Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.
Background There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. Methods This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1) identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2) recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3) engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4) remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5) sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. Evaluation The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. Conclusions The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities. PMID:20128922
Allen, Lisa K; Hetherington, Erin; Manyama, Mange; Hatfield, Jennifer M; van Marle, Guido
There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1) identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2) recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3) engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4) remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5) sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities.
Hatfield Jennifer M
Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. Methods This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1 identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2 recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3 engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4 remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5 sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. Evaluation The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. Conclusions The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities.
Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.
In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivi......, robustness and user-friendliness. In the current review, we will discuss some of the different DNA-based sensor systems under development for the diagnosis of malaria....
Zheng, Zhi; Cheng, Zhibin
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by five species of Plasmodium parasites. Accurate diagnosis of malaria plays an essential part in malaria control. With traditional diagnostic methodologies, malaria control programs have achieved remarkable success during the past decade, and are now heading toward malaria elimination in many areas. This new situation, however, calls for novel diagnostics with improved sensitivity, throughput, and reduced cost for active screening of malaria parasites, as all transfected individuals have to be identified in order to block transmission. In this chapter, we provide a brief introduction of malaria, the requirement of diagnostic advances in the age of malaria elimination, and a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation. We also discussed several practical issues for the application of molecular tests in malaria identification. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities. PMID:23268712
Donath Samuel Tarimo
Full Text Available Febrile illnesses that are caused by malaria and other infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. In malaria endemic countries, malaria is considered as one of the most serious febrile illnesses. Over the last two decades, major investment in malaria control has witnessed a major achievement in decline of malaria burden, however, other causes of febrile illnesses have remained prevalent. The decline in malaria burden poses challenges for the diagnosis of malaria in clinical settings, research and disease surveillance. This review highlights the challenges facing the diagnosis of malarial and nonmalarial fevers under reduced malaria burden from the perspectives of parasite diagnosis and interpretations of the diagnoses of malarial and non-malarial fevers, and the possible approaches to address the challenges for a better understanding of the dynamics of febrile illnesses under reduced malaria burden.
Based on the results of these findings, vis a vis the proportion of individuals negative for both malaria and typhoid fevers, clinicians should revisit causes of febrile illnesses other than malaria or typhoid and hence the need to include other tests for the detection of other causes. Keywords: Malaria diagnosis, Typhoid fever, ...
Gjørup, Ida E; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Møller, Kirsten
When travellers return from malaria-endemic areas and present to hospital with fever, microscopy of blood smears remains the leading method to verify a suspected diagnosis of malaria. Additional laboratory abnormalities may, however, also be indicative of acute malaria infection. We monitored....... For comparison, admission values of a group of febrile patients with suspected malaria, but with negative blood slides, were also assessed (n=66). The thrombocyte, leucocyte counts and coagulation factor II-VII-X were significantly lower in the malaria group compared to the non-malaria group, whereas the C......-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin were significantly higher in the malaria group. The differences were particularly strong with falciparum malaria. By contrast, haemoglobin levels were not affected. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the role of a few commonly analysed laboratory parameters...
were tested using the ICT~Malaria P f 0 test kit as well as the conventional blood film microscopy ... fundamental role of early, rapid and precise diagnosis of malaria .... Thick and thin blood ﬁlms were prepared on the same slide for each patient andlabelled. The thin ﬁlm was air dried and ﬁxed with methanol prior to staining.
Full Text Available Malaria is an infection disease caused by plasmodium parasite that transmitted to humanbody by female anopheles mosquito bites. World Health Organization (WHO predictedthat 3,3 billion people around the world were at risk to infected by malaria in 2006 andalmost 1 million died because of this disease. Diagnosis of malaria according to clinicalmanifestation only is not specific; therefore it is less reliable and should be s upported bylaboratory examination result. Microscopic examination of blood smear and rapiddiagnostic test are most often used to diagnose malaria. Both of this test gave big chance tomake accurate diagnostic but still have their own limitations.
Wiese, Lothar; Bruun, Brita; Baek, Leif
Malaria may be misdiagnosed in non-endemic countries when the necessary experience for rapid expert microscopy is lacking. Rapid diagnostic tests may improve the diagnosis and may play a role as a bedside diagnostic tool. In a multicentre study we recruited patients suspected of malaria over a pe...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have highlighted the over-diagnosis of malaria in clinical settings in Africa. This study assessed the impact of a training programme implemented as part of an intervention trial on diagnostic behaviour of clinicians in a rural district hospital in a low-moderate malaria transmission setting. Methods From the beginning of 2005, a randomized controlled trial (RCT of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi has been conducted at the study hospital. As part of the RCT, the study team offered laboratory quality assurance, and supervision and training of paediatric ward staff using information on malaria epidemiology in the community. Data on clinical and blood slide confirmed cases of malaria from 2001 to 2005 were extracted from the hospital records. Results The proportion of blood slides positive for malaria parasites had decreased from 21% in 2001 to 7% in 2005 (p Conclusion It may be possible to change the diagnostic behaviour of clinicians by rigorous training using local malaria epidemiology data and supportive supervision.
This study aimed to determine the accuracy of malaria diagnosis both clinically and using various laboratory tests compared to the gold standard microscopy. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional hospital-based study, conducted at the casualty of Atbara Hospital, in January 2011. Any patient clinically ...
Such patient should be treated for malaria in settings with no facility for parasitological diagnosis. However, on account of the low specificity of this syndromic approach, it is important for clinicians to examine patients properly to rule out other causes of fever such as urinary tract infection, gastrointestinal infection. Keywords: ...
Diarra Amidou; Nébié Issa; Tiono Alfred; Sanon Souleymane; Soulama Issiaka; Ouédraogo Alphonse; Gansané Adama; Yaro Jean B; Ouédraogo Espérance; Traoré Alfred S; Sirima Sodiomon B
Abstract Backgound Treatment of confirmed malaria patients with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) at remote areas is the goal of many anti-malaria programs. Introduction of effective and affordable malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) in remote areas could be an alternative tool for malaria case management. This study aimed to assess performance of the OptiMAL dipstick for rapid malaria diagnosis in children under five. Methods Malaria symptomatic and asymptomatic children were recrui...
Kolakkadan Mubeen Hasaf
Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most pervasive parasitic diseases ever known to mankind affecting nearly 300 million people every year. The need for rapid diagnosis of malaria in tropical and subtropical malaria endemic areas is on the rise. In this study we evaluated the usefulness of hematology autoanalyzers, Sysmex XE-2100 & XT-2000i in the presumptive diagnosis of malaria. Our study shows that abnormalities in WBC/BASO scattergram when combined with presence of thrombocytopenia had a high sensitivity and positive predictive value in the presumptive diagnosis of malaria.
Oliveira, Allisson Dantas; Prats, Clara; Espasa, Mateu; Zarzuela Serrat, Francesc; Montañola Sales, Cristina; Silgado, Aroa; Codina, Daniel Lopez; Arruda, Mercia Eliane; I Prat, Jordi Gomez; Albuquerque, Jones
Malaria is a public health problem that affects remote areas worldwide. Climate change has contributed to the problem by allowing for the survival of Anopheles in previously uninhabited areas. As such, several groups have made developing news systems for the automated diagnosis of malaria a priority. The objective of this study was to develop a new, automated, mobile device-based diagnostic system for malaria. The system uses Giemsa-stained peripheral blood samples combined with light microscopy to identify the Plasmodium falciparum species in the ring stage of development. The system uses image processing and artificial intelligence techniques as well as a known face detection algorithm to identify Plasmodium parasites. The algorithm is based on integral image and haar-like features concepts, and makes use of weak classifiers with adaptive boosting learning. The search scope of the learning algorithm is reduced in the preprocessing step by removing the background around blood cells. As a proof of concept experiment, the tool was used on 555 malaria-positive and 777 malaria-negative previously-made slides. The accuracy of the system was, on average, 91%, meaning that for every 100 parasite-infected samples, 91 were identified correctly. Accessibility barriers of low-resource countries can be addressed with low-cost diagnostic tools. Our system, developed for mobile devices (mobile phones and tablets), addresses this by enabling access to health centers in remote communities, and importantly, not depending on extensive malaria expertise or expensive diagnostic detection equipment. ©Allisson Dantas Oliveira, Clara Prats, Mateu Espasa, Francesc Zarzuela Serrat, Cristina Montañola Sales, Aroa Silgado, Daniel Lopez Codina, Mercia Eliane Arruda, Jordi Gomez i Prat, Jones Albuquerque. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 25.04.2017.
Pirnstill, Casey W.; Coté, Gerard L.
Malaria remains a major global health burden, and new methods for low-cost, high-sensitivity, diagnosis are essential, particularly in remote areas with low-resource around the world. In this paper, a cost effective, optical cell-phone based transmission polarized light microscope system is presented for imaging the malaria pigment known as hemozoin. It can be difficult to determine the presence of the pigment from background and other artifacts, even for skilled microscopy technicians. The pigment is much easier to observe using polarized light microscopy. However, implementation of polarized light microscopy lacks widespread adoption because the existing commercial devices have complicated designs, require sophisticated maintenance, tend to be bulky, can be expensive, and would require re-training for existing microscopy technicians. To this end, a high fidelity and high optical resolution cell-phone based polarized light microscopy system is presented which is comparable to larger bench-top polarized microscopy systems but at much lower cost and complexity. The detection of malaria in fixed and stained blood smears is presented using both, a conventional polarized microscope and our cell-phone based system. The cell-phone based polarimetric microscopy design shows the potential to have both the resolution and specificity to detect malaria in a low-cost, easy-to-use, modular platform.
Hänscheid, T.; Pinto, B. G.; Cristino, J. M.; Grobusch, M. P.
The Cell-Dyn 3500 instrument could become a sensitive and specific tool in the diagnosis of malaria. The instrument appears to detect malaria-pigment within monocytes and granulocytes. A case of P. vivax malaria in a patient with increased osmotically resistant erythrocytes illustrates the potential
The morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in children below 5 years is really worrisome especially in the rural communities with little or no laboratory diagnostic facilities. This study was carried out to compare microscopy with Malaria Pf test for the diagnosis of malaria in a rural community in Ideato North Local ...
Taylor, Brian J; Howell, Anita; Martin, Kimberly A; Manage, Dammika P; Gordy, Walter; Campbell, Stephanie D; Lam, Samantha; Jin, Albert; Polley, Spencer D; Samuel, Roshini A; Atrazhev, Alexey; Stickel, Alex J; Birungi, Josephine; Mbonye, Anthony K; Pilarski, Linda M; Acker, Jason P; Yanow, Stephanie K
Access to timely and accurate diagnostic tests has a significant impact in the management of diseases of global concern such as malaria. While molecular diagnostics satisfy this need effectively in developed countries, barriers in technology, reagent storage, cost and expertise have hampered the introduction of these methods in developing countries. In this study a simple, lab-on-chip PCR diagnostic was created for malaria that overcomes these challenges. The platform consists of a disposable plastic chip and a low-cost, portable, real-time PCR machine. The chip contains a desiccated hydrogel with reagents needed for Plasmodium specific PCR. Chips can be stored at room temperature and used on demand by rehydrating the gel with unprocessed blood, avoiding the need for sample preparation. These chips were run on a custom-built instrument containing a Peltier element for thermal cycling and a laser/camera setup for amplicon detection. This diagnostic was capable of detecting all Plasmodium species with a limit of detection for Plasmodium falciparum of 2 parasites/μL of blood. This exceeds the sensitivity of microscopy, the current standard for diagnosis in the field, by ten to fifty-fold. In a blind panel of 188 patient samples from a hyper-endemic region of malaria transmission in Uganda, the diagnostic had high sensitivity (97.4%) and specificity (93.8%) versus conventional real-time PCR. The test also distinguished the two most prevalent malaria species in mixed infections, P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A second blind panel of 38 patient samples was tested on a streamlined instrument with LED-based excitation, achieving a sensitivity of 96.7% and a specificity of 100%. These results describe the development of a lab-on-chip PCR diagnostic from initial concept to ready-for-manufacture design. This platform will be useful in front-line malaria diagnosis, elimination programmes, and clinical trials. Furthermore, test chips can be adapted to detect other
Kim, Hee Sung; Kang, Gilwon; Lee, Sunmi; Yoon, Chang Gyo; Kim, Minyoung
Chemoprophylaxis has been used to prevent malaria among soldiers and secondary transmission, as it effectively facilitates a decline in disease occurrence and secondary prevention. However, poor compliance and decreased risk of exposure to malaria necessitate that control strategies be reestablished. To predict the incidence of malaria according to a control strategy, we proposed a mathematical model for its transmission using epidemiological data from 2010 to 2012. The benefit component included in the analyses was the averted cost with each control strategy, and the cost components were the cost of implementing chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis. The chemoprophylaxis regimen with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and primaquine was Intervention 1, the regimen with primaquine only was Intervention 2, and diagnosis with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit within 5 days of fever was Intervention 3. The simulation indicated that the combined control program with chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis would be the most effective strategy, whereas sole early diagnosis would be the least effective strategy. However, the cost-benefit ratio of chemoprophylaxis was less than Intervention 1, irrespective of the varying range of chemoprophylaxis compliance, and that of early diagnosis was more than Intervention 1, regardless of the varying early diagnosis rate and demand for the RDT kit. Although chemoprophylaxis would be more effective at reducing the incidence of malaria than early diagnosis, it is less economical due to the higher cost. Our results support the introduction of early diagnosis with a RDT kit to control malaria in the Republic of Korea Army. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
Giao, Phan T.; Vries, Peter J.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.
Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria (EDTM) is a key component of malaria control. The success of EDTM depends on health seeking behaviour and the quality of the health service. This study assessed self-diagnosis, treatment and treatment delay after the introduction of EDTM in 1993. In southern
Ragavan, K V; Kumar, Sanni; Swaraj, Shiva; Neethirajan, Suresh
Vector-borne diseases are a major concern for human health globally, especially malaria in densely populated, less developed, tropical regions of the world. Malaria causes loss of human life and economic harm, and may spread through travelers to new regions. Though there are sufficient therapeutics available for the effective treatment and cure of malaria, it infects millions of people and claims several thousand lives every year. Early diagnosis of the infection can potentially prevent the spread of disease, save lives, and mitigate the financial impact. Conventional analytical techniques are being widely employed for malaria diagnosis, but with low sensitivity and selectivity. Due to the poor-resource settings where malaria outbreaks often occur, most conventional diagnostic methods are not affordable and hence not effective in detection and controlling the spread of the infection. However, biosensors have improved the scope for affordable malaria diagnosis. Advances in biotechnology and nanotechnology have provided novel recognition materials and transducer elements, discoveries which allow the fabrication of affordable biosensor platforms with improved attributes. The present work covers the advancement in biosensors with an introduction to malaria, followed by conventional methods of malaria diagnosis, malaria markers, novel recognition elements and the biosensor principle. Finally, a proactive role and a perspective on developed biosensor platforms are discussed with potential biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
typhoid fevers, clinicians should revisit causes of febrile illnesses other than malaria or typhoid and hence the need to include other tests ... billion people are at high risk of symptomatic malaria in 2013 (WHO, 2014).It has been noted ... of Malaria and Salmonella typhi as 10.1% and. 0.5% using Widal test and blood culture.
A vast proportion of malaria morbidity occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, (SSA). However, there is substantial evidence that the intensity of malaria transmission in Africa is declining (Snow et al. 2012, Graz et al. 2011), and rapid malaria parasitemia tests are well distributed in endemic countries and easy to use (Graz et al. 2011) ...
Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Ibrahim, Lukeman; May, Juergen; Brattig, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank
About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are applicable as well as affordable and
Bamiselu, Oluyomi F; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Dairo, David; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Oladimeji, Abisola; Steven, Yoon
Malaria case management remains a vital component of malaria control strategies. Despite the introduction of national malaria treatment guidelines and scale-up of malaria control interventions in Nigeria, anecdotal evidence shows some deviations from the guidelines in malaria case management. This study assessed factors influencing adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in public and private sectors in Ogun State, Nigeria. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 432 (216 public and 216 private) healthcare workers selected from nine Local Government Areas using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on availability and use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), for management of uncomplicated malaria. Adherence was defined as when choice of antimalarials for parasitological confirmed malaria cases was restricted to recommended antimalarial medicines. Association between adherence and independent variables were tested using Chi-square at 5 % level of significance. Malaria RDT was available in 81.9 % of the public health facilities and 19.4 % of the private health facilities (p = 0.001). Its use was higher among public healthcare workers (85.2 %) compared to 32.9 % in private facilities (p = 0.000). Presumptive diagnosis of malaria was higher among private healthcare workers (94.9 %) compared to 22.7 % public facilities (p = malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines. Interventions to improve private sector engagement in implementation of the guidelines, training and supply of recommended antimalarial medicines should be intensified.
Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Nuwaha, Fred
-based diagnosis for uncomplicated malaria in rural health centres (HCs) was investigated with a view to recommending measures for scaling up the policy. METHODS: Thirty HCs were randomized to implement parasite-based diagnosis based on rapid diagnostic tests [RDTs] (n=10), blood microscopy (n=10) and presumptive...... diagnosis (control arm) (n=10). Feasibility was assessed by comparing the proportion of patients who received parasite-based diagnosis; with a positive malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received artemether-lumefantrine (AL); with a negative malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received AL; and patient...... waiting time. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00565071. RESULTS: 102,087 outpatients were enrolled. Patients were more likely to be tested in the RDT 44,565 (96.6%) than in microscopy arm 19,545 (60.9%) [RR: 1.59]. RDTs reduced patient waiting time compared to microscopy and were more convenient to health workers...
Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan
In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.
Fook Kong, Tian; Ye, Weijian; Peng, Weng Kung; Wei Hou, Han; Marcos; Preiser, Peter Rainer; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Han, Jongyoon
Despite significant advancements over the years, there remains an urgent need for low cost diagnostic approaches that allow for rapid, reliable and sensitive detection of malaria parasites in clinical samples. Our previous work has shown that magnetic resonance relaxometry (MRR) is a potentially highly sensitive tool for malaria diagnosis. A key challenge for making MRR based malaria diagnostics suitable for clinical testing is the fact that MRR baseline fluctuation exists between individuals, making it difficult to detect low level parasitemia. To overcome this problem, it is important to establish the MRR baseline of each individual while having the ability to reliably determine any changes that are caused by the infection of malaria parasite. Here we show that an approach that combines the use of microfluidic cell enrichment with a saponin lysis before MRR detection can overcome these challenges and provide the basis for a highly sensitive and reliable diagnostic approach of malaria parasites. Importantly, as little as 0.0005% of ring stage parasites can be detected reliably, making this ideally suited for the detection of malaria parasites in peripheral blood obtained from patients. The approaches used here are envisaged to provide a new malaria diagnosis solution in the near future.
Hu, K K; Maung, C; Katz, D L
To evaluate the prevailing practice of presumptively diagnosing malaria in all cases of febrile illness in a clinic serving a refugee population on the Thai-Myanmar border A retrospective review of 3,506 patient charts from December 1993 through June 1994 at the MaeSot medical clinic to compare clinical signs of malaria to blood smear findings. Patients presenting without fever were assumed not to have malaria; the remaining 2,111 patients presenting with fever had blood smears examined for malaria infection. Fever alone sufferedfrom poorpositive predictive value (54.7 percent) and specificity (59.3 percent). When fever was combined with hepatosplenomegaly and anemia, the positive predictive value and specificity improved (84.5 percent and 98.5 percent, respectively). However, this combination also resulted in an unacceptably poor sensitivity (16.5 percent) and false negative error rate (835/1,000). CONCLUSIONS. In this nonimmune refugee population, severe complications of falciparum malaria occur quickly and commonly; aggressive chemotherapy is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Until laboratory facilities are made available, all cases offever should continue to be treated presumptively as malaria.
were tested using the ICT~Malaria P f 0 test kit as well as the conventional blood ﬁlm microscopy ... fundamental role of early, rapid and precise diagnosis of malaria ... Thick and thin blood ﬁlms were prepared on the same slide for each patient andlabelled. The thin ﬁlm was air dried and ﬁxed with methanol prior to staining.
Full Text Available The revised W.H.O. guidelines for malaria management in endemic countries recommend that treatment should be reserved to laboratory confirmed cases, both for adults and children. Currently the most widely used tools are rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, that are accurate and reliable in diagnosing malaria infection. However, an infection is not necessarily a clinical malaria, and RDTs may give positive results in febrile patients who have another cause of fever. Excessive reliance on RDTs may cause overlooking potentially severe non malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI in these cases. In countries or areas where transmission intensity remains very high, fever management in children (especially in the rainy season should probably remain presumptive, as a test-based management may not be safe, nor cost effective. In contrast, in countries with low transmission, including those targeted for malaria elimination, RDTs are a key resource to limit unnecessary antimalarial prescription and to identify pockets of infected individuals. Research should focus on very sensitive tools for infection on one side, and on improved tools for clinical management on the other, including biomarkers of clinical malaria and/or of alternative causes of fever.
Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Achan, Jane; Nakanjako, Damalie; Mpeka, Betty; Mawejje, Henry; Mugizi, Rukaaka; Kalyango, Joan N; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Talisuna, Ambrose; Jean-Pierre, Van geertruyden
Malaria case management is a key strategy for malaria control. Effective coverage of parasite-based malaria diagnosis (PMD) remains limited in malaria endemic countries. This study assessed the health system's capacity to absorb PMD at primary health care facilities in Uganda. In a cross sectional survey, using multi-stage cluster sampling, lower level health facilities (LLHF) in 11 districts in Uganda were assessed for 1) tools, 2) skills, 3) staff and infrastructure, and 4) structures, systems and roles necessary for the implementing of PMD. Tools for PMD (microscopy and/or RDTs) were available at 30 (24%) of the 125 LLHF. All LLHF had patient registers and 15% had functional in-patient facilities. Three months' long stock-out periods were reported for oral and parenteral quinine at 39% and 47% of LLHF respectively. Out of 131 health workers interviewed, 86 (66%) were nursing assistants; 56 (43%) had received on-job training on malaria case management and 47 (36%) had adequate knowledge in malaria case management. Overall, only 18% (131/730) Ministry of Health approved staff positions were filled by qualified personnel and 12% were recruited or transferred within six months preceding the survey. Of 186 patients that received referrals from LLHF, 130(70%) had received pre-referral anti-malarial drugs, none received pre-referral rectal artesunate and 35% had been referred due to poor response to antimalarial drugs. Primary health care facilities had inadequate human and infrastructural capacity to effectively implement universal parasite-based malaria diagnosis. The priority capacity building needs identified were: 1) recruitment and retention of qualified staff, 2) comprehensive training of health workers in fever management, 3) malaria diagnosis quality control systems and 4) strengthening of supply chain, stock management and referral systems.
Full Text Available Novel diagnostic tools, including PCR and high field gradient magnetic fractionation (HFGMF, have improved detection of asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites and especially infectious gametocytes in human blood. These techniques indicate a significant number of people carry gametocyte densities that fall below the conventional threshold of detection achieved by standard light microscopy (LM.To determine how low-level gametocytemia may affect transmission in present large-scale efforts for P. falciparum control in endemic areas, we developed a refinement of the classical Ross-Macdonald model of malaria transmission by introducing multiple infective compartments to model the potential impact of highly prevalent, low gametocytaemic reservoirs in the population. Models were calibrated using field-based data and several numerical experiments were conducted to assess the effect of high and low gametocytemia on P. falciparum transmission and control. Special consideration was given to the impact of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLIN, presently considered the most efficient way to prevent transmission, and particularly LLIN coverage similar to goals targeted by the Roll Back Malaria and Global Fund malaria control campaigns. Our analyses indicate that models which include only moderate-to-high gametocytemia (detectable by LM predict finite eradication times after LLIN introduction. Models that include a low gametocytemia reservoir (requiring PCR or HFGMF detection predict much more stable, persistent transmission. Our modeled outcomes result in significantly different estimates for the level and duration of control needed to achieve malaria elimination if submicroscopic gametocytes are included.It will be very important to complement current methods of surveillance with enhanced diagnostic techniques to detect asexual parasites and gametocytes to more accurately plan, monitor and guide malaria control programs aimed at eliminating malaria.
Rahim, F.; Amin-ul-Haq; Jamal, S.
Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)
Samina Naz Mukry
Full Text Available Malaria is the second most prevalent disease in Pakistan resulting in ~30,000 annual deaths. In endemic countries like Pakistan precise and timely diagnosis of malaria is imperative to overcome the associated risks of fatal outcomes. Malarial parasite was screened in 128 malaria suspected patients and 150 healthy controls, by species-specific PCR, microscopy of blood smears, hemoanalyzer Sysmex XE-2100, and rapid test devices (First Response Malaria® and ICT Malaria Combo®. The microscopy detected MP in 126 samples (parasite load/µl 386–53712/µl; 71.094% were infected with Plasmodium vivax and 14.844% with P. falciparum while 14.062% had mixed P. vivax and P. falciparum infection. The mean parasite load for P. vivax and P. falciparum was 14496/µl and 24410/µl, respectively. The abnormal scattergrams of DIFF, WBC/ Baso, IMI channel, and RET-EXT on Sysmex XE-2100 supported 99.2% parasite detection, whereas only 93% of confirmed malaria cases were detected by both rapid tests. About 127 samples were positive by PCR. Since Sysmex XE-2100 automatically detected the presence of malarial parasite with high sensitivity, it can be a good option for presumptive diagnosis in endemic areas. Microscopy remains the gold standard to confirm MP in suspected patients. Rapid diagnostic tests have acceptable sensitivity and specificity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. Methods GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1 malaria affects the largest number of people; (2 the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact. Results About 75% of the population affected by Plasmodium falciparum malaria have scarce access to healthcare facilities. The introduction of m-Health technologies should be based on the 2G protocol, as 3G mobile network coverage is still limited. The western border and the central-Southeast are the regions where m-Health could reach the largest percentage of the remote population. Six districts (Arua, Apac, Lira, Kamuli, Iganga, and Mubende could have the largest benefit because they account for about 28% of the remote population affected by falciparum malaria with access to the 2G mobile network. Conclusions The application of m-Health technologies could improve access to medical services for distant populations. Affordable remote malaria diagnosis could help to decongest health facilities, reducing costs and contagion. The combination of m-Health and GIS could provide real-time and geo-localized data transmission, improving anti-malarial strategies in Uganda. Scalability to other countries and diseases looks promising.
halofantrine, and quinine combined with tetra- cycline. When atovaquone-proguanil is used to treat vivax malaria , it should be followed by...1 Introduction Definition Malaria is an infectious disease caused by coccidian pro- tozoa of the genus Plasmodium, and transmitted by infected...female anopheline mosquitoes. Plasmodium sp infecting humans include Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falci- parum, Plasmodium malariae , and Plasmodium ovale
Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but ... at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly ...
Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…
Hänscheid, Thomas; Grobusch, Martin P.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are the most sensitive and specific method to detect malaria parasites, and have acknowledged value in research settings. However, the time lag between sample collection, transportation and processing, and dissemination of results back to the physician limits
Mayxay, Mayfong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phompida, Samlane; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; White, Nicholas J; Newton, Paul N
We assessed the knowledge of malaria diagnosis and management by community health providers in rural Vientiane and Savannakhet Provinces, Lao PDR. Sixty health providers (17 pharmacy owners/drug sellers and 43 village health volunteers) were interviewed. All diagnosed malaria using symptoms and signs only; 14% were aware of >2 criteria for the diagnosis of severe malaria. Although chloroquine and quinine, the then recommended Lao national policy for uncomplicated malaria treatment, were the most common antimalarials prescribed - 65% gave incorrect doses and 70% did not know the side effects. Although not recommended by the then national policy, 27% of the health providers used combinations of antimalarials as they considered monotherapy ineffective. This study strongly suggests that further training of Lao rural health providers in malaria diagnosis and management is needed to improve the quality of health services in areas remote from district hospitals.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated and supported the eradication of malaria in various countries of the world since 1957. Unlike some countries in the temperate zone which have been successful in eradicating the disease, malaria remains endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. In 1969 WHO recommended that, although eradication should remain an ultimate goal, malaria control operations may form a transitional phase in countries where eradication does not appear feasible. Malaria control, however, remains an impossible goal in many countries where the disease is endemic. Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant malaria pathogen responsible for severe disease and death. It is estimated that 90% of all malaria cases worldwide occur in Africa, where the majority of people live in highly endemic or endemic prone areas. Only about 12% of the population lives in risk-free or low-risk areas. Between one-third and two-thirds of all cases of fever among children are associated with malaria, and in some parts of Africa the case-fatality rate is as high 31.9% for infants and 20.4% for children. The malaria situation in the African continent is rapidly changing due to variants of P. falciparum that are resistant to chloroquine; mosquitoes that are resistant to insecticides; movement of nonimmune individuals to endemic areas; increasing short-term travel patterns; and ecological reasons. Malaria is also appearing in previously free areas because of technological (agricultural) advances. Adult and pediatric dosages of antimalarial drugs are suggested for the treatment and prevention of P. falciparum malaria.
Vyas, Siddharth, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Engineering Technology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Genis, Vladimir [Department of Engineering Technology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Friedman, Gary [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)
This paper investigates the feasibility of a cost effective high gradient magnetic separation based device for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a blood sample. The design utilizes magnetic properties of hemozoin present in malaria-infected red blood cells (mRBCs) in order to separate and concentrate them inside a microfluidic channel slide for easier examination under the microscope. The design consists of a rectangular microfluidic channel with multiple magnetic wires positioned on top of and underneath it along the length of the channel at a small angle with respect to the channel axis. Strong magnetic field gradients, produced by the wires, exert sufficient magnetic forces on the mRBCs in order to separate and concentrate them in a specific region small enough to fit within the microscope field of view at magnifications typically required to identify the malaria parasite type. The feasibility of the device is studied using a model where the trajectories of the mRBCs inside the channel are determined using first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) solved numerically using a multistep ODE solver available within MATLAB. The mRBCs trajectories reveal that it is possible to separate and concentrate the mRBCs in less than 5 min, even in cases of very low parasitemia (1–10 parasites/µL of blood) using blood sample volumes of around 3 µL employed today. - Highlights: • A simple and cost-effective design is presented to improve the diagnosis of malaria. • The design is studied using a computational model. • It is possible to concentrate malaria-infected cells in a small area. • This can improve slide-examination and the efficiency of microscopists. • This can improve diagnosis of low-parasitemia and asymptomatic malaria.
... medicines sold to help prevent malaria may be fake or less effective than necessary. If you are ... Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors In The News Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ...
Moura, Sofia; Fançony, Cláudia; Mirante, Clara; Neves, Marcela; Bernardino, Luís; Fortes, Filomeno; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Brito, Miguel
In Angola, malaria is an endemic disease having a major impact on the economy. The WHO recommends testing for all suspected malaria cases, to avoid the presumptive treatment of this disease. In malaria endemic regions laboratory technicians must be very comfortable with microscopy, the golden standard for malaria diagnosis, to avoid the incorrect diagnosis. The improper use of medication promotes drug resistance and undesirable side effects. The present study aims to assess the impact of a three-day refresher course on the knowledge of technicians, quality of blood smears preparation and accuracy of microscopy malaria diagnosis, using qPCR as reference method. This study was implemented in laboratories from three hospitals in different provinces of Angola: Bengo, Benguela and Luanda. In each laboratory samples were collected before and after the training course (slide with thin and thick blood smears, a dried blood spot and a form). The impact of the intervention was evaluated through a written test, the quality of slide preparation and the performance of microscopy. It was found a significant increase on the written test median score, from 52.5% to 65.0%. A total of 973 slides were analysed to evaluate the quality of thick and thin blood smears. Considering all laboratories there was a significant increase in quality of thick and thin blood smears. To determine the performance of microscopy using qPCR as the reference method we used 1,028 samples. Benguela presented the highest values for specificity, 92.9% and 98.8% pre and post-course, respectively and for sensitivity the best pre-course was Benguela (75.9%) and post-course Luanda (75.0%). However, no significant increase in sensitivity and specificity after the training course was registered in any laboratory analysed. The findings of this study support the need of continuous refresher training for microscopists and other laboratory staff. The laboratories should have a quality control programme to supervise
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge with more than 200 million deaths annually, specially in the tropical and subtropical countries.(1 In India malaria is endemic throughout the country, problem accounting for 1-2 million cases and 1100 deaths per year.(1 The commonly employed method for diagnosis of malaria involves the microscopic examination of Romanowsky stained blood films.(2 For decades light microscopy of blood smears has been the gold standard in the diagnosis of malaria.(3 It is labor intensive and requires considerable expertise for its interpretation, particularly at low level of parasitaemia.(4 The diagnostic modalities which are available for malaria range from conventional thick and thin smears, Quantitative buffy coat smears(QBC, to rapid and more reliable diagnostic modalities like antigen detection tests for detecting parasitic antigen like Histidine – rich protein-2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and pan specific aldolase. These techniques have variable sensitivity and specificity.(5 Each of these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. A previous study from India(6 had developed standardized and reported on using Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS examination for diagnosis of malaria, in which wide bore 4 ml tube instead of a Wintrobe’s tube has been used to obtain a buffy coat. This technique has advantage over the existing method. The purpose of the present study was to assess the usefulness of CBCS technique in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. AIMS: Detection of malarial parasite by Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS was compared with conventional thin and thick peripheral smear and antigen detection by commercially available card test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CBCS in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. METHODS, MATERIALS AND RESULTS: A total of 837 patients were tested
Symptomatic diagnosis of the 352 pregnant women and children, showed that 260 (79%) did not manifest any of the malarial symptoms within the past three months as at the time of the study, 20 (5.7%) patients had fever alone, chill and blisters (0.9%), headache, diarrhoea and joint pain (0.3%), and weakness and anorexia ...
T. V. Dougnon
Full Text Available Malaria is a major disease in Africa and leads to various public health problems. A study was carried out at the Aviation Medical Clinic Laboratory, Murtala Mohammed Airport, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria, in 2014. The work aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria among patients attending the laboratory. Blood samples were therefore collected from 51 patients and subjected to both blood smear microscopy and a rapid immunochromatographic diagnostic test (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag for detection of, respectively, malaria parasites and antigens. At the end of the study, 22% of the patients were detected positive by the microscopic examination while 9.8% were tested positive when using SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag. The outcomes of the study show a high prevalence of malaria at the airport. This represents a serious risk factor leading to a high likelihood of spread and occurrence of malaria in other countries including Western countries whereby the disease is nonendemic. It also pointed out that the blood smear microscopy seems to be better than Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT for malaria diagnosis.
Hathiwala, Riddhi; Mehta, Preeti R; Nataraj, Gita; Hathiwala, Siddhi
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the need of hour for effective management and controlling drug resistance. The conventional and gold-standard method, Light microscopy (LM), is time-consuming, requires trained staff and well-maintained equipments. The newly developed, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are fast and reliable, but give only qualitative results, are expensive and have short shelf life. Light Emission Diode fluorescence microscopy (LED FM) may provide a reliable alternative which can be used for routine diagnosis. In order to assess the effectiveness of LED fluorescence microscopy in malaria diagnosis, a cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. 2-3ml of blood of 300 patients, who were clinically suspected of having malaria but were not on anti-malarial treatment, was collected in EDTA vials. These specimens were processed to diagnose malaria by three methods, namely-Peripheral smear examination with LM, Peripheral smear examination with LED FM and RDT. The results of all the 3 tests were compared, taking Light Microscopy as the gold standard method. Of the 300 specimens, LM, LED FM and RDT reported 111 (37%), 86 (28.67%) and 107 (35.67%), respectively, as positive. The sensitivity and specificity were respectively 71.2% and 96.3% for LED FM and 91% and 96.8% for RDT. Of the LM positive cases, 53 (47.75%) had parasitic index (PI) LED FM was found to be only moderately sensitive but highly specific in comparison to Light microscopy. In order to improve the performance of this technique, more precise training in fluorescence staining and reading of the slides, will be required. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Onubogu, Catherine C.; Okoye, Rosemary N.; Nwokoye, Nkiru N.; Onwuamah, Chika K.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Raheem, Toyosi Y.; Aniedobe, Maureen N.; Nduaga, Samuel J.; Essien, Ini-Obong; Idigbe, Emmanuel O.
Background Proficiency testing (PT) is a means of verifying the reliability of laboratory results, but such programmes are not readily available to laboratories in developing countries. This project provided PT to laboratories in Nigeria. Objectives To assess the proficiency of laboratories in the diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Methods This was a prospective study carried out between 2009 and 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered to 106 randomly-selected laboratories. Forty-four indicated their interest in participation and were enrolled. Four rounds of pre-characterised plasma panels for HIV, sputum films for tuberculosis and blood films for malaria were distributed quarterly by courier over the course of one year. The results were returned within two weeks and scores of ≥ 80% were reported as satisfactory. Mentoring was offered after the first and second PT rounds. Results Average HIV PT scores increased from 74% to 95% from the first round to the third round, but decreased in the fourth round. For diagnosis of tuberculosis, average scores increased from 42% in the first round to 78% in the second round; but a decrease to 34% was observed in the fourth round. Malaria PT performance was 2% at first, but average scores increased between the second and fourth rounds, culminating in a fourth-round score of 39%. Many participants requested training and mentoring. Conclusions There were gross deficiencies in the quality of laboratory services rendered across Nigeria. In-country PT programmes, implemented in conjunction with mentoring, will improve coverage and diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. PMID:29043176
Fontecha, Gustavo A; Mendoza, Meisy; Banegas, Engels; Poorak, Mitra; De Oliveira, Alexandre M; Mancero, Tamara; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lucchi, Naomi W; Mejia, Rosa E
Honduras is a tropical country with more than 70% of its population living at risk of being infected with either Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum. Laboratory diagnosis is a very important factor for adequate treatment and management of malaria. In Honduras, malaria is diagnosed by both, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests and to date, no molecular methods have been implemented for routine diagnosis. However, since mixed infections, and asymptomatic and low-parasitaemic cases are difficult to detect by light microscopy alone, identifying appropriate molecular tools for diagnostic applications in Honduras deserves further study. The present study investigated the utility of different molecular tests for the diagnosis of malaria in Honduras. A total of 138 blood samples collected as part of a clinical trial to assess the efficacy of chloroquine were used: 69 microscopically confirmed P. falciparum positive samples obtained on the day of enrollment and 69 follow-up samples obtained 28 days after chloroquine treatment and shown to be malaria negative by microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of microscopy was compared to an 18 s ribosomal RNA gene-based nested PCR, two single-PCR reactions designed to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections, one single-PCR to detect Plasmodium vivax infections, and one multiplex one-step PCR reaction to detect both parasite species. Of the 69 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples, 68 were confirmed to be P. falciparum-positive by two of the molecular tests used. The one sample not detected as P. falciparum by any of the molecular tests was shown to be P. vivax-positive by a reference molecular test indicating a misdiagnosis by microscopy. The reference molecular test detected five cases of P. vivax/P. falciparum mixed infections, which were not recognized by microscopy as mixed infections. Only two of these mixed infections were recognized by a multiplex test while a P. vivax-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR
The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficiencies of urine malaria test kit with microscopy as the gold standard in detecting Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2, a poly-histidine antigen in urine of febrile patients. The study was conducted in a primary and secondary health institution in Gombe Town, Gombe State, ...
Adinan, Juma; Damian, Damian J; Msuya, Sia E
Malaria is still a public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria causes mortality mostly in children under-five years. Early detection and prompt treatment using recommended antimalarials is key to malaria control. However, in Tanzania, contrary to the national goals, a large proportion of children with fever taken to health facilities are not tested for malaria and those tested positive are not promptly treated using recommended antimalarials. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with malaria testing and prompt use of recommended antimalarials among under-five children with fever in Tanzania. This was a secondary analysis of Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey (THMIS) data 2011-12 obtained from a national cross sectional survey. The analysis involved children aged 6-59 months whose mothers reported they had fever two weeks preceding the survey. Factors associated with testing and uses of recommended antimalarials were obtained using logistic regression. Of the 1675 under-five children with fever, 951 (56.8%) were taken to the health facilities. Of the 951 children, only 394 (41.48%) febrile children were tested for malaria. Of those tested, 291 (78.91%) were diagnosed with malaria. Of those diagnosed with malaria, only 124 (42.68%) children used recommended antimalarials within 1st 24 hours of diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, children taken to health centers (OR 1.79; 95%CI: 1.07-3.00) and to the hospitals (OR 3.4; 95%CI: 1.75-6.77) had higher odds of being tested compared to those taken to dispensary and other lower level health facilities. Children were more likely to use recommended antimalarial promptly if they had a caretaker with secondary or higher education (OR: 4.07; 95%CI: 0.61-2.68) or living in the rural area (OR: 3.21; 95%CI: 1.09-9.44) compared to those with an uneducated caretaker or from an urban area. Training on malaria testing and treatment guidelines should be provided, and preventing stock outs of malaria
Koepfli, Cristian; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Jally, Shadrach; Malau, Elisheba; Maripal, Samuel; Ginny, Jason; Timinao, Lincoln; Kattenberg, Johanna Helena; Obadia, Thomas; White, Michael; Rarau, Patricia; Senn, Nicolas; Barry, Alyssa E; Kazura, James W; Mueller, Ivo; Robinson, Leanne J
The scale-up of effective malaria control in the last decade has resulted in a substantial decline in the incidence of clinical malaria in many countries. The effects on the proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections and on transmission potential are yet poorly understood. In Papua New Guinea, vector control has been intensified since 2008, and improved diagnosis and treatment was introduced in 2012. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Madang Province in 2006 (with 1280 survey participants), 2010 (with 2117 participants), and 2014 (with 2516 participants). Infections were quantified by highly sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and gametocytes were quantified by reverse-transcription qPCR analysis. Plasmodium falciparum prevalence determined by qPCR decreased from 42% in 2006 to 9% in 2014. The P. vivax prevalence decreased from 42% in 2006 to 13% in 2010 but then increased to 20% in 2014. Parasite densities decreased 5-fold from 2006 to 2010; 72% of P. falciparum and 87% of P. vivax infections were submicroscopic in 2014. Gametocyte density and positivity correlated closely with parasitemia, and population gametocyte prevalence decreased 3-fold for P. falciparum and 29% for P. vivax from 2010 to 2014. Sustained control has resulted in reduced malaria transmission potential, but an increasing proportion of gametocyte carriers are asymptomatic and submicroscopic and represent a challenge to malaria control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Surabattula, Rambabu; Vejandla, Manju Pradeep; Mallepaddi, Prudhvi Chand; Faulstich, Konrad; Polavarapu, Rathnagiri
We attempted to improve the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for malaria diagnosis by using a simple DNA extraction procedure, and a portable device performing both the amplification and detection of LAMP in one platform. Additionally, the device served as a heating block for the DNA preparation. We refer this method as LAMP-Tube scanner, and evaluated using 209 microscopically positive malaria samples and compared them to RDTs and LAMP-Thermocycler. Two most common human infecting Plasmodium species were detected. The LAMP-Tube scanner method is found to be simple and allowed real-time detection of DNA amplification. The time to amplification varied but was closely less than 60 min. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP-Tube scanner in detecting Plasmodium falciparum were 95% and 93.3%, compared to microscopy and 98.3% and 100% respectively, compared to standard LAMP-Thermocycler. In addition, it showed a detection limit of 10 and 40 copies of the parasitemia for Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. Accordingly, in comparison to the results obtained by microscopy, the LAMP-Tube scanner had a less divergence in sensitivity and specificity, and yielded results similar to those of LAMP-Thermocycler. This method has the great potential as a field usable molecular tool for the diagnosis of malaria and is an alternative to conventional PCR-based diagnostic methods for field use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.
Full Text Available A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhematocrit tube (QBC was compared with thick and thin peripheral blood smears in 2274 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 239 (10.5% patients by Leishman′s staining technique and QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 89 (3.9% cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 14.4%. In 1946 patients who were negative by the QBC technique, the Leishman′s stained smears did not provide any help in malaria diagnosis. Analysis of the relative quantity of parasites in the specimens, in the QBC method, revealed that 80 out of 89 QBC positive but smear negative cases, had a very low parasite number (less than 10 parasites per QBC field. Although QBC method was superior to the smear for malarial parasite detection, species identification was not possible in 26 (7.9% cases by this technique. In 95.7% (n = 314 QBC positive cases, the buffy coat in the QBC tube appeared pigmented (gray to black. The colour of the buffy coat was therefore considered by us as a predictor of positivity and could be taken as an indicator for a careful and more prolonged search for the parasites. Thus, the QBC technique has its advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity and ease, especially in an endemic area as ours, where the level of parasitaemia is low and more than 70 to 80 smears need to be examined per day. However, the age old Romanowsky stains still appear superior for species identification.
Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Dharmawardana, Priyani; Epasinghe, Geethanee; Senanayake, Niroshana; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Premaratne, Risintha; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha
Sri Lanka is currently in the prevention of re-introduction phase of malaria. The engagement of the private sector health care institutions in malaria surveillance is important. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of diagnostic tests carried out, the number of positive cases identified and the referral system for diagnosis in the private sector and to estimate the costs involved. This prospective study of private sector laboratories within the Colombo District of Sri Lanka was carried out over a 6-month period in 2015. The management of registered private sector laboratories was contacted individually and the purpose of the study was explained. A reporting format was developed and introduced for monthly reporting. Forty-one laboratories were eligible to be included in the study and 28 participated by reporting data on a monthly basis. Excluding blood bank samples and routine testing for foreign employment, malaria diagnostic tests were carried out on 973 individuals during the 6-month period and nine malaria cases were identified. In 2015, a total of 36 malaria cases were reported from Sri Lanka. Of these, 24 (67 %) were diagnosed in the Colombo District and 50 % of them were diagnosed in private hospitals. An equal number of cases were diagnosed from the private sector and government sector in the Colombo District in 2015. The private sector being a major contributor in the detection of imported malaria cases in the country should be actively engaged in the national malaria surveillance system.
Khan, S. A.; Ahmed, S.; Khan, F. A.; Shamshad, G. U.; Joyia, Z.; Mushahid, N.; Saeed, S.
Objective: To determine the sensitivity of a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for malaria diagnosis and to compare its accuracy with microscopy and an antigen based rapid diagnostic test (OptiMal). Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: Venous blood samples of 300 clinically suspected patients of malaria were tested for malaria parasite by microscopy and OptiMal; and malaria parasite index was calculated for the positive samples. Plasmodium genus specific real time PCR was performed on all specimens, targeting small subunit rRNA gene. Diagnostic accuracy of three tests was compared and cost analysis was done. Results: Out of 300 patients, malaria parasite was detected in 110, 106 and 123 patients by microscopy, OptiMAL and PCR respectively. Real time PCR was 100% sensitive while microscopy and OptiMal had sensitivity of 89.4% and 86.2% respectively. All methods were 100% specific. The cost per test was calculated to be 0.2, 2.75 and 3.30 US dollar by microscopy, OptiMal and PCR respectively, excluding the once capital cost on PCR equipment. Conclusion: Genus specific real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria was successfully established as a highly sensitive and affordable technology that should be incorporated in the diagnostic algorithm in this country. (author)
Full Text Available In this work we investigate whether the innate visual recognition and learning capabilities of untrained humans can be used in conducting reliable microscopic analysis of biomedical samples toward diagnosis. For this purpose, we designed entertaining digital games that are interfaced with artificial learning and processing back-ends to demonstrate that in the case of binary medical diagnostics decisions (e.g., infected vs. uninfected, with the use of crowd-sourced games it is possible to approach the accuracy of medical experts in making such diagnoses. Specifically, using non-expert gamers we report diagnosis of malaria infected red blood cells with an accuracy that is within 1.25% of the diagnostics decisions made by a trained medical professional.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria followed by prompt treatment reduces the risk of severe disease in malaria endemic regions. Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practised where microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are not readily available. With the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for treatment of malaria in many low-resource settings, there is need to target treatment to patients with parasitologically confirmed malaria in order to improve quality of care, reduce over consumption of anti-malarials, reduce drug pressure and in turn delay development and spread of drug resistance. This study evaluated the effect of malaria RDTs on health workers' anti-malarial drug (AMD prescriptions among outpatients at low level health care facilities (LLHCF within different malaria epidemiological settings in Uganda. Methods All health workers (HWs in 21 selected intervention (where RDTs were deployed LLHF were invited for training on the use RDTs. All HWs were trained to use RDTs for parasitological diagnosis of all suspected malaria cases irrespective of age. Five LLHCFs with clinical diagnosis (CD only were included for comparison. Subsequently AMD prescriptions were compared using both a 'pre - post' and 'intervention - control' analysis designs. In-depth interviews of the HWs were conducted to explore any factors that influence AMD prescription practices. Results A total of 166,131 out-patient attendances (OPD were evaluated at 21 intervention LLHCFs. Overall use of RDTs resulted in a 38% point reduction in AMD prescriptions. There was a two-fold reduction (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.70 in AMD prescription with the greatest reduction in the hypo-endemic setting (RR 0.46 95% CI 0.51-0.53 but no significant change in the urban setting (RR1.01, p-value = 0.820. Over 90% of all eligible OPD patients were offered a test. An average of 30% (range 25%-35% of the RDT-negative fever patients received
Banizoumbou, whereas no change was found in Zindarou. Conclusion With a high abundance of neem plants in many villages in this area, the results of this study suggest that larval control using neem seed powder offers a sustainable additional tool for malaria vector control in the Sahel region of Niger.
Newman, Dave M.; Heptinstall, John; Matelon, Raphael J.; Savage, Luke; Wears, M. Lesley; Beddow, Jamie; Cox, Martin; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Mens, Petra F.
We report the development of magneto-optic technology for the rapid quantitative diagnosis of malaria that may also be realizable in a noninvasive format. Hemozoin, the waste product of malarial parasitic action on hemoglobin, is produced in a form that under the action of an applied magnetic field
Mogensen, Christian B; Soerensen, Jeff; Bjorkman, Anders
Anaemia among small children in tropical Africa is common and often caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of anaemia is difficult without a laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine if clinical findings related to malaria and anaemia would ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI has become well-established in the evaluation of drugs and vaccines. Anti-malarial treatment is usually initiated when thick blood smears are positive by microscopy. This study explores the effects of using the more sensitive qPCR as the primary diagnostic test. Methods 1691 diagnostic blood samples were analysed by microscopy and qPCR from 115 volunteers (55 malaria naïve and 60 having received chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite immunization who were challenged by five mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites of the NF54 strain. Results Retrospective analysis of different qPCR criteria for diagnosis and treatment, showed that once daily qPCR (threshold 100 parasites/ml had 99 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity, and shortened the median prepatent period from 10.5 to 7.0 days after CHMI when compared to twice daily measurement of thick blood smears (threshold 4000 parasites/ml. This is expected to result in a 78 % decrease of adverse events before initiation of treatment in future studies. Trial outcome related to infection and protective efficacy remained unchanged. Conclusion The use of qPCR as the primary diagnostic test in CHMI decreases symptoms as well as parasitaemia while obviating the need for twice daily follow-up. The implementation improves safety while reducing the clinical burden and costs without compromising the evaluation of protective efficacy.
Nazaré-Pembele, García; Rojas, Lázara; Núñez, Fidel Ángel
Malaria is still one of the most important public health problems worldwide. The diagnosis of this disease is still mainly based on thick blood films. To evaluate the knowledge about malaria diagnosis of the technicians of the public health network in Luanda, Angola, by means of a survey. This survey was carried out in three phases. In the first one, open interviews were done to technicians related with the different procedures for malaria diagnosis. In the second one, a preliminary questionnaire was prepared and evaluated. In the third phase, a definitive questionnaire was applied to 120 technicians from Luanda between April and July, 2013. The proportions of correct and incorrect answers were compared for every question of the survey. Significantly higher proportions of incorrect answers (p<0.05) were found in the questions related to clinical manifestations, 68/52 (p<0.05), species of Plasmodium according to geographical areas, 76/44 (p<0.05), the type of granulations according to species, 96/24 (p<0.01), the class of microscope magnifying glasses used to observe the thick smear, 105/15 (p<0.01), the thick smear report, 76/44 (p<0.01), the time and preparation of different stain solutions, 81/39 (p<0.01), and the number of parasites counted per 200 leukocytes, 96/24 (p<0.01). Various failures for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria were observed amongst the evaluated technicians. These results will be useful as a baseline study before applying an educational intervention aimed to improve the quality of malaria diagnosis in Luanda's laboratory network.
Lee, M A; Aw, L T; Singh, M
Early diagnosis of malaria for military personnel training in the field is crucial in providing proper treatment for the infected and in taking appropriate preventive measures for the non-infected. Present preliminary diagnosis of malaria in the field depends on the clinical symptoms of the patients and there is a need for rapid diagnosis of malaria in the field. The presence of drug-resistant strains of the Plasmodium species in the region also increases the urgency of finding a quick and sensitive way of identifying the different strains. This study evaluated current methods available for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The dipstick assays, the ParaSight F test and the OptiMAL malaria rapid test were compared with the methods of microscopic examination of blood film and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On comparison to the blood film and PCR methods, the ParaSight F test has specificity of 98.6% and sensitivity of 91% for P. falciparum detection. The OptiMAL malaria rapid test has a specificity of 100% and 98.6% and sensitivity of 92.8% and 92.6% for P. vivax and P. falciparum detection respectively. We conclude that both tests are suitable for use for rapid malaria diagnosis in the field but the OptiMAL rapid malaria test, which can detect both vivax and falciparum malaria, would be more useful.
Shah, Monica P; Briggs-Hagen, Melissa; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Bauleni, Andy; Chalira, Alfred; Moyo, Dubulao; Dodoli, Wilfred; Luhanga, Misheck; Sande, John; Ali, Doreen; Gutman, Julie; Mathanga, Don P; Lindblade, Kim A
Severe malaria has a case fatality rate of 10-20 %; however, few studies have addressed the quality of severe malaria case management. This study evaluated the diagnostic and treatment practices of malaria patients admitted to inpatient health facilities (HF) in Malawi. In July-August 2012, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey of severe malaria management was conducted in 36 HFs selected with equal probability from all eligible public sector HFs in Malawi. Patient records from all admissions during October 2011 and April 2012 (low and high season, respectively) were screened for an admission diagnosis of malaria or prescription of any anti-malarial. Eligible records were stratified by age (malaria was defined by admission diagnosis or documentation of at least one sign or symptom of severe malaria. Treatment with intravenous (IV) quinine or artesunate was considered correct. Patients without documentation of severe malaria were analysed as uncomplicated malaria patients; treatment with an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or oral quinine based on malaria test results was considered correct. All analyses accounted for HF level clustering and sampling weights. The analysis included 906 records from 35 HFs. Among these, 42 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 35-49) had a severe malaria admission diagnosis and 50 % (95 % CI 44-57) had at least one severe malaria sign or symptom documented. Severe malaria patients defined by admission diagnosis (93, 95 % CI 86-99) were more likely to be treated correctly compared to patients defined by a severe sign (82, 95 % CI 75-89) (p malaria patients, 26 % (95 % CI 18-35) were correctly treated and 53 % (95 % CI 42-64) were adequately treated with IV quinine alone or in combination with an ACT or oral quinine. A majority of patients diagnosed with severe malaria received the recommended IV therapy in accordance with national treatment guidelines. However, the inconsistencies between diagnosis of severe malaria
Ouédraogo, André Lin; Gonçalves, Bronner P; Gnémé, Awa; Wenger, Edward A; Guelbeogo, Moussa W; Ouédraogo, Amathe; Gerardin, Jaline; Bever, Caitlin A; Lyons, Hil; Pitroipa, Xavier; Verhave, Jan Peter; Eckhoff, Philip A; Drakeley, Chris; Sauerwein, Robert; Luty, Adrian J F; Kouyaté, Bocar; Bousema, Teun
Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes are essential for malaria transmission. Malaria control measures that aim at reducing transmission require an accurate characterization of the human infectious reservoir. We longitudinally determined human infectiousness to mosquitoes and P. falciparum carriage by an ultrasensitive RNA-based diagnostics in 130 randomly selected inhabitants of an endemic area. At least 1 mosquito was infected by 32.6% (100 of 307) of the blood samples; in total, 7.6% of mosquitoes (916 of 12 079) were infected. The proportion of infectious individuals and infected mosquitoes were negatively associated with age and positively with asexual parasites (P Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Methods The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC microscopy, expert microscopy and a HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test (Paracheck was compared in predicting malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as the gold standard. Three hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria based on fever and or history of fever from a low and high transmission setting in Uganda were consecutively enrolled and provided blood samples for all tests. Accuracy of each test was calculated overall with 95% confidence interval and then adjusted for age-groups and level of transmission intensity using a stratified analysis. The endpoints were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00565071. Results Of the 300 patients, 88(29.3% had fever, 56(18.7% were positive by HC microscopy, 47(15.7% by expert microscopy, 110(36.7% by Paracheck and 89(29.7% by PCR. The overall sensitivity >90% was only shown by Paracheck 91.0% [95%CI: 83.1-96.0]. The sensitivity of expert microscopy was 46%, similar to HC microscopy. The superior sensitivity of Paracheck compared to microscopy was maintained when data was stratified for transmission intensity and age. The overall specificity rates were: Paracheck 86.3% [95%CI: 80.9-90.6], HC microscopy 93.4% [95%CI: 89.1-96.3] and expert microscopy 97.2% [95%CI: 93.9-98.9]. The NPV >90% was shown by Paracheck 95.8% [95%CI: 91.9-98.2]. The overall PPV was Conclusion The HRP2-based RDT has shown superior sensitivity compared to
Siwal, Nisha; Singh, Upasana Shyamsunder; Dash, Manoswini; Kar, Sonalika; Rani, Swati; Rawal, Charu; Singh, Rajkumar; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Pande, Veena; Das, Aparup
Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by five different species of the genus Plasmodium, and is endemic to many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the globe. At present, malaria diagnosis at the primary health care level in India is conducted by either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT). In recent years, molecular diagnosis (by PCR assay), has emerged as the most sensitive method for malaria diagnosis. India is highly endemic to malaria and shoulders the burden of two major malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Previous studies using PCR diagnostic assay had unraveled several interesting facts on distribution of malaria parasites in India. However, these studies had several limitations from small sample size to limited geographical areas of sampling. In order to mitigate these limitations, we have collected finger-prick blood samples from 2,333 malaria symptomatic individuals in nine states from 11 geographic locations, covering almost the entire malaria endemic regions of India and performed all the three diagnostic tests (microscopy, RDT and PCR assay) and also have conducted comparative assessment on the performance of the three diagnostic tests. Since PCR assay turned out to be highly sensitive (827 malaria positive cases) among the three types of tests, we have utilized data from PCR diagnostic assay for analyses and inferences. The results indicate varied distributional prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum according to locations in India, and also the mixed species infection due to these two species. The proportion of P. falciparum to P. vivax was found to be 49:51, and percentage of mixed species infections due to these two parasites was found to be 13% of total infections. Considering India is set for malaria elimination by 2030, the present malaria epidemiological information is of high importance.
Harchut, Kelly; Standley, Claire; Dobson, Andrew; Klaassen, Belia; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; Althaus, Fabrice; Nowak, Katarzyna
Early and accurate diagnosis of febrile patients is essential to treat uncomplicated malaria cases properly, prevent severe malaria, and avert unnecessary anti-malarial treatments. Improper use of anti-malarials increases the risk of adverse drug reaction and the evolution of drug/parasite resistance. While microscopy is the most common form of malaria diagnosis, concerns over its accuracy have prompted the incorporation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) into many national malaria control programmes. Over a three-month period, a direct comparison between microscopy and RDTs was made in a rural, private dispensary in the Kilombero Valley, Morogoro District, southern Tanzania, with the aim of estimating the extent of malaria over-diagnosis and over-treatment with anti-malarials. The study cohort was made up of patients referred by the dispensary's clinician for malaria testing. One hundred percent of patients approached agreed to participate in this study and were then tested using both microscopy and RDTs. Using the results from the comparison of the two tests at this dispensary, the potential cost effectiveness of introducing RDTs to a neighbouring public health centre was estimated on the basis of this centre's past malaria records spanning December 2007 to August 2011. At the private dispensary, the apparent prevalence of malaria was 78% based on microscopy whereas the true prevalence, calculated using RDTs as the gold standard