups predicted to conflict with or be impacted by the three types of aquaculture: wild-capture fisheries, ocean viewshed from coastal properties, marine benthic habitat protection, and risk of disease outbreak between farms. Results indicate that significant conflicts and impacts, expected under conventional planning, can be reduced by strategic planning. For example, 28% of potential mussel farm sites overlap with wild-capture halibut fishery grounds, yet MSP can enable mussel aquaculture to generate up to a third of its total potential industry value without impacting halibut fishery yield. Results also highlight hotspot areas in the SCB most appropriate for each type of aquaculture under MSP, as well as particular mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture spatial plans that align with legislative regulations on allowable impacts from future aquaculture farms in California. This study comprehensively informs aquaculture farm design in the SCB, and demonstrates the value of multi-objective simultaneous planning as a key component in MSP.

  16. Proximate analyses - Utilization of Marine Process Waste for Aquaculture Feeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...

  17. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  18. Modelling for an improved integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system for the production of highly valued marine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Granada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA is regarded as a suitable approach to limit aquaculture nutrients and organic matter outputs through biomitigation. Here, species from different trophic or nutritional levels are connected through water transfer. The co-cultured species are used as biofilters, and each level has its own independent commercial value, providing both economic and environmental sustainability. In order to better understand and optimize aquaculture production systems, dynamic modelling has been developed towards the use of models for analysis and simulation of aquacultures. Several models available determine the carrying capacity of farms and the environmental effects of bivalve and fish aquaculture. Also, in the last two decades, modelling strategies have been designed in order to predict the dispersion and deposition of organic fish farm waste, usually using the mean settling velocity of faeces and feed pellets. Cultured organisms growth, effects of light and temperature on algae growth, retention of suspended solids, biodegradation of nitrogen and wastewater treatment are examples of other modelled parameters in aquaculture. Most modelling equations have been developed for monocultures, despite the increasing importance of multi-species systems, such as polyculture and IMTA systems. The main reason for the development of multi-species models is to maximize the production and optimize species combinations in order to reduce the environmental impacts of aquaculture. Some multi-species system models are available, including from the polyculture of different species of bivalves with fish to more complex systems with four trophic levels. These can incorporate ecosystem models and use dynamic energy budgets for each trophic group. In the proposed IMTA system, the bioremediation potential of the marine seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (nutrient removal performance and the Mediterranean filter-feeding polychaete Sabella

  19. Consumer preferences for sustainable aquaculture products: Evidence from in-depth interviews, think aloud protocols and choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are of great importance to aquaculture where they occur naturally, and can be added artificially, fulfilling different roles. They recycle nutrients, degrade organic matter and, occasionally, they infect and kill the fish, their larvae or the live feed. Also, some microorganisms may...... protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial...... manipulate and engineer these microbiomes. Similarly, we can reduce the need to apply antibiotics in aquaculture through manipulation of the microbiome, i.e. by the use of probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that fish pathogenic bacteria in live feed can be controlled by probiotics...

  1. Aquaculture and urban marine structures facilitate native and non-indigenous species transfer through generation and accumulation of marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L; King, Staci; Heppenstall, Lara D; van Gool, Ella; Martin, Ross; Hewitt, Chad L

    2017-10-15

    Both the invasion of non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) and the generation and accumulation of anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) are pervasive problems in coastal urban ecosystems. The biosecurity risks associated with AMD rafting NIMS have been described, but the role of aquaculture derived AMD has not yet been investigated as a biosecurity vector and pathway. This preliminary study targeted 27 beaches along the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand, collecting debris from belt transects. Plastic (specifically plastic rope) was the dominant AMD present on beaches. The most common biofouling taxa were hydroids, bryozoans, algae and polychaetes, with one NIMS pest species, Sabella spallanzanii, detected fouling plastic rope. Our findings demonstrate that aquaculture is an AMD (plastic rope) generating activity that creates biosecurity risk by enhancing the spread of NIMS. The rafting of S. spallanzanii on AMD generated at aquaculture facilities is currently an unmanaged pathway within New Zealand that needs attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Sustainability Index of potential co-location of offshore wind farms and open water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennassai, G.; Mariani, Patrizio; Stenberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    of the productivity). The further development of the technique, already used in open water aquaculture localization, consists in converting raw data into sustainability scores, which have been combined using additive models, in order to define the overall sustainability. The study area used to implement...

  3. Effect of nitrate on sulfur transformations in sulfidogenic sludge of a marine aquaculture biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten Ulrich; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Stief, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The effect of NO3- addition on dissimilatory SO42- reduction and sulfide conversion in organic-rich sludge from the digestion basin of a recirculating marine aquaculture system was studied. SO42- reduction could only explain a minor fraction (up to 4–9%) of the observed total sulfide production (up...

  4. Integrated parasite management: path to sustainable control of fishborne trematodes in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jesper H; Madsen, Henry; Van, Phan Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders; Murrell, K Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are an emerging problem and there is now a consensus that, in addition to wild-caught fish, fish produced in aquaculture present a major food safety risk, especially in Southeast Asia where aquaculture is important economically. Current control programs target communities at risk through mass drug administration. However, we argue that treatment alone will not reduce the risk from eating infected fish and that sustainable effective control must adopt an integrated FZT control approach based on education, infrastructure improvements, and management practices that target critical control points in the aquaculture production cycle identified from a thorough understanding of FZT and host biology and epidemiology. We present recommendations for an integrated parasite management (IPM) program for aquaculture farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Participatory Monitoring and Feedback System: An Important Entry Towards Sustainable Aquaculture in Bolinao, Northern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailany Verceles

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture industry in Caquiputan Channel contributed P2.3M to municipal revenues in 1998. However, the uncontrolled construction of fish pens and fish cages have contributed to the deterioration of the water quality in the Caquiputan Channel. Despite monitoring of parameters (e.g. DO, salinity, and temperature, low production was implicated because of limited dissolved oxygen supply.A participatory monitoring of fish pens and fish cages was facilitated to pave the way for sustainable aquaculture. A system for monitoring and disseminating information on water quality, production and zonation of pens and cages, has been pursued to assess the situation and identify mechanisms to regulate aquaculture activities. The feedback system adopted has raised and facilitated environmental awareness, issue identification, and implementation, of solutions to some major issues. Furthermore, the results have resulted in policy reforms, as embodied in the provisions on aquaculture in the Municipal Fisheries Ordinance.

  6. Marine biofilms as mediators of colonization by marine macroorganisms: implications for antifouling and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, P-Y; Lau, S C K; Dahms, H-U; Dobretsov, S; Harder, T

    2007-01-01

    In the marine environment, biofilms on submerged surfaces can promote or discourage the settlement of invertebrate larvae and macroalgal spores. The settlement-mediating effects of biofilms are believed to involve a variety of biofilm attributes including surface chemistry, micro-topography, and a wide range of microbial products from small-molecule metabolites to high-molecular weight extracellular polymers. The settled organisms in turn can modify microbial species composition of biofilms and thus change the biofilm properties and dynamics. A better understanding of biofilm dynamics and chemical signals released and/or stored by biofilms will facilitate the development of antifouling and mariculture technologies. This review provides a brief account of 1) existing knowledge of marine biofilms that are relevant to settlement mediation, 2) biotechnological application of biofilms with respect to developing non-toxic antifouling technologies and improving the operation of aquaculture facilities, and 3) challenges and future directions for advancing our understanding of settlement-mediating functions of biofilms and for applying this knowledge to real-life situations.

  7. Bioethical Considerations of Advancing the Application of Marine Biotechnology and Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginal M. Harrell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Normative ethical considerations of growth of the marine biotechnology and aquaculture disciplines in biopharming, food production, and marine products commercialization from a bioethical perspective have been limited. This paucity of information begs the question of what constitutes a bioethical approach (i.e., respect for individuals or autonomy; beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice to marine biotechnology and aquaculture, and whether it is one that is appropriate for consideration. Currently, thoughtful discussion on the bioethical implications of use, development, and commercialization of marine organisms or their products, as well as potential environmental effects, defaults to human biomedicine as a model. One must question the validity of using human bioethical principlism moral norms for appropriating a responsible marine biotechnology and aquaculture ethic. When considering potential impacts within these disciplines, deference must be given to differing value systems in order to find common ground to advance knowledge and avoid emotive impasses that can hinder the science and its application. The import of bioethical considerations when conducting research and/or production is discussed. This discussion is directed toward applying bioethical principles toward technology used for food, biomedical development (e.g., biopharming, or as model species for advancement of knowledge for human diseases.

  8. A Project Approach to Teaching Aquaculture and Entrepreneurial Skills in the Cage Culture of Salmonids Program at the Marine Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Edgar; Smith, Boyd

    Between September and December 1986, the Marine Institute in Newfoundland, Canada, used a "projects approach" to train aquaculture workers for 10 new salmon farms to be opened in spring 1987 by a producers' cooperative. The projects approach combined instruction in the aquaculture skills needed to operate a salmon farm and the entrepreneurial…

  9. The impact and control of biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Guenther, Jana; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling in marine aquaculture is a specific problem where both the target culture species and/or infrastructure are exposed to a diverse array of fouling organisms, with significant production impacts. In shellfish aquaculture the key impact is the direct fouling of stock causing physical damage, mechanical interference, biological competition and environmental modification, while infrastructure is also impacted. In contrast, the key impact in finfish aquaculture is the fouling of infrastructure which restricts water exchange, increases disease risk and causes deformation of cages and structures. Consequently, the economic costs associated with biofouling control are substantial. Conservative estimates are consistently between 5-10% of production costs (equivalent to US$ 1.5 to 3 billion yr(-1)), illustrating the need for effective mitigation methods and technologies. The control of biofouling in aquaculture is achieved through the avoidance of natural recruitment, physical removal and the use of antifoulants. However, the continued rise and expansion of the aquaculture industry and the increasingly stringent legislation for biocides in food production necessitates the development of innovative antifouling strategies. These must meet environmental, societal, and economic benchmarks while effectively preventing the settlement and growth of resilient multi-species consortia of biofouling organisms.

  10. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Joesting

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics, but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of marine aquaculture solid waste as a nutrient source for the nursery production of two salt tolerant plants commonly used in coastal salt marsh restoration, Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass and Juncus roemerianus (black needlerush. Specifically, measurements of plant biomass and tissue nitrogen and phosphorus allocation were compared between plants fertilized with dried shrimp biofloc solids and unfertilized controls, as well as between plants fertilized with dried fish solids and unfertilized controls. In both experiments, S. alterniflora plants fertilized with marine aquaculture solids showed few significant differences from unfertilized controls, whereas fertilized J. roemerianus plants had significantly greater biomass and absorbed and incorporated more nutrients in plant tissue compared to unfertilized controls. These results suggest that J. roemerianus may be a suitable plant species for the remediation of marine aquaculture solid waste.

  11. Social Dynamics Shaping the Diffusion of Sustainable Aquaculture Innovations in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Blythe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainably feeding the world’s growing population represents one of our most significant challenges. Aquaculture is well positioned to make contributions towards this challenge. Yet, the translation of aquaculture production innovations into benefits for rural communities is constrained by a limited understanding of the social dynamics that influence the adoption of new agricultural practices. In this paper, we investigate the factors that shape the spread of small-scale tilapia aquaculture through rural Solomon Islands. Based on diffusion of innovation theory, we focus on three potentially influential factors: (i socio-economic characteristics of adopters; (ii the role of opinion leaders; and (iii characteristics of the innovation. We find that farmers who were wealthier, older, and had more diverse livelihoods were most likely to be adopters. Opinion leaders facilitated the adoption of tilapia aquaculture, but lacked the capacity to provide fundamental knowledge necessary to realize its potential benefits to food security. The paper argues for more explicit attention to the poorest households and makes the case for a deeper engagement with the broader social and institutional contexts that shape the adoption process. Aquaculture interventions that account for these social dynamics are critical for translating production innovations into sustainable benefits to rural communities.

  12. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve

    2012-01-01

    ecosystem‐based management as demanded by the Marine Strategy Directive. The biological interconnectedness of fisheries and aquaculture is strong, with factors such as competition for space, disease transmission, genetic impact from escapees, availability of food for cultured finfish, and organic......Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include...... Planning (MSP) and improved management tools supporting policies for space allocation along the entire European coastline. Successful MSP is not likely to be achieved without a certain level of conflict, and without iterative adaptations in management actions. MSP is viewed an essential part of advancing...

  13. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole...... due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...... of adequate funding from national and international sources (e.g. EMFF, research councils, EU, Nordic and BONUS). Finally, the financial sector should be made more confident with aquaculture to facilitate investments in aquaculture. The integration of environmental, economic and social sustainability...

  14. "A Future for Fisheries?" Setting of a Field-based Class for Evaluation of Aquaculture and Fisheries Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, Stephen; O'Connell, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    For the first time in 2015, aquaculture yields approximately equaled global wild capture fisheries. Are either of these levels of production sustainable? This course explored the limitations of both sources of fishery landings and included legal limitations, environmental concerns and technological problems and adaptations. It made use of visits to aquaculture facilities, government laboratories like NOAA , as well as large fish distribution centers like J.J. McDowell's Seafood (Jessup, MD), and included presentations by experts on legalities including the Law of the Sea. In addition, short day-long trips to "ocean-related" locations were also used to supplement the experience and included speakers involved with aquaculture. Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for travel to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets in Washington, Baltimore and Virginia Beach, enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. Sustainability awareness is increasingly a subject in educational settings. Marine science classes are perfect settings of establishing sustainability awareness owing to declining populations of organisms and perceived collapse in fisheries worldwide. Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time

  15. Antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria and human uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a region of intensive aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Rioseco, Maria Luisa; Kalsi, Rajinder K; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobials are heavily used in Chilean salmon aquaculture. We previously found significant differences in antimicrobial-resistant bacteria between sediments from an aquaculture and a non-aquaculture site. We now show that levels of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) are significantly higher in antimicrobial-selected marine bacteria than in unselected bacteria from these sites. While ARG in tetracycline- and florfenicol-selected bacteria from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites were equally frequent, there were significantly more plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes per bacterium and significantly higher numbers of qnrB genes in quinolone-selected bacteria from the aquaculture site. Quinolone-resistant urinary Escherichia coli from patients in the Chilean aquacultural region were significantly enriched for qnrB (including a novel qnrB gene), qnrS, qnrA and aac(6')-1b, compared with isolates from New York City. Sequences of qnrA1, qnrB1 and qnrS1 in quinolone-resistant Chilean E. coli and Chilean marine bacteria were identical, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between antimicrobial-resistant marine bacteria and human pathogens. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Toxicity of three antibiotics used in aquaculture on the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin Butch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Seoane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture facilities are a potential source of antibiotics to the aquatic ecosystems. The presence of these compounds in the environment may have deleterious effects on non-target aquatic organisms such as microalgae, which are often used as biological indicators of pollution. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity induced by chloramphenicol (CHL, florfenicol (FLO and oxytetracycline (OTC, three antibiotics widely used in aquaculture, on the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, a species also used in aquacultural practices. Toxicity was evaluated taking into account alterations on growth and cellular viability and activity, being these parameters monitored using flow cytometry technique. Results showed that all three antibiotics assayed inhibit growth of T. suecica with 96 h IC50 values of 11.16, 9.03 and 17.25 mg l-1 for CHL, FLO and OTC, respectively. After 24 hours of exposure, the integrity of the cell membrane, related with cellular viability and assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI, was not altered; therefore cells remained viable. However, FLO and OTC were found to significant reduce the metabolic activity at higher concentrations assayed, as indicated the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA. Since growth inhibition and significant physiological alterations were observed, it can be concluded that T. suecica was sensitive to the three antibiotics tested, thus the use of these antibiotics should be carefully monitored to reduce the potential risk of contamination of the marine environment.

  17. Merging remotely sensed data, models and indicators for a sustainable development of coastal aquaculture in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigolin, Daniele; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Lourguioui, Hichem; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Finfish cage farming is an economically relevant activity, which exerts pressures on coastal systems and thus require a science-based management, based on the Ecosystem Approach, in order to be carry out in a sustainable way. Within MEDINA project (EU 282977), ocean color data and models were used for estimating indicators of pressures of aquaculture installations along the north African coast. These indicators can provide important support for decision makers in the allocation of new zones for aquaculture, by taking into account the suitability of an area for this activity and minimizing negative environmental effects, thus enhancing the social acceptability of aquaculture. The increase in the number of farms represents a strategic objective for the Algerian food production sector, which is currently being supported by different national initiatives. The case-study presented in this work was carried out in the Gulf of Bejaia. Water quality for aquaculture was first screened based on ocean color CDOM data (http://www.globcolour.info/). The SWAN model was subsequently used to propagate offshore wave data and to derive wave height statistics. On this basis, sub-areas of the Gulf were ranked, according their optimality in respect to cage resistance and fish welfare requirements. At the three best sites an integrated aquaculture impact assessment model was therefore applied: this tool allows one to obtain a detailed representation of fish growth and population dynamics inside the rearing cages, and to simulate the deposition of uneaten food and faeces on the sediment and the subsequent mineralization of organic matter. This integrated model was used to produce a set of indicators of the fish cages environmental interaction under different scenarios of forcings (water temperature, feeding, currents). These model-derived indicators could usefully contribute to the implementation of the ecosystem approach for the management of aquaculture activities, also required by the

  18. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Murray

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns

  19. Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2017-08-15

    Disinfection methods like chlorination are increasingly used to sanitize the water, equipment, tools and surfaces in aquaculture facilities. This is to improve water quality, and to maintain a hygienic environment for the well-being of aquatic organisms. However, chlorination can result in formation of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be carcinogenic and toxic. This study aims to evaluate if an optimal balance can be achieved between minimal regulated DBP formation and effective microbial inactivation with either chlorination or monochloramination for application in the Red Sea aquaculture waters. Upon chlorination, the concentration of total trihalomethanes (THMs), primarily bromoform, exceeded the regulatory limit of 80μg/L even at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) by chlorine ranged from 2.3-log to 3.2-log with different contact time. The average log reduction of ARB by monochloramine was comparatively lower at 1.9 to 2.9-log. Although viable Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from monochloraminated samples as opposed to chlorinated samples, the abundance of S. aureus was not high enough to result in any significant microbial risks. Both chlorination and monochloramination did not provide any significant improvement in the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study demonstrates that a systematic evaluation is needed to determine the optimal disinfectant required to balance both microbial and chemical risks. Compared to chlorine, monochloramine may be a more appropriate disinfection strategy for the treatment of aquaculture effluents prior to discharge or for recirculatory use in the aquaculture facility.

  20. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  1. Reversing the Burden of Proof for Sustainable Aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    The transition to sustainable food production requires the inclusion of small-holder producers. Given many of these small holders are integrated into global systems of trade market-based approaches such as third party certification appear to hold relevance. But certification as it is now practices

  2. Limiting Size of Fish Fillets at the Center of the Plate Improves the Sustainability of Aquaculture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. Cross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available North American dining customers like to have a singular large piece of protein in the center of the plate. When fish is the protein of choice, the portion size from many species is limited by the overall size of the fish. Therefore, for these species, the means to achieve a singular larger portion of “center of the plate” protein is to grow a larger animal. However, fish become less efficient in converting feed to protein as they age. A second option would be to provide two smaller fillets originating from younger, more efficient fish. Here, the sustainability ramifications of these two protein provisioning strategies (single large or two small fillets are considered for three species of fish produced in aquaculture. Growth data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus produced in ponds, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in raceways, and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria in marine net pens, were modeled to assess the total biomass and overall food conversion ratio for the production of small, medium or large fish. The production of small fish added an additional 50% or more biomass per year for trout, catfish, and sablefish compared to the production of large fish. Feed conversion ratios were also improved by nearly 10% for the smaller compared to larger fish of each species. Thus, even though all of these species tend to be considered aquaculture species of low environmental impact (and hence “green” or sustainable options, the product form requested by retailers and served by chefs can further increase the sustainability of these species.

  3. The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery

  4. Progress Toward Sustainable Mussel Aquaculture in Mar Piccolo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Caroppo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mar Piccolo of Taranto is an estuarine basin heavily exploited for commercial mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. farming. The historical renown of the Taranto mussels has suffered over the last decade following policy decisions to expand the mussel farms and to relocate a portion of the urban sewage to an outfall outside of Mar Piccolo. The resulting decline in mussel quality and the quandary of how to restore stability to Taranto mussel production became the focal issue for our application of the systems approach framework (SAF. We simulated the ecological, economic, and social interactions that affect mussel production. Stakeholders and mussel farmers contributed by participating in meetings during the entire exercise. Our simulation analysis provided them with a means for understanding the effects of policy scenarios on the system. We present three aspects from our initial results that demonstrate the value of the SAF, as: (1 an operational model to monitor and better research the status of the ecosystem, (2 a management tool to evaluate sustainable mussel farming strategies, and (3 an opportunity for improved communication with and engagement of stakeholders, policy, and the public. The application has also raised important questions about how the food chain is controlled, what could be changed to stabilize the ecosystem to a higher level of productivity, and what role the public and policy could play in promoting sustainable development.

  5. Solar water heating for aquaculture : optimizing design for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Thwaites, J. [Taylor Munro Energy Systems Inc., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a solar water heating project at Redfish Ranch, the first Tilapia tropical fish farm in British Columbia. The fish are raised in land-based tanks, eliminating the risk of contamination of local ecosystems. As a tropical species, they requires warm water. Natural gas or propane boilers are typically used to maintain tank temperatures at 26 to 28 degrees C. Redfish Ranch uses solar energy to add heat to the fish tanks, thereby reducing fossil-fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions. This unique building-integrated solar system is improving the environmental status of of this progressive industrial operation by offsetting fossil-fuel consumption. The system was relatively low cost, although substantial changes had to be made to the roof of the main building. The building-integrated design of the solar water heating system has reduced operating costs, generated local employment, and shows promise of future activity. As such, it satisfies the main criteria for sustainability. 7 refs.

  6. Sustainability Entrepreneurship in marine protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Bottema, Mariska; Midavaine, J.J.; Carter, E.

    2017-01-01

    So called ‘entrepreneurial marine protected areas’ are one way in which private actors are setting and enforcing control over spatially contiguous marine habitats. These entrepreneurs fulfil both environmental and social outcomes, providing a sustainable source of funding for conservation and

  7. Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Dominick

    2003-07-01

    Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1) the cosmopolitan, arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina (Phylum Bryozoa) for its anticancer chemical constituent bryostatin 1; and (2) Ecteinascidia turbinate (Phylum Tunicata) the source of anticancer ecteinascidin 743. For the third invertebrate Phylum Porifera, and its representative sponge Acanthella cavernosa (desired for its anti-parasitic and anti-infective kalihinols) in-sea systems were not developed in favor of controlled environment tank aquaculture systems. For the bryozoan and tunicate, projected economics for commercial-scale in-sea production proved cost effective. This was in contrast to the controlled environment sponge culture tank system, which did not prove to be economical due to inherent slow growth and low natural product yields of the sponge in culture. A non-destructive method for "milking" natural product chemicals from sponges was tested and is described.

  8. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant protein-based feeds and commercial feed enable isotopic tracking of aquaculture emissions into marine macrozoobenthic bioindicator species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Henrik; Hillgruber, Nicola; Rößner, Yvonne; Focken, Ulfert

    2017-06-01

    Brittle stars (Ophiura spp.) and other benthic macrofauna were collected in a prospective mariculture area in the North Sea to determine if these taxa could be used as indicator species to track nutrients released from future offshore aquaculture sites. We analysed natural carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures in tissues from macrofauna and compared these to six feed ingredients and four experimental diets made thereof, as well as to a commercial feed with and without lipid and carbonate removal. Our data suggest practicability of using isotopic signatures of Ophiura spp. to track aquaculture-derived organic material if plant-based fish diet ingredients and commercial feed were used for fish farming in the German Exclusive Economic Zone. Diets with high fish meal content would not be detected in Ophiura spp. using isotopic measures due to the similarity with the marine background. Our data provide valuable baseline information for studies on the impact of offshore aquaculture on the marine environment.

  10. Diversity of Nitrate-Reducing and Denitrifying Bacteria in a Marine Aquaculture Biofilter and their Response to Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krieger, Bärbel; Schwermer, Carsten U.; Rezakhani, Nastaran

    2006-01-01

    DIVERSITY OF NITRATE-REDUCING AND DENITRIFYING BACTERIA IN A MARINE AQUACULTURE BIOFILTER AND THEIR RESPONSE TO SULFIDE B.U. Krieger 1,5, C. Schwermer 2, N. Rezakhani 5, M.A. Horn 1, A. Gieseke 2, E. Cytryn 3, D. Minz 3, J. van Rijn 4, H.L. Drake 1, A. Schramm 5 1 Dept. of Ecological Microbiology...

  11. Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Abreu, Maria Helena; Araujo, Rita; Bruhn, Annette; Coates, Juliet C; De Clerck, Olivier; Katsaros, Christos; Robaina, Rafael R; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms. Here, we argue that sustainable management of seaweed aquaculture requires fundamental understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms controlling macroalgal life cycles - from the production of germ cells to the growth and fertility of the adult organisms - using diverse approaches requiring a broad range of technological tools. This Viewpoint highlights several examples of basic research on macroalgal developmental biology that could enable the step-changes which are required to adequately meet the demands of the aquaculture sector. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. The environmental sustainability of microalgae as feed for aquaculture: a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, S E; De Meester, S; Roef, L; Michiels, M; Dewulf, J

    2013-12-01

    The environmental sustainability of microalgae production for aquaculture purposes was analyzed using exergy analysis (EA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). A production process (pilot 2012, 240 m(2)) was assessed and compared with two upscaling scenarios (pilot 2013, 1320 m(2) and first production scale 2015, 2.5 ha). The EA at process level revealed that drying and cultivation had the lowest efficiencies. The LCA showed an improvement in resource efficiency after upscaling: 55.5 MJ(ex,CEENE)/MJ(ex) DW biomass was extracted from nature in 2012, which was reduced to 21.6 and 2.46 MJ(ex,CEENE)/MJ(ex) DW in the hypothetical 2013 and 2015 scenarios, respectively. Upscaling caused the carbon footprint to decline by factor 20 (0.09 kg CO2,eq/MJ(ex) DW in 2015). In the upscaling scenarios, microalgae production for aquaculture purposes appeared to be more sustainable in resource use than a reference fish feed (7.70 MJ(ex,CEENE) and 0.05 kg CO2,eq per MJ(ex) DW). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovation or 'Inventions'? The conflict between latent assumptions in marine aquaculture and local fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Novo, Rodrigo; Lizcano, Emmánuel; Herrera-Racionero, Paloma; Miret-Pastor, Lluís

    2018-02-01

    Recent European policy highlights the need to promote local fishery and aquaculture by means of innovation and joint participation in fishery management as one of the keys to achieve the sustainability of our seas. However, the implicit assumptions held by the actors in the two main groups involved - innovators (scientists, businessmen and administration managers) and local fishermen - can complicate, perhaps even render impossible, mutual understanding and co-operation. A qualitative analysis of interviews with members of both groups in the Valencian Community (Spain) reveals those latent assumptions and their impact on the respective practices. The analysis shows that the innovation narrative in which one group is based and the inventions narrative used by the other one are rooted in two dramatically different, or even antagonistic, collective worldviews. Any environmental policy that implies these groups should take into account these strong discords.

  14. Sustainable development? Salmon aquaculture and late modernity in the archipelago of Chiloé, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Barton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé is an archipelago that has, since the 1980s, become one of the motors of the Chilean economy. Salmon aquaculture swiftly transformed the tradition of isolation and poverty that had defined the local identity and livelihoods. This is now changing due to the rapid experience of modernity. This modernity is driven by transnational capital and large-scale state intervention in the promotion of salmon aquaculture and its current central role in defining development in the islands. While this sector has generated private and public employment and infrastructure, there has also been an important shift in the expectations and aspirations of the local population, towards increased hybridization and also a mercantilization of island culture. The success of salmon production reveals that the conditions of isolation can be transformed, and even benefits reaped from integration into the modern world –globalised, capitalist and rational, rather than traditional– however it also entails risks for the sustainability of fragile socio-ecological systems, including the existence of traditional and alternative livelihoods.

  15. A Setting for a Field-based Class for Improved Understanding of Sustainability Through the Evaluation of Aquaculture and Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; O'Connell, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of sustainability is increasingly a subject in educational settings. Marine science classes are perfect settings of establishing sustainability awareness owing to declining populations of organisms and perceived collapse in fisheries worldwide. Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and laboratories. In addition, short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture. Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for travel to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets in Washington, Baltimore and Virginia Beach, enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of sustainability with discussions on ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was

  16. Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, Øivind

    2014-06-01

    Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning.

  17. Towards the development of a sustainable soya bean-based feedstock for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunwoo; Weier, Steven; Razvi, Fareha; Peña, Pamela A; Sims, Neil A; Lowell, Jennica; Hungate, Cory; Kissinger, Karma; Key, Gavin; Fraser, Paul; Napier, Johnathan A; Cahoon, Edgar B; Clemente, Tom E

    2017-02-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soya bean breeding and molecular biology programmes. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soya bean coproducts, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soya bean-based protein and a high Omega-3 fatty acid soya bean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and stearidonic acids, in both steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Kampachi (Seriola rivoliana). Communicated herein are aquafeed formulations with major reduction in marine ingredients that translates to more total Omega-3 fatty acids in harvested flesh. Building off of these findings, subsequent efforts were directed towards a genetic strategy that would translate to a prototype design of an optimal identity-preserved soya bean-based feedstock for aquaculture, whereby a multigene stack approach for the targeted synthesis of two value-added output traits, eicosapentaenoic acid and the ketocarotenoid, astaxanthin, were introduced into the crop. To this end, the systematic introduction of seven transgenic cassettes into soya bean, and the molecular and phenotypic evaluation of the derived novel events are described. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. How can plant genetic engineering contribute to cost-effective fish vaccine development for promoting sustainable aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Lössl, Andreas G; Martinussen, Inger; Daniell, Henry

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture, the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 % of the world's food fish (FAO in The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 2010). The global aquaculture production of food fish reached 62.7 million tonnes in 2011 and is continuously increasing with an estimated production of food fish of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012 (a 9.4 % increase in 1 year, FAO, www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140 ). Aquaculture is not only important for sustainable protein-based food fish production but also for the aquaculture industry and economy worldwide. Disease prevention is the key issue to maintain a sustainable development of aquaculture. Widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, resulting in water and soil pollution. Thus, vaccination is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to combat diseases in aquaculture to manage fish health. Furthermore, when compared to >760 vaccines against human diseases, there are only about 30 fish vaccines commercially available, suggesting the urgent need for development and cost-effective production of fish vaccines for managing fish health, especially in the fast growing fish farming in Asia where profit is minimal and therefore given high priority. Plant genetic engineering has made significant contributions to production of biotech crops for food, feed, valuable recombinant proteins etc. in the past three decades. The use of plants for vaccine production offers several advantages such as low cost, safety and easy scaling up. To date a large number of plant-derived vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins have been produced for human health, of which a few have been made commercially available. However, the development of animal vaccines in plants, especially fish vaccines by genetic engineering, has not yet been addressed. Therefore, there is a need to exploit

  19. Sewage-fed aquaculture: a sustainable approach for wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaturvedi, Manoj K M; Sharma, Saroj Kumar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2015-10-01

    This study assesses the long-term sustainability for operation and maintenance (O&M) of sewage-fed aquaculture-based sewage treatment system. The study focused on the integrated assessment of an engineered pond system of 8 million liters per day capacity in the city of Karnal, the State of Haryana, northern India. Major areas during the assessment included health, environmental, societal and institutional views aspects as well as the quality of treated effluent subjected for reuse. The treatment facility met the Indian regulatory standards (downstream reuse and discharge into the legally permitted water bodies) in terms of physical-chemical parameters. The total coliform and faecal coliform removal were up to 2-3 log units; nevertheless, it was not capable to come across the bacterial count requirement (aquaculture practices). The system was able to generate sufficient net income required for routine O&M. Annual revenue collected by the Municipal Corporation from the lease of the facility as well as selling of treated wastewater was $3,077 and $16,667-$25,000, respectively. The additional benefit from the facility for the farmers included the saving of fertilizers and cheapest source of water available for irrigation. Recycling of treated sewages for irrigation is also returned nutrients to the surrounding farms in Karnal. This exercise has saved significant quantities of chemical fertilizer (26-41 Ton of nitrogen, 10-18 Ton of phosphorous and 38-58 Ton of potassium per year) and the overall benefit for farmers during cultivation of one acre of crop was calculated to be approximately $133 per year.

  20. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  1. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include ......, both industries represent human activities strongly influencing, and influenced by, the environment. Management of aquaculture and fisheries, as well as other uses of the coastal zone, should be considered integral parts with local variations in their respective importance....

  2. Report of the FAO/NACA Consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development: Chiang Rai, Thailand, 29-31 March 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development jointly organised by FAO and NACA in Chiang Rai, Thailand on 29-31 March 1999 to develop the detailed structure...

  3. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (Paquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  4. Perceptions of shellfish aquaculture in British Columbia and implications for well-being in marine social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. D'Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is often positioned as an adaptive alternative to traditional resource industries, but the social and cultural effects of expanding production on coastal/marine social-ecological systems are unclear. Reporting on a multimethods study, we present perceptions about shellfish aquaculture collected through interviews, participant-employed photography, and a household survey in British Columbia, Canada. With an approach focused on local preferences for social-ecological conditions and the ways in which those conditions may be enhanced or diminished, we indicate that perceptions of the effects of aquaculture on the environment, economy, and lived experience are composed of both objective and subjective components. Interview responses and survey opinions varied widely and included bimodal responses. Industry interviewees tended to focus on environmental and economic benefits while acknowledging concerns about the environment and lived experience. Nonindustry interviewees typically questioned the environmental effects while underscoring economic benefits and negative effects on experience. Most survey participants felt positively about the effects on the economy, expressed negativity and uncertainty about effects on the environment, and demonstrated the greatest variability in opinions about effects on lived experience. Findings revealed uncertainty and alienation across all dimensions. Our findings, used as an analytical lens, support the usefulness of the concept of well-being in attempts like this one to understand the dynamics of coastal communities by providing a framework for deciphering what is important to individuals and societies experiencing change and considering adaptations.

  5. Environmental sustainability assessment of a microalgae raceway pond treating aquaculture wastewater: From up-scaling to system integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfez, Sophie; Van Den Hende, Sofie; Taelman, Sue Ellen; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-08-01

    The environmental sustainability of aquaculture wastewater treatment by microalgal bacterial flocs (MaB-flocs) in an outdoor raceway pond was analyzed using life cycle assessment. Pikeperch aquaculture wastewater treated at pilot scale (Belgium; 28m(2)) and industrial scale (hypothetical up-scaling; 41 ponds of 245m(2)) were compared. The integration of the MaB-floc raceway pond in a broader aquaculture waste treatment system was studied, comparing the valorisation of MaB-flocs as shrimp feed and as biogas. Up-scaling improves the resource footprint of the plant (848MJex,CEENEkg(-1) MaB-floc TSS at pilot scale and 277MJex,CEENEkg(-1) MaB-floc TSS at industrial scale) as well as its carbon footprint and eutrophication potential. At industrial scale, the valorisation of MaB-flocs as shrimp feed is overall more sustainable than as biogas but improvements should be made to reduce the energy use of the MaB-floc raceway pond, especially by improving the energy-efficiency of the pond stirring system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable brackishwater industrial aquaculture and management of environment- use of ozone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, S.N.

    Surveys conducted in aquaculture farm showed that oxygen level varies between 3 to 5 ml. oxygen per litre. This is not adequate for high production and also cause pollution. However if aeration is replaced with positively charged ozone, oxygen...

  7. Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents – What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Turcios, Ariel E.; Jutta Papenbrock

    2014-01-01

    Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatme...

  8. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    Full Text Available Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1 • d(-1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001. Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05. It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  9. Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Turcios

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future.

  10. Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2014-01-01

    This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;…

  11. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    oceanography. Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) database records 33 studies pertaining to GIS application in marine biology. Most of the studies are confined to aquaculture, coastal zone or wetland management and fisheries. Biodiversity, natural...

  12. Benthic Foraminifera As A Novel Bio-monitoring Tool In The Assessment Of Environmental Impacts Linked To Marine Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alammar, Montaha; Austin, William

    2017-04-01

    The present study represents an attempt to evaluate the impacts of marine aquaculture on benthic foraminiferal communities in order to develop an improved, quantitative understanding of their response to the variation in benthic environmental gradients associated with fish farms in Scotland. Furthermore, their performance as a bio-monitoring tool will be discussed and outlined in ongoing research to evaluate their performance alongside traditional bioecological indicators. Foraminiferal faunas offer the potential to assess ecological quality status through their response to stress gradients (e.g. organic matter enrichment), such as that caused by intensive fish farming in coastal sediments. In this study, we followed the Foraminiferal Bio-Monitoring (FOBIMO) protocol (Schönfeld. et al., 2012), which proposed a standardised methodology of using foraminifera as a bio-monitoring tool to evaluate the quality of the marine ecosystem and applied these protocols to the rapidly expanding marine aquaculture sector in Scotland, UK. Eight stations were sampled along a transect in Loch Creran, west coast of Scotland, to describe the spatial and down-core (temporal) distribution pattern of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. Triplicate, Rose-Bengal stained samples from an interval of (0-1cm) below the sediment surface were studied at each station from below the fish cages (impacted stations) to a distance from the farming sites (control stations). Morphospecies counts were conducted, and the organic carbon and the grain size distributions determined. Species richness beneath these fish farming cages were analysed and showed a reduction of foraminifera density and diversity at the impacted stations.

  13. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E; Nordström, Jonas; Risén, Emma; Malmström, Maria E; Gröndahl, Fredrik

    2017-09-22

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

  14. Defluviimonas denitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov., and Pararhodobacter aggregans gen. nov., sp. nov., non-phototrophic Rhodobacteraceae from the biofilter of a marine aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foesel, Bärbel U.; Drake, Harold L.; Schramm, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Three Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture. They were non-pigmented rods, mesophiles, moderately halophilic, and showed chemoorganoheterotrophic growth on various sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids, with oxygen as electron accept...

  15. Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic phototrophic Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine aquaculture biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foesel, Bärbel U.; Gößner, Anita S.; Drake, Harold L.

    2007-01-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, diplococcoid bacterium (strain D2-3T) was isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture system. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3T indicated that the new organism occupied a novel lineage within the α-1 subclass of P...

  16. National Strategic Environmental Assessment for aquaculture development in South Africa: GIS analysis for identifying optimal areas for marine and freshwater aquaculture development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman-van der Walt, Luanita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Environmental Affairs and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries commissioned the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research to conduct a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Aquaculture Development...

  17. Integrating Conjugative Elements as Vectors of Antibiotic, Mercury, and Quaternary Ammonium Compound Resistance in Marine Aquaculture Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Lemos, Manuel L.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of SXT/R391-related integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) in bacterial strains isolated from fish obtained from marine aquaculture environments in 2001 to 2010 in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula was studied. ICEs were detected in 12 strains taxonomically related to Vibrio scophthalmi (3 strains), Vibrio splendidus (5 strains), Vibrio alginolyticus (1 strain), Shewanella haliotis (1 strain), and Enterovibrio nigricans (2 strains), broadening the known host range able to harbor SXT/R391-like ICEs. Variable DNA regions, which confer element-specific properties to ICEs of this family, were characterized. One of the ICEs encoded antibiotic resistance functions in variable region III, consisting of a tetracycline resistance locus. Interestingly, hot spot 4 included genes providing resistance to rifampin (ICEVspPor2 and ICEValPor1) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (ICEEniSpa1), and variable region IV included a mercury resistance operon (ICEVspSpa1 and ICEEniSpa1). The S exclusion group was more represented than the R exclusion group, accounting for two-thirds of the total ICEs. Mating experiments allowed ICE mobilization to Escherichia coli strains, showing the corresponding transconjugants' rifampin, mercury, and QAC resistance. These results show the first evidence of ICEs providing rifampin and QAC resistances, suggesting that these mobile genetic elements contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial, heavy metal, and QAC resistance determinants in aquaculture environments. PMID:22314526

  18. Toxicity induced by three antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture on the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin) Butch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Marta; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2014-10-01

    Aquaculture facilities are a potential source of antibiotics to the aquatic ecosystems. The presence of these compounds in the environment may have deleterious effects on non-target aquatic organisms such as microalgae, which are often used as biological indicators of pollution. Therefore, the toxicity induced by chloramphenicol (CHL), florphenicol (FLO) and oxytetracycline (OTC), three antibiotics widely used in aquaculture, on the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica was evaluated. Growth inhibition and physiological and biochemical parameters were analysed. All three antibiotics inhibited growth of T. suecica with 96 h IC50 values of 11.16, 9.03 and 17.25 mg L(-1) for CHL, FLO and OTC, respectively. After 24 h of exposure no effects on growth were observed and cell viability was also unaffected, whereas a decrease in esterase activity, related with cell vitality, was observed at the higher concentrations assayed. Photosynthesis related parameters such as chlorophyll a cellular content and autofluorescence were also altered after 24 h of antibiotics addition. It can be concluded that T. suecica was sensitive to the three antibiotics tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Treatment of marine-aquaculture effluent by the multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Huang, Yu-ting; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-jianz; Luo, An-cheng

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland to treat the wastewater of marine cultured Penaeus vannamei and to determine the suitable process for the local aquaculture wastewater pollution characteristics. In this study, MSL system and four constructed wetland systems with Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system were evaluated for their potentials of pollutants removal capacity. The results showed the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)+ -N) and nitrate (NO-(3) -N) by MSL system were 80. 38% ± 2. 14% , 68. 14% ± 3.51% , 40.79% ± 3. 10% , 42. 68% ± 2.90% and 54. 19% ± 5. 15% , respectively. Additionally, the ability of pollutants removal of other four wetland systems decreased in the order: Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system.

  20. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Marian; Soma, Katrine; Koundouri, Phoebe; Burg, Van Den Sander; Gerritsen, Alwin; Rockmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave

  1. Organic Aquaculture – the link between sustainable production and superior products

    OpenAIRE

    Jokumsen, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The first Danish organic rainbow trout with the Danish red Ø label was introduced to the market in 2005. The demand for organic trout is increasing and Danish trout farmers are currently con¬verting to organic production. However, the development of organic trout production in Denmark has been challenged by a very strict national legislation for organic aquaculture production. The objectives of the research include the most critical areas in the chain that forms the link between organic fe...

  2. Comment on 'Water footprint of marine protein consumption—aquaculture's link to agriculture'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Deutsch, L.

    2014-01-01

    In their article ‘Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption’ (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 014005), Gephart and her colleagues analyzed how consumption of marine animal protein rather than terrestrial animal protein leads to reduced freshwater allocation. They concluded that future water

  3. Engineering of tomato for the sustainable production of ketocarotenoids and its evaluation in aquaculture feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marilise; Enfissi, Eugenia M A; Martínez Valenzuela, Maria E; Menard, Guillaume N; Driller, Richard L; Eastmond, Peter J; Schuch, Wolfgang; Sandmann, Gerhard; Fraser, Paul D

    2017-10-10

    Ketocarotenoids are high-value pigments used commercially across multiple industrial sectors as colorants and supplements. Chemical synthesis using petrochemical-derived precursors remains the production method of choice. Aquaculture is an example where ketocarotenoid supplementation of feed is necessary to achieve product viability. The biosynthesis of ketocarotenoids, such as canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, or astaxanthin in plants is rare. In the present study, complex engineering of the carotenoid pathway has been performed to produce high-value ketocarotenoids in tomato fruit (3.0 mg/g dry weight). The strategy adopted involved pathway extension beyond β-carotene through the expression of the β-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ) and oxyxgenase (CrtW) from Brevundimonas sp. in tomato fruit, followed by β-carotene enhancement through the introgression of a lycopene β-cyclase (β-Cyc) allele from a Solanum galapagense background. Detailed biochemical analysis, carried out using chromatographic, UV/VIS, and MS approaches, identified the predominant carotenoid as fatty acid (C14:0 and C16:0) esters of phoenicoxanthin, present in the S stereoisomer configuration. Under a field-like environment with low resource input, scalability was shown with the potential to deliver 23 kg of ketocarotenoid/hectare. To illustrate the potential of this "generally recognized as safe" material with minimal, low-energy bioprocessing, two independent aquaculture trials were performed. The plant-based feeds developed were more efficient than the synthetic feed to color trout flesh (up to twofold increase in the retention of the main ketocarotenoids in the fish fillets). This achievement has the potential to create a new paradigm in the renewable production of economically competitive feed additives for the aquaculture industry and beyond.

  4. Marine-terminating glaciers sustain high productivity in Greenland fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Lorenz; Mortensen, John; Meire, Patrick; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Sejr, Mikael K; Rysgaard, Søren; Nygaard, Rasmus; Huybrechts, Philippe; Meysman, Filip J R

    2017-12-01

    Accelerated mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet leads to glacier retreat and an increasing input of glacial meltwater to the fjords and coastal waters around Greenland. These high latitude ecosystems are highly productive and sustain important fisheries, yet it remains uncertain how they will respond to future changes in the Arctic cryosphere. Here we show that marine-terminating glaciers play a crucial role in sustaining high productivity of the fjord ecosystems. Hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland ice sheet, suggest that marine ecosystem productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by either land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers. Rising subsurface meltwater plumes originating from marine-terminating glaciers entrain large volumes of ambient deep water to the surface. The resulting upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water sustains a high phytoplankton productivity throughout summer in the fjord with marine-terminating glaciers. In contrast, the fjord with only land-terminating glaciers lack this upwelling mechanism, and is characterized by lower productivity. Data on commercial halibut landings support that coastal regions influenced by large marine-terminating glaciers have substantially higher marine productivity. These results suggest that a switch from marine-terminating to land-terminating glaciers can substantially alter the productivity in the coastal zone around Greenland with potentially large ecological and socio-economic implications. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Improving coastal livelihoods through sustainable aquaculture practices – the case of Tubigon, Bohol, Philippines: a report to the collaborative APEC Grouper Research and Development Network

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, R.; Pador, E.; La Torre, M.

    2003-01-01

    This case study is part of STREAM’s four-country research project, which is exploring how recent advances in sustainable aquaculture have helped and can help improve coastal livelihoods and prevent unsustainable fishing practices in reef fisheries. (Pdf contains 65 pages).

  6. Evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Salvador, Sara; Arrojado, Cátia; Silva, Yolanda; Santos, Ana L; Cunha, Angela; Gomes, Newton C M; Gomes, Newton; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-04-01

    The increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. Phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological water quality and disease-causing bacteria were followed in a marine aquaculture system of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Analysis of the bacterial diversity of the water samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments indicates that the bacterial community structure varied seasonally, showing a higher complexity during the warm season. The diversity of the main fish pathogenic bacteria, assessed by DGGE targeting the Vibrio genus, showed lower seasonal variation, with new dominating populations appearing mainly in the spring. Bacterial indicators, faecal coliforms and enterococci, enumerated by the filter-membrane method, also varied seasonally. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) results showed that the specific groups of bacteria varied during the study period and that the non-indigenous Enterobactereaceae family was the most abundant group followed by Vibrio and Aeromonas. The seasonal variation detected in terms of density and structure of total and pathogenic bacterial communities demonstrates the need for a careful monitoring of water through the year in order to select the suitable phages to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. The spring season seems to be the critical time period when phage therapy should be applied.

  7. Aquaculture can promote the presence and spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in marine sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Cesare

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is an expanding activity worldwide. However its rapid growth can affect the aquatic environment through release of large amounts of chemicals, including antibiotics. Moreover, the presence of organic matter and bacteria of different origin can favor gene transfer and recombination. Whereas the consequences of such activities on environmental microbiota are well explored, little is known of their effects on allochthonous and potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as enterococci. Sediments from three sampling stations (two inside and one outside collected in a fish farm in the Adriatic Sea were examined for enterococcal abundance and antibiotic resistance traits using the membrane filter technique and an improved quantitative PCR. Strains were tested for susceptibility to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin; samples were directly screened for selected tetracycline [tet(M, tet(L, tet(O] and macrolide [erm(A, erm(B and mef] resistance genes by newly-developed multiplex PCRs. The abundance of benthic enterococci was higher inside than outside the farm. All isolates were susceptible to the four antimicrobials tested, although direct PCR evidenced tet(M and tet(L in sediment samples from all stations. Direct multiplex PCR of sediment samples cultured in rich broth supplemented with antibiotic (tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin or gentamicin highlighted changes in resistance gene profiles, with amplification of previously undetected tet(O, erm(B and mef genes and an increase in benthic enterococcal abundance after incubation in the presence of ampicillin and gentamicin. Despite being limited to a single farm, these data indicate that aquaculture may influence the abundance and spread of benthic enterococci and that farm sediments can be reservoirs of dormant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including enterococci, which can rapidly revive in presence of new inputs of organic matter. This reservoir may constitute an

  8. INSTITUTIONAL MAPPING TOWARDS DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. M. Yatim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within few years before, the urge to implement the marine spatial planning is due to increasing numbers of marine activities that will lead into uncertainties of rights, restrictions and responsibilities of the maritime nations. Marine authorities in this situation that deal with national rights and legislations are the government institutions that engage with marine spatial information. There are several elements to be considered when dealing with the marine spatial planning; which is institutional sustainability governance. Providing the importance of marine spatial planning towards sustainable marine spatial governance, the focus should highlight the role marine institutions towards sustainable marine plan. The iterative process of marine spatial planning among marine institutions is important as the spatial information governance is scattered from reflected rights, restrictions and responsibilities of marine government institutions. Malaysia is one of the maritime nations that conjures the initial step towards establishing the sustainable marine spatial planning. In order to have sustainable institutions in marine spatial planning process, it involves four main stages; planning phase, plan evaluation phase, implementation phase and post implementation phase. Current situation has witnessed the unclear direction and role of marine government institutions to manage the marine spatial information. This review paper is focusing on the institutional sustainability upon interaction of marine government institutions in the marine spatial planning process based on Institutional Analysis Framework. The outcome of the integration of institutional sustainability and marine spatial planning process will propose a framework of marine institutional sustainable plan.

  9. Marine World Heritage and the Quest for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Zervaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the contribution of marine sites of outstanding universal value, enlisted as natural and mixed sites in the World Heritage List, to the sustainability of marine resources and protection schemes. Departing from the strict application of the Convention’s criteria, the management requirements and good practices will be discussed, with emphasis on the dissemination of the latter in other (nonprotected areas as well as its contribution, in terms of the integrity principle to be met, to the expansion of this approach in areas beyond national jurisdiction through the development of synergies with existing and emerging marine environment protection regimes.

  10. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture... draft national aquaculture policy that supports sustainable aquaculture in the United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to provide a national...

  11. Merchant ships discharging unwanted marine species in close proximity of a French aquaculture area: risks involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Daniel; Thomas, Gerard; Genauzeau, Sylvie; Le Moine, Olivier; Derrien, Annick

    2013-12-15

    The most important oyster farming area in Europe is in a close proximity of two medium size merchant ports. Cargo ships deballast in this area before loading, releasing unwanted or noxious marine species. During a sampling campaign aboard these arriving ships, we found in some ballast water samples a huge number of potentially toxic dinoflagellates and some potentially pathogenic bacteria. A model was applied to find the potential geographical spread of the discharged ballast water. This model predicts the water to reach highly vulnerable shellfish farmed areas in six to eight days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioremediation of aquaculture wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Crooker, Pamela; Obreque-Contreras, Johanna

    2010-06-01

    Environmental impacts of wastes from large-scale, intensive aquaculture are substantial and can lead to complex ecosystem changes. The application of known and new technologies can capture inorganic nitrogen from water and reduce organic enrichment of sediments. Biological methods, including Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture are now gaining interest for increasing in situ removal of nitrogen and other nutrients at sea cage sites. Several studies on biological nitrogen removal through nitrification, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) have been reported and a number of bacterial groups active in this regard have been described. Nevertheless, additional efforts need to be focused on remediation of aquaculture wastewater and marine sediments. Conventional treatment systems have several disadvantages. Development of more efficient reactor systems and a holistic, integrated approach to waste treatment would allow more environmentally balanced aquaculture practices. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aquaculture in the ecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holmer, M; Black, K; Duarte, C.M; Marba, N; Kakakassis, I

    2008-01-01

    ... aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, comparable to the computer technology industry (Chapters 9 and 10). The demand for marine products is controlled by a complexity of factors in our society, not least the increasing human population and the increasing global affluence that allows the consumer to buy higher price...

  14. Hybrid governance of aquaculture: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Joanna; Haward, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    The development of third party assessment and certification of fisheries and aquaculture has provided new forms of governance in sectors that were traditionally dominated by state based regulation. Emerging market based approaches are driven by shareholder expectations as well as commitment to corporate social responsibility, whereas community engagement is increasingly centered on the questions of social license to operate. Third party assessment and certification links state, market and community into an interesting and challenging hybrid form of governance. While civil society organizations have long been active in pursuing sustainable and safe seafood production, the development of formal non-state based certification provides both opportunities and challenges, and opens up interesting debates over hybrid forms of governance. This paper explores these developments in coastal marine resources management, focusing on aquaculture and the development and operation of the Aquaculture Stewardship Council. It examines the case of salmonid aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia, now Australia's most valuable seafood industry, which remains the focus of considerable community debate over its siting, operation and environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Teledetection passive et processus decisionnel a reference spatiale: Application a l'aquaculture en milieu marin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbane, Mohamed

    L'objectif de cette etude est d'elaborer un processus decisionnel a reference spatiale (PDRS) pour la mariculture. Le PDRS est applique aux eaux cotieres de la baie des Chaleurs, dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole, d'une limite de resolution spatiale de 1 kmsp2, est produite avec des parametres du niveau 1. Ces parametres englobent la temperature de l'eau de surface, extraite des images AVHRR, la salinite, les courants ainsi que les pigments chlorophylliens, quantifies a l'aide de mesures in situ. Les images AVHRR, prises en 1994, ont ete utiliees comme reference primaire pour selectionner des aires pouvant supporter une activite maricole sur la cote nord de la baie des Chaleurs. La temperature de surface extraite de ces images permet une analyse mesoechelle a la fois qualitative et quantitative des processus cotiers observes pendant la periode d'acquisition des donnees. Les autres donnees, soit la salinite, les courants et les concentrations en pigments chlorophylliens, sont analysees de facon a identifier la variabilite spatio-temporelle des caracteristiques des eaux de surface. L'ensemble des informations permet de produire une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole de la partie centrale de la baie des Chaleurs. Selon cet indice (defini entre 0 et 1), le secteur de potentiel aquicole de 0,5 a 0,75 s'etend sur une superficie d'environ 300 kmsp2. La localisation de cette aire potentielle est en accord avec les fortes concentrations en pigments chlrophylliens, presentant des conditions environnementales ideales a une haute productivite biologique. Par la suite la carte preliminaire est modifiee en tenant compte des parametres du niveau 2. Ces parametres sont la geomorphologie littorale, la bathymetrie, les sediments en suspension, les vents, les vagues, le debit d'eau douce, la glace marine, le carbone organique dissous, les aires de peche et les sources de pollution. Ces

  16. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M; Hawkins, Julie P; Gell, Fiona R

    2005-01-29

    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it.

  17. Promoting aquaculture in rural Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increased aquaculture productivity and income. • Improved knowledge and information-sharing between aquaculture farmers. • Widespread availability of technical information in local languages. • Creation of a legacy of farmers, particularly women, able to access, share, and apply knowledge about sustainable aquaculture.

  18. Offshore Aquaculture: I Know It When I See It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley E. Froehlich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Offshore aquaculture is increasingly viewed as a mechanism to meet growing protein demand for seafood, while minimizing adverse consequences on the environment and other uses in the oceans. However, despite growing interest in offshore aquaculture, there appears to be no consensus as to what measures commonly define an offshore site or how effects of offshore aquaculture—relative to more nearshore practices—are assessed. This lack of agreement on what constitutes offshore aquaculture has the potential to convolute communication, create uncertainty in regulatory processes, and impede understanding of the ecological implications of offshore farming. To begin addressing these issues, we reviewed and analyzed biologically-focused primary and gray literature (Ntotal = 70 that categorize and quantify characteristics of offshore aquaculture from around the world. We found that many “offshore” descriptions are relatively close to shore (<3 nm and significantly shallower (minimum depth ≤30 m than may be assumed. We also uncovered an overall lack of consistent reporting of even the most common location-focused metrics (distance from shore, depth, current, a dearth of impact related studies (n = 17, and narrow scope of the studies themselves (i.e., 82% nutrient pollution. Of the finite subset of articles that investigated negative ecological impacts of offshore aquaculture, we found the probability of any measurable impact from an offshore farm appears to significantly decrease with distance from the farm (probability of measurable response at 90 m ± SE = 0.01 ± 0.03. Such general, but informative points of reference could be more robustly quantified with better systematic and standardized reporting of physical farm characteristics and a broader scope of ecological investigation into the effects of marine aquaculture. With offshore aquaculture still in its infancy, consistent metrics are needed for a comparable framework to guide sustainable

  19. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  20. [Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

    2011-03-01

    Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province.

  1. Is Our Food Future in the Sea? A Marine Education Infusion Unit on Aquaculture and Sea Farming. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzow, John W.; And Others

    Designed to introduce middle and junior high school teachers and students to aquaculture and sea farming, the information and lessons in this unit focus on the biology, economics, and gastronomics of these fresh and salt water activities. An extensive section containing teacher background information describes how to farm shellfish and finfish,…

  2. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  4. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  5. Nitrosomonas Nm143-like ammonia oxidizers and Nitrospira marina -like nitrite oxidizers dominate the nitrifier community in a marine aquaculture biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foesel, Bärbel U.; Gieseke, Armin; Schwermer, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    with a recirculating marine aquaculture system are presented. Repeated rounds of the full-cycle rRNA approach were necessary to optimize DNA extraction and the probe set for FISH to obtain a reliable and comprehensive picture of the ammonia-oxidizing community. Analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amo......A) confirmed the results. The most abundant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were members of the Nitrosomonas sp. Nm143-lineage (6.7% of the bacterial biovolume), followed by Nitrosomonas marina-like AOB (2.2% of the bacterial biovolume). Both were outnumbered by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the Nitrospira...... marina lineage (15.7% of the bacterial biovolume). Although more than eight other nitrifying populations were detected, including Crenarchaeota closely related to the ammonia-oxidizer ‘Nitrosopumilus maritimus’, their collective abundance was below 1% of the total biofilm volume; their contribution...

  6. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  7. Aquaculture; Acquacoltura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-12-01

    This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

  8. Marine Environmental Awareness among University Students in Taiwan: A Potential Signal for Sustainability of the Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ling; Tsai, Chen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    University students are regarded as future decision-makers in society and have a high likelihood of becoming opinion-shapers in terms of the environment. Their awareness of the marine environment will therefore have a significant effect upon sustainable marine development. This study examines Taiwanese university students' marine environmental…

  9. Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueck, Nils C; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Possingham, Hugh P; Riginos, Cynthia; Treml, Eric A; Mumby, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best). We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%-30% of fished habitats in 1-20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a "rule of thumb" to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% "effective protection" can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%-30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target will benefit

  10. biotechnology in aquaculture: prospects and challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOSEPH

    Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research/African Regional. AquacultureCentre, Buguma, Box 367 Uniport Post Office, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 27.7.10, Accepted 03.6.11) ... process according to (FAO, 2005) has a wide range of useful applications in fisheries and aquaculture. The potential of ...

  11. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-10-17

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

  12. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  13. Aquaculture Thesaurus: Descriptors Used in the National Aquaculture Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, James A.; And Others

    This document provides a listing of descriptors used in the National Aquaculture Information System (NAIS), a computer information storage and retrieval system on marine, brackish, and freshwater organisms. Included are an explanation of how to use the document, subject index terms, and a brief bibliography of the literature used in developing the…

  14. Public Perceptions of Aquaculture: Evaluating Spatiotemporal Patterns of Sentiment around the World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley E Froehlich

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is developing rapidly at a global scale and sustainable practices are an essential part of meeting the protein requirements of the ballooning human population. Locating aquaculture offshore is one strategy that may help address some issues related to nearshore development. However, offshore production is nascent and distinctions between the types of aquatic farming may not be fully understood by the public-important for collaboration, research, and development. Here we evaluate and report, to our knowledge, the first multinational quantification of the relative sentiments and opinions of the public around distinct forms of aquaculture. Using thousands of newspaper headlines (Ntotal = 1,596 from developed (no. countries = 26 and developing (42 nations, ranging over periods of 1984 to 2015, we found an expanding positive trend of general 'aquaculture' coverage, while 'marine' and 'offshore' appeared more negative. Overall, developing regions published proportionally more positive than negative headlines than developed countries. As case studies, government collected public comments (Ntotal = 1,585 from the United States of America (USA and New Zealand mirrored the media sentiments; offshore perception being particularly negative in the USA. We also found public sentiment may be influenced by local environmental disasters not directly related to aquaculture (e.g., oil spills. Both countries voiced concern over environmental impacts, but the concerns tended to be more generalized, rather than targeted issues. Two factors that could be inhibiting informed discussion and decisions about offshore aquaculture are lack of applicable knowledge and actual local development issues. Better communication and investigation of the real versus perceived impacts of aquaculture could aid in clarifying the debate about aquaculture, and help support future sustainable growth.

  15. Public Perceptions of Aquaculture: Evaluating Spatiotemporal Patterns of Sentiment around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Halley E; Gentry, Rebecca R; Rust, Michael B; Grimm, Dietmar; Halpern, Benjamin S

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture is developing rapidly at a global scale and sustainable practices are an essential part of meeting the protein requirements of the ballooning human population. Locating aquaculture offshore is one strategy that may help address some issues related to nearshore development. However, offshore production is nascent and distinctions between the types of aquatic farming may not be fully understood by the public-important for collaboration, research, and development. Here we evaluate and report, to our knowledge, the first multinational quantification of the relative sentiments and opinions of the public around distinct forms of aquaculture. Using thousands of newspaper headlines (Ntotal = 1,596) from developed (no. countries = 26) and developing (42) nations, ranging over periods of 1984 to 2015, we found an expanding positive trend of general 'aquaculture' coverage, while 'marine' and 'offshore' appeared more negative. Overall, developing regions published proportionally more positive than negative headlines than developed countries. As case studies, government collected public comments (Ntotal = 1,585) from the United States of America (USA) and New Zealand mirrored the media sentiments; offshore perception being particularly negative in the USA. We also found public sentiment may be influenced by local environmental disasters not directly related to aquaculture (e.g., oil spills). Both countries voiced concern over environmental impacts, but the concerns tended to be more generalized, rather than targeted issues. Two factors that could be inhibiting informed discussion and decisions about offshore aquaculture are lack of applicable knowledge and actual local development issues. Better communication and investigation of the real versus perceived impacts of aquaculture could aid in clarifying the debate about aquaculture, and help support future sustainable growth.

  16. Research on Customer Satisfaction in Marine Cultural and Sustainable Tourism—A Case Study of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, marine cultural tourism, an emerging tourism mode, has become more and more popular among tourists, and demonstrates broad market prospects. However, Chinese marine cultural tourism is still in the development and growth stage, and the level of customer satisfaction is uneven. The improvement of the customer satisfaction level is conducive to meeting customers’ demands in marine cultural tourism and enhancing the competitiveness of Chinese marine cultural tourism. Based on theoretical research and the practical situation of marine cultural tourism, this paper implements empirical investigation and research into customer satisfaction in marine cultural tourism in Shanghai, China. According to the research results, it proposes improving the level of customer satisfaction in Chinese marine cultural tourism from the perspectives of ocean culture tourism promotion, customer satisfaction evaluation, service level management and environment construction of scenic spots, tourism branding and the marine cultural accomplishments of tourists, so as to promote the sustainable development of marine cultural tourism.

  17. Fishery and Aquaculture Relationship in the Mediterranean: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RELINI

    2003-12-01

    fishery and aquaculture are described for environment, food, juveniles, breeders, discards and market. Special attention is devoted to tuna farming, artificial reef and vallicultura. The response of governments and decision makers to the results and suggestions from marine scientists, proposals for urgent action in order to succeed sustainability and priority marine research areas are briefly described. Some urgent needs are outlined.

  18. Implications of Extracellular Polymeric Substance Matrices of Microbial Habitats Associated with Coastal Aquaculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Camacho-Chab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones support fisheries that provide food for humans and feed for animals. The decline of fisheries worldwide has fostered the development of aquaculture. Recent research has shown that extracellular polymeric substances (EPS synthesized by microorganisms contribute to sustainable aquaculture production, providing feed to the cultured species, removing waste and contributing to the hygiene of closed systems. As ubiquitous components of coastal microbial habitats at the air–seawater and seawater–sediment interfaces as well as of biofilms and microbial aggregates, EPS mediate deleterious processes that affect the performance and productivity of aquaculture facilities, including biofouling of marine cages, bioaccumulation and transport of pollutants. These biomolecules may also contribute to the persistence of harmful algal blooms (HABs and their impact on cultured species. EPS may also exert a positive influence on aquaculture activity by enhancing the settling of aquaculturally valuable larvae and treating wastes in bioflocculation processes. EPS display properties that may have biotechnological applications in the aquaculture industry as antiviral agents and immunostimulants and as a novel source of antifouling bioproducts.

  19. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  20. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: Current status, challenges, and priorities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product qua...

  1. Water Quality Management for Sustainable Aquaculture Production in Mekong delta: A Case Study in Thot Not District, Can Tho Province of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh; NGUYEN Mau, Dung; HO Ngoc, Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Production intensification of semi-intensive and intensive culture system has become a trend in the Mekong delta. However, the practice of these systems by small farm households usually results in water pollution, then placing negative consequences on aquaculture yield and quality. Water quality management is therefore nowadays one of the most important in aquaculture production in the Delta. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the water quality management of aquaculture farm househol...

  2. Lessons from two high CO2 worlds - future oceans and intensive aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert P; Urbina, Mauricio A; Wilson, Rod W

    2017-06-01

    Exponentially rising CO2 (currently ~400 μatm) is driving climate change and causing acidification of both marine and freshwater environments. Physiologists have long known that CO2 directly affects acid-base and ion regulation, respiratory function and aerobic performance in aquatic animals. More recently, many studies have demonstrated that elevated CO2 projected for end of this century (e.g. 800-1000 μatm) can also impact physiology, and have substantial effects on behaviours linked to sensory stimuli (smell, hearing and vision) both having negative implications for fitness and survival. In contrast, the aquaculture industry was farming aquatic animals at CO2 levels that far exceed end-of-century climate change projections (sometimes >10 000 μatm) long before the term 'ocean acidification' was coined, with limited detrimental effects reported. It is therefore vital to understand the reasons behind this apparent discrepancy. Potential explanations include 1) the use of 'control' CO2 levels in aquaculture studies that go beyond 2100 projections in an ocean acidification context; 2) the relatively benign environment in aquaculture (abundant food, disease protection, absence of predators) compared to the wild; 3) aquaculture species having been chosen due to their natural tolerance to the intensive conditions, including CO2 levels; or 4) the breeding of species within intensive aquaculture having further selected traits that confer tolerance to elevated CO2 . We highlight this issue and outline the insights that climate change and aquaculture science can offer for both marine and freshwater settings. Integrating these two fields will stimulate discussion on the direction of future cross-disciplinary research. In doing so, this article aimed to optimize future research efforts and elucidate effective mitigation strategies for managing the negative impacts of elevated CO2 on future aquatic ecosystems and the sustainability of fish and shellfish aquaculture.

  3. Sustainability of marine artisanal fishing as a livelihood and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to assess the livelihoods activities of marine fisher folks and their activities on the environment. Ten marine fishing communities in Lagos State were selected using two stage stratified sampling system. Data were collected from 60 households (50 male headed and 10 female headed households).

  4. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  5. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  6. Informing Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) with numerical modelling: A case-study on shellfish aquaculture in Malpeque Bay (Eastern Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Bacher, Cédric; Comeau, Luc A

    2015-11-15

    A moratorium on further bivalve leasing was established in 1999-2000 in Prince Edward Island (Canada). Recently, a marine spatial planning process was initiated explore potential mussel culture expansion in Malpeque Bay. This study focuses on the effects of a projected expansion scenario on productivity of existing leases and available suspended food resources. The aim is to provide a robust scientific assessment using available datasets and three modelling approaches ranging in complexity: (1) a connectivity analysis among culture areas; (2) a scenario analysis of organic seston dynamics based on a simplified biogeochemical model; and (3) a scenario analysis of phytoplankton dynamics based on an ecosystem model. These complementary approaches suggest (1) new leases can affect existing culture both through direct connectivity and through bay-scale effects driven by the overall increase in mussel biomass, and (2) a net reduction of phytoplankton within the bounds of its natural variation in the area. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, N; Sugden, H; Firth, L B; Hawkins, S J

    2014-09-28

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  9. The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program: Sustaining the Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    sage wisdom and guidance. His influence largely framed the direction of my paper. LtCol George Bristol, USMC and MGySgt Cardo Urso , USMC for working...of MGySgt Cardo Urso , a review of the LINE system was conducted in order to develop a more comprehensive Marine Corps Close Combat System by...184 As MGySgt Cardo Urso once stated, “[w]e want ethical warriors. The way a Marine should feel is, when you walk into a room, everybody in the room

  10. Analysis of Successful Strategy to Develop Sustainable Marine Ecotourism in Gili Bawean Island, Gresik, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardani, M. P.; Fahrudin, A.; Yulianda, F.

    2017-10-01

    The sustainability of resources and marine ecotourism in Gili Bawean Island is still developing to the current day. The management is conducted individualistically and is currently far away from being integrated and sustainable. It is important that stakeholders understand the island’s condition and the urgency of coastal resources, to determine collective action, which leads to sustainable ecotourism on the island. This research aimed to discover stakeholders’ involvement in determining key variables and formulate a strategy of marine ecotourism development based on possible future scenarios in Gili Bawean Island, Gresik Regency, East Java. The field study was done through an expert meeting of stakeholder representatives on March–April 2017. The data was analyzed using Participatory Prospective Analysis (PPA), a comprehensive and quick framework, which was designed to demand requests in structural anticipation and exploration and also to focus on interaction and consensus among stakeholders. The results of this research show that five main variables should be emphasized in developing marine ecotourism on the island, including tourist activities, institutions, and economic activities, as well as the quality of human and natural resources. Counting heavily on those variables, it is hoped to create an integrated marine ecotourism development. Coordination among stakeholders can be declared successful when the tourist objects are managed better, and the quality of tourist destinations and the number of tourist visits increase noticeably. Good governance of marine ecotourism contributes to increments in tourist amenities, boosts the welfare of local communities, and secures sustainability of local natural resources.

  11. Avaliação da sustentabilidade ambiental do uso de esgoto doméstico tratado na piscicultura Environmental sustainability evaluation of the treated sewage use in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Soares dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a sustentabilidade ambiental do uso de esgoto doméstico tratado na piscicultura por meio do Índice de Sustentabilidade Ambiental para Reúso em Piscicultura (ISA RP, do Índice de Qualidade de Água para Reúso em Piscicultura (IQA RP e do custo ambiental (entropia. Observou-se, por meio do custo ambiental, que a piscicultura convencional causou a deterioração da qualidade da água que foi utilizada. Constatou-se que o sistema de piscicultura utilizando esgoto tratado, sem usar aeração, não causou efeito deletério significante à qualidade da água de reúso (efluente da estação de tratamento de esgoto - ETE. O sistema de piscicultura usando esgoto tratado, com aeração, resultou na melhoria de sua qualidade, quando comparado com o efluente da estação de tratamento, significando que essa prática resultou em um polimento no líquido utilizado. Ambos os sistemas de reúso de águas mostraram-se ambientalmente sustentáveis, o que indica a potencialidade do uso de esgoto doméstico tratado como fonte de água e alimento natural para a piscicultura.This work aimed to evaluate the environmental sustainability of the treated sewage reuse on aquaculture by using the Environmental Sustainability Index of Aquaculture Reuse (ESI AR, Water Quality Index of Aquaculture Reuse (WQI AR and environmental cost (entropy. For conventional aquaculture, a water quality deterioration of the fish tanks was observed by the environmental cost. When treated sewage was used in tanks without external aeration, it was not verified a remarkable water quality deterioration. However, for the tanks externally aerated and fed with treated sewage there was a water quality improvement, in other words a polishing step was taking place. All the systems analyzed showed to be environmentally sustainable, which indicates that the treated sewage can be considered a good water source for aquaculture.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stocking densities in places with limited land, fresh water and man power. ... grove forests, which provide habitat for several marine and estuarine species. ..... of cultured Florida apple snails, Pomacea paludosa. Aquaculture 311: 139 –145.

  13. All about Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Michael J.; Patterson, B. Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Describes a sequence of activities in which students set up a classroom aquarium to learn about aquaculture. Discusses the aquarium system, filtration and maintenance, adding organisms to the system, technological considerations, aquaculture economics, and political and social aspects of aquaculture. (MDH)

  14. Developing INFOMAR's Seabed Mapping Data to Support a Sustainable Marine Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M. T.; Guinan, J.

    2016-02-01

    As Ireland's national seabed mapping programme, INFOMAR1 (INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Ireland's MARine resource) enters its eleventh year it continues to provide pivotal seabed mapping data products, e.g. databases, charts and physical habitat maps to support Ireland's Integrated Marine Plan. The programme, jointly coordinated by the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute, has gained a world class reputation for developing seabed mapping technologies, infrastructure and expertise. In the government's current Integrated Marine Plan, the programme's critical role in marine spatial planning enabling infrastructural development, research and education has been cited2. INFOMAR's free data policy supports a thriving maritime economy by promoting easy access to seabed mapping datasets that underpin; maritime safety, security and surveillance, governance, business development, research and technology innovation and infrastructure. The first hydrographic surveys of the national marine mapping programme mapped the extent of Ireland's deepest offshore area, whilst in recent years the focus has been to map the coastal and shallow areas. Targeted coastal areas include 26 bays and 3 priority areas for which specialised equipment, techniques and vessels are required. This talk will discuss how the INFOMAR programme has evolved to address the scientific and technological challenges of seabed mapping across a range of water depths; particularly the challenges associated with addressing inshore data gaps. It will describe how the data converts to bathymetric and geological maps detailing seabed characteristics and habitats. We will expand on how maps are: incorporated into collaborative marine projects such as EMODnet, commercialised to identify marine resources and used as marine decision support tools that drive policy and promote protection of the vastly under discovered marine area.

  15. THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture provided 31.7% of the world needs for aquatic products. The total production and industrialization of aquaculture will continue. Planning of aquaculture development in Croatia and the preparations for joining the European Economic Community must take into account the status of aquaculture and trends in the world, the common fishery policy of EEC (green document, the production in EEC member states and EEC–candidate states and especially the production in neighboring countries. The number, the size and the strength of organizational structures helping the development of aquaculture in EEC are showing these factors to be of decisive importance for the future of sustainable aquaculture in Croatia, too. The very low fish consumption in the country is a negative health factor for the Croatian citizens and it emphasizes the importance of faster development of aquaculture. The paper is intended to stimulate improvements in the aquaculture development strategy, to promote more positive approach towards this food production sector and to speed up its successfulness in Croatia.

  16. Trans-Disciplinary Education for Sustainable Marine and Coastal Management: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effect of a trans-disciplinary design of curricula, deemed a powerful tool for teaching and research on complex environmental problems, with a goal to help solve the real problems that climate change has brought to the coastal environment in Taiwan. Three major real-life problems in southern Taiwan—declining mullet fisheries, flooding, and coral bleaching—were integrated into four courses. Adopting a qualitative case study method, the researchers investigated the student perceptions of the trans-disciplinary learning experiences, their attitudes toward marine and coastal environmental protection, and their capability of solving the problems related to marine and coastal environments. The researchers employed various methods to analyze the student reflection reports, student self-evaluation forms, and the tape-recorded class meetings. The findings suggest the following: the trans-disciplinary curriculum stands to be an innovative yet indispensable design for coastal management education; such a curriculum benefits students by equipping them with essential knowledge and skills to succeed in future marine conservation; action learning for marine and coastal sustainability serves as the final goal of trans-disciplinary learning project; a trans-disciplinary case study on the design of curricula provides effective knowledge integration of marine and coastal sustainability.

  17. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Risk Management Practices. Briefs. Aquaculture and Climate. Journal articles. River-based cage aquaculture of tilapia in Northern Thailand : sustainability of rearing and business practices. Journal articles. Learning about climate-related risks: decisions of Northern Thailand fish farmers in a role-playing simulation game ...

  18. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  19. What shapes food value chains? Lessons from aquaculture in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, I; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive role...... and private standards. We find that the most sophisticated aquaculture operations in Asia are found in value chains led by retailers and branded processors and where the quality of domestic institutional frameworks has facilitated compliance with increasing demands from buyers overseas. Finally, we reflect...... on the sustainability challenges of aquaculture and provide four broad observations on the governance of food value chains....

  20. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  1. Reproduction of European Eel in Aquaculture (REEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne

    Project aim: Enhance methods and technology applied to produce and culture European eel larvae as basis for the development of a future self-sustained eel aquaculture. Background: The severe decline of the European eel stock calls for conservation measures including national eel management plans...... and establishment of a self-sustained eel aquaculture. In 2005, the National Institute of Aquatic Resources at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua), the Faculty of Life Sciences at Copenhagen University (KU-Life) and the eel aquaculture industry started to build up a research and technology platform...... feeding. The results were in particular promising because they evidenced that methods successfully applied to Japanese eel has a potential for application also to the European eel. ROE II and III were supported by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and the European Commission through...

  2. The Impact of Marine Park Gazettement to Local Community Sustainable Livelihoods: A Case Study of Redang and Tioman Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Norlida Hanim, Mohd Salleh; Redzuan, Othman; Nurul Fahana Aini, Harun

    2010-01-01

    In order to protect and conserve the threatened and endangered marine life, the government has gazetted a total of 40 islands as marine parks. With the gazettement, all activities that disrupt the stability of marine’s eco-system are prohibited. These prohibited activities include fishing, the locals’ main source of income. Thus, what about the locals’ livelihoods post- gazettement? This research is to analyze the livelihood sustainability of the locals at the Pulau Tioman Marine Park (TIMP) ...

  3. Génétique moléculaire et aquaculture : perspectives et exemple d'application sur les microalgues marines

    OpenAIRE

    DEVAUCHELLE, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    La révolution des techniques utilisées en biologie cellulaire ces vingt dernières années donnent une conception nouvelle et évolutive du fonctionnement et de l'architecture de la cellule. L'intégration de ces données est indispensable au travail du biologiste attaché au développement, de l'aquaculture, comme à celui de tout autre biologiste. L'utilisation des nouvelles techniques n'est toutefois pas nécessaire à toutes les recherches. La biologie moléculaire et cellulaire a ses domaines de pr...

  4. Fisheries And Aquaculture Resources And Their Interactions With Environment in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, H.

    2003-04-01

    Turkey, with 8333 km of coast line, 151 080 sq. km economic sea area, many rivers with 177 714 total length, nearly, 1 million ha of natural lakes, 500 000 ha of dam reservoirs has rich marine and inland aquatic resource potential. Despite of these large resources, Turkish fisheries has the characteristics of small-scale fisheries and in general it can be considered as coastal fisheries. There is also great potential for inland fisheries and aquaculture. Being in half closed position, these seas have different characteristics in respect of biological, physical, chemical and ecological points. In addition; Turkey has favourable geographic position between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, this potential seems not to be fully utilised and therefore fisheries is not a major sector in the economy. According to the statistics of the fisheries for 2000 published by the Turkish government, Turkey's total fisheries production was 582.376 tons. Total catch consists sea fish (441 690 tons, crustaceans and molluscs (18 831 tons), freshwater fish (42.824 tons) and aquaculture (79. 031 tons). The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) is the Ministry responsible for the overall fisheries and aquaculture development, administration, regulation, promotion and technical assistance. In the past two decades, marine fish farming using net cages has developed in the coastal waters throughout Turkey. Such fish farming has allowed the production of large amounts of valuable fish and their supply to the internal and external markets on a regular basis. However, fish farming is sometimes fallowed by organic pollution of the water and bottom sediment in the vicinity of the cages. A comprehensive land and coastal planning survey of almost the whole coast of Turkey is currently being conducted. This master plan designates areas to be developed for forestry, agriculture, industry, urbanisation, environmentally protected areas, etc. The plan was undertaken before the

  5. Pesquisa em rede em aquicultura: bases tecnológicas para o desenvolvimento sustentável da aqüicultura no Brasil. Aquabrasil Research in network in aquaculture: technological basis for sustainable development of aquaculture in Brazil. Aquabrasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Kawakami de Resende

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O projeto Aquabrasil pretende promover um salto tecnológico na aqüicultura brasileira ao atender às principais demandas da cadeia produtiva aquícola, especialmente na obtenção de alevinos de boa qualidade via melhoramento genético. Utilizando alevinos geneticamente melhorados, com manejo e gestão ambiental associado a boas práticas de manejo, oferecendo alimentos nutricionalmente balanceados, em consonância com os hábitos alimentares de cada espécie e promovendo a identificação e o controle sanitário será possível produzir matéria prima de alta qualidade, passível de processamento agroindustrial capaz de atender tanto ao mercado interno como externo. Participam do projeto Aquabrasil mais de 70 pesquisadores pertencentes a onze unidades de pesquisa da Embrapa e uma série de unidades estaduais e federais, órgãos de pesquisa estaduais e uma série de empresas privadas. Na sua gestão conta com um Conselho Consultivo, formado por órgãos governamentais afetos ao assunto e com a participação da iniciativa privada. A árvore hiperbólica, sistema desenvolvido pela Embrapa, possibilita a gestão do projeto em tempo real.The project aims at giving a technological upgrade to Brazilian aquaculture to attend the demands of the productive chain. The research focus in obtaining genetically improved fishes; in developing environmental friendly feeds of high zootechnical performance; and in implementing the integrated sanitary control in production systems. The adoption of "Best Management Practices" (BPMs in aqualcuture systems will assure the production of good quality fishes and shrimps with higher market prices. The AQUABRASIL project involves more than 70 researchers of eleven different Embrapa research units spread over all the country, national and international research institutes and professors from several public and private universities. An Advisory Council with members from public financial institutions and private sector

  6. Aquaculture in mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    A general account of aquaculture of India in mangrove environment has been discussed. In-spite of being a none-too-tidal aquaculture site, the estuaries and backwaters fringEd. by mangrove vegetation have long been used for rearing and fattening...

  7. Aquaculture and the utilisation of plant wastes in fish feeds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available The growing aquaculture industry uses fish diets containing fishmeal as the main protein source. As part of the global drive to replace fishmeal with a more reliable, sustainable and cost-effective protein source, CSIR Biosciences investigated...

  8. Synthesis of knowledge on marine biodiversity in European Seas: from census to sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within

  9. Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

    2013-01-01

    The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within

  10. NALYSIS OF ROMANIAN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE IN REGIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela\tNECULITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration in European Union assumes obtaining certain benefits. Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Employment in the sector has grown faster than the world’s population, providing jobs and supports the livelihoods of hundreds of millions. Fish continues to be one of the most- traded food commodities worldwide being very important for developing countries. However, productivity gains in fisheries do not always imply long-term increases in supply. Developing countries are continuing their efforts to clarify the linkage between development activities and sustainable resource use. Both population and economic growth are putting enormous additional pressures on inland and marine fisheries resources as contributors to food security and providers of a social safety net. At the same time, the use of domestic fisheries to generate foreign exchange is exacerbating allocation issues between artisan and industrial fleets. The actual fisheries legislation was influence by social, economic and environmental considerations. The paper proposes an integrated analysis of Romanian situation by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions. Fisheries in general and aquaculture sector in particular could be regarded as an advantage for Romania in the European competition. The main problem of the Romanian fisheries is its unsatisfactory competitiveness both regarding the domestic and European market.

  11. Potential antifouling strategies for marine finfish aquaculture: the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the settlement and survival of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Jana; Fitridge, Isla; Misimi, Ekrem

    2011-10-01

    The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is a common fouling organism on aquaculture nets. To contribute to the development of novel cleaning methods, laboratory and field studies determined the effects of heat (30, 40, 50 and 60°C for immersion times of 1 and 3 s) and acetic acid (0.2 and 2.0% for immersion times of 1, 3 and 10 s, 1 and 5 min) on the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult E. larynx. Laboratory studies showed that, regardless of immersion time, a temperature of 50°C was effective in preventing the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juveniles, while ≤12% of adult hydroids could survive. A temperature of 60°C killed all adult hydroids. For an acetic acid concentration of 0.2%, an immersion time of 1 min substantially reduced the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids, and none of the juvenile and adult hydroids survived after 5 min. For an acetic acid concentration of 2.0%, all immersion times were effective and reduced the mean settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids to ≤10%. Field studies with fouled net panels exposed to selected heat or acetic acid treatments showed small reductions in mean wet weight and net aperture occlusion of the net panels 2 and 5 days after treatment. Visual inspections of the net panels showed that hydranths of the hydroids were shed, but the dead stolons of the hydroids remained on the treated net panels. Novel cleaning methods and devices may utilise these results to effectively kill E. larynx on aquaculture nets, while further studies are needed to determine the necessity of removing the dead hydroids before further biofouling accumulates on the nets.

  12. Science Partnerships for a Sustainable Arctic: the Marine Mammal Nexus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Marine mammals are both icons of Arctic marine ecosystems and fundamental to Native subsistence nutrition and culture. Eight species are endemic to the Pacific Arctic, including the polar bear, walrus, ice seals (4 species), beluga and bowhead whales. Studies of walrus and bowheads have been conducted over the past 30 years, to estimate population size and elucidate patterns of movement and abundance. With regard to the three pillars of the SEARCH program, these long-term OBSERVATIONS provide a foundation for research seeking to UNDERSTAND and RESPOND to the effects of rapid climate change on the marine ecosystem. Specifically, research on the coastal ecosystem near Barrow, Alaska focuses on late-summer feeding habitat for bowheads in an area where whales are hunted in autumn. This work is a partnership among agency, academic and local scientists and the residents of Barrow, all of whom seek to better UNDERSTAND how recent dramatic changes in sea ice, winds and offshore industrial activities influence whale movements and behavior. In regard to RESPONDING to climate change, the nascent Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook (SIWO) is a science partnership that projects sea ice and wind conditions for five villages in the Bering Strait region. The objective of the SIWO is to provide information on physical conditions in the marine environment at spatial and temporal scales relevant to walrus hunters. Marine mammals are a strong and dynamic nexus for partnerships among scientists, Arctic residents, resource managers and the general public - as such, they are essential elements to any science plan for a sustainable Arctic.

  13. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

  14. Aquaculture as a part of a multi-use platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Svenstrup Petersen, Ole; Aarup Ahrensberg, Nick

    2014-01-01

    aquaculture. These developments urgently require effective marine technology and governance solutions to facilitate installation, operation and maintenance of these novel offshore activities. Simultaneously, both economic costs and environmental impact have to remain within acceptable limits, in order...... to increase the feasibility of the use of ocean space. Aquaculture can play an important role in the multi-use of ocean space. This idea is tested on four different sites around Europe, where this paper focus on the one in the Baltic Sea....

  15. The role of social marketing, marine turtles and sustainable tourism in reducing plastic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Lynne; Hamann, Mark; Low, David R

    2016-06-15

    Environmental plastic pollution constitutes a significant hazard to marine turtles, human health and well-being. We describe a transdisciplinary approach to draw together findings from diverse disciplines in order to highlight key environmental pollution problems and their consequences, together with social marketing-based strategies to address the problems. The example of plastic pollution and impacts to marine turtles illustrates the severity of the problem. Wildlife tourism and sustainable tourism activity have not focussed on specific behaviours to change and have had minimal impact on subsequent human behaviour regarding environmental issues, indicating the need for new strategies. Social marketing principles offer promise, but there is a need to investigate the utility of various theoretical foundations to aid the design and implementation of interventions. We offer insight towards using sophisticated multi-method research to develop insights into behaviours and segmentation-based strategies, that can aid the identification of barriers to, and enablers of, sustained behaviour change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Impact of marine reserve on maximum sustainable yield in a traditional prey-predator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Prosenjit; Kar, T. K.; Ghorai, Abhijit

    2018-01-01

    Multispecies fisheries management requires managers to consider the impact of fishing activities on several species as fishing impacts both targeted and non-targeted species directly or indirectly in several ways. The intended goal of traditional fisheries management is to achieve maximum sustainable yield (MSY) from the targeted species, which on many occasions affect the targeted species as well as the entire ecosystem. Marine reserves are often acclaimed as the marine ecosystem management tool. Few attempts have been made to generalize the ecological effects of marine reserve on MSY policy. We examine here how MSY and population level in a prey-predator system are affected by the low, medium and high reserve size under different possible scenarios. Our simulation works shows that low reserve area, the value of MSY for prey exploitation is maximum when both prey and predator species have fast movement rate. For medium reserve size, our analysis revealed that the maximum value of MSY for prey exploitation is obtained when prey population has fast movement rate and predator population has slow movement rate. For high reserve area, the maximum value of MSY for prey's exploitation is very low compared to the maximum value of MSY for prey's exploitation in case of low and medium reserve. On the other hand, for low and medium reserve area, MSY for predator exploitation is maximum when both the species have fast movement rate.

  17. Sustaining Rare Marine Microorganisms: Macroorganisms As Repositories and Dispersal Agents of Microbial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Troussellier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent analyses revealed that most of the biodiversity observed in marine microbial communities is represented by organisms with low abundance but, nonetheless essential for ecosystem dynamics and processes across both temporal and spatial scales. Surprisingly, few studies have considered the effect of macroorganism–microbe interactions on the ecology and distribution dynamics of rare microbial taxa. In this review, we synthesize several lines of evidence that these relationships cannot be neglected any longer. First, we provide empirical support that the microbiota of macroorganisms represents a significant part of marine bacterial biodiversity and that host-microbe interactions benefit to certain microbial populations which are part of the rare biosphere (i.e., opportunistic copiotrophic organisms. Second, we reveal the major role that macroorganisms may have on the dispersal and the geographic distribution of microbes. Third, we introduce an innovative and integrated view of the interactions between microbes and macroorganisms, namely sustaining the rares, which suggests that macroorganisms favor the maintenance of marine microbial diversity and are involved in the regulation of its richness and dynamics. Finally, we show how this hypothesis complements existing theories in microbial ecology and offers new perspectives about the importance of macroorganisms for the microbial biosphere, particularly the rare members.

  18. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bestha Lakshmi; Buddolla Viswanath; D. V. R. Sai Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are ch...

  19. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-02-20

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species.

  20. From science to policy; A road map for a sustainable resource management in Turkey's marine EEZs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazihan, A.; Salihoglu, B.; Akoglu, E.; Oguz, T.

    2016-02-01

    This study provides a scientific base for Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management (EBFM) decisions for Turkey's exclusive economic zones in the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. For this aim, an interdisciplinary holistic approach is employed to explore the linkages and feedbacks between changing national societal and economic needs, managerial decisions, environmental pressures and the health of regional marine ecosystems through derived socioeconomic and ecological indicators from statistical and field data as well as Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) model results. Results quantified the level of human induced pressures driven by increasing societal and economic demands due to human population increase, national economic crises and corresponded governmental subsidies. Cumulative effects of these pressures together with changing climatic conditions deteriorated the marine resources and, as a consequence, limited the socio-economic services provided by ecosystems (e.g. nation-wide decreases in weight (-47%) and value (-37%) of landings, economic profitability (-61%) and per capita fish consumption (-29%) over the last decade). Even though the pressures increased correspondingly in all the marine regions, their consequences in the regional marine ecosystems realized differently. Observed trends in socioeconomic and ecologic indicators and past and future model scenario simulations done by Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) model provided region-specific optimum EBFM options. Research results were synthesized specific to each responsible stakeholder groups and communicated by means of regional stakeholder meetings, project web-side, social and national media and scientific platforms. Present study is expected to increase the stakeholders' awareness for sustainable, responsible resource co-management and will be integrated into decision-making processes and serve as a model case study. This is a contribution funded by TUBITAK (113Y040 DEKOYON Project).

  1. Sustaining coupled social-ecological marine systems in Mexico's Gulf of California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, H.

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecosystems provide many benefits to people, including food, protection from coastal storms, and places for recreation and spiritual renewal. These benefits are threatened by human impacts at multiple scales, including fisheries over-exploitation and global climatic change. More solutions-oriented knowledge of the connections between people and nature is urgently needed. I will discuss the approach my collaborators and I have developed to investigate the connections between people and marine ecosystems in the context of the small-scale fisheries of Mexico's Gulf of California. To illustrate the value of this coupled systems approach, I will present findings from two geographic scales. First, using a coupled bio-economic model based on several communities in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur (BCS), I will show how fishers' decisions are influenced by both climatic and institutional variation, and the consequences of these interactions for economic and ecological outcomes associated with fishing. Second, I will place these local-scale results in a broader context. Drawing on both natural and social science theory and data, I will show how environmental and institutional factors related to sustainability vary substantially throughout BCS. Fishing communities that exhibit greater potential for social-ecological sustainability in one dimension do not necessarily exhibit it in others. These results highlight the importance of integrative, coupled system analyses when implementing spatial planning and other ecosystem-based strategies and yield an understanding of the sustainability of coupled social-ecological systems that is quite distinct from that provided by either biophysical or social sciences alone.

  2. Technical and mapping support for marine spatial planning: Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Menza , Charles; Battista, Tim; Dorfman, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Washington depends on a healthy coastal and marine ecosystem to maintain a thriving economy and vibrant communities. These ecosystems support critical habitats for wildlife and a growing number of often competing ocean activities, such as fishing, transportation, aquaculture, recreation, and energy production. Planners, policy makers and resource managers are being challenged to sustainably balance ocean uses, and environmental conservation in a finite space and with limited information. This...

  3. Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortega, Armando

    2009-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed.

  4. Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010'. Exploration of the usefulness of the Marine Trophic Index (MTI) as an indicator for sustainability of marine fisheries in the Dutch part of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey-Hofstede, F.E.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Marine Trophic Index (MTI) is proposed by the CBD as an indicator for sustainable fisheries and ecosystem integrity. This report explores the usefulness of the Marine Trophic Index (MTI) as an indicator for sustainable fisheries and ecosystem integrity for the Dutch situation

  5. THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.

  6. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  7. Sustainable use of marine resources through offshore wind and mussel farm co-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Tullio, Giacomo R.; Mariani, Patrizio; Benassai, Guido

    2018-01-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) can offer significant benefits in terms of economic conservation strategies, optimizing spatial planning and minimizing the impact on the environment. In this paper, we focused on the application of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique for co-locating offshore...... wind farms and open-water mussel cultivation. An index of co-location sustainability (SI) was developed based on the application of MCE technique constructed with physical and biological parameters on the basis of remote-sensing data. The relevant physical factors considered were wind velocity, depth...... range, concerning the site location for energy production, and sea surface temperature anomaly. The biological variables used were Chlorofill-a (as a measurement of the productivity) and Particle Organic Carbon(POC) concentration, in order to assess their influence on the probable benefits and complete...

  8. Nutrients valorisation via duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The treatment system was efficiënt in organic matter removal during the entire year, while nitrogen, phosphorus and faecal coliform removal were negatively affected by the decline in temperature in winter...

  9. Assessing benthic ecological impacts of bottom aquaculture using macrofaunal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Fan, Ying; Yan, Cunjun; Gao, Chunzi; Xu, Zhaodong; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2017-01-15

    Bottom aquaculture of bivalves is a high-yield culture method, which is increasingly adopted by shellfish farmers worldwide. However, the effects of bottom aquaculture on benthic ecosystems are not well-known. Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), is a widely distributed bottom aquaculture mollusk species. To assess the ecological impacts of Manila clam bottom aquaculture, clams and other macrofaunal assemblages were investigated during four cruises (July and November 2011, February and May 2012) at six sampling sites in Jiaozhou Bay, China. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages had significant negative correlations with the abundance of Manila clams. However, according to the results of several biotic indices, a low disturbance was detected by Manila clam bottom aquaculture. In conclusion, AMBI (AZTI'S Marine Biotic Index) and M-AMBI (Multivariate AZTI Marine Biotic Index) indices are more suitable for assessing ecological quality than polychaete/amphipod ratios when the disturbance is slight, such as at a bivalve bottom aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aquaculture report 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-04-08

    Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

  11. transformation of aquaculture from subsistence to commercial level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAMALDEEN

    LEVEL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGER DELTA REGION OF. NIGERIA. *. 1. AKINROTIMI, O. A. 2 ... institutions for sustainable development of the region in particular and the country in general. Key Words: Aquaculture .... for fish especially in homes, hotel, and restaurants. Hence the need to invest heavily in ...

  12. Microalgae for aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the project ‘Zeeuwse Tong’ (Zeeland Sole) was founded with support of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands. The aim of the Zeeuwse Tong project was to establish an innovative land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture sector, which is producing sole, ragworms, algae, shellfish and

  13. Safety in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  14. Aquaculture. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan S.

    This color-coded guide was developed to assist teachers in helping interested students plan, build, stock, and run aquaculture facilities of varied sizes. The guide contains 15 instructional units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, instructor supplements,…

  15. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  16. The future of aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish is now the largest source of animal protein in the world, with aquaculture contributing more than half the world’s seafood supply. The world needs to produce significantly more fish in the future to meet the demands of a growing and increasingly affluent global population. Capture fisheries ar...

  17. Molecular genetics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Di Stasio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in molecular genetics have deeply changed the way of doing research in aquaculture, as it has already done in other fields. The molecular revolution started in the 1980’s, thanks to the widespread use of restriction enzymes and Polymerase Chain Reaction technology, which makes it possible to easily detect the genetic variability directly at the DNA level. In aquaculture, the molecular data are used for several purposes, which can be clustered into two main groups. The first one, focused on individuals, includes the sex identification and parentage assignment, while the second one, focused on populations, includes the wide area of the genetic characterization, aimed at solving taxonomic uncertainties, preserving genetic biodiversity and detecting genetic tags. For the future, the increase in the number of molecular markers and the construction of high density genetic maps, as well as the implementation of genomic resources (including genome sequencing, are expected to provide tools for the genetic improvement of aquaculture species through Marked Assisted Selection. In this review the characteristics of different types of molecular markers, along with their applications to a variety of aquaculture issues are presented.

  18. Alternatives to antibiotics to control bacterial infections: luminescent vibriosis in aquaculture as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2007-10-01

    The massive (mis)use of antibiotics to control infections in aquaculture has resulted in the development of resistant strains, which have rendered antibiotic treatments ineffective. Moreover, the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants to human pathogens and the presence of antibiotic residues in aquaculture products for human consumption constitute important threats to public health. Therefore, to make the aquaculture industry more sustainable, new strategies to control infections are urgently needed.

  19. Ecosystem-based approach to aquaculture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick White

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits which, when exceeded, can affect major system restructuring. Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible. Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three main objectives: conservation, sustainable use, and a fair and equitable sharing of the benefits and use of the natural resources. Aquaculture development needs to be within the carrying capacity of the water resource so that it is sustainable and does not greatly impact the environment. The determination of the carrying capacity needs to be science-based. The planning of development in ecosystems has been done for freshwater ecosystems within the PAMB (Protected Area Management Board framework, but in many cases this does not give the correct significance to the impact of aquaculture on the water resources in the ecosystem. It also needs to be extended to river basins and estuaries, brackishwater areas, and inland bays, and seas. The planning and management of aquaculture needs to be undertaken at the local government unit (LGU level in a coordinated manner by all the LGUs that have a part of the water resource. The co-management of aquaculture, in terms of monitoring of the environment, monitoring of production, and monitoring of licenses, needs to be funded out of license fees and non-compliance fines collected by the LGUs. A number of these management activities need to be undertaken jointly (monitoring the environment and others separately but in a coordinated manner (e.g., checking licenses and checking compliance.

  20. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  1. Coral aquaculture: applying scientific knowledge to ex situ production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Petersen, D.; Osinga, R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral aquaculture is an activity of growing interest due to the degradation of coral reefs worldwide and concomitant growing demand for corals by three industries: marine ornamental trade, pharmaceutical industry and reef restoration. Although captive breeding and propagation of corals is a

  2. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  3. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  4. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental impact of non-certified versus certified (ASC) intensive Pangasius aquaculture in Vietnam, a comparison based on a statistically supported LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu, Trang T; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Henriksson, Patrik J G; Bosma, Roel; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-12-01

    Pangasius production in Vietnam is widely known as a success story in aquaculture, the fastest growing global food system because of its tremendous expansion by volume, value and the number of international markets to which Pangasius has been exported in recent years. While certification schemes are becoming significant features of international fish trade and marketing, an increasing number of Pangasius producers have followed at least one of the certification schemes recognised by international markets to incorporate environmental and social sustainability practices in aquaculture, typically the Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) scheme certified by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC). An assessment of the environmental benefit of applying certification schemes on Pangasius production, however, is still needed. This article compared the environmental impact of ASC-certified versus non-ASC certified intensive Pangasius aquaculture, using a statistically supported LCA. We focused on both resource-related (water, land and total resources) and emissions-related (global warming, acidification, freshwater and marine eutrophication) categories. The ASC certification scheme was shown to be a good approach for determining adequate environmental sustainability, especially concerning emissions-related categories, in Pangasius production. However, the non-ASC certified farms, due to the large spread, the impact (e.g., water resources and freshwater eutrophication) was possibly lower for a certain farm. However, this result was not generally prominent. Further improvements in intensive Pangasius production to inspire certification schemes are proposed, e.g., making the implementation of certification schemes more affordable, well-oriented and facilitated; reducing consumed feed amounts and of the incorporated share in fishmeal, especially domestic fishmeal, etc. However, their implementation should be vetted with key stakeholders to assess their feasibility. Copyright

  6. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous g...... nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics.......Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous...... of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological...

  7. ‘Halophyte filters’: the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already overexploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through

  8. Peracetic acid is an optimal disinfectant for fish-microalgae integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture is a promising direction for the sustainable development of aquaculture. Instead of releasing nutrition-rich waste to the environment or decomposition of nutrients via the biofilter, the ‘waste’ from fish can be recycled to produce byproducts (e.g., algae, plants...

  9. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  10. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar and R. K. Umesha Department of Fishery Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, College of Fisheries, Mangalore-575 002, India Introduction Aquaculture is one of the fastest... growing food production sectors in the world (Subasinghe et al. 1998). According to FAO statistics, over 80% of fish produced by aquaculture comes from Asia, with the production valued at $ 38.855 billion (FAO, 1996). However, disease outbreaks have caused...

  11. The ecological role of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the estuarine environment: A review with application to oyster and clam culture in West Coast (USA) estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture is viewed as a potential mechanism to meet the growing demand for seafood around the world. The future of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the U.S. hinges on sustainable practices on the part of industry and a more consistent regulatory regime. Bivalve shellfish aquaculture is a recent...

  12. Growth - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  13. Lipid composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  14. Chemical composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  15. Studies on Charges for Sea Area Utilization Management and Its Effect on the Sustainable Development of Marine Economy in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine economy plays an important role in the growth of the global economy. With its continuous development in the past years, the driving roll of marine economy in China’s economy has become remarkable. It is of strategic significance for China’s economic sustainable development to strengthen the exploration of marine resources and promote the quality and profit of the marine economy. To explore sustainable marine resources, one important economic management method is to implement paid use system, specify marine resource property rights and collect Charges for Sea Area Utilization (CSAU. With the approval of the “Guangdong Marine Economic Experimental Zone Program”, Guangdong province targets the building of an economically strong marine province. The collection and rational expenditure of CSAU not only play a positive role in the rapid and sustainable development of the marine economy, but also offer financial guarantee and support for the building of an economically strong marine province. In this paper, the CSAU collection and expenditure in the past decade after the issuance of the Sea Area Use Management Law and the corresponding performance were evaluated and analyzed, and the problems in the CSAU collection and management were discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures were proposed to perfect the CSAU expenditure management policy, define the distribution proportion at all levels, optimize the expenditure structure, and strengthen the supervision and management mechanism. The results and conclusion of this paper could not only greatly promote the construction of marine economy, rational development and sustainable use of marine resources, but also provide a reference for other coastal provinces in China.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage-.

  17. Aquaculture disturbance impacts the diet but not ecological linkages of a ubiquitous predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Kathleen C.; McDonald, P. Sean; VanBlaricom, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture operations are a frequent and prominent cause of anthropogenic disturbance to marine and estuarine communities and may alter species composition and abundance. However, little is known about how such disturbances affect trophic linkages or ecosystem functions. In Puget Sound, Washington, aquaculture of the Pacific geoduck clam (Panopea generosa) is increasing and involves placing nets and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes in intertidal areas to protect juvenile geoducks from predators. Initial studies of the structured phase of the farming cycle have documented limited impacts on the abundance of some species. To examine the effect of geoduck aquaculture on ecological linkages, the trophic relationships of a local ubiquitous consumer, Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), to its invertebrate prey were compared between geoduck aquaculture sites and nearby reference areas with no aquaculture. Mark-recapture data indicated that sculpin exhibit local site fidelity to cultured and reference areas. The stomach contents of sculpin and stable isotope signatures of sculpin and their prey were examined to study the trophic ecology of cultured and reference areas. Results showed that the structured phase of geoduck aquaculture initiated some changes to staghorn sculpin ecology, as reflected in sculpin diet through stomach content analysis. However, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes revealed that the general food web function of sculpin remained unchanged. The source of carbon at the base of the food web and the trophic position of sculpin were not impacted by geoduck aquaculture. The study has important implications for geoduck aquaculture management and will inform regulatory decisions related to shellfish aquaculture policy.

  18. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics.......Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  19. Aquaculture. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan

    This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…

  20. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  1. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dijk, van H.; Bosma, R.H.; Boer, de W.F.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions

  2. Application of porter's framework to assess aquaculture value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature suggests that competition within a value chain is between chains and not individual actors. This study examined the aquaculture value chain in Kenya, assessing the entire value chain, and determining the appropriate points to participate in economically sustainable ways. The competition analysis assessed ...

  3. Adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve eco-friendly and sustainable development of shrimp farming, adoption of improved shrimp farming practices is necessary. An attempt has been made in this study to collect data from shrimp farmers along the south Konkan region of Maharashtra to judge the level of adoption of improved aquaculture practices.

  4. adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Adesope

    ABSTRACT. To achieve eco-friendly and sustainable development of shrimp farming, adoption of improved shrimp farming practices is necessary. An attempt has been made in this study to collect data from shrimp farmers along the south Konkan region of Maharashtra to judge the level of adoption of improved aquaculture ...

  5. Peracetic acid is a suitable disinfectant for recirculating fish-microalgae integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibo Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA is a promising direction for the sustainable development of aquaculture. Microalgae have good potential to be integrated with recirculating aquaculture systems because they can use the nitrogen excreted from fish and share the same optimal pH value as in aquaculture. As a byproduct, the microalgae biomass can be used for fish feed or biofuel. However, the recirculating fish-microalgae IMTA system is under constant threat from fish pathogens and phytoplankton-lytic bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to apply proper disinfectants as prophylaxis or treatment which are effective against these threats, but safe to fish and microalgae. For this purpose, peracetic acid (PAA is a valid option because it is highly effective against fish pathogens and bacteria at low concentrations and degrades spontaneously to harmless residues. In the present study, we exposed the culture of a marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii once per day for four days to four PAA products with differing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2/PAA proportions at two concentrations (1 and 2 mg L−1 PAA. The H2O2 solutions at equivalent total peroxide (H2O2 + PAA concentrations were tested in parallel. The results show that the growth and photosynthesis of T. chuii were not affected by three of the PAA products (Wofasteril® E400, Wofasteril® E250 and Applichem® 150 and equivalent H2O2 solutions at both concentrations. In contrast, Wofasteril® Lspez and an equivalent H2O2 solution at both concentrations caused irreversible culture collapse, photosynthesis dysfunction and irreversible cell damage. In conclusion, PAA products with low proportions of H2O2 are optimal disinfectants for fish-microalgae IMTA systems.

  6. Antimicrobial Compounds from Eukaryotic Microalgae against Human Pathogens and Diseases in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaise, Charlotte; François, Cyrille; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Morga, Benjamin; Haure, Joël; Tremblay, Réjean; Turcotte, François; Pasetto, Pamela; Gastineau, Romain; Hardivillier, Yann; Leignel, Vincent; Mouget, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The search for novel compounds of marine origin has increased in the last decades for their application in various areas such as pharmaceutical, human or animal nutrition, cosmetics or bioenergy. In this context of blue technology development, microalgae are of particular interest due to their immense biodiversity and their relatively simple growth needs. In this review, we discuss about the promising use of microalgae and microalgal compounds as sources of natural antibiotics against human pathogens but also about their potential to limit microbial infections in aquaculture. An alternative to conventional antibiotics is needed as the microbial resistance to these drugs is increasing in humans and animals. Furthermore, using natural antibiotics for livestock could meet the consumer demand to avoid chemicals in food, would support a sustainable aquaculture and present the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Using natural and renewable microalgal compounds is still in its early days, but considering the important research development and rapid improvement in culture, extraction and purification processes, the valorization of microalgae will surely extend in the future. PMID:27598176

  7. Antimicrobial Compounds from Eukaryotic Microalgae against Human Pathogens and Diseases in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Falaise

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for novel compounds of marine origin has increased in the last decades for their application in various areas such as pharmaceutical, human or animal nutrition, cosmetics or bioenergy. In this context of blue technology development, microalgae are of particular interest due to their immense biodiversity and their relatively simple growth needs. In this review, we discuss about the promising use of microalgae and microalgal compounds as sources of natural antibiotics against human pathogens but also about their potential to limit microbial infections in aquaculture. An alternative to conventional antibiotics is needed as the microbial resistance to these drugs is increasing in humans and animals. Furthermore, using natural antibiotics for livestock could meet the consumer demand to avoid chemicals in food, would support a sustainable aquaculture and present the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Using natural and renewable microalgal compounds is still in its early days, but considering the important research development and rapid improvement in culture, extraction and purification processes, the valorization of microalgae will surely extend in the future.

  8. Antimicrobial Compounds from Eukaryotic Microalgae against Human Pathogens and Diseases in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaise, Charlotte; François, Cyrille; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Morga, Benjamin; Haure, Joël; Tremblay, Réjean; Turcotte, François; Pasetto, Pamela; Gastineau, Romain; Hardivillier, Yann; Leignel, Vincent; Mouget, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-02

    The search for novel compounds of marine origin has increased in the last decades for their application in various areas such as pharmaceutical, human or animal nutrition, cosmetics or bioenergy. In this context of blue technology development, microalgae are of particular interest due to their immense biodiversity and their relatively simple growth needs. In this review, we discuss about the promising use of microalgae and microalgal compounds as sources of natural antibiotics against human pathogens but also about their potential to limit microbial infections in aquaculture. An alternative to conventional antibiotics is needed as the microbial resistance to these drugs is increasing in humans and animals. Furthermore, using natural antibiotics for livestock could meet the consumer demand to avoid chemicals in food, would support a sustainable aquaculture and present the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Using natural and renewable microalgal compounds is still in its early days, but considering the important research development and rapid improvement in culture, extraction and purification processes, the valorization of microalgae will surely extend in the future.

  9. Marine biotechnology: Opportunities for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    manipulation is now reality. High yielding, fast growing and disease resistant strains of fish, shellfish and algae will boost the aquaculture industry. There may be a solution for all the problems of waste disposal in the marine environment. Considering...

  10. Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Réduction des pertes de fruits en Inde et au Sri Lanka grâce à la nanotechnologie (FCRSAI). L'Inde et le Sri Lanka sont d'importants producteurs de légumes et de fruits tropicaux, mais ils enregistrent chaque année des pertes après récolte atteignant de 35 % à 40 % qui sont... Voir davantageRéduction des pertes de fruits ...

  11. Recent advances within intensive Recirculated Aquaculture System cultivation of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Højgaard, Jacob Kring; Drillet, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Danish aquaculture has within recent years focused upon rearing of new marine fish species. A major challenge for rearing of marine fish species is relevant diets for their fish larvae. Copepods and their larvae stage “nauplii” are well documented as the ideal live feed for a variety of marine....... An interesting trait with the species is that the eggs can be provoked into a resting stage, where the egg can be stored for one year, similar to Artemia cysts. This is the most promising storage technique for distribution of copepod eggs to aquaculture facilities worldwide. The eggs can be hatched...... and the nauplii can be feed to marine fish larvae. A restriction is that copepod cultures for producing eggs are after 30 years of research still not stable and in large enough scale for bulk production of eggs. Recently a unique copepod Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS) at Roskilde University (Denmark...

  12. Marine microorganisms as a promising and sustainable source of bioactive molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, G; Costantini, M; Sansone, C; Lauritano, C; Ruocco, N; Ianora, A

    2017-07-01

    There is an urgent need to discover new drug entities due to the increased incidence of severe diseases as cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies, and reducing efficacy of existing antibiotics. Recently, there is a renewed interest in exploring the marine habitat for new pharmaceuticals also thanks to the advancement in cultivation technologies and in molecular biology techniques. Microorganisms represent a still poorly explored resource for drug discovery. The possibility of obtaining a continuous source of bioactives from marine microorganisms, more amenable to culturing compared to macro-organisms, may be able to meet the challenging demands of pharmaceutical industries. This would enable a more environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery and overcome the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. The importance of the topic is underlined by the number of EU projects funded aimed at improving the exploitation of marine organisms for drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Raffinate waste as a nitrogen replacement to increase the sustainable use of marine microalgae for biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, C.; Palenik, B.

    2016-02-01

    High lipid content and the ability to be grown on areal non-agricultural land make microalgae one of the few viable candidates for long-term sustainable biofuel production. However, many challenges arise when attempting to scale-up production of algae biofuels at a successful industrial level. A series of growth experiments and toxicity tests were conducted to test the adaptability of 10 different strains of microalgae to grow in cultures containing two types of "raffinate" waste product as a nitrogen replacement. The results of these tests revealed that all strains of microalgae could successfully grow in cultures containing raffinate produced by means of hydrothermal liquefaction, even in bag culture, but not in cultures containing raffinate produced by a lipid trap extraction method. The application of these results is a method of reducing the costs of producing biofuel from marine and freshwater microalgae by creating a more self-sustaining recycling of nutrients from high temperature liquefaction waste.

  14. The Development of Sustainable Saltwater-Based Food Production Systems: A Review of Established and Novel Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gunning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, particularly intensive marine-fed aquaculture, has resulted in worldwide concern about the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of such systems. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research conducted on the development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems through mechanical (e.g., recirculatory aquaculture (RAS systems methods and ecosystem-based approaches (e.g., integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA. This review article will examine the potential negative impacts of monocultural saltwater aquaculture operations and review established (RAS and novel (IMTA; constructed wetlands; saltwater aquaponics saltwater-based food production systems and discuss their (potential contribution to the development of sustainable and environmentally-friendly systems.

  15. Marine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, L.; Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Meffert, J.P.; Bouma, T.J.; van Rijswick, P.C.; Heusinkveld, J.H.T.; Orth, R.J.; van Katwijk, M.M.; van der Heide, T.

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives.

  16. Optimized Environmental Test Sequences to Ensure the Sustainability and Reliability of Marine Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ho Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the types of marine weapons used in response to diverse hostile threats. However, because marine weapons are only tested under a single set of environmental conditions, failures due to different environmental stresses have been difficult to detect. Hence, this study proposes an environmental test sequence for multi-environment testing. The environmental test sequences for electrical units described in the international standard IEC 60068-1, and for military supply described in the United States national standard MIL-STD-810G were investigated to propose guidelines for the appropriate test sequences. This study demonstrated the need for tests in multiple environments by investigating marine weapon accidents, and evaluated which environmental stresses and test items have the largest impacts on marine weapons using a two-phase quality function deployment (QFD analysis of operational scenarios, environmental stresses, and environmental test items. Integer programming was used to determine the most influential test items and the shortest environmental test time, allowing us to propose optimal test procedures. Based on our analysis, we developed optimal environmental test sequences that could be selected by a test designer.

  17. Sustainability in Inland Shipping: The use of LNG as Marine Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consuegra, S.C.; Paalvast, M.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    LNG has the potential to reduce echaust gas emissions from vessels. The report explains the basics of LNG: what is it, what are the technical challenges of using LNG as marine fuel, which infrastructure is needed to bunker it and what is the impact on the costs. The report concludes with some

  18. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and the Making of a Market for ‘Sustainable Fish’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Market-based instruments of fishery governance have been promoted in the past two decades on the basis of two widespread expectations: that complying with sustainability standards will lead to environmental benefits; and that certifications will not discriminate against specific social groups...... the market for ‘sustainable fish’, but success has been accompanied by serious challenges. The MSC has so far failed to convincingly show that its certification system has positive environmental impacts, and it has marginalized Southern fisheries, especially in low-income countries. As an institutional...... solution to the global fishery crisis, the MSC seems to be better tuned to the creation of a market for ‘sustainable fish’ rather than ‘sustainable fisheries’....

  19. Opportunity for marine fisheries reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Chen, Yong; Dong, Shuanglin; Hanson, Arthur; Huang, Bo; Leadbitter, Duncan; Little, David C; Pikitch, Ellen K; Qiu, Yongsong; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Williams, Meryl; Xue, Guifang; Ye, Yimin; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhou, Yingqi; Zhuang, Ping; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2017-01-17

    China's 13th Five-Year Plan, launched in March 2016, provides a sound policy platform for the protection of marine ecosystems and the restoration of capture fisheries within China's exclusive economic zone. What distinguishes China among many other countries striving for marine fisheries reform is its size-accounting for almost one-fifth of global catch volume-and the unique cultural context of its economic and resource management. In this paper, we trace the history of Chinese government priorities, policies, and outcomes related to marine fisheries since the 1978 Economic Reform, and examine how the current leadership's agenda for "ecological civilization" could successfully transform marine resource management in the coming years. We show how China, like many other countries, has experienced a decline in the average trophic level of its capture fisheries during the past few decades, and how its policy design, implementation, and enforcement have influenced the status of its wild fish stocks. To reverse the trend in declining fish stocks, the government is introducing a series of new programs for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, with greater traceability and accountability in marine resource management and area controls on coastal development. As impressive as these new plans are on paper, we conclude that serious institutional reforms will be needed to achieve a true paradigm shift in marine fisheries management in China. In particular, we recommend new institutions for science-based fisheries management, secure fishing access, policy consistency across provinces, educational programs for fisheries managers, and increasing public access to scientific data.

  20. A Methodological Note for the Development of Integrated Aquaculture Production Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tsani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production can yield significant economic, social, and environmental effects. These exceed the financial costs and benefits aquaculture producers are faced with. We propose a methodology for the development of integrated production models that allow for the inclusion of the socio-economic and environmental effects of aquaculture into the production management. The methodology develops on a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis context and it includes three parts: (i environmental, that captures the interactions of aquaculture with the environment, (ii economic, that makes provision for the incorporation of economic determinants in the production models and (iii social, that introduces the social preferences to the production and management process. Alternatives to address data availability issues are also discussed. The methodology extends the assessment of the costs and benefits of aquaculture beyond pure financial metrics and beyond the quantification of private costs and benefits. It can also support the development of integrated models of aquaculture production that take into consideration both the private and the social costs and benefits associated with externalities and effects not appropriately captured by market mechanisms. The methodology can support aquaculture management and policies targeting sustainable and efficient aquaculture production and financing from an economic, financial, social, and environmental point of view.

  1. Shock-absorbing insoles reduce the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries sustained during Royal Marine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Carol; Reece, Allyson; Roiz de Sa, Dan

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) sustained during Royal Marine training could be reduced by issuing the recruits with shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) to wear in their military boots. This was a retrospective longitudinal trial conducted in two phases. Injury data from 1,416 recruits issued with standard Saran insoles and 1,338 recruits issued with SAI were compared. The recruits in the two groups were of similar height, body mass, and aerobic fitness and followed the same training course. The incidence of LLOI sustained by the recruits was lower (p tibial periostitis, tenosynovitis of foot, achilles tendonopathy, other tendonopathy and anterior knee pain were lower (p Tibial stress fracture incidence was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group but metatarsal and femoral stress fracture incidences were the same for the two insole groups. Thus, issuing SAIs to military recruits undertaking a sustained, arduous physical training program with a high incidence of LLOI would provide a beneficial reduction in the incidence of LLOI. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ...

  3. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  4. Sustaining Rare Marine Microorganisms: Macroorganisms As Repositories and Dispersal Agents of Microbial Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Troussellier; Arthur Escalas; Thierry Bouvier; David Mouillot; David Mouillot

    2017-01-01

    Recent analyses revealed that most of the biodiversity observed in marine microbial communities is represented by organisms with low abundance but, nonetheless essential for ecosystem dynamics and processes across both temporal and spatial scales. Surprisingly, few studies have considered the effect of macroorganism–microbe interactions on the ecology and distribution dynamics of rare microbial taxa. In this review, we synthesize several lines of evidence that these relationships cannot be ne...

  5. Missing marine protected area (MPA) targets: How the push for quantity over quality undermines sustainability and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, Elizabeth M

    2013-07-30

    International targets for marine protected areas (MPAs) and networks of MPAs set by the World Summit on Sustainable Development and United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity failed to meet their 2012 deadline and have been extended to 2020. Whilst targets play an important role in building momentum for conservation, they are also responsible for the recent designation of several extremely large no-take MPAs, which pose significant long-term monitoring and enforcement challenges. This paper critically examines the effectiveness of MPA targets, focusing on the underlying risks to achieving Millennium Development Goals posed by the global push for quantity versus quality of MPAs. The observations outlined in this paper have repercussions for international protected area politics with respect to (1) the science-policy interface in environmental decision-making, and (2) social justice concerns in global biodiversity conservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dependency on aquaculture in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Minh, Hanh; Phan, Van Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu

    2017-01-01

    Whilst a range of studies address the aquaculture livelihoods in southern Vietnam’s Mekong Delta, the role of aquaculture in northern Vietnam remains less described. We, therefore, conducted interviews with 199 households in the two northern provinces Quang Ninh and Nghe An in 2014 to analyse...... the dependence on aquaculture in these two provinces and amongst farmers specializing in shrimp and freshwater fish production, respectively. Further, we tested the ability of different socio-economic variables to explain the observed reliance on aquaculture using an ANCOVA model. The study identifies...... a substantial reliance on aquaculture of farmers in the study area with at least half of their income generated by aquaculture. Our analyses highlight that the educational background of farmers explain their engagement in aquaculture better than how long they have worked as aquaculture farmers. Freshwater fish...

  7. Where the waters meet: sharing ideas and experiences between inland and marine realms to promote sustainable fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Bartley, Devin M.; Beard, T. Douglas; Cowx, Ian G.; Essington, Timothy E.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Watson, Reg

    2014-01-01

    Although inland and marine environments, their fisheries, fishery managers, and the realm-specific management approaches are often different, there are a surprising number of similarities that frequently go unrecognized. We contend that there is much to be gained by greater cross-fertilization and exchange of ideas and strategies between realms and the people who manage them. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of the potential or demonstrated benefits of working across aquatic boundaries for enhanced sustainable management of the world’s fisheries resources. Examples include the need to (1) engage in habitat management and protection as the foundation for fisheries, (2) rethink institutional arrangements and management for open-access fisheries systems, (3) establish “reference points” and harvest control rules, (4) engage in integrated management approaches, (5) reap conservation benefits from the link to fish as food, and (6) reframe conservation and management of fish to better engage the public and industry. Cross-fertilization and knowledge transfer between realms could be realized using environment-independent curricula and symposia, joint scientific advisory councils for management, integrated development projects, and cross-realm policy dialogue. Given the interdependence of marine and inland fisheries, promoting discussion between the realms has the potential to promote meaningful advances in managing global fisheries.

  8. How is innovation in aquaculture conceptualized and managed? A systematic literature review and reflection framework to inform analysis and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joffre, Olivier M.; Klerkx, Laurens; Dickson, Malcolm; Verdegem, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture has experienced spectacular growth in the past decades, during which continuous innovation has played a significant role, but it faces increasing criticism regarding its ecological and social sustainability practices and the resulting challenges for future innovation processes. However,

  9. Economic analysis of technological innovations to improve sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Anh

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing concerns about sustainable production, a growing number of European customers expect seafood products to be certified, for example by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification. Water purification technologies such as Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS)

  10. Relance de l'aquaculture au Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    dans l'exportation des huîtres. Par l'entremise d'une entreprise privée, les huîtres sont vendues fraîches aux hôtels et restaurants locaux, et elles sont congelées .... Final Technical. Report: Promoting rural income from sustainable aquaculture through social learning in Sri Lanka. [http://bit.ly/1qCZd4i]. Remerciements.

  11. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  12. Increased competition for aquaculture from fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    ; and supplies from aquaculture have grown continuously. In this paper, the impact of improved fisheries management on aquaculture growth is studied assuming perfect substitution between farmed and wild fish. We find that improved fisheries management, ceteris paribus, reduces the growth potential of global...... aquaculture in markets where wild fisheries constitute a large share of total supply....

  13. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia-a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  14. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  15. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  16. Dark hydrogen production in nitrogen atmosphere - An approach for sustainability by marine cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya valderiana BDU 20041

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, D.; Arun Kumar, D.; Uma, L.; Subramanian, G. [National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria (Sponsored by DBT, Govt. of India), Department of Marine Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Biological hydrogen production is an ideal system for three main reasons i) forms a renewable energy source, ii) gives clean fuel and iii) serves as a good supplement to oil reserves. The major challenges faced in biological hydrogen production are the presence of uptake hydrogenase and lack of sustainability in the cyanobacterial hydrogen production system. Three different marine cyanobacterial species viz. Leptolyngbya valderiana BDU 20041, Dichothrix baueriana BDU 40481 and Nostoc calcicola BDU 40302 were studied for their potential use in hydrogen production. Among these, L. valderiana BDU 20041, was found to produce hydrogen even in 100% nitrogen atmosphere which was 85% of the hydrogen produced in argon atmosphere. This is the first report of such a high rate of production of hydrogen in a nitrogen atmosphere by a cyanobacterium, which makes it possible to develop sustained hydrogen production systems. L. valderiana BDU 20041, a dark hydrogen producer uses the reductant essentially supplied by the respiratory pathway for hydrogen production. Using inhibitors, this organism was found to produce hydrogen due to the activities of both nitrogenase and bidirectional hydrogenase, while it had no 'uptake' hydrogenase activity. The other two organisms though had low levels of bidirectional hydrogenase, possessed considerable 'uptake' hydrogenase activity and hence could not release much hydrogen either in argon or nitrogen atmosphere. (author)

  17. Aquaculture in Sicily: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Modica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture in Sicily, represented almost exclusively by seabass and sea bream production, together with capture fishery, plays a significant role in the regional economy. On a national basis, the regional production covers about 20% of Italian euryha- line fish production. Fingerling supply is guaranteed by the two hatcheries present on the Island. Twelve floating cage farms and two inshore farms annually produce about 4,000 t of fish. A small extensive production arises from the storage basins of the salt work of Trapani. This niche production could represent an opportunity to realize a new distinctive organic aquaculture, preferred by the consumers respect to intensive produced fish, that could con- tribute to promote the Territory. Two bluefin tuna fattening farms produce about 1,300 t of sashimi grade tuna annually. The aquaculture sector in Sicily faces the same problems of the Italian and Mediterranean sectors. However, Sicily is considered a Convergence Region by the European Union Cohesion Policy and is legible for special funding. The operational program 2007/2013 “European Fishery Found” will be an effective instrument to stimulate investment and technological innovation and to promote sustainable development of fisher- ies and aquaculture in the Region.

  18. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed.

  19. Ecologically sustainable but unjust? Negotiating equity and authority in common-pool marine resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Klain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under appropriate conditions, community-based fisheries management can support sound resource stewardship, with positive social and environmental outcomes. Evaluating indigenous peoples' involvement in commercial sea cucumber and geoduck fisheries on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, we found that the current social-ecological system configuration is relatively ecologically sustainable according to stock assessments. However, the current system also results in perceived inequities in decision-making processes, harvesting allocations, and socioeconomic benefits. As a result, local coastal resource managers envision a transformation of sea cucumber and geoduck fisheries governance and management institutions. We assessed the potential robustness of the proposed institutions using Elinor Ostrom's common-pool resource design principles. Grounded in the region's legal, political, and historical context, our analysis suggests that greater local involvement in these invertebrate fisheries and their management could provide more benefits to local communities than the status quo while maintaining an ecologically sustainable resource. Our research highlights the importance of explicitly addressing historical context and equity considerations in social-ecological system analyses and when renegotiating the institutions governing common-pool resources.

  20. Egg lipids - Determination and practical application of egg quality measures toward reliable culture of high-value marine finfish species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There is increasing global awareness of the need for sustainable aquaculture. Aquaculture represents a potential mechanism for supplementing wild fish harvests,...

  1. Alternatives to antibiotics for the control of bacterial disease in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The wide and frequent use of antibiotics in aquaculture has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Because of the health risks associated with the use of antibiotics in animal production, there is a growing awareness that antibiotics should be used with more care. This is reflected in the recent implementation of more strict regulations on the prophylactic use of antibiotics and the presence of antibiotic residues in aquaculture products. For a sustainable further development of the aquaculture industry, novel strategies to control bacterial infections are needed. This review evaluates several alternative biocontrol measures that have emerged recently. Most of these methods are still in research phase; few have been tested in real aquaculture settings. It is important to further develop different strategies that could be combined or used in rotation in order to maximise the chance of successfully protecting the animals and to prevent resistance development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Veterinary medical education and veterinary involvement in aquatic-animal health and aquaculture in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega S, César

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula.

  3. Large-scale climatic effects on traditional Hawaiian fishpond aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel McCoy

    Full Text Available Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands. Data from adjacent weather stations were analyzed together with in situ water quality instrument deployments spanning a 12-year period (November 2004 -November 2016. We found correlations between two periods with extremely high fish mortality at He'eia Fishpond (May and October 2009 and slackening trade winds in the week preceding each mortality event, as well as surface water temperatures elevated 2-3°C higher than the background periods (March-December 2009. We posit that the lack of trade wind-driven surface water mixing enhanced surface heating and stratification of the water column, leading to hypoxic conditions and stress on fish populations, which had limited ability to move within net pen enclosures. Elevated water temperature and interruption of trade winds previously have been linked to the onset of El Niño in Hawai'i. Our results provide empirical evidence regarding El Niño effects on the coastal ocean, which can inform resource management efforts about potential impact of climate variation on aquaculture production. Finally, we provide recommendations for reducing the impact of warming events on fishponds, as these events are predicted to increase in magnitude and frequency as a consequence of global warming.

  4. Large-scale climatic effects on traditional Hawaiian fishpond aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Daniel; McManus, Margaret A; Kotubetey, Keliʻiahonui; Kawelo, Angela Hiʻilei; Young, Charles; D'Andrea, Brandon; Ruttenberg, Kathleen C; Alegado, Rosanna ʻAnolani

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands. Data from adjacent weather stations were analyzed together with in situ water quality instrument deployments spanning a 12-year period (November 2004 -November 2016). We found correlations between two periods with extremely high fish mortality at He'eia Fishpond (May and October 2009) and slackening trade winds in the week preceding each mortality event, as well as surface water temperatures elevated 2-3°C higher than the background periods (March-December 2009). We posit that the lack of trade wind-driven surface water mixing enhanced surface heating and stratification of the water column, leading to hypoxic conditions and stress on fish populations, which had limited ability to move within net pen enclosures. Elevated water temperature and interruption of trade winds previously have been linked to the onset of El Niño in Hawai'i. Our results provide empirical evidence regarding El Niño effects on the coastal ocean, which can inform resource management efforts about potential impact of climate variation on aquaculture production. Finally, we provide recommendations for reducing the impact of warming events on fishponds, as these events are predicted to increase in magnitude and frequency as a consequence of global warming.

  5. Phaeobacter piscinae sp. nov., a species of the Roseobacter group and potential aquaculture probiont

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein, Eva Christina; Phippen, Christopher Broughton William; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    Four heterotrophic, antimicrobial, motile, marine bacterial strains, 27-4T, 8-1, M6-4.2 and S26, were isolated from aquaculture units in Spain, Denmark and Greece. All four strains produced the antibiotic compound tropodithietic acid, which is a key molecule in their antagonism against fish...

  6. Effect of balanced information on attitudes towards open ocean aquaculture development in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Robertson; Erika L. Carlsen

    2001-01-01

    Assessing public support for natural resource management initiatives requires an understanding of how information will affect public attitudes. Using the development of marine aquaculture in New England as a case study, an experimental design was used to investigate the effects of balanced information on attitudes. The moderating effects of familiarity on attitudes...

  7. In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera) in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Sanchez-Fontenla, J.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of

  8. Integration of a wind farm with a wave- and an aquaculture farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Weissenberger, J.; Bergh, Ø.

    with other marine energy producers such as wave energy and other maritime users such as aquaculture farms may result in significant benefits in terms of economics, optimising spatial utilization, and minimising the environmental impact. In this research project, the integration benefits and disadvantages...

  9. Deliverable 2 (SustainAQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Julian, B.; Bosman, R.; Eding, E.

    2009-01-01

    The European Project SustainAQ (Framework 6) aims to identify the limiting factors for the sustainable production of aquatic origin food in Eastern Europe. It focuses on the possible use of Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS) as sustainable method for the production of aquatic animals as

  10. Innovative processes and products involving marine organisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marine biotechnology is a discipline that involves both basic and applied research, and is aimed at the commercial exploitation of marine organisms. This paper reviews the progress made in three key areas of the SEAChange programme over the first five years, namely marine aquaculture, omics of marine organisms and ...

  11. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting.

  13. Marine Conservation: Effective Communication is Critical to Engaging the Public and Decision Makers in Sustaining our Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are most comfortable talking to other scientists. But if we hope our science will be used to drive good policy decisions at the state or federal level, we have to be willing to leave the comfortable cloisters of science and venture out into a world where people speak different languages and have different perspectives. Early in my career, I had the good fortune to be involved in two research programs that were focused on basic science, but also proved to be relevant to management and policy. The first project involved modeling the bioenergetics of growth in salmonid fishes. The second modeled the population dynamics of a threatened marine species, loggerhead sea turtle. Somewhat to my surprise, both papers led to major policy changes and the models were actively employed by managers within a year of two of publication. The question for me then became whether this could be done deliberately. Since then I have had the opportunity to communicate with a wide variety of people from congressmen, to school children, to the public, and among professionals across disciplinary boundaries. Communication skills are critical for scientists to become influential in the policy arena. We have to listen to all people involved in the policymaking process AND we have to be able to communicate effectively with them. This requires a deep understanding of the science and a willingness to work hard on communicating the science clearly, concisely, and compellingly. Scientists can work to develop their own skills, but professional training helps. This can come via shortcourses, mentorships, or full university courses. At Duke Marine Lab, we initiated graduate course in Professional Writing that focuses upon writing for different audiences, including commercial fishermen, retirees, teenagers, scientists in different fields, politicians, and managers. This course has been widely endorsed by our graduates as one of the most important courses they attended; interviews and job offers

  14. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aquaculture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main...... reared fish species were targeted. A total of 31 respondents contributed to the survey, representing 75 % of European breeding organizations. Family-based breeding schemes were predominant, but individual selection was more frequently applied in marine species. Artificial fertilization is the preferred...

  15. Microplastics in the context of regulation of commercial shellfish aquaculture operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Rosalind A; DeNike, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    Shellfish aquaculture in the Salish Sea (encompassing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Georgia Strait) is a major source of clams, oysters, and mussels in the United States and Canada. Plastic gear is necessary for the viability of many of these operations. During the past few years, shellfish farm permits issued in Washington State have been challenged on various bases that have included allegations that the plastic gear is releasing microplastics, commonly defined as particles less than 5 mm in diameter. Published survey data on sources of marine plastic debris demonstrate the very limited contribution of aquaculture gear. Both permits and industry codes of practice provide procedures to minimize loss of gear to the marine environment. Plastic gear is also designed specifically to maintain its integrity and not degrade in the marine environment. Plastic degradation is greatest on beaches with high UV exposure, whereas aquaculture gear is mostly underwater and/or covered by biofoulants. Available data for microplastics in water, sediment, and biota of the Salish Sea do not suggest significant release of microplastics from shellfish aquaculture operations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:522-527. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. The importance of live-feed traps - farming marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max; Abate, Tenaw Gedefaw

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the challenges of different live-feed regimes for the rearing of marine finfish larvae and discusses the potential alternative live feeds to avert a future live-feed trap. Live feeds are indispensable for the successful rearing of larvae of most marine fish species. Brine...... shrimps (Artemia) and rotifers comprise the live feeds of choice in marine aquaculture today. However, their nutritional composition is deficient in especially essential fatty acids, and enrichment with fish oil is needed. Fish oil is considered a limited resource owing to its origin in fully exploited...... wild fish stocks. Moreover, fluctuations of the natural population of Artemia will, most likely, influence future availability and prices. This emphasizes the need for optimal exploitation of available live-feed resources and development of new sustainable alternatives, such as copepods. An array...

  17. Egg quality sablefish - Determination and practical application of egg quality measures toward reliable culture of high-value marine finfish species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There is increasing global awareness of the need for sustainable aquaculture. Aquaculture represents a potential mechanism for supplementing wild fish harvests,...

  18. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This management is synonymous with water management since water of suitable quality and quantity is a pre-requisite for any successful aquacultural production. ... Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM), Pond-Water Availability Period (PWAP) model, AquaFarm and Raceway design and simulation system ...

  20. Exploring Aquaculture. Curriculum Guide for Agriscience 282.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in "Exploring Aquaculture, Agriscience 282," one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. This introductory course is designed to acquaint students with the growing industry of aquaculture; it includes…

  1. Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-13

    Oct 13, 2009 ... Sena S. De Silva is Director General of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia- Pacific and Honorary Professor of Aquaculture and Fisheries Biology at the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. F. Brian Davy is Senior Fellow at the International Institute for ...

  2. An Effective Aquaculture Extension System from Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regionally, government extension system and reading materials also played a significant role in the diffusion of aquaculture information to peri-urban farmers, and were considered to be of high quality and very accessible. This study recommends that the aquaculture division should identify the institutional mechanism ...

  3. The image of fish from aquaculture among Europeans: impact of exposure to balanced information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Verbeke, W.; Vanhonacker, F.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of balanced, nonpersuasive information related to safety, healthiness, and sustainability of aquaculture on the image of farmed fish among European consumers. It was demonstrated that there is neither positive nor negative influence of this type of information on

  4. A history of fish vaccination. Science-based disease prevention in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudding, R.; Muiswinkel, van W.B.

    2013-01-01

    Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an

  5. Fingerponds: seasonal integrated aquaculture in East African freshwater wetlands : exploring their potential for wise use strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipkemboi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was stimulated by the need for an integrated approach in wetland wise use. Sustainable management is critical for long-term ecosystem health and people's livelihoods. The potential for smallholder integrated agriculture-aquaculture as one of the possible wetland wise use strategies was

  6. End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Nielsen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each...

  7. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish ...... in RAS by addressing disinfection demand and identify efficient and safe water treatment routines.......Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...

  8. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    During the last three decades, aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal-food-producing sector in the world, accounting for half of the present seafood supply. However, there is a significant growth disparity among aquaculture-producing countries. The reasons why some countries have achieved...... remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  9. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  10. The Promise of Whole Genome Pathogen Sequencing for the Molecular Epidemiology of Emerging Aquaculture Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Sion C.; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Bartie, Kerry L.; Aanensen, David M.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Adams, Alexandra; Feil, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food-producing sector, and the sustainability of this industry is critical both for global food security and economic welfare. The management of infectious disease represents a key challenge. Here, we discuss the opportunities afforded by whole genome sequencing of bacterial and viral pathogens of aquaculture to mitigate disease emergence and spread. We outline, by way of comparison, how sequencing technology is transforming the molecular epidemiology of pathogens of public health importance, emphasizing the importance of community-oriented databases and analysis tools. PMID:28217117

  11. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  12. Diversity of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes with commercial and aquaculture importance in Chamela Bay, Pacific coast of Mexico by using morphology and DNA barcoding, with description of a new species of Caligus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Gómez, Samuel; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae on wild and cultured marine fishes from Chamela Bay, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, is reported. A total of 16 species of Caligus and 1 species of Lepeophtheirus were found on 19 wild fish species. The description of Caligus chamelensis n. sp. parasitizing Kyphosus elegans is presented. Among the species of Caligus reported here, Caligus serratus is the most common since it was found infecting 11 fish species. On cultured fish, Lutjanus gutattus and L. peru, only one species of Caligus, C. sclerotinosus was collected. DNA barcodes [mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences] were obtained for the majority of the sea lice species herein reported. The molecular analyses support the recognition of the new species and suggest that neither Caligus nor Lepeophtheirus are monophyletic. COI is shown to be a good candidate for parasitic copepod species identification, although a more robust reference database is needed to expand our ability to accomplish a molecular identification. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Halophyte filter beds for treatment of saline wastewater from aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J M; Quintã, R; Papadimitriou, S; Norman, L; Rigby, M; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

    2012-10-15

    The expansion of aquaculture and the recent development of more intensive land-based marine farms require efficient and cost-effective systems for treatment of highly nutrient-rich saline wastewater. Constructed wetlands with halophytic plants offer the potential for waste-stream treatment combined with production of valuable secondary plant crops. Pilot wetland filter beds, constructed in triplicate and planted with the saltmarsh plant Salicornia europaea, were evaluated over 88 days under commercial operating conditions on a marine fish and shrimp farm. Nitrogen waste was primarily in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) and was removed by 98.2 ± 2.2% under ambient loadings of 109-383 μmol l(-1). There was a linear relationship between TDIN uptake and loading over the range of inputs tested. At peak loadings of up to 8185 ± 590 μmol l(-1) (equivalent to 600 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)), the filter beds removed between 30 and 58% (250 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) of influent TDIN. Influent dissolved inorganic phosphorus levels ranged from 34 to 90 μmol l(-1), with 36-89% reduction under routine operations. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) loadings were lower (11-144 μmol l(-1)), and between 23 and 69% of influent DON was removed during routine operation, with no significant removal of DON under high TDIN loading. Over the 88-day study, cumulative nitrogen removal was 1.28 mol m(-2), of which 1.09 mol m(-2) was retained in plant tissue, with plant uptake ranging from 2.4 to 27.0 mmol N g(-1) dry weight d(-1). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of N and P removal from wastewater from land-based intensive marine aquaculture farms by constructed wetlands planted with S. europaea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stuiver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave energy. One proposed solution to overcome possible competing claims at sea lies in combining these economic activities as part of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea (MUPS. MUPS can be understood as areas at sea, designated for a combination of activities, either completely integrated in a platform or in shared marine space. MUPS can potentially benefit from each other in terms of infrastructure, maintenance, etc. Developing MUPS in the marine environment demands adequate governance. In this article, we investigate four European sites to find out how governance arrangements may facilitate or complicate MUPs. In particular, we apply a framework specifying policy, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal (PESTEL factors to explore governance arrangements in four case study sites in different sea basins around Europe (the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea. The article concludes with policy recommendations on a governance regime for facilitating the development of MUPS in the future.

  15. A history of fish vaccination: science-based disease prevention in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudding, Roar; Van Muiswinkel, Willem B

    2013-12-01

    Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an important part in the successful development of the fish-farming industry. The first vaccine for aquaculture, a vaccine for prevention of yersiniosis in salmonid fish, was licensed in USA in 1976. Since then the use of vaccines has expanded to new countries and new species simultaneous with the growth of the aquaculture industry. This paper gives an overview of the achievements in fish vaccinology with particular emphasis on immunoprophylaxis as a practical tool for a successful development of bioproduction of aquatic animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part A: Transfer activities and legal framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muehlbauer, F.; Fraser, D.; Brenner, M.

    2014-01-01

    frameworks are discussed. Recommendations for the development of integrated risk assessment methods are given. These may help to minimize the intrinsic threats of transfer activities in marine environments. The resulting impacts and effects of transfer activities of bivalves for aquaculture purpose...... of exotic species around the world. Threats due to the transfer and introduction of species have been identified and a range of global and regional agreements, guidelines, standards and statutes to minimize effects have been established. Yet whether such regulations can protect and conserve the marine...... environment and address economic considerations remains unanswered. This study provides the first overview of bivalve transfer activities for aquaculture purposes along the European Atlantic coast. Existing international and EU legislation is described, and potential weaknesses in the existing legislative...

  17. A scoping analysis of peer-reviewed literature about linkages between aquaculture and determinants of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Wade, Joy; Stephen, Craig; Toews, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    For many of the world's poor, aquatic products are critical for food security and health. Because the global population is increasing as wild aquatic stocks are declining, aquaculture is an increasingly important source of aquatic products. We undertook a scoping review of the English-language peer-reviewed literature to evaluate how the research community has examined the impacts of aquaculture on four key determinants of human health: poverty, food security, food production sustainability, and gender equality. The review returned 156 primary research articles. Most research (75%) was focused in Asia, with limited research from Africa (10%) and South America (2%). Most research (80%) focused on freshwater finfish and shrimp production. We used qualitative content analysis of records which revealed 11 themes: famer income; the common environment; shared resources; integrated farming/ polyculture; employment; extensive vs. intensive production; local vs. distant ownership; food security; income equity; gender equality; and input costs. We used quantitative content analysis of records and full-text publications about freshwater finfish and shrimp aquaculture to record the frequency with which themes were represented and the positive or negative impacts of aquaculture associated with each theme. Scatter plots showed that no theme was identified in more than half of all articles and publications for both production types. Farmer income was a theme that was identified commonly and was positively impacted by both shrimp and fresh water finfish aquaculture. Polyculture, employment, and local ownership were identified less often as themes, but were also associated with positive impacts. The common environment and shared resources were more common themes in shrimp aquaculture than freshwater finfish aquaculture research, while polyculture and local ownership were more common themes in freshwater finfish aquaculture than shrimp aquaculture. Gender equality, employment, and

  18. Water quality, seasonality, and trajectory of an aquaculture-wastewater plume in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hozumi, Aya

    2017-12-28

    As aquaculture activity increases globally, understanding water mass characteristics of the aquaculture-wastewater plume, its nutrients, and its organic matter load and spatial distribution in the coastal recipient, is critical to develop a more sustainable aquaculture operation and to improve coastal management. We examined wastewater (estimated 42-48 m3 s-1) discharged from the largest aquaculture facility in the Red Sea and surveyed the area around the aquaculture outfall to characterize the biogeochemical properties of the wastewater plume and its spatial distribution. In addition, we assessed its associated microbial community structure. The plume was characterized by elevated levels of salinity, density, and turbidity, and traveled along paths determined by the bathymetry to form a dense, 1-3 m thick layer above the seafloor. The effluent was observed at least 3.8 km from the outfall throughout the year, but up to 8 km in early autumn. The total nitrogen concentration in the plume was more than 4 times higher than in surface waters 1.4 km from the outfall. High-throughput sequencing data revealed that bacterial and cyanobacterial communities significantly differed, and flow cytometry results showed that total cell counts were significantly higher at the outfall. Arcobacter, a genus associated with opportunistic pathogenic species (e.g. A. butzleri), was more abundant, while Prochlorococcus sp. was significantly less abundant at the outfall. This dense, bottom-flowing plume may have a detrimental impact on benthic and demersal communities.

  19. Probiotics as beneficial microbes in aquaculture: an update on their multiple modes of action: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Delshad, Somayeh Torabi; Adel, Milad; Tiwari, Ruchi; Karthik, K; Dhama, Kuldeep; Lazado, Carlo C

    2016-12-01

    Wide and discriminate use of antibiotics has resulted in serious biological and ecological concerns, especially the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics, known as beneficial microbes, are being proposed as an effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics. They were first applied in aquaculture species more than three decades ago, but considerable attention had been given only in the early 2000s. Probiotics are defined as live or dead, or even a component of the microorganisms that act under different modes of action in conferring beneficial effects to the host or to its environment. Several probiotics have been characterized and applied in fish and a number of them are of host origin. Unlike some disease control alternatives being adapted and proposed in aquaculture where actions are unilateral, the immense potential of probiotics lies on their multiple mechanisms in conferring benefits to the host fish and the rearing environment. The staggering number of probiotics papers in aquaculture highlights the multitude of advantages from these microorganisms and conspicuously position them in the dynamic search for health-promoting alternatives for cultured fish. This paper provides an update on the use of probiotics in finfish aquaculture, particularly focusing on their modes of action. It explores the contemporary understanding of their spatial and nutritional competitiveness, inhibitory metabolites, environmental modification capability, immunomodulatory potential and stress-alleviating mechanism. This timely update affirms the importance of probiotics in fostering sustainable approaches in aquaculture and provides avenues in furthering its research and development.

  20. 'Halophyte filters': the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Paulissen, M P C P; Slim, P A

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already over-exploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands.

  1. Seawater circulating system in an aquaculture laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The note gives an account, for the first time in India, of an Aquaculture Laboratory with open type seawater circulating system developed at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. Besides describing the details of the system...

  2. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented.

  3. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture. PMID:9366596

  4. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important......The period of first feeding, characterized by the shift from internal (yolk-sac) to external food sources, is considered particularly critical for the survival of marine fish, but the underlying causes are still unknown. The larval stage, characterized by high mortality rates, is particularly...... challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...

  5. Applicability of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as an alternative to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojado, Cátia; Pereira, Carla; Tomé, João P C; Faustino, Maria A F; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-10-01

    Aquaculture activities are increasing worldwide, stimulated by the progressive reduction of natural fish stocks in the oceans. However, these activities also suffer heavy production and financial losses resulting from fish infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed, in order to make aquaculture industry more sustainable. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged as an alternative to treat diseases and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of aPDT to inactivate pathogenic fish bacteria. To reach this objective a cationic porphyrin Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF was tested against nine pathogenic bacteria isolated from a semi-intensive aquaculture system and against the cultivable bacteria of the aquaculture system. The ecological impact of aPDT in the aquatic environment was also tested on the natural bacterial community, using the overall bacterial community structure and the cultivable bacteria as indicators. Photodynamic inactivation of bacterial isolates and of cultivable bacteria was assessed counting the number of colonies. The impact of aPDT in the overall bacterial community structure of the aquaculture water was evaluated by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that, in the presence of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF, the growth of bacterial isolates was inhibited, resulting in a decrease of ≈7-8 log after 60-270 min of irradiation. Cultivable bacteria were also considerably affected, showing decreases up to the detection limit (≈2 log decrease on cell survival), but the inactivation rate varied significantly with the sampling period. The DGGE fingerprint analyses revealed changes in the bacterial community structure caused by the combination of aPDT and light. The results indicate that aPDT can be regarded as a new approach to control fish

  6. A Captive Ocean: Evaluation of Aquaculture, Fisheries Sustainabilty and Aquaria as Arks in the Setting of a Field-based Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, Stephen; O'Connell, Matthew; Sullivan, Heather

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability awareness is increasingly a subject in educational settings. Marine science classes are perfect settings of establishing sustainability awareness owing to declining populations of organisms and perceived collapse in fisheries worldwide. Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and laboratories. In addition, short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was 'captured' were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture. Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for travel to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets in Washington, Baltimore and Virginia Beach, enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of sustainability with discussions on ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web

  7. A Captive Ocean: Evaluation of Aquaculture, Fisheries Sustainabilty and Aquaria as Arks in the Setting of a Field-based Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; O'connell, M. T.; Sullivan, H.; Oliver, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability awareness is increasingly a subject in educational settings. Marine science classes are perfect settings of establishing sustainability awareness owing to declining populations of organisms and perceived collapse in fisheries worldwide. Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and laboratories. In addition, short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture. Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for travel to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets in Washington, Baltimore and Virginia Beach, enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of sustainability with discussions on ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web

  8. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumoharjo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

  9. New Ways of Delivering Marine Scientific Evidence for Policy Needs in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, T.

    2016-12-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (Defra) is responsible for safeguarding the natural environment, supporting a world-leading food and farming industry, and sustaining a thriving rural economy. This includes the marine environment which makes a significant contribution to the economy of the UK through fisheries, aquaculture, transport, leisure and recreation, energy (including renewable), coastal tourism, and naval defence. The overall vision for the Defra marine programme is to therefore achieve clean, healthy, safe, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas. In order to attain this it is essential that the decisions that government makes can be justified and that these decisions use the best available evidence and allow for any uncertainty. However, reductions across the budgets of departments such as Defra means that new ways of delivering evidence for policy needs must be sought. To do this we must consider marine monitoring efficiencies including the use of novel technologies, more integrated monitoring programmes, and greater collaboration with the research councils, industry, and academia. We must also seek to leverage other sources of funding from the European Union and other international partners. This presentation will address the main policy drivers (e.g. EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive) and future needs of the marine programme, the Defra Evidence Action Plan (EAP), and how we plan to use new avenues of gaining high quality marine scientific evidence in an era of declining budgets.

  10. Effects of non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism on marine species and prospects for their sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2015-03-15

    Marine non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism, whereby tourists observe and/or interact closely with animals, without purposely having a detrimental effect on them, has been growing globally in recent decades. Human-mediated feeding (provisioning) is widely used by tour operators to attract target species, facilitate viewing and interaction with tourists. Although potential effects of such provisioning on terrestrial fauna have been given moderate scientific research attention, equivalent research in the marine environment is limited. Effects of provisioning marine wildlife may include direct habituation, behavioural change, and/or dietary impacts among individuals and species. There may also be disruption to the species associated assemblage. It was found that the literature on the effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism is fragmented and results from different areas and taxa are frequently contradictory. Most studies appeared to be of a few years duration, at most. This reflects the relative immaturity of the industry - many enterprises studied typically commenced within the 1990 s. Studies (other than fish) tended to focus on a focal species with few addressing the wider implications for the associated assemblage. Supplementary feeding may also have impacts on the health and wellbeing of provisioned animals. It is concluded that such nature tourism is often not benign - focal species and their assemblage are often disrupted. We conclude that funding to better understand the impacts and thus address them is imperative. To supplement funding for the research and monitoring required, an additional charge could incorporated into the fee charged to those engaging in marine wildlife tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal ... The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics ..... diatom C-biomass is a result of changes in silicate. Figure 4.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. .... to accommodate multiple user-groups while con- .... Criteria used to select trawling sites within the survey areas were traw- lability and depth range (100-699 m), and sites were stratified by depth and latitude.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and .... taken up to a depth of 5cm using a plastic hand core of. 2.6cm diameter.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor ... sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. ... salt works along the coast of Ungwana Bay provide alternative fishing grounds for local fishers unable to venture.

  15. Exploring fish microbial communities to mitigate emerging diseases in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Irene; Liu, Yiying; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2018-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and the excessive use of antibiotics and other chemicals is of substantial concern. A more sustainable disease control strategy to protect fish and shellfish from (re-)emerging diseases could be achieved by introduction or augmentation of beneficial microbes. To establish and maintain a 'healthy' fish microbiome, a fundamental understanding of the diversity and temporal-spatial dynamics of fish-associated microbial communities and their impact on growth and health of their aquatic hosts is required. This review describes insights in the diversity and functions of the fish bacterial communities elucidated with next-generation sequencing and discusses the potential of the microbes to mitigate (re-)emerging diseases in aquaculture. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Neil, D M; Peeler, E J; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Flegel, T W; Vlak, J M; Jones, B; Morado, F; Moss, S; Lotz, J; Bartholomay, L; Behringer, D C; Hauton, C; Lightner, D V

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products. A general separation of net producing and net consuming nations for crustacean seafood has created a truly globalised food industry. Projections for increasing global demand for seafood in the face of level or declining fisheries requires continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture while ensuring best utilisation of captured stocks. Furthermore, continued pressure from consuming nations to ensure safe products for human consumption are being augmented by additional legislative requirements for animals (and their products) to be of low disease status. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is being placed on enforcement of regulations and better governance of the sector; currently this is a challenge in light of a fragmented industry and less stringent regulations associated with animal disease within producer nations. Current estimates predict that up to 40% of tropical shrimp production (>$3bn) is lost annually, mainly due to viral pathogens for which standard preventative measures (e.g. such as vaccination) are not feasible. In light of this problem, new approaches are urgently required to enhance yield by improving broodstock and larval sourcing, promoting best management practices by farmer outreach and supporting cutting-edge research that aims to harness the natural

  17. Annual methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies and inland fish aquaculture wetlands in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Hu, Tao; Chen, Jie; Yu, Kai; Zou, Jianwen; Liu, Shuwei

    2018-02-01

    Inland aquaculture ponds have been documented as important sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), while their regional or global source strength remains unclear due to lack of direct flux measurements by covering more typical habitat-specific aquaculture environments. In this study, we compared the CH4 and N2O fluxes from rice paddies and nearby inland fish aquaculture wetlands that were converted from rice paddies in southeast China. Both CH4 and N2O fluxes were positively related to water temperature and sediment dissolved organic carbon, but negatively related to water dissolved oxygen concentration. More robust response of N2O fluxes to water mineral N was observed than to sediment mineral N. Annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from inland fish aquaculture averaged 0.51 mg m-2 h-1 and 54.78 μg m-2 h-1, amounting to 42.31 kg CH4 ha-1 and 2.99 kg N2O-N ha-1, respectively. The conversion of rice paddies to conventional fish aquaculture significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 23% and 66%, respectively. The emission factor for N2O was estimated to be 0.46% of total N input in the feed or 1.23 g N2O-N kg-1 aquaculture production. The estimate of sustained-flux global warming potential of annual CH4 and N2O emissions and the net economic profit suggested that such conversion of rice paddies to inland fish aquaculture would help to reconcile the dilemma for simultaneously achieving both low climatic impacts and high economic benefits in China. More solid direct field measurements from inland aquaculture are in urgent need to direct the overall budget of national or global CH4 and N2O fluxes.

  18. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Nassaj, Seyed Mohammad; Catalá, Teresa S; Álvarez, Pedro A; Reche, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named "extractive" species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM). However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (-holothurian) only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata, whereas the other tank (+holothurian) also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali. We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm) and qualitative (spectral slopes) optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H) and -holothurians (-H). We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four -H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata. In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm (a325) and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm (S275-295) were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m-1 and 16 µm-1, respectively) than in the effluent of the -holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m-1 and 34 µm-1, respectively), the former being similar to those found in the inlet waters (average: 0

  19. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile's central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs.

  20. Critical Inconsistencies in Early Implementations of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and Common Fisheries Policy Objectives Hamper Policy Synergies in Fostering the Sustainable Exploitation of Mediterranean Fisheries Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Raicevich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD aims to achieve “Good Environmental Status” (GES in EU marine waters by 2020. This initiative started its first phase of implementation in 2012, when each member state defined the GES and environmental targets in relation to 11 descriptors and related indicators for 2020. In 2013, the EU Commission launched the reformed Common Fisheries Policy (CFP, which aims to achieve biomass levels capable of producing maximum sustainable yield (MSY for all commercial stocks exploited in EU waters by 2020, as well as contribute to the achievement of GES. These two pieces of legislation are aligned since according to Descriptor 3 (commercial fish and shellfish, the MSFD requires reaching a healthy stock status with fishing mortality (F and spawning stock biomass (SSB compatible with the respective MSY reference limits for all commercial species by 2020. We investigated whether the two policies are effectively aligned in the Mediterranean Sea, an ecosystem where the vast majority of stocks show unsustainable exploitation. For this purpose, we assessed and compared the number and typology of stocks considered by the member states when assessing GES in relation to data on stocks potentially available according to the EU Data Collection Framework (DCF and the proportion of landings they represented. The number of stocks considered by the member states per assessment area was uneven, ranging between 7 and 43, while the share of landings corresponding to the selected stocks ranged from 23 to 95%. A lack of coherence between GES definitions among the member states was also revealed, and environmental targets were less ambitious than MSFD and CFP requirements. This could possibly reduce the likelihood of achieving fishery sustainability in the Mediterranean by 2020. These conditions limited the envisaged synergies between the two policies and are discussed in consideration of the recent Commission Decision on criteria

  1. Assimilation of freshwater salmonid aquaculture waste by native aquatic biota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kullman, M.A

    2006-01-01

    .... Assimilation of aquaculture-derived carbon was evident in the minnows, as well as in the pelagic and profundal invertebrates. These studies showed that aquaculture waste was an important nutrient source for native organisms, and that mortality impacts were localized.

  2. Real-time remote monitoring system for aquaculture water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo Hongpin; Li Guanglin; Peng Weifeng; Song Jie; Bai Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

      A multi-parameters monitoring system based on wireless network was set up to achieve remote real-time monitoring of aquaculture water quality, in order to improve the quality of aquaculture products...

  3. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  4. The Moken: Today and Tomorrow - Building a sustainable livelihood for the Moken community in the Surin Islands Marine National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Wasinrapee, Puree

    2006-01-01

    The thesis seeks to explain the feasibility of the tourism activities proposed by the Andaman Pilot Project (APP) for the Moken living in the Surin Islands Marine National Park. The case study examines the adaptability of the Moken whether or not they can cope with a range of changes taking place in the community as a result of tourism promoted by the park and proposed by the APP. The study includes an examination of the institutional constraints deriving from the implementation of the to...

  5. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  6. Aquaculture at Oregon Inst. of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1976-07-01

    The geothermal hot water resource developed from on-campus wells is used for space heating and heating the college's potable hot water supply. The development of this resource has provided waste water for aquaculture. The available water for aquaculture is a volume of 200 to 250 gal/min with a mean temperature of 57/sup 0/C. This water was tested on mosquitofish, guppies, and crayfish. A program is now underway to see if the giant freshwater prawn may be grown commercially in geothermal waste water. (MHR)

  7. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

      In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a

  8. Fingerponds: seasonal integrated aquaculture in East African freshwater wetlands exploring their potential for wise use strategies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kipkemboi

    2006-01-01

    This study was stimulated by the need for an integrated approach in wetland wise use. Sustainable management is critical for long-term ecosystem health and people's livelihoods. The potential for smallholder integrated agriculture-aquaculture as one of the possible wetland wise use strategies was explored in two sites on the northern Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria: Kusa and Nyangera.Most riparian communities living along the shores of Lake Victoria rely on wetland farming or harvesting of nat...

  9. Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore review the potential of aquaculture in reducing poverty by enhancing food security and as a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, factors limiting their participation in fish farming and the strategies for promoting women participation in aquaculture as a veritable ...

  10. Aquaculture for increased fish production in East Africa | Rutaisire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish is produced for human consumption and other purposes through capture fisheries and aquaculture. Fish production from natural stocks has already reached its limits and is declining while aquaculture production is increasing. Aquaculture is making a significant contribution to fish production in several countries thus ...

  11. Preliminary investigation on the conversion of aquaculture solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversion of aquaculture solid wastes into single cell protein (SCP) for fish feed through solid state fermentation using three fungi species, Aspergilus niger, Trichodema viride and Rhizopus species were investigated. Solid aquaculture waste was collected from the sedimentation unit of a re-circulating aquaculture farm in ...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... humans; and (3) Ornamental fish propagated and reared in an aquatic medium. (b) The aquacultural facility...

  13. A research update for the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2016 totaled 90 million tons valued at $180 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  14. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Millot, Sandie

    2017-01-01

    on coping styles may contribute to improved sustainability of the aquaculture industry, including welfare and performance of farmed fish. Moreover, we will suggest areas for future research, where genetic basis (heritability/epigenetic) of coping styles, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind consistent......Individual differences in physiological and behavioural responses to stressors are increasingly recognised as adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution and fish farming improvements including selective breeding. Such individual variation has been evolutionarily conserved and is present...... in all vertebrate taxa including fish. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, that is coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years because many studies have demonstrated links to performance traits, health and disease susceptibility and welfare. This study...

  15. Life cycle assessment of aquaculture systems-a review of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Guinée, Jeroen B; Kleijn, René; de Snoo, Geert R

    As capture fishery production has reached its limits and global demand for aquatic products is still increasing, aquaculture has become the world's fastest growing animal production sector. In attempts to evaluate the environmental consequences of this rapid expansion, life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a frequently used method. The present review of current peer-reviewed literature focusing on LCA of aquaculture systems is intended to clarify the methodological choices made, identify possible data gaps, and provide recommendations for future development within this field of research. The results of this review will also serve as a start-up activity of the EU FP7 SEAT (Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture Trade) project, which aims to perform several LCA studies on aquaculture systems in Asia over the next few years. From a full analysis of methodology in LCA, six phases were identified to differ the most amongst ten peer-reviewed articles and two PhD theses (functional unit, system boundaries, data and data quality, allocation, impact assessment methods, interpretation methods). Each phase is discussed with regards to differences amongst the studies, current LCA literature followed by recommendations where appropriate. The conclusions and recommendations section reflects on aquaculture-specific scenarios as well as on some more general issues in LCA. Aquaculture LCAs often require large system boundaries, including fisheries, agriculture, and livestock production systems from around the globe. The reviewed studies offered limited coverage of production in developing countries, low-intensity farming practices, and non-finfish species, although most farmed aquatic products originate from a wide range of farming practices in Asia. Apart from different choices of functional unit, system boundaries and impact assessment methods, the studies also differed in their choice of allocation factors and data sourcing. Interpretation of results also differed amongst the studies

  16. The difference biocultural "place" makes to community efforts towards sustainable development: Youth participatory action research in a marine protected area of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRuer, Jennifer; Zethelius, Margarita

    2017-11-01

    The Latin American concept of "(collective) biocultural heritage" arose from Indigenous knowledge and practices with respect to local natural resources and environment, including the food being hunted, the crops being grown, and the landscapes being created. The term is now used more widely to describe community practices, goals and priorities that are determined, maintained and managed by diverse cultural relationships with "place". The study presented in this article investigated biocultural place relationships in connection with well-being and sustainability. In the context of learning and action for sustainability in Isla Grande, an island in a marine protected area of Colombia, this study targeted the significance of place to the everyday lives of Afro-Colombian youth - from their perspective. Beyond aiming to merely observe and collect data, the methodology included a research design which actively involved local youth and incorporated the aspect of place. The authors describe and reflect on the processes, learning and action that emerged throughout the research, as well as the study's limitations. They discuss broad implications in terms of how place relationships influence research, and how research influences place relationships. Local implications include supporting the voice of youth in community efforts to re-imagine and transform place relationships in response to critical place issues such as climate change, top-down resource management, privatisation, commodification and growing environmental injustice.

  17. The difference biocultural "place" makes to community efforts towards sustainable development: Youth participatory action research in a marine protected area of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRuer, Jennifer; Zethelius, Margarita

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American concept of "(collective) biocultural heritage" arose from Indigenous knowledge and practices with respect to local natural resources and environment, including the food being hunted, the crops being grown, and the landscapes being created. The term is now used more widely to describe community practices, goals and priorities that are determined, maintained and managed by diverse cultural relationships with "place". The study presented in this article investigated biocultural place relationships in connection with well-being and sustainability. In the context of learning and action for sustainability in Isla Grande, an island in a marine protected area of Colombia, this study targeted the significance of place to the everyday lives of Afro-Colombian youth - from their perspective. Beyond aiming to merely observe and collect data, the methodology included a research design which actively involved local youth and incorporated the aspect of place. The authors describe and reflect on the processes, learning and action that emerged throughout the research, as well as the study's limitations. They discuss broad implications in terms of how place relationships influence research, and how research influences place relationships. Local implications include supporting the voice of youth in community efforts to re-imagine and transform place relationships in response to critical place issues such as climate change, top-down resource management, privatisation, commodification and growing environmental injustice.

  18. Aquaculture in artificially developed wetlands in urban areas: an application of the bivariate relationship between soil and surface water in landscape ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands show a strong bivariate relationship between soil and surface water. Artificially developed wetlands help to build landscape ecology and make built environments sustainable. The bheries, wetlands of eastern Calcutta (India), utilize the city sewage to develop urban aquaculture that supports the local fish industries and opens a new frontier in sustainable environmental planning research.

  19. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  20. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1995-12-04

    Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms, is the newest and fastest growing US agricultural sector. In New Mexico, low winter temperatures and limited freshwater sources narrow culture production possibilities; however, it has long been recognized that the state has abundant supplies of both saline and geothermal ground waters. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the achievable energy savings and value enhancement of the byproduct geothermal energy by cascading fluids for the production of commercial aquaculture species. Specifically the project involved evaluating the heating systems performance in terms of heating budget for the geothermal assist, determine the total quantity of water used for culture and heating, amount of geothermal byproduct heat extracted, and ability of the system to maintain culture water temperatures during critical heating periods of the year. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of this new system with existing greenhouse heating requirements.

  1. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  2. Enhancing aquaculture development:mapping the tilapia aquaculture value chain in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Asiedu, Berchie; Failler, Pierre; Beyens, Yolaine

    2015-01-01

    Fish is important in the diet of millions of Ghanaians supplying protein and micronutrients. Ghanaians have developed taste preferences for the consumption of Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia), thereby booming the tilapia aquaculture industry. This paper looks comprehensively at the value chain of the tilapia aquaculture sector in Ghana to identify particular areas of intervention and development opportunities in achieving food security and nutrition needs, safety, quality and trade benefi...

  3. Scaling-up Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will target farmers involved in shrimp and oyster cultivation, as well as fish farmers, particularly women who play a large role in the industry. First, they will assess ways of increasing ... L'importance des services de garde d'enfants pour améliorer les possibilités économiques des femmes. Le 11 août 2017, des ...

  4. Use of probiotics for sustainable aquaculture production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though the use of antimicrobial drugs has helped in some ways, the notorious effects of antibiotics has necessitated seeking an alternative that is environmental friendly and safe for the organisms and consumers. Probiotics has been established to be a good alternative and its use is now gaining acceptance. This review ...

  5. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  6. Copper toxicity in aquaculture: A practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate is used as a therapeutant for various applications in aquaculture. There is a great deal of information on the toxicity of copper, especially in low-alkalinity waters; however, much of this information is fragmented, and a comprehensive guide of copper toxicity and safe concentration...

  7. Inverness College: Innovations in Aquaculture Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper describes the aquaculture program developed at Inverness College in Scotland. Inverness is located in the Scottish Highlands and serves an area roughly the size of Belgium, but with a population of only 300,000. The regional infrastructure and human capital resources in the Highlands are relatively weak due to inadequate transportation,…

  8. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  9. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    models of aquacultural production systems with the aim of adopting a suitable one for predicting the environment, .... cultured organisms. Thus, production is easily modeled as the sum of the weights of each surviving fish or the product of the average weight of the fish and the ..... for the effects by consumption of released.

  10. Biotechnology in Aquaculture: Prospects and Challenges | Edun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish farming is the world's fastest-growing sector of agricultural business. Consumer demand for fish products is increasing. At the same time, wild fish stocks are rapidly declining, mainly because of over-fishing. Aquaculture contributes more than 16 million tones of fish and shellfish annually to the world food supply.

  11. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of specific aquaculture systems and the impacts of their management practices leads to sound and cost-effective policies to protect the aquatic environment. Water samples were collected in 2009 from fish ponds, streams that receive effluents directly from ponds and reference streams in Ghana to assess ...

  12. Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -Pacific de même que professeur honoraire d'aquaculture et de biologie halieutique à la School of Life and Environmental Sciences de l'Université Deakin, qui se trouve dans l'État de Victoria, en Australie. Membre honoraire ...

  13. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture | Ayoola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biotechnology in various aspects of human endeavour have obviously created a great impact but not without some risks. Not withstanding, there is still the need for its adoption as more of the already adopted biotechnologies are being improved upon with lesser demerits. Aquaculture is not also left out in the ...

  15. Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    VIDA (PPV) alliance evaluated the potential contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to food security, developed recommended best practices, implemented pilot .... In: Proyecto Mejoramiento de la Legislación. Para la Pesca y Acuicultura. Tribunal Constitucional. Plurinacional, Bolivia. • FAO. (2014). The State of World ...

  16. Marine Invertebrate Metabolites with Anticancer Activities: Solutions to the “Supply Problem”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. M. Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates provide a rich source of metabolites with anticancer activities and several marine-derived agents have been approved for the treatment of cancer. However, the limited supply of promising anticancer metabolites from their natural sources is a major hurdle to their preclinical and clinical development. Thus, the lack of a sustainable large-scale supply has been an important challenge facing chemists and biologists involved in marine-based drug discovery. In the current review we describe the main strategies aimed to overcome the supply problem. These include: marine invertebrate aquaculture, invertebrate and symbiont cell culture, culture-independent strategies, total chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis, and a number of hybrid strategies. We provide examples illustrating the application of these strategies for the supply of marine invertebrate-derived anticancer agents. Finally, we encourage the scientific community to develop scalable methods to obtain selected metabolites, which in the authors’ opinion should be pursued due to their most promising anticancer activities.

  17. The role of docosahexaenoic and the marine food web as determinants of evolution and hominid brain development: the challenge for human sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael A; Broadhurst, C Leigh

    2012-01-01

    hypothesis from fossil evidence of human evolution taking advantage of the marine food web. Lipids are still modifying the present evolutionary phase of our species; their signature is evident in the changing panorama of non-communicable diseases. The most worrying change in disease pattern is the sharp rise in brain disorders, which, in the European Union, has overtaken the cost of all other burdens of ill health at €386 billion for the 25 member states at 2004 prices. In 2007, the UK cost was estimated at £77 billion and confirmed in 2010 at £105 billion - greater than heart disease and cancer combined. The rise in mental ill health is now being globalised. The solution to the rising vascular disorders in the last century and now brain disorders in this century lies in a radical reappraisal of the food system, which last century was focussed on protein and calories, with little attention paid to the requirements of the brain - the very organ that was the determinant of human evolution. With the marine fish catch having plateaued 20 years ago and its sustainability now under threat, a critical aspect of this revision is the development of marine agriculture from estuarine, coastal and oceanic resources. Such action is likely to play a key role in future health and intelligence.

  18. Influence of environmental variables in the efficiency of phage therapy in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Yolanda J; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-09-01

    Aquaculture facilities worldwide continue to experience significant economic losses because of disease caused by pathogenic bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. This scenario drives the search for alternative methods to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. Phage therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics for inactivation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture systems. While phage therapy appears to represent a useful and flexible tool for microbiological decontamination of aquaculture effluents, the effect of physical and chemical properties of culture waters on the efficiency of this technology has never been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical properties of aquaculture waters (e.g. pH, temperature, salinity and organic matter content) on the efficiency of phage therapy under controlled experimental conditions in order to provide a basis for the selection of the most suitable protocol for subsequent experiments. A bioluminescent genetically transformed Escherichia coli was selected as a model microorganism to monitor real-time phage therapy kinetics through the measurement of bioluminescence, thus avoiding the laborious and time-consuming conventional method of counting colony-forming units (CFU). For all experiments, a bacterial concentration of ≈ 10(5) CFU ml(-1) and a phage concentration of ≈ 10(6-8) plaque forming unit ml(-1) were used. Phage survival was not significantly affected by the natural variability of pH (6.5-7.4), temperature (10-25 °C), salinity (0-30 g NaCl l(-1) ) and organic matter concentration of aquaculture waters in a temperate climate. Nonetheless, the efficiency of phage therapy was mostly affected by the variation of salinity and organic matter content. As the effectiveness of phage therapy increases with water salt content, this approach appears to be a suitable choice for marine aquaculture systems. The success of phage therapy may also be enhanced in

  19. Marine Planning and Service Platform: specific ontology based semantic search engine serving data management and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Bartolini, Andrea; Bustaffa, Franco; D'Angelo, Paolo; De Mattei, Maurizio; Frontini, Francesca; Maltese, Maurizio; Medone, Daniele; Monachini, Monica; Novellino, Antonio; Spada, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The MAPS (Marine Planning and Service Platform) project is aiming at building a computer platform supporting a Marine Information and Knowledge System. One of the main objective of the project is to develop a repository that should gather, classify and structure marine scientific literature and data thus guaranteeing their accessibility to researchers and institutions by means of standard protocols. In oceanography the cost related to data collection is very high and the new paradigm is based on the concept to collect once and re-use many times (for re-analysis, marine environment assessment, studies on trends, etc). This concept requires the access to quality controlled data and to information that is provided in reports (grey literature) and/or in relevant scientific literature. Hence, creation of new technology is needed by integrating several disciplines such as data management, information systems, knowledge management. In one of the most important EC projects on data management, namely SeaDataNet (www.seadatanet.org), an initial example of knowledge management is provided through the Common Data Index, that is providing links to data and (eventually) to papers. There are efforts to develop search engines to find author's contributions to scientific literature or publications. This implies the use of persistent identifiers (such as DOI), as is done in ORCID. However very few efforts are dedicated to link publications to the data cited or used or that can be of importance for the published studies. This is the objective of MAPS. Full-text technologies are often unsuccessful since they assume the presence of specific keywords in the text; in order to fix this problem, the MAPS project suggests to use different semantic technologies for retrieving the text and data and thus getting much more complying results. The main parts of our design of the search engine are: • Syntactic parser - This module is responsible for the extraction of "rich words" from the text

  20. Aquaculture of Microalgae in New-Caledonia (AMICAL): development of a co2 supply device for intensive microalgae culture. assessment of the device with carbon budget of cultures in microcosm.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Kento; Coulombier, Noemie; Le Dean, Loic; Brun, Pierre; Chim, Liet

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture diversification has been set as a major policy by New Caledonia public authorities. This has been set up to carry by ADECAL Technopole which carries projects in view of developing cultivation marine species native from Caledonian waters. In this context, the development of micro-algal cultures has been identified as a priority. The study presented has been co-funded by Glencore company in New Caledonia and achieved under the program entitled Aquaculture of MIcro-algae in new-C...

  1. Isolation of Birnavirus serogroup B in wild and aquacultured fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Mellergaard, Stig; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    During cruises with Danish research vessels more than 17,000 wild marine fish belonging to 41 different species were sampled and examined virologically. Birnavirus serogroup B was isolated from 7 marine fish species: plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda), flounder (Platichthys...... and the Kattegat. Surveillance of aquacultured fish, mainly rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), for VHS, IHN and IPN, in Denmark during the previous 30 years, have resulted in Birnavirus serogroup B isolations twice. These isolations were from healthy rainbow trout. Samples sent to the Danish Veterinary...... Laboratory for virological examination and characterisation have revealed the presence of Birnavirus serogroup B in haddock (ML Melanogrammus aeglefinus), plaice and dab from wild marine fish caught by Irish fishermen and from Icelandic farmed halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)....

  2. A SWOT analysis of aquaculture development in rural areas of Iran, an application to Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Moogouei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study various important indices were selected to assess the sustainable aquaculture strategies in rural areas of Iran. In addition the government officials, consultants and managers were surveyed to assess the indices of aquaculture development. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats   analyses were used to make a comprehensive evaluation on internal and external factors, participating the development of aquaculture strategies. The sum of the attractiveness scores from the Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix was approximately 2.55, being larger than 2.5, indicating that the strengths exceed the weaknesses. The sum of the External Factor Evaluation Matrix scores was 3.49, indicating that opportunities were higher than threats. This analysis showed that the development of aquaculture, promotion of new cold-water species production, productivity enhancement, establishment of hatchery facilities and formation of an effective support organization are the most important strategies that should be considered in the studied area. Results obtained on this research help decision makers on work of the aquaculture sector in rural areas of Iran.

  3. Genomic characterization of the aquaculture resource Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Murgarella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autonomous community of Galicia (NW Spain, M. galloprovincialis is a natural resource of high economic importance to the economy of this region. More than 250,000 MTs of mussels are produced per year, representing 40% of the European production of this bivalve and 80% of the marine aquacultural production of the country. Besides its aquaculture interest, study of the biology M. galloprovincialis may also help to understand better fundamental aspects of molluscan biology. On the other hand, some fascinating features of mediterranean mussels are unique to this species such as its extraordinary resistance to diseases. In fact, in comparison with other bivalves, no records of massive mortality of this organism caused by pathogens has been reported so far. Although some of the molecular components of the innate immune system, responsible of this resistance, have been previously identified and characterized, the genetic mechanisms underlying their diversity are poorly understood. In order to understand better this organism at genome level and search for the genetic basis of its disease resistance, we sequenced its genome at high depth using Illumina technology. After assembling the resulting reads and assisted with transcriptomic data, we annotated its genome sequence. First, we analysed the content of repetitive elements, finding those that are common among molluscs as well as identifying new repeat families unique to M. galloprovincialis. Second, we predicted and annotated its gene repertoire, defining the total number of genes and their density in its genome. Finally, the resulting in silico predicted genes were functionally annotated. Altogether, this information will allow the identification of genes of interest, such as those participating in the innate immunity and will allow us to delve into the possibility of whether their variability has a genetic basis or relies on post-transcriptional events. In addition to this annotation, some

  4. Genomic approaches in aquaculture and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancela, M. Leonor; Bargelloni, Luca; Boudry, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    . Improving state-of-the-art genomics research in various aquaculture systems, as well as its industrial applications, remains one of the major challenges in this area and should be the focus of well developed strategies to be implemented in the next generation of projects. This chapter will first provide......Despite the enormous input into the worldwide development of fish and shellfish farming in the recent decades, in part as an attempt to minimize the impact of fishing on already overexploited natural populations, the application of genomics to aquaculture and fisheries remains poorly developed...... an overview of the genomic tools and resources available, then discuss the application of genomic approaches to the improvement of fish and shellfish farming (e.g. breeding, reproduction, growth, nutrition and product quality), including the evaluation of stock diversity and the use of selection procedures...

  5. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  6. New aquaculture drugs under FDA review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

  7. Pêches, aquaculture et bien vivre en Bolivie

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De 2011 à 2014, l'alliance PECES PARA LA VIDA (PPV –. Poissons pour la vie) a évalué l'éventuelle contribution des pêches et de l'aquaculture à la sécurité .... Van Damme, P. et Bravo, N. (2009). Diagnóstico de. Pesca Continental y Acuicultura en Bolivia. Anexo. 1. In: Proyecto Mejoramiento de la Legislación Para.

  8. Site Dependent Beneficial Effects of Aquaculture Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, K. M.; Viadero, R. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effect of aquaculture effluent on community structure was examined in a stream formed by the discharge of treated acid mine water. The mine water stream and the raceway stream whose source was treated mine water were sampled. In addition, a site below the confluence of the mine water and raceway streams was also sampled. Initially, there were no significant differences in macroinvertebrate density, diversity or community structure in the closed canopy, low light, mine water and raceway streams. However, in the high light environment below the confluence, the community included a substantial proportion of grazers and density was significantly lower. After an inadvertent resuspension of precipitated metal hydroxides from the AMD treatment facility, communities in the mine water stream and below the confluence were strongly dominated by chironomids while the raceway stream maintained much of its diversity. At the end of the study period diversity in all streams was significantly greater than in earlier samples however, densities were 6-8x lower than initial values in the raceway and mine water streams. This study demonstrated that there was little effect of aquaculture effluent on the benthic community in a low-light environment. Additionally, aquaculture effluent mediated the negative effects of AMD metals.

  9. State of the art of Italian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

  10. In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Caralt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of the most reliable methods to supply pharmaceutical companies with sufficient quantities of the target compound. In this study, we focus on the aquaculture of the sponge Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862, which produces avarol, a sterol with interesting pharmaceutical attributes. The soft consistency of this species makes the traditional culture method based on holding explants on ropes unsuitable. We have tested alternative culture methods for D. avara and optimized the underwater structures to hold the sponges to be used in aquaculture. Explants of this sponge were mounted on horizontal ropes, inside small cages or glued to substrates. Culture efficiency was evaluated by determination of sponge survival, growth rates, and bioactivity (as an indication of production of the target metabolite. While the cage method was the best method for explant survival, the glue method was the best one for explant growth and the rope method for bioactivity.

  11. In situ aquaculture methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera) in the northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caralt, Sonia; Sánchez-Fontenla, Javier; Uriz, María J; Wijffels, Rene H

    2010-05-26

    Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of the most reliable methods to supply pharmaceutical companies with sufficient quantities of the target compound. In this study, we focus on the aquaculture of the sponge Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862), which produces avarol, a sterol with interesting pharmaceutical attributes. The soft consistency of this species makes the traditional culture method based on holding explants on ropes unsuitable. We have tested alternative culture methods for D. avara and optimized the underwater structures to hold the sponges to be used in aquaculture. Explants of this sponge were mounted on horizontal ropes, inside small cages or glued to substrates. Culture efficiency was evaluated by determination of sponge survival, growth rates, and bioactivity (as an indication of production of the target metabolite). While the cage method was the best method for explant survival, the glue method was the best one for explant growth and the rope method for bioactivity.

  12. Effects of nanoparticles in species of aquaculture interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Katuli, Kheyrollah; Prato, Ermelinda; Lofrano, Giusy; Guida, Marco; Vale, Gonçalo; Libralato, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    Recently, it was observed that there is an increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in aquaculture. Manufacturers are trying to use nano-based tools to remove the barriers about waterborne food, growth, reproduction, and culturing of species, their health, and water treatment in order to increase aquaculture production rates, being the safe-by-design approach still unapplied. We reviewed the applications of NPs in aquaculture evidencing that the way NPs are applied can be very different: some are direclty added to feed, other to water media or in aquaculture facilities. Traditional toxicity data cannot be easily used to infer on aquaculture mainly considering short-term exposure scenarios, underestimating the potential exposure of aquacultured species. The main outputs are (i) biological models are not recurrent, and in the case, testing protocols are frequently different; (ii) most data derived from toxicity studies are not specifically designed on aquaculture needs, thus contact time, exposure concentrations, and other ancillary conditions do not meet the required standard for aquaculture; (iii) short-term exposure periods are investigated mainly on species of indirect aquaculture interest, while shrimp and fish as final consumers in aquaculture plants are underinvestigated (scarce or unknown data on trophic chain transfer of NPs): little information is available about the amount of NPs accumulated within marketed organisms; (iv) how NPs present in the packaging of aquacultured products can affect their quality remained substantially unexplored. NPs in aquaculture are a challenging topic that must be developed in the near future to assure human health and environmental safety. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. Does Aquaculture Support the Needs of Nutritionally Vulnerable Nations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture now supplies half of the fish consumed directly by humans. We evaluate whether aquaculture, given current patterns of production and distribution, supports the needs of poor and food-insecure populations throughout the world. We begin by identifying 41 seafood-reliant nutritionally vulnerable nations (NVNs, and ask whether aquaculture meets human nutritional demand directly via domestic production or trade, or indirectly via purchase of nutritionally rich dietary substitutes. We find that a limited number of NVNs have domestically farmed seafood, and of those, only specific aquaculture approaches (e.g., freshwater in some locations have the potential to benefit nutritionally vulnerable populations. While assessment of aquaculture's direct contribution via trade is constrained by data limitations, we find that it is unlikely to contribute substantially to human nutrition in vulnerable groups, as most exported aquaculture consists of high-value species for international markets. We also determine that subpopulations who benefit from aquaculture profits are likely not the same subpopulations who are nutritionally vulnerable, and more research is needed to understand the impacts of aquaculture income gains. Finally, we discuss the relationship of aquaculture to existing trends in capture fisheries in NVNs, and suggest strategies to create lasting solutions to nutritional security, without exacerbating existing challenges in access to food and land resources.

  14. The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Josupeit, Helga; Cai, Junning; Zhou, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    The 1996 World Food Summit defined food security as "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". This paper looks at the status of production from both shrimp capture fisheries and shrimp aquaculture, as well as trade, in order to understand the contribution of the crustacean sector to overall fish production and thus to global food security. This paper also examines some sustainability issues that will potentially affect the contribution of the crustacean sector (particularly shrimp) to food security. These include sustainable shrimp capture fisheries, sustainable shrimp trade and sustainable shrimp aquaculture. The paper concludes that crustaceans are an important source of aquatic food protein. Production (as food and ornamental) and trade are extremely important for developing countries. It provides both economic development and empowerment in terms of contribution to GDP, consumption, employment, catch value and exports. The crustacean sector generates high value export products which enables producers to buy lower value products in the world market - thus a positive contribution to food security in both producing and exporting countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Sadeghi-Nassaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named “extractive” species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM. However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. Methods During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (−holothurian only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata, whereas the other tank (+holothurian also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali. We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm and qualitative (spectral slopes optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H and –holothurians (−H. We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four –H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata. Results In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm (a325 and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm (S275−295 were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m−1 and 16 µm−1, respectively than in the effluent of the −holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m−1 and 34 µm−1, respectively, the former

  16. INFOMAR - Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme: A Tool For Marine Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    INFOMAR is Ireland's national seabed mapping programme and is a key action in the national integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. It comprises a multi-platform approach to delivering marine integrated mapping in 2 phases, over a projected 20 year timeline (2006-2026). The programme has three work strands; Data Acquisition, Data Exchange and Integration, and Value Added Exploitation. The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of hydrographic, oceanographic, geological, habitat and heritage datasets that will underpin future sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resource. INFOMAR outputs are delivered through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of these outputs are wide ranging and multipurpose, from management plans for fisheries, aquaculture and coastal protection works, to environmental impact assessments, ocean renewable development and integrated coastal zone management. In order to address the evolution and diversification of maritime user requirements, the programme has realigned and developed outputs and new products, in part, through an innovative research funding initiative. Development is also fostered through the Value Added Exploitation strand. INFOMAR outputs and products serve to underpin delivery of Ireland's statutory obligations and enhance compliance with EU and national legislation. This is achieved through co-operation with the agencies responsible for supporting Ireland's international obligations and for the implementation of marine spatial planning. A strategic national seabed mapping programme such as INFOMAR, provides a critical baseline dataset which underpins development of the marine economy, and improves our understanding of the response of marine systems to pressures, and the effect of cumulative impacts. This paper will focus on the evolution and scope of INFOMAR, and look at examples of outputs being harnessed to serve approaches to the management of activities having an impact on the

  17. Proteomics and its applications to aquaculture in China: infection, immunity, and interaction of aquaculture hosts with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  19. Current status of parasitic ciliates Chilodonella spp. (Phyllopharyngea: Chilodonellidae) in freshwater fish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Gomes, G; Jerry, D R; Miller, T L; Hutson, K S

    2017-05-01

    Freshwater fish farming contributes to more than two-thirds of global aquaculture production. Parasitic ciliates are one of the largest causes of production loss in freshwater farmed fishes, with species from the genus Chilodonella being particularly problematic. While Chilodonella spp. include 'free-living' fauna, some species are involved in mortality events of fish, particularly in high-density aquaculture. Indeed, chilodonellosis causes major productivity losses in over 16 species of farmed freshwater fishes in more than 14 countries. Traditionally, Chilodonella species are identified based on morphological features; however, the genus comprises yet uncharacterized cryptic species, which indicates the necessity for molecular diagnostic methods. This review synthesizes current knowledge on the biology, ecology and geographic distribution of harmful Chilodonella spp. and examines pathological signs, diagnostic methods and treatments. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics and the ability to culture Chilodonella spp. in vitro will enable the development of preventative management practices and sustained freshwater fish aquaculture production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S

    2005-10-01

    Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments.

  1. Optimization of aquaculture systems in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M. [Instituto Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja, Madrid (Spain); Carrillo, M. [Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre la Sal, Castellon (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    An analysis of present heat production systems, using fossil fuel combustion, employed for sea water heating in Spanish hatcheries is given in this paper and compared to a technical solution based on the employment of a heat pump. Price per unit of produced energy is calculated for each system using liquid and gaseous fuels, and then these prices are compared to the price obtained for a heat pump. The heat pump system is also compared, from the point of view of its precision in maintaining temperatures, to the systems used at the present. A project prototype for thermal conditioning and temperature control in aquaculture rearing tanks is described. (author)

  2. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Mellergaard, Stig

    2005-01-01

    origin of the isolates, with one group representing traditional European freshwater isolates and isolates of north European marine origin, a second group of marine isolates from the Baltic Sea, a third group of isolates from the North Sea, and a group representing North American isolates. Examples...... of possible transfer of virus from free-living marine fish to farmed fish are discussed, as are measures to prevent introduction of VHSV from the marine environment to aquaculture....

  3. Genetic evidence for the uncoupling of local aquaculture activities and a population of an invasive species--a case study of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochmann, Judith; Carlsson, Jens; Crowe, Tasman P; Mariani, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Human-mediated introduction of nonnative species into coastal areas via aquaculture is one of the main pathways that can lead to biological invasions. To develop strategies to counteract invasions, it is critical to determine whether populations establishing in the wild are self-sustaining or based on repeated introductions. Invasions by the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) have been associated with the growing oyster aquaculture industry worldwide. In this study, temporal genetic variability of farmed and wild oysters from the largest enclosed bay in Ireland was assessed to reconstruct the recent biological history of the feral populations using 7 anonymous microsatellites and 7 microsatellites linked to expressed sequence tags (ESTs). There was no evidence of EST-linked markers showing footprints of selection. Allelic richness was higher in feral than in aquaculture samples (P = 0.003, paired t-test). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to heterozygote deficiencies were detected for almost all loci and samples, most likely explained by the presence of null alleles. Relatively high genetic differentiation was found between aquaculture and feral oysters (largest pairwise multilocus F(ST) 0.074, P aquaculture (largest pairwise multilocus F(ST) 0.073, P aquaculture and wild samples using Bayesian clustering approaches. A 10-fold higher effective population size (N(e)) and a high number of private alleles in wild oysters suggest an established self-sustaining feral population. The wild oyster population studied appears demographically independent from the current aquaculture activities in the estuary and alternative scenarios of introduction pathways are discussed.

  4. Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Martin; Gottesfeld, Allen; Proctor, Bart; Rolston, Dave; Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Lewis, Mark A

    2007-12-22

    Animal migrations can affect disease dynamics. One consequence of migration common to marine fish and invertebrates is migratory allopatry-a period of spatial separation between adult and juvenile hosts, which is caused by host migration and which prevents parasite transmission from adult to juvenile hosts. We studied this characteristic for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from one of the Canada's largest salmon stocks. Migratory allopatry protects juvenile salmon from L. salmonis for two to three months of early marine life (2-3% prevalence). In contrast, host diversity facilitates access for C. clemensi to juvenile salmon (8-20% prevalence) but infections appear ephemeral. Aquaculture can augment host abundance and diversity and increase parasite exposure of wild juvenile fish. An empirically parametrized model shows high sensitivity of salmon populations to increased L. salmonis exposure, predicting population collapse at one to five motile L. salmonis per juvenile pink salmon. These results characterize parasite threats of salmon aquaculture to wild salmon populations and show how host migration and diversity are important factors affecting parasite transmission in the oceans.

  5. Building climate resilience in Thailand's aquaculture industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... People in Southeast Asia have been farming fish for centuries, and aquaculture is an important industry in Thailand. In 2010, the total yield of aquatic animal products was more than 3 million tons, with approximately 42% coming from freshwater and coastal aquaculture and the rest from wild capture ...

  6. Fish production practices and use of aquaculture technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of aquaculture in meeting the increasing demand for fish all over the World cannot be over emphasized. The study investigated types of improved aquaculture technologies used by the fish farmers in Oyo State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 117 (60%) fish farmers randomly selected from ...

  7. Support to the CGIAR Program on Aquaculture | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Support to the CGIAR Program on Aquaculture. More than 700 million people depend on aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) for their livelihood. These are diverse farming systems that include a mix of cultivation, livestock-raising, aquaculture, fishing, and gathering natural resources such as fruits, seeds, timber and wildlife.

  8. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aquaculture currently contributes almost half of the aquatic animals consumed by humans, and this percentage is expected to grow. A large fraction of global aquaculture production takes place in the tropics and subtropics of Asia, serving as an important source of employment and food security for rural residents. However ...

  9. Aqua-Topics. Aquaculture for Youth and Youth Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Eileen

    This booklet contains information on aquaculture and ideas for aquaculture projects. The information provided is for students at upper elementary through high school learning levels. Recommended activities at the end of the text are organized by level of difficulty. The activities can be modified depending on area and availability of resources. A…

  10. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, research on climate change and aquaculture is limited compared to many other agricultural activities. This project focuses on tilapia grown in farm ponds or floating cages in rivers and reservoirs in northern Thailand. It explores both how aquaculture practices should adapt to changing climatic conditions and the ...

  11. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les chercheurs exploreront des façons d'adapter les pratiques aquacoles aux changements climatiques et analyseront la valeur de l'aquaculture comme stratégie d'adaptation. Les chercheurs étudieront les ... Papers. Improving climate risk management as an adaptation strategy in inland aquaculture in Northern Thailand ...

  12. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Naylor, R.L.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Tyedmers, P.H.; Folke, C.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Crepin, A.S.; Ehrlich, P.; Gren, R.; Kautsky, N.; Levin, S.A.; Nyborg, K.; Osterblom, H.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.H.; Xepapadeas, T.; Zeeuw, de A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment

  13. The use of Probiotics in Aquaculture | Edun | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disease outbreaks are being increasingly recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade, affecting the economic development of the sector in many countries. An increase of productivity in aquaculture has been accompanied by ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of ...

  14. Potential hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, is fraught with potential hazards and risks which are categorized into occupational, environmental, food safety and public health. This paper reviewed major hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry and proffered strategies for their management and control.

  15. Building climate resilience in Thailand's aquaculture industry | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People in Southeast Asia have been farming fish for centuries, and aquaculture is an important industry in Thailand. In 2010, the total yield of aquatic animal products was more than 3 million tons, with approximately 42% coming from freshwater and coastal aquaculture and the rest from wild capture fisheries. As consumer ...

  16. Major constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study contributes to nationwide attempts to enhance the contributions of aquaculture to the fishery subsector, and consequent overall gross domestic product of Nigeria, as well as to the protein intake of her citizenry. The focus is on the determination of the magnitude of constraints affecting aquaculture development in ...

  17. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    scale aquaculture value chains in two pilot areas: capture fisheries in the northern Bolivian Amazon (Paiche) and pond aquaculture of native fish in the Marmoré basin in the northeastern Amazon. The team will analyze the nutritional value of ...

  18. Land Subsidence in Chiayi, Taiwan, from Compaction Well, Leveling and ALOS/PALSAR: Aquaculture-Induced Relative Sea Level Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Hung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiayi County is located in the largest alluvial plain of Taiwan with extensive aquaculture and rice farming sustained by water extracted from groundwater wells. Chiayi is a typical aquaculture area affected by land subsidence, yet such lands worldwide combine to provide nearly 90% of global aquaculture products, greatly reducing oceanic overfishing problems. This study uses precision leveling, multi-layer compaction monitoring well (MLCW and spaceborne SAR interferometry (InSAR to examine the cause and effect of land subsidence in Chiayi associated with groundwater extractions and changes. Heights at benchmarks in a leveling network are measured annually and soil compactions at 24–26 layers up to 300-m depths at 7 MLCWs are collected at one-month intervals. Over 2007–2011, 15 ALOS/PALSAR images are processed by the method of TCPInSAR to produce subsidence rates. All sensors show that land subsidence occur in most parts of Chiayi, with rates reaching 4.5 cm/year around its coast, a result of groundwater pumping from shallow to deep aquifers. MLCWs detect mm-accuracy seasonal soil compactions coinciding with groundwater level fluctuations and causing dynamic compactions. Compactions near Taiwan High Speed Rail may reduce the strength of the rail’s supporting columns to degrade its safety. The SAR images yield subsidence rates consistent with those from leveling and compaction wells after corrections for systematic errors by the leveling result. Subsidence in Chiayi’s coastal area leads to relative sea level rises at rates up to 15 times larger than the global eustatic sea level rising rate, a risk typical for world’s aquaculture-rich regions. At the fish pond-covered Budai Township, InSAR identifies subsidence spots not detected by leveling, providing crucial geo-information for a sustainable land management for aquaculture industry.

  19. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D.; Tello, Alfredo; Keen, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in genes found in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture. PMID:23986749

  20. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D. Miranda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

  1. Farmers risk perception and risk management strategies in an emerging mussel aquaculture industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Roth, Eva

    2010-01-01

    important risk management strategies. When developing and changing policies for farmers’ reliability and for the long-term sustainability of mussel aquaculture, policy-makers should consider those risks and risk management strategies which have been emphasized by the farmers.......The aim of this exploratory study is to provide empirical insight into how the mussel farmers perceive and manage risks. The results show that future price and demand of mussel are the high ranked perceived risk. Bad weather, oxygen depletion, harmful algal blooms, E-coli, change in governmental...

  2. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  3. Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, James

    2005-01-01

    Aquaculture has been one of the most rapid and technically innovative of food production sectors globally, with significant investment, scientific and technical development and production growth in many parts of the world over the past two decades. While this has had a significant effect on the global supply of aquatic food products and had an important impact in rural and urban food supply and employment in many developing economies, growth and increasing internationalization has not been without concern for natural resource use, environmental impact and social disruption. The expectations for production and diversification are now significant and while the scientific and technical means are already available to meet much of the intended targets, practical constraints of investment, profitability, resource access and system efficiency are likely to become far more important constraints for the future. This review offers a contemporary perspective on the ways in which the sector might develop, its interactions with constraints and the strategies that may be required to ensure that future development is both positive and sustainable. PMID:15713597

  4. Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Budd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex-linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment.

  5. Développement durable : pourquoi l’homme ne peut pas être seul au centre du concept de "sustainability". Le point de vue d’écologues marins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Dauvin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La traduction française « développement durable » de l’anglais "sustainable development" définie comme un mode de développement répondant aux besoins présents sans compromettre la capacité des générations futures de répondre aux leurs, nous paraît très tendancieuse. L’objectif de cette note est de donner le point de vue d’écologues marins sur le concept de développement durable. Sont successivement explorés :  la définition des auteurs comparée à celle favorisée dans les sciences humaines ; l’identification des mers côtières, leurs problèmes, les risques et les enjeux auxquelles elles sont confrontées ; les conditions requises pour un développement soutenable des écosystèmes marins côtiers. En conclusion, il est insisté sur les difficultés rencontrées pour rencontrer un développement soutenable en mer, en raison de l’insuffisance des connaissances et du trop relatif intérêt porté à la mer par les responsables politiques et institutionnels français.The French translation, “développement durable”, of the English expression, “sustainable development”, defines a mode of development intended to meet the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This definition appears to us to be very biased. The objective of this paper is to provide the point of view of marine ecologists on the concept of sustainable development. In this paper, we explore in succession: the authors’ own definition compared with the one used in the social sciences, the identification of the coastal seas, their problems, and risks and stakes that confront them, and the requirements for a sustainable development of the coastal marine ecosystems. In conclusion, we highlight the difficulties encountered in meeting the requirements of sustainable development at sea, due to insufficient knowledge and the very relative interest given the sea by the French

  6. A Mapping of Marine Biodiversity Research Trends and Collaboration in the East Asia Region from 1996–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungjoon Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many countries define policies to manage oceans and coastal areas in order to utilize marine ecosystems strategically. When we reviewed the strategies and policies of various countries in relation to ocean sustainability, we found that biodiversity preservation is a key issue for policies related to sustainable marine development. We investigated the research trends and collaboration status of China, Japan and South Korea regarding marine biodiversity through the analysis of scientific articles using bibliometric analysis. The results showed that Japan collaborated the most with other countries compared to China and South Korea. All three countries collaborated with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries frequently. South Korea showed the strongest inter-collaboration amongst China, Japan and South Korea. Microorganism research is a common research topic in China, Japan and South Korea. Each country demonstrated its own prominent research area, such as local region research in China, deep-sea research in Japan and aquaculture research in South Korea.

  7. Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Calado, R.; Sheridan, C.; Alimonti, A.; Osinga, R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the blue gold in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these

  8. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  9. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.

  10. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  11. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  12. Crustacean amphipods from marsh ponds: a nutritious feed resource with potential for application in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Fernández-Diaz, Catalina; Vilas, César; Cañavate, José Pedro; Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Coastal protection, nutrient cycling, erosion control, water purification, and carbon sequestration are ecosystem services provided by salt marshes. Additionally, salt ponds offer coastal breeding and a nursery habitat for fishes and they provide abundant invertebrates, such as amphipods, which are potentially useful as a resource in aquaculture. Fishmeal and fish oil are necessary food resources to support aquaculture of carnivorous species due to their omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). Currently, aquaculture depends on limited fisheries and feed with elevated n-3 LC-PUFA levels, but the development of more sustainable food sources is necessary. Amphipods appear to be a potential high quality alternative feed resource for aquaculture. Hence, a nutritional study was carried out for several main amphipod species—Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, Monocorophium acherusicum, Gammarus insensibilis, Melita palmata and Cymadusa filosa—in terrestrial ponds in the South of Spain. These species showed high protein content (up to 40%), high n-3 PUFA and phospholipid levels, and high levels of phophatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and triacylglycerols (TAG), the latter being significantly high for M. acherusicum. M. gryllotalpa and M. acherusicum showed the highest proportion of lipids (19.15% and 18.35%, respectively). Isoleucine, glycine and alanine were the dominant amino acids in all species. In addition, amphipods collected from ponds showed low levels of heavy metals. Furthermore, the biochemical profiles of the five species of amphipods have been compared with other studied alternative prey. Therefore, pond amphipods are good candidates to be used as feed, and are proposed as a new sustainable economic resource to be used in aquaculture. G. insensibilis may be the best for intensive culture as an alternative feed resource because it shows: (1) adequate n-3 PUFA and PL composition; (2) high levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine

  13. Crustacean amphipods from marsh ponds: a nutritious feed resource with potential for application in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Jiménez-Prada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal protection, nutrient cycling, erosion control, water purification, and carbon sequestration are ecosystem services provided by salt marshes. Additionally, salt ponds offer coastal breeding and a nursery habitat for fishes and they provide abundant invertebrates, such as amphipods, which are potentially useful as a resource in aquaculture. Fishmeal and fish oil are necessary food resources to support aquaculture of carnivorous species due to their omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA. Currently, aquaculture depends on limited fisheries and feed with elevated n-3 LC-PUFA levels, but the development of more sustainable food sources is necessary. Amphipods appear to be a potential high quality alternative feed resource for aquaculture. Hence, a nutritional study was carried out for several main amphipod species—Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, Monocorophium acherusicum, Gammarus insensibilis, Melita palmata and Cymadusa filosa—in terrestrial ponds in the South of Spain. These species showed high protein content (up to 40%, high n-3 PUFA and phospholipid levels, and high levels of phophatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and triacylglycerols (TAG, the latter being significantly high for M. acherusicum. M. gryllotalpa and M. acherusicum showed the highest proportion of lipids (19.15% and 18.35%, respectively. Isoleucine, glycine and alanine were the dominant amino acids in all species. In addition, amphipods collected from ponds showed low levels of heavy metals. Furthermore, the biochemical profiles of the five species of amphipods have been compared with other studied alternative prey. Therefore, pond amphipods are good candidates to be used as feed, and are proposed as a new sustainable economic resource to be used in aquaculture. G. insensibilis may be the best for intensive culture as an alternative feed resource because it shows: (1 adequate n-3 PUFA and PL composition; (2 high levels of glycine, alanine

  14. Technology Model of Aquaculture Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, K. W.; Salleh, S. M.; Abdullah; Ezree, Mohd; Zaman, I.; Hatta, M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ismail, A. E.; Mahmud, W. A. W.

    2017-10-01

    The high market demand has led to the rapid growth in fish farming. The young generation are inexperienced in determining the estimated results of fish farming and the preparation of fish pond during the period of fish farming. These need a complete guide as their reference which includes the knowledge of fish farming. The main objective of this project is to develop a practical design of real pond appropriate with aquaculture technology and fish farming production. There are three parts of study in this project which include fish farming cage, growth of fish and water quality of fish farming pond. Few of experiments were carried out involved the collection data in terms of growth of fish and parameters of water quality.

  15. Regulations for marine microalgal toxins: Towards harmonization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxins produced by marine microalgae are harmful to humans and a serious threat to aquaculture and fisheries. Most seafood-producing countries have established monitoring programmes and regulations to protect public health from the risk of toxin exposure. However, there are disparities in current regulations regarding ...

  16. Organic waste and antibiotics from aquaculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuelsen, O; Torsvik, V; Hansen, P.K; Pittman, K; Ervik, A

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents joint projects dealing with the following topics: 1) decomposition rate of organic waste, flux between the sediment and water of various inorganic compounds, and distribution of waste through the marine food chain; 2...

  17. Cryopreservation of marine invertebrate early-life stages: applications in marine quality assessment and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Rosendo, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es desarrollar protocolos de criopreservación para estados tempranos de desarrollo para varias especies de invertebrados marinos: erizo de mar Paracentrotus lividus, ostra Crassostrea gigas y dos especies de mejillón, Mytilus galoprovinciallis y Perna canaliculus. Este trabajo de divide en cinco capítulos, una introducción general, tres capítulos de experimentación como compilaciones de siete artículos, cada uno de ellos con sus introducciones, material y mé...

  18. Taxonomy of Means and Ends in Aquaculture Production—Part 1: The Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnheidur Bjornsdottir; Gudmundur Valur Oddsson; Ragnheidur I. Thorarinsdottir; Runar Unnthorsson

    2016-01-01

    The aquaculture sector has been increasing its share in the total fish production in the world. Numerous studies have been published about aquaculture, introducing a variety of techniques and methods that have been applied or could be applied in aquaculture production systems. The purpose of this study is to present a systemic overview of the functions of aquaculture production systems. Each function of an aquaculture system is applied to carry out a certain purpose. The results are divided i...

  19. Management options to mitigate environmental impact of aquaculture in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Edpalina, Rizalita Rosalejos

    2009-01-01

    Asia-Pacific represents the most important region for fisheries and aquaculture production. It is world's largest contributor to the world's aquaculture, producing 46.9 million tons or 91% of the global aquaculture production (FAO, 2005). The growth of aquaculture production has been very strong for the last ten years due to the increased production from China. The aquaculture production in Southeast Asia is diversified comprising 41.6% freshwater fish, 23.5% of aquatic plants, 6.7% crustacea...

  20. Nutrient flow in improved upland aquaculture systems in Yen Chau, province Son La (Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Pucher, Johannes Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In South-East Asia, pond aquaculture plays an important role in the integrated agriculture aquaculture systems of small-scale farmers and contributes to their food security and income. In mountainous regions, aquaculture differs from aquaculture that is practiced in the lowland due to differences in climate and availability of feeds, fertilizers and water. In Northern Vietnam, the traditional aquaculture is a polyculture of 5-7 fish species. The macro-herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon ...

  1. Ecological theory as a foundation to control pathogenic invasion in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, Peter; Vadstein, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Detrimental host–pathogen interactions are a normal phenomenon in aquaculture animal production, and have been counteracted by prophylactic use of antibiotics. Especially, the youngest life stages of cultivated aquatic animals are susceptible to pathogen invasion, resulting in disease and mortality. To establish a more sustainable aquatic food production, there is a need for new microbial management strategies that focus on ‘join them' and not the traditional ‘beat them' approaches. We argue that ecological theory could serve as a foundation for developing sustainable microbial management methods that prevent pathogenic disease in larviculture. Management of the water microbiota in aquaculture systems according to ecological selection principles has been shown to decrease opportunistic pathogen pressure and to result in an improved performance of the cultured animals. We hypothesize that manipulation of the biodiversity of the gut microbiota can increase the host's resistance against pathogenic invasion and infection. However, substantial barriers need to be overcome before active management of the intestinal microbiota can effectively be applied in larviculture. PMID:24892581

  2. Marine depth use of sea trout Salmo trutta in fjord areas of central Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldøy, S. H.; Davidsen, J. G.; Thorstad, E. B.

    2017-01-01

    S. trutta utilize marine water bodies commonly influenced by anthropogenic factors such as aquaculture, harbours and marine constructions, marine renewable energy production or other human activity. This suggests that the marine behaviour of S. trutta and its susceptibility to coastal anthropogenic......The vertical behaviour of 44 veteran sea trout Salmo trutta (275-580 mm) in different marine fjord habitats (estuary, pelagic, near shore with and without steep cliffs) was documented during May-February by acoustic telemetry. The swimming depth of S. trutta was influenced by habitat, time of day...... factors should be considered in marine planning processes....

  3. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  4. [Pollution history and sources of organotin compounds in aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hong; Wu, Yu-Ling; Cai, Ya-Rong; Xie, Wei; Xu, Jiang

    2011-07-01

    Six organotin compounds (OTs) in core sediment collected from aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen were detected by GC-FPD. Based on 210Pb-dating data, the pollution history (from 1931 to 2007) of OTs in this area was reconstructed and their possible sources were also discussed. The results showed that the inputs of organotin compounds in this sea area began from 1950's (0-80 cm). The vertical concentrations of OTs ranged from 3.43-69.6 ng x g(-1) (dry weight), the mean value was 15.0 ng x g(-1). Butyltins concentrations ranged from 2.51-68. 8 ng x g(-1) and the average concentration was 14.6 ng x g(-1) which accounted for 97.4% of total OTs, while phenyltins just accounted for 2.58%. It is indicated that the aquaculture waters of Tong'an Bay were mainly contaminated by butyltin compounds, inferring that they may come from the early antifouling paint of ships. The distributions of OTs concentrations and compositions may be related to the complex influence of the hydrodynamic conditions, antifouling paint leakages from ships and marine structures, and aquaculture. Compared to the other harbors and bays, the magnitude of OTs pollution in the sediment from Tong'an Bay was at the low midpoint on a global scale. Moreover, the sedimentary history showed that, vertical OTs distributions were in good agreement with the usage history of organotin compounds as antifouling paints and the changes of the major function regionalization in the surrounding area.

  5. Use of chemicals in aquaculture - issues of concern

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    Majority of aquaculture practices are still based on extensive and semi-intensive farming systems though a trend to intensify operations to enhance yields and improve the efficiency of the production process has emerged in recent years. Apart from...

  6. Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond L.; Hardy, Ronald W.; Bureau, Dominique P.; Chiu, Alice; Elliott, Matthew; Farrell, Anthony P.; Forster, Ian; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Goldburg, Rebecca J.; Hua, Katheline; Nichols, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it. PMID:19805247

  7. Aquaculture in desert and arid lands: development constraints and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespi, V; Lovatelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture in desert and arid lands has been growing steadily over the last decade thanks to the modern technologies and alternative energy sources that have allowed water in these places of extremes...

  8. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  9. Utilizacion de Artemia en acuicultura; [Artemia in aquaculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amat, F

    1985-01-01

    In this paper is given practical information on the feasibilities displayed by Artemia in aquaculture, information arising from the author's experience, and supported by data taken from another experts...

  10. Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801 aquaculture in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kružić Nikolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to present current status of meagre aquaculture in Croatia. Meagre Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801 is a fast growing migratory fish species which used to be widespread along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Today, it is very rare in fisheries catches and is considered highly endangered. Recently, meagre has become an increasingly important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture. In Croatia, meagre is a relatively new cultured species whose farming started after the year 2000. Since the European Commission identified species diversification as a top priority in the framework of the 2020 strategies for Aquaculture, and with recent studies revealing that meagre adapt easily to captivity and maintain a rapid growth rate, this species became an interesting candidate for Croatian as well as Mediterranean aquaculture.

  11. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...... industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....

  12. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Dossiers. Aquaculture insurance. Dossiers. Hatchery management in a seasonal and variable climate. Dossiers. Aeration techniques for fish ponds. Dossiers. The effect of temperature on the circulation of water in fish rearing ponds ...

  13. Future directions in breeding for disease resistance in aquaculture species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. Houston

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infectious disease is a major constraint for all species produced via aquaculture. The majority of farmed fish and shellfish production is based on stocks with limited or no selective breeding. Since disease resistance is almost universally heritable, there is huge potential to select for improved resistance to key diseases. This short review discusses the current methods of breeding more resistant aquaculture stocks, with success stories and current bottlenecks highlighted. The current implementation of genomic selection in breeding for disease resistance and routes to wider-scale implementation and improvement in aquaculture are discussed. Future directions are highlighted, including the potential of genome editing tools for mapping causative variation underlying disease resistance traits and for breeding aquaculture animals with enhanced resistance to disease.

  14. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...... (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...

  15. Aquaculture in South Africa: A cooperative research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Safriel, O

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years the National Programme for Environmental Sciences has been involved in assessing the potential of aquaculture in South Africa and in formulating a research policy which will provide the information needed to place...

  16. Scope of the Spanish Marine Sciences National Programme from 1995 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Morales-Nin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine Research in Spain was funded mainly by the National Plans of the Ministry of Science and Technology. These have four-year duration and comprise priority research areas addressed by Research and Development Programmes. Marine Sciences has been identified as a Programme since 1995, and forms part of two National Plans. The Programme made annual invitations to tender with the following objectives: global change, ecosystems, sustainable fisheries, coastal zone, pollution and new technologies. Each objective had several sub-objectives. In the first period (1995-1999 Aquaculture was one of the objectives, and it had its own Programme in the second. The 1995-1999 Programme approved 189 projects (47% of the proposals submitted with a budget of 9.14 M€ and a participation of 550 persons/year. In the 2000-2003 Programme 175 projects were approved (51% of the proposals submitted corresponding to €12.42 M and 780 persons/year. The universities were the principal actors (58% of the projects, followed by the Science Council (25% of the projects. Catalonia is the region with the greatest participation both in projects and in funding, followed by Galicia and Andalusia. Considering that in the first period there were five invitations to tender and Aquaculture was the main objective (63 projects and €2.26 M, the increase in participation and funding is considerable. This trend is also confirmed by the increase in success rate (approval of proposals rose from 47% in the first invitation to tender to 51% in the second and the increase in the mean budget per project (from €48.300 to €70.900 respectively.

  17. Aquaculture en milieu rural au Sri Lanka | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Sri Lanka se tourne vers l'aquaculture pour diversifier son économie rurale et accroître sa production alimentaire, particulièrement dans les provinces du nord et de l'est du pays, qui se relèvent du conflit civil. Bien que l'aquaculture représente une stratégie de sécurité alimentaire prometteuse, elle doit être gérée de ...

  18. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Claudio D.; Alfredo eTello; Keen, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and regis...

  19. Aquaculture impact and treatment systems of effluents with aquatic macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Henry-Silva, Gustavo Gonzaga; Monteiro Camargo, Antonio Fernando [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Aquaculture effluents are enriched by nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and contribute to increase eutrophication of the receiving water bodies and reduction or change in biodiversity. To reduce effluent loading is important to formulate highly digestible diets with lower nutrient levels. In addition, it is necessary to treat effluents to attend to new legislation demands and the pressure of environmentalist. This review of the aquaculture activities and its impacts on the environmental...

  20. An Intelligent Four-Electrode Conductivity Sensor for Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiaran; Li, Daoliang; Wang, Cong; Ding, Qisheng

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Conductivity is regard as a key technical parameter in modern intensive fish farming management. The water conductivity sensors are sophisticated devices used in the aquaculture monitoring field to understand the effects of climate changes on fish ponds. In this paper a new four-electrode smart sensor is proposed for water conductivity measurements of aquaculture monitoring.The main advantages of these sensors include a high precision, a good stability and an intrinsic...

  1. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  2. Marine habitat mapping at Labuan Marine Park, Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajap, Fazliana; Saleh, Ejria; Madin, John; Hamid, Shahimah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Marine habitat mapping has recently become essential in coastal marine science research. It is one of the efforts to understand marine ecosystems, and thus to protect them. Habitat mapping is integral to marine-related industries such as fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and tourism. An assessment of marine habitat mapping was conducted at Labuan Marine Park (LMP), a marine protected area in the Federal Territory of Labuan. It is surrounded by shallow water within its islands (Kuraman, Rusukan Kecil and Rusukan Besar) with an area of 39.7 km2. The objectives of the study are to identify the substrate and types of marine habitat present within the park. Side scan sonar (SSS) (Aquascan TM) was used to determine the substrates and habitat while ground truthings were done through field observation and SCUBA diving survey. Seabed classification and marine habitat was based on NOAA's biogeography program. Three substrate types (sand, rock, silt) were identified in this area. The major marine habitats identified are corals, macro algae and small patches of sea grass. The study area is an important refuge for spawning and juvenile fish and supports the livelihood of the coastal communities on Labuan Island. Therefore, proper management is crucial in order to better maintain the marine protected area. The findings are significant and provide detailed baseline information on marine habitat for conservation, protection and future management in LMP.

  3. Do antiparasitic medicines used in aquaculture pose a risk to the Norwegian aquatic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Schøyen, Merete; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-07-15

    Aquaculture production is an important industry in many countries and there has been a growth in the use of medicines to ensure the health and cost effectiveness of the industry. This study focused on the inputs of sea lice medication to the marine environment. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, emamectin benzoate, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin were measured in water, sediment, and biota samples in the vicinity of five aquaculture locations along the Norwegian coast. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin were not detected above the limits of detection in any samples. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, and emamectin benzoate were detected, and the data was compared the UK Environmental Quality Standards. The concentrations of emamectin benzoate detected in sediments exceed the environmental quality standard (EQS) on 5 occasions in this study. The EQS for teflubenzuron in sediment was exceeded in 67% of the samples and exceeded for diflubenzuron in 40% of the water samples collected. A crude assessment of the concentrations detected in the shrimp collected from one location and the levels at which chronic effects are seen in shrimp would suggest that there is a potential risk to shrimp. It would also be reasonable to extrapolate this to any species that undergoes moulting during its life cycle.

  4. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, A C; Arvin, E; Pedersen, L-F; Pedersen, P B; Seredyńska-Sobecka, B; Stedmon, C A

    2015-10-15

    The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs, stocked with rainbow trout and operated at steady state at four feed loadings, were analysed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. The fluorescence dataset was then decomposed by PARAFAC analysis using the drEEM toolbox. This revealed that the fluorescence character of the RAS water could be represented by five components, of which four have previously been identified in fresh water, coastal marine water, wetlands and drinking water. The fluorescence components as well as the DOC showed positive correlations with feed loading, however there was considerable variation between the five fluorescence components with respect to the degree of accumulation with feed loading. The five components were found to originate from three sources: the feed; the influent tap water (groundwater); and processes related to the fish and the water treatment system. This paper details the first application of fluorescence EEM spectroscopy to assess DOM in RAS, and highlights the potential applications of this technique within future RAS management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg -1 wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg -1 ). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  6. Chlamydial infections of fish: diverse pathogens and emerging causes of disease in aquaculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, M C; Polkinghome, A; Nowak, B F

    2014-06-25

    Chlamydial infections of fish are emerging as an important cause of disease in new and established aquaculture industries. To date, epitheliocystis, a skin and gill disease associated with infection by these obligate intracellular pathogens, has been described in over 90 fish species, including hosts from marine and fresh water environments. Aided by advances in molecular detection and typing, recent years have seen an explosion in the description of these epitheliocystis-related chlamydial pathogens of fish, significantly broadening our knowledge of the genetic diversity of the order Chlamydiales. Remarkably, in most cases, it seems that each new piscine host studied has revealed the presence of a phylogenetically unique and novel chlamydial pathogen, providing researchers with a fascinating opportunity to understand the origin, evolution and adaptation of their traditional terrestrial chlamydial relatives. Despite the advances in this area, much still needs to be learnt about the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in fish if these pathogens are to be controlled in farmed environments. The lack of in vitro methods for culturing of chlamydial pathogens of fish is a major hindrance to this field. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of chlamydial pathogens of fish, discusses the impact of these infections on the health, and highlights further areas of research required to understand the biology and epidemiology of this important emerging group of fish pathogens of aquaculture species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine genomics: News and views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ângela M; Foote, Andrew D; Kupczok, Anne; Frazão, Bárbara; Limborg, Morten T; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Abalde, Samuel; Rocha, Sara; da Fonseca, Rute R

    2017-02-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag between observed and estimated diversity is in part due to the elusiveness of most aquatic species and the technical difficulties of exploring extreme environments, as for instance the abyssal plains and polar waters. In the last decade, the rapid development of affordable and flexible high-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-round in Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site...... such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better...

  9. Resource subsidies from multi-trophic aquaculture affect isotopic niche width in wild blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldrick, C. K.; Jelinski, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are boreo-temperate, filter-feeding bivalves common to intertidal areas. As filter-feeders they have been employed in open-water, multi-tropic aquaculture systems to reduce organic benthic loading though the exploitation of suspended particulate organic materials. We compared δ13C and δ15N signatures and the isotopic niches of mussels growing in, and adjacent to, an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) farm in British Columbia, Canada, and using this information evaluated the contribution of aquaculture-derived effluent to their diet. Farm-sampled mussels had the least intraspecific isotopic variation compared to mussels sampled at the reference site. The interaction between time (i.e. sampling dates) and site did not significantly affect the isotopic composition of mussels; however significant variation was detected in δ15N values as a function of sampling date and particulate organic matter. A two-source isotopic mixing model indicated that marine particulate organic matter and IMTA farm effluent were approximately equal in importance (~ 46 % and ~ 54 %, respectively) to the diet of IMTA-retrieved mussels. Uptake of IMTA farm waste by M. edulis supports their use as economic extractives while also mitigating farmed sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) nutrient loading to the aquatic environment.

  10. Strategies to enhance the competitiveness of semi-intensive aquaculture systems in costal earth ponds: the organic aquaculture approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sardinha

    2014-06-01

    on the performance of seabream. Lower culture density (0.5 kg/m3 resulted in higher overall growth performance. The impact, in terms of nitrogenous (N and phosphorus (P loads, among the various scenarios were calculated and clearly reinforce the environmental sustainability of these semi-intensive production systems. The use of organic feeds does not lead to a significant enhancement of the growth performance. Therefore, the additional costs associated to feeding under organic standards, need to be incorporated in the sale price, thus requiring a targeted and differentiated marketing and distribution approach. Sociedade Piscicultura Farense Lda, as other traditional aquacultures depends on the enhancement of the natural environment, combined with production fine-tuning and product positioning, rewarding the quality of the final product. The positive effects of extensive and semi-intensive aquaculture in coastal areas, including environmental protection and restoration in areas of particular ecological interest, employment opportunity and development in rural and coastal areas are highly appealing concepts for the general community, particularly to conscious consumers.

  11. Parasites and diseases in marine copepods: Challenges for future mass-production of live feed for fish larva production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf

    Copepods are the natural food for many marine fish larvae, and the use of cultured copepods as life feed is, therefore, becoming increasingly important as more marine fish species are being produced in aquaculture. Large-scale cultivation of copepods may be challenged by diseases and parasites...

  12. Probiotic effects on cobia Rachycentron canadum larvae reared in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angélica Garrido-Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobia (Rachycentron canadum is a marine finfish with good potential for mariculture. This study analyzes the effects of probiotic Bacillus spp. on the performance of cobia larvae reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. Larvae were stocked into two independent RAS for 26 days after hatching. One of the systems (Probiotic treatment received the addition of a commercial probiotic consisting of B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus directly into the water and by live feed. Survival, final weight and water quality were not affected by probiotics. Results showed larvae of the probiotic treatment demonstrated a greater resistance to salinity stress. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a higher expression of CD4 in probiotic treatment. These results suggest that Bacillus spp. probiotics used in RAS have a potential stimulating impact on immune system differentiation and increases salinity stress resistance of cobia larvae.

  13. Use of fluorescence spectroscopy to control ozone dosage in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Martin, Richard; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to be used as an ozone dosage determination tool in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs), by studying the relationship between fluorescence intensities and dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation by ozone......, in order to optimise ozonation treatment. Water samples from six different Danish facilities (two rearing units from a commercial trout RAS, a commercial eel RAS, a pilot RAS and two marine water aquariums) were treated with different O3 dosages (1.0–20.0 mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments, following...... which fluorescence intensity degradation was eventually determined. Ozonation kinetic experiments showed that RAS water contains fluorescent organic matter, which is easily oxidised upon ozonation in relatively low concentrations (0–5 mg O3/L). Fluorescence spectroscopy has a high level of sensitivity...

  14. An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranford, Peter J.; Kamermans, Pauline; Krause, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    for bivalve aquaculture be based on a tiered indicator monitoring system that is structured on the principle that increased environmental risk requires increased monitoring effort. More than 1 threshold for each indicator would permit implementation of predetermined impact prevention and mitigation measures...... and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture–environment interactions and policy-related developments and decisions. The Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact...... to assess DPSIR framework components, are reviewed with a focus on the key environmental issues associated with bivalve farming. Indicator selection criteria are provided to facilitate constraining the number of indicators within the management framework. It is recommended that an ecosystem-based approach...

  15. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Shui P; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings were fed for satiation daily for 168 days with 2 diets containing 5.49 % and 6.53 % nitrogen, respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate the N budget in the RAS, and try to find out the feasibility of controlling N accumulation in the fish pond. It is expected that the study can provide a mass balance for the fate of N in the eco-friendly treatment system to avoid eutrophication. The results showed that the removal rates of ammonia (NH(+)(4)-N), sum of nitrate & nitrite (NO(-)(X)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the CWs were 20-55%, 38-84 % and 39-57 %, respectively. Denitrification in the CWs was the main pathway of nitrogen loss (41.67 %). Nitrogen accumulation in pond water and sediment accounted for 3.39 % and 12.65 % of total nitrogen loss, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency and budget showed that the CW could be used to control excessive nitrogen accumulation in fish ponds. From the viewpoint of the nitrogen pollution control, the RAS combined with the constructed wetland can be applied to ensure the sustainable development for aquaculture.

  17. Salmonella Weltevreden in integrated and non-integrated tilapia aquaculture systems in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Petersen, Gitte; Barco, Lisa; Hvidtfeldt, Kristian; Liu, Liping; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Integrated tilapia-pig farming, which uses manure from pigs as fertilizers in fish pond, is a traditional and common production system practised by small-scale farmers in South-east Asia. Although such systems may be environmentally sustainable, they also pose potential food safety hazards including transmission of faecal zoonotic pathogens and accumulation of antimicrobial and other chemical residues. This study aimed to determine differences in occurrence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from tilapia-pig and non-integrated aquaculture systems in Guangdong province, China. A total of 77 samples (9 pig feed, 19 fish feed, 9 pig faeces, 20 fish mucus and 20 fish intestine) from 10 tilapia-pig ponds and 10 non-integrated ponds were analysed. Salmonella spp. was found in fish mucus (20.0%), fish intestine (40.0%) and pig faeces (11.1%) from integrated ponds, and from fish mucus (40.0%) and fish intestine (40.0%) from non-integrated ponds. S. Weltevreden (76.5%) was by far the most common serovar showing limited antimicrobial resistance. One pig faeces sample contained S. Typhimurium whereas feed samples were found free of Salmonella spp.. DNA fingerprinting by the PFGE method showed a clonal relationship of S. Weltevreden which was supported by similar antimicrobial resistance patterns (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim resistance) as well as most isolates harbouring a 147-kb sized plasmid. The common finding of S. Weltevreden in both tilapia production systems indicates that this serovar may have a different ecology and increased survival in aquaculture environments in comparison with other Salmonella serovars. Further in vivo studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden in aquaculture environments are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. AQUAPONICS: INTEGRATION BETWEEN AQUACULTURE AND HYDROPONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Crispim Hundley2

    2013-12-01

    and hydroponics in recirculating systems for water and nutrients. Furthermore, Aquaponics presents itself as a real alternative for the production of food with reduced impact to the environment for its sustainability characteristics. Thus, Aquaponics is among the sustainable techniques involving fish and vegetable integrated production, capable of benefiting both. This integration allows the plant to use the nutrients from the water provided by the fish, thus improving water quality.

  19. Roseobacter-clade bacteria as probiotics in marine larvaeculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben

    Disease caused by fish pathogenic bacteria can cause large scale crashes in marine fish larval rearing units. One of the biggest challenges for aquaculture is the management of these bacterial outbreaks. Vaccines can be admitted to fish but only the juvenile and the adult fish because they need...... to human pathogens. Alternatives are therefore needed and one could be the use of probiotic bacteria. Marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade (Phaeobacter inhibens) have shown great potential as probiotic bacteria, and we have hypothesized that they could be used to antagonize pathogenic fish...... and crustacean bacteria in the environment of the larvae. The purpose of the present PhD study was to determine if antagonistic Roseobacter clade bacteria occurred in marine aquaculture units. The study would determine their clonal relationship and elucidate the mechanisms by which these potential probiotic...

  20. Helminth parasites of finfish commercial aquaculture in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Jiménez, L C; Paredes-Trujillo, A I; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2017-03-01

    Latin America has tripled production by aquaculture up to 78 million tonnes in the past 20 years. However, one of the problems that aquaculture is facing is the presence of helminth parasites and the diseases caused by them in the region. In this review we have collected all the available information on helminths affecting commercial aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), emphasizing those causing serious economic losses. Monogeneans are by far the most common and aggressive parasites affecting farmed fish in LAC. They have been recognized as serious pathogens in intensive fish culture because they reach high levels of infection rapidly, and can infect other phylogenetically related fish species. The next most important group comprises the larval stages of digeneans (metacercariae) such as Diplostomum sp. and Centrocestus formosanus, which cause serious damage to farmed fish. Since LAC aquaculture has been based mainly on exotic species (tilapia, salmon, trout and carp), most of their parasites have been brought into the region together with the fish for aquaculture. Recently, one of us (A.I.P.-T.) has suggested that monogeneans, which have generally been considered to be harmless, can produce serious effects on the growth of cultured Nile tilapia. Therefore, the introduction of fish together with their 'harmless' parasites into new sites, regions or countries in LAC should be considered a breakdown of biosecurity in those countries involved. Therefore, the application of quarantine procedures and preventive therapeutic treatments should be considered before allowing these introductions into a country.

  1. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  2. Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Rico, Andreu; Zhang, Wenbo; Ahmad-Al-Nahid, Sk; Newton, Richard; Phan, Lam T; Zhang, Zongfeng; Jaithiang, Jintana; Dao, Hai M; Phu, Tran M; Little, David C; Murray, Francis J; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Liu, Liping; Liu, Qigen; Haque, M Mahfujul; Kruijssen, Froukje; de Snoo, Geert R; Heijungs, Reinout; van Bodegom, Peter M; Guinée, Jeroen B

    2015-12-15

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different aquatic food products. Our starting hypothesis was that different production systems are associated with significantly different environmental impacts, as the production of these aquatic species differs in intensity and management practices. In order to test this hypothesis, we estimated each system's global warming, eutrophication, and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. The contribution to these impacts and the overall dispersions relative to results were propagated by Monte Carlo simulations and dependent sampling. Paired testing showed significant (p production systems in the intraspecies comparisons, even after a Bonferroni correction. For the full distributions instead of only the median, only for Asian tiger shrimp did more than 95% of the propagated Monte Carlo results favor certain farming systems. The major environmental hot-spots driving the differences in environmental performance among systems were fishmeal from mixed fisheries for global warming, pond runoff and sediment discards for eutrophication, and agricultural pesticides, metals, benzalkonium chloride, and other chlorine-releasing compounds for freshwater ecotoxicity. The Asian aquaculture industry should therefore strive toward farming systems relying upon pelleted species-specific feeds, where the fishmeal inclusion is limited and sourced sustainably. Also, excessive nutrients should be recycled in integrated organic agriculture together with efficient aeration solutions powered by renewable energy sources.

  3. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  4. Hydroecological condition and potential for aquaculture in lakes of the arid region of Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, Africa; Mullabaev, Nodirbek; Saito, Laurel; Atwell, Lisa; Rosen, Michael R.; Bekchonova, Marhabo; Ginatullina, Elena; Scott, Julian; Chandra, Sudeep; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Lamers, John P.A.; Fayzieva, Dilorom

    2015-01-01

    With >400 small (pesticides ΣDDT and ΣHCH) of four representative drainage lakes in Khorezm from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed for the lakes’ capability to support healthy fish populations. Lake characteristics were categorized as “optimal” (having little or no effect on growth and development), “tolerable” (corresponding to chronic or sub-lethal toxicity) and “lethal” (corresponding to acute toxicity). Results indicate that three lakes are likely well-suited for raising fish species, with water quality meeting World Bank aquaculture guidelines. However, the fourth lake often had salinity concentrations > optimal levels for local fish species. Pesticide concentrations in water of all four lakes were within tolerable aquaculture ranges. Although water ΣDDT concentrations were >optimal limits, results from chemical analysis of fish tissues and semi-permeable membrane devices indicated that study lake ΣDDT concentrations were not accumulating in fish or posing a human health threat. Land and water management to maintain adequate lake water quality are imperative for sustaining fish populations for human consumption.

  5. Meeting the food and nutrition needs of the poor: the role of fish and the opportunities and challenges emerging from the rise of aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, M C M; Thilsted, S H; Phillips, M J; Metian, M; Troell, M; Hall, S J

    2013-10-01

    People who are food and nutrition insecure largely reside in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and for many, fish represents a rich source of protein, micronutrients and essential fatty acids. The contribution of fish to household food and nutrition security depends upon availability, access and cultural and personal preferences. Access is largely determined by location, seasonality and price but at the individual level it also depends upon a person's physiological and health status and how fish is prepared, cooked and shared among household members. The sustained and rapid expansion of aquaculture over the past 30 years has resulted in >40% of all fish now consumed being derived from farming. While aquaculture produce increasingly features in the diets of many Asians, it is much less apparent among those living in Sub-Saharan Africa. Here, per capita fish consumption has grown little and despite the apparently strong markets and adequate biophysical conditions, aquaculture has yet to develop. The contribution of aquaculture to food and nutrition security is not only just an issue of where aquaculture occurs but also of what is being produced and how and whether the produce is as accessible as that from capture fisheries. The range of fish species produced by an increasingly globalized aquaculture industry differs from that derived from capture fisheries. Farmed fishes are also different in terms of their nutrient content, a result of the species being grown and of rearing methods. Farmed fish price affects access by poor consumers while the size at which fish is harvested influences both access and use. This paper explores these issues with particular reference to Asia and Africa and the technical and policy innovations needed to ensure that fish farming is able to fulfil its potential to meet the global population's food and nutrition needs. © 2013 World Fish. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the

  6. Something fishy: Chile's blue revolution, commodity diseases, and the problem of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluri, John

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations describes aquaculture as the fastest-growing method of food production, and some industry boosters have heralded the coming of a sustainable blue revolution. This article interprets the meteoric rise and sudden collapse of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in southern Chile (1980-2010) by integrating concepts from commodity studies and comparative environmental history. I juxtapose salmon aquaculture to twentieth-century export banana production to reveal the similar dynamics that give rise to "commodity diseases"—events caused by the entanglement of biological, social, and political-economic processes that operate on local, regional, and transoceanic geographical scales. Unsurprisingly, the risks and burdens associated with commodity diseases are borne disproportionately by production workers and residents in localities where commodity disease events occur. Chile's blue revolution suggests that evaluating the sustainability of aquaculture in Latin America cannot be divorced from processes of accumulation.

  7. Characterization and Applications of Marine Microbial Enzymes in Biotechnology and Probiotics for Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T H; Nguyen, V D

    Marine microorganisms have been recognized as potential sources of novel enzymes because they are relatively more stable than the corresponding enzymes derived from plants and animals. Enzymes from marine microorganisms also differ from homologous enzymes in terrestrial microorganisms based on salinity, pressure, temperature, and lighting conditions. Marine microbial enzymes can be used in diverse industrial applications. This chapter will focus on the biotechnological applications of marine enzymes and also their use as a tool of marine probiotics to improve host digestion (food digestion, food absorption, and mucus utilization) and cleave molecular signals involved in quorum sensing in pathogens to control disease in aquaculture. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing fragility functions for aquaculture rafts and eelgrass in the case of the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suppasri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the two devastating tsunamis in 2004 (Indian Ocean and 2011 (Great East Japan, new findings have emerged on the relationship between tsunami characteristics and damage in terms of fragility functions. Human loss and damage to buildings and infrastructures are the primary target of recovery and reconstruction; thus, such relationships for offshore properties and marine ecosystems remain unclear. To overcome this lack of knowledge, this study used the available data from two possible target areas (Mangokuura Lake and Matsushima Bay from the 2011 Japan tsunami. This study has three main components: (1 reproduction of the 2011 tsunami, (2 damage investigation, and (3 fragility function development. First, the source models of the 2011 tsunami were verified and adjusted to reproduce the tsunami characteristics in the target areas. Second, the damage ratio (complete damage of the aquaculture raft and eelgrass was investigated using satellite images taken before and after the 2011 tsunami through visual inspection and binarization. Third, the tsunami fragility functions were developed using the relationship between the simulated tsunami characteristics and the estimated damage ratio. Based on the statistical analysis results, fragility functions were developed for Mangokuura Lake, and the flow velocity was the main contributor to the damage instead of the wave amplitude. For example, the damage ratio above 0.9 was found to be equal to the maximum flow velocities of 1.3 m s−1 (aquaculture raft and 3.0 m s−1 (eelgrass. This finding is consistent with the previously proposed damage criterion of 1 m s−1 for the aquaculture raft. This study is the first step in the development of damage assessment and planning for marine products and environmental factors to mitigate the effects of future tsunamis.

  9. Developing fragility functions for aquaculture rafts and eelgrass in the case of the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppasri, Anawat; Fukui, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kei; Leelawat, Natt; Ohira, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2018-01-01

    Since the two devastating tsunamis in 2004 (Indian Ocean) and 2011 (Great East Japan), new findings have emerged on the relationship between tsunami characteristics and damage in terms of fragility functions. Human loss and damage to buildings and infrastructures are the primary target of recovery and reconstruction; thus, such relationships for offshore properties and marine ecosystems remain unclear. To overcome this lack of knowledge, this study used the available data from two possible target areas (Mangokuura Lake and Matsushima Bay) from the 2011 Japan tsunami. This study has three main components: (1) reproduction of the 2011 tsunami, (2) damage investigation, and (3) fragility function development. First, the source models of the 2011 tsunami were verified and adjusted to reproduce the tsunami characteristics in the target areas. Second, the damage ratio (complete damage) of the aquaculture raft and eelgrass was investigated using satellite images taken before and after the 2011 tsunami through visual inspection and binarization. Third, the tsunami fragility functions were developed using the relationship between the simulated tsunami characteristics and the estimated damage ratio. Based on the statistical analysis results, fragility functions were developed for Mangokuura Lake, and the flow velocity was the main contributor to the damage instead of the wave amplitude. For example, the damage ratio above 0.9 was found to be equal to the maximum flow velocities of 1.3 m s-1 (aquaculture raft) and 3.0 m s-1 (eelgrass). This finding is consistent with the previously proposed damage criterion of 1 m s-1 for the aquaculture raft. This study is the first step in the development of damage assessment and planning for marine products and environmental factors to mitigate the effects of future tsunamis.

  10. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey B Schock

    Full Text Available Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc. The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  11. Teleost microbiomes: the state of the art in their characterization, manipulation and importance in aquaculture and fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Martin S; Boutin, Sébastien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Derome, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous microbiota play a critical role in the lives of their vertebrate hosts. In human and mouse models it is increasingly clear that innate and adaptive immunity develop in close concert with the commensal microbiome. Furthermore, several aspects of digestion and nutrient metabolism are governed by intestinal microbiota. Research on teleosts has responded relatively slowly to the introduction of massively parallel sequencing procedures in microbiomics. Nonetheless, progress has been made in biotic and gnotobiotic zebrafish models, defining a core microbiome and describing its role in development. However, microbiome research in other teleost species, especially those important from an aquaculture perspective, has been relatively slow. In this review, we examine progress in teleost microbiome research to date. We discuss teleost microbiomes in health and disease, microbiome ontogeny, prospects for successful microbiome manipulation (especially in an aquaculture setting) and attempt to identify important future research themes. We predict an explosion in research in this sector in line with the increasing global demand for fish protein, and the need to find sustainable approaches to improve aquaculture yield. The reduced cost and increasing ease of next generation sequencing technologies provides the technological backing, and the next 10 years will be an exciting time for teleost microbiome research.

  12. Marine Web Portal as an Interface between Users and Marine Data and Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, A.; Stefanov, A.; Marinova, V.; Slabakova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Fundamental elements of the success of marine data and information management system and an effective support of marine and maritime economic activities are the speed and the ease with which users can identify, locate, get access, exchange and use oceanographic and marine data and information. There are a lot of activities and bodies have been identified as marine data and information users, such as: science, government and local authorities, port authorities, shipping, marine industry, fishery and aquaculture, tourist industry, environmental protection, coast protection, oil spills combat, Search and Rescue, national security, civil protection, and general public. On other hand diverse sources of real-time and historical marine data and information exist and generally they are fragmented, distributed in different places and sometimes unknown for the users. The marine web portal concept is to build common web based interface which will provide users fast and easy access to all available marine data and information sources, both historical and real-time such as: marine data bases, observing systems, forecasting systems, atlases etc. The service is regionally oriented to meet user needs. The main advantage of the portal is that it provides general look "at glance" on all available marine data and information as well as direct user to easy discover data and information in interest. It is planned to provide personalization ability, which will give the user instrument to tailor visualization according its personal needs.

  13. The Marine Living Resources Act was promulgated in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    for the protection of the marine ecosystem and the sustainable use of living marine resources. It also ad- dresses the issue of equitable access to marine living ...... reason for denying emergent micro-entrepreneurs ac- cess to this resource, provided that the enforcement of sustainable harvesting levels is ensured. Previous ...

  14. Mechanisms of quorum sensing and strategies for quorum sensing disruption in aquaculture pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Chen, M; Quan, C S; Fan, S D

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, infectious diseases are a considerable threat to aquaculture. The pathogenicity of micro-organisms that infect aquaculture systems is closely related to the release of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, both of which are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Thus, QS disruption is a potential strategy for preventing disease in aquaculture systems. QS inhibitors (QSIs) not only inhibit the expression of virulence-associated genes but also attenuate the virulence of aquaculture pathogens. In this review, we discuss QS systems in important aquaculture pathogens and focus on the relationship between QS mechanisms and bacterial virulence in aquaculture. We further elucidate QS disruption strategies for targeting aquaculture pathogens. Four main types of QSIs that target aquaculture pathogens are discussed based on their mechanisms of action. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Occupational Health and Safety in Aquaculture: Insights on Brazilian Public Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Pedro Keller; Cavalli, Richard Souto; Kunert Filho, Hiran Castagnino; Carvalho, Daiane; Benedetti, Nadine; Rotta, Marco Aurélio; Peixoto Ramos, Augusto Sávio; de Brito, Kelly Cristina Tagliari; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; da Rocha, Andréa Ferretto; Stech, Marcia Regina; Cavalli, Lissandra Souto

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture has many occupational hazards, including those that are physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and mechanical. The risks in aquaculture are inherent, as this activity requires particular practices. The objective of the present study was to show the risks associated with the aquaculture sector and present a critical overview on the Brazilian public policies concerning aquaculture occupational health. Methods include online research involved web searches and electronic databases including Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scielo and government databases. We conducted a careful revision of Brazilian labor laws related to occupational health and safety, rural workers, and aquaculture. The results and conclusion support the idea that aquaculture requires specific and well-established industry programs and policies, especially in developing countries. Aquaculture still lacks scientific research, strategies, laws, and public policies to boost the sector with regard to occupational health and safety. The establishment of a safe workplace in aquaculture in developing countries remains a challenge for all involved in employer-employee relationships.

  16. Responsible aquaculture in 2050: Valuing local conditions and human innovations will be key to success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diana, J.S.; Egna, H.S.; Chopin, T.; Peterson, M.S.; Cao, L.; Pomeroy, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Slack, W.T.; Bondad-Reantaso, M.G.; Cabello, F.

    2013-01-01

    As aquaculture production expands, we must avoid mistakes made during increasing intensification of agriculture. Understanding environmental impacts and measures to mitigate them is important for designing responsible aquaculture production systems. There are four realistic goals that can make

  17. The use and benefits of Bacillus based biological agents in aquaculture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nemutanzhela, ME

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global shortages in seafood resources have driven the growth of aquaculture as an economic activity, predominantly in developing countries. As a consequence of space and resource constraints, traditional aquaculture has been intensified...

  18. Microbial populations causing off-flavour in recirculated aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Schramm, Edward

    the distribution of geoA in more than 50 European and Brazilian aquaculture systems has allowed us to identify the diversity among geosmin-producing bacteria. The different populations of geosmin-producers were evaluated relative to plant design, environmental and operational parameters in full-scale aquaculture...... phase. Furthermore, the gene expressions of the individual groups show positive correlations to the organic loading and presence of oxygen. The current study reveals the presence of important populations involved in geosmin production and which parameters are of importance for their presence...... and activity. These findings are useful for the future optimization and management of full-scale aquaculture plants, and can be used as a diagnostic tool in developing strategies to limit the presence and growth of geosmin-producing bacteria....

  19. The Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Recirculating Aquaculture System Biofilms and their Response to Various Sanitizers

    OpenAIRE

    King, Robin K.

    2001-01-01

    THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN BIOFILMS OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SANITIZERS Robin K. King ABSTRACT Recirculating aquaculture offers a prospect for successful fish farming, but this form of aquaculture presents a great potential for pathogenic microorganisms to become established in the system through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms are capable of forming on all aquaculture system components, incorporating the various microflor...

  20. New opportunities for aquaculture in Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In order to support the development of location- specific better management practices to address past problems, researchers from Sri Lanka and. Canada have examined how knowledge is used and shared in the shrimp farming sector. Oyster farming has been attempted but never sustained in Sri Lanka. Prior to the project,.

  1. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr......One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades...

  2. Current Status and Recent Advance of Aquaculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hongxin

    2009-01-01

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that worldwide harvest output of aquatic products will be stagnant or decreased whereas the consumption of aquatic products will be increased at the speed of 1.0% to 2.9%. The increase of aquatic product output will mainly be attributed to the development of aquaculture. For a developing country, especially for a country with a large population and fast developing pace as China, aquaculture in the 21st century will not only face...

  3. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang

    Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms...

  4. Sustainable Exploitation of Maritime Stocks in the West African Marine Eco-Region within the Context of ACP-EU Relation

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper will mainly focus on the Western Africa Marine Eco-Region, (WAMER) composed of Mauritania, Senegal, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Guinea. Since all the countries in this eco-region, except The Gambia, have fisheries agreements with the European Union (EU), they provide an interesting example of ACP-EU relations in the fishery sector. In the WAMER eco-region, the fishery sector is a source of foreign currency, jobs and food for more than 22 million people. A look at t...

  5. A Management Tool for Assessing Aquaculture Environmental Impacts in Chilean Patagonian Fjords: Integrating Hydrodynamic and Pellets Dispersion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tironi, Antonio; Marin, Víctor H.; Campuzano, Francisco J.

    2010-05-01

    This article introduces a management tool for salmon farming, with a scope in the local sustainability of salmon aquaculture of the Aysen Fjord, Chilean Patagonia. Based on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) principles, the tool combines a large 3-level nested hydrodynamic model, a particle tracking module and a GIS application into an assessment tool for particulate waste dispersal of salmon farming activities. The model offers an open source alternative to particulate waste modeling and evaluation, contributing with valuable information for local decision makers in the process of locating new facilities and monitoring stations.

  6. A management tool for assessing aquaculture environmental impacts in Chilean Patagonian Fjords: integrating hydrodynamic and pellets dispersion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tironi, Antonio; Marin, Víctor H; Campuzano, Francisco J

    2010-05-01

    This article introduces a management tool for salmon farming, with a scope in the local sustainability of salmon aquaculture of the Aysen Fjord, Chilean Patagonia. Based on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) principles, the tool combines a large 3-level nested hydrodynamic model, a particle tracking module and a GIS application into an assessment tool for particulate waste dispersal of salmon farming activities. The model offers an open source alternative to particulate waste modeling and evaluation, contributing with valuable information for local decision makers in the process of locating new facilities and monitoring stations.

  7. Revising and Updating the Natural Resources and Aquaculture Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Frederick W.

    Materials, including curriculum units, are provided for the natural resources and aquaculture components of the vocational agriculture curriculum. Aquaculture is a new component, added because of increased recognition of the opportunities offered by Connecticut's rich shoreline resources. A brochure and flyer on the aquaculture program follow a…

  8. 77 FR 50082 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Census of Aquaculture AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION... currently accepting stakeholder feedback in the form of content requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture..., (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The results of the 2005 Census of Aquaculture were released...

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in ASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have

  10. Salmonella Weltevreden in integrated and non-integrated tilapia aquaculture systems in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Petersen, Gitte; Barco, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Integrated tilapia-pig farming, which uses manure from pigs as fertilizers in fish pond, is a traditional and common production system practised by small-scale farmers in South-east Asia. Although such systems may be environmentally sustainable, they also pose potential food safety hazards...... including transmission of faecal zoonotic pathogens and accumulation of antimicrobial and other chemical residues. This study aimed to determine differences in occurrence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from tilapia-pig and non-integrated aquaculture systems in Guangdong province, China...... method showed a clonal relationship of S. Weltevreden which was supported by similar antimicrobial resistance patterns (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim resistance) as well as most isolates harbouring a 147-kb sized plasmid. The common finding of S. Weltevreden in both tilapia production systems...

  11. Fish and its multiple human health effects in times of threat to sustainability and affordability: are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Hu, Xiaojie

    2009-01-01

    Fish (finfish or shellfish) has been classified as healthy by health professionals despite containing contaminants, since fish is high in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which have multiple beneficial health effects such as decreased risk of stroke via anti-thrombotic and vasodilative effects, increased heart rate variability, reducing serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure, anti-inflammatory activities, improving visual function, improving attention-deficit conditions/ hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenic and dementia; and may be effective in managing depression in adults. All these beneficial effects are thought to be mediated through altering cell membrane composition, fluidity, receptors and membrane-bound enzymes, gene expression and eicosanoid production. However, natural marine and freshwater fish populations are declining as a result of over-fishing, temperature and climate changes etc. To re-establish and maintain the fish population in China, fishing has been banned for 2-3 months during specified periods of the year, which differs depending on the area, since 1995. The fish population has recovered since implementation of these banned fishing periods, and thereby maintaining the sustainability and affordability of fish. Aquaculture products have had a significant contribution to China's food system, with significant increase in output over the past few decades, from one million tons in 1978 to 32 million tons in 2007. Aquaculture fish represents a higher portion of total aquatic products compared with natural marine and freshwater fish, which has only been achieved in China, and this has contributed greatly to food and health security. China's success in this area is a good model for other developing countries.

  12. On the sustainability of aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Konig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is an evolving closed-system food production technology that integrates recirculating aquaculture with hydroponics. In this paper we give a brief literature overview of the sustainability aspects of aquaponics by discussing its social, environmental, and economic impacts in different potential settings. The technology might be applied to commercial or community based urban food production, industrial scale production in rural areas, small scale farming in developing countries or as systems for education and decoration inside buildings. We conclude that due to the different potential applications and settings for installing the technology, sustainability impacts need to be considered separately and that due the complexity within markets, value chains, communities, urban and rural infrastructure  and policy settings, further research and data acquisition is needed to be able to assess all sustainability aspects.

  13. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  15. Building successful fishing and aquaculture businesses in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amazon Fish for Food (CIFSRF Phase 2). The Bolivian ... Fisheries management and aquaculture farming Amazon fish are an underused resource that can improve food security options for the poor. This project aims to .... The importance of child care to improving economic opportunities for women. Researchers and ...

  16. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Key words: Hermetia illucens, black soldier fly, palm kernel meal, rural aquaculture, agro-industry by-products, fishmeal replacement ... palm fruit produces two types of oils: the first category of oil named crude palm oil ..... (Ed.), Dairy Page, Official website of the Queensland Dairyfarmers'. Organisation Ltd.

  17. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  18. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Papers. Thermal tolerance and performance of key species and climate change adaptation options for inland aquaculture in Northern Thailand. Download PDF. Papers. Gender and the management of climate-related risks in northern Thailand. Download PDF. Papers. Risk aversion and emotions in the management of ...

  19. Electrochemical removal of nitrite in simulated aquaculture wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical removal of nitrite at a concentration of 10 mg l-1 from synthetic aquaculture wastewater was investigated in this study using a batch reactor. The effects of important operating parameters such as electrode material and applied current density were studied. The highest nitrite removal is achieved with nickel ...

  20. Electrochemical removal of nitrite in simulated aquaculture wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... literature on aquaculture wastewater (AW), studies is more replete as AW is contaminated with toxic sub- stances like nitrite and nitrate (Lin and Wu, 1996;. Virkutyte and Jegatheesan, 2009; Virkutyte et al., 2010). The hazardous and toxic nature of nitrite is a major concern. Nitrite results in the wastewater ...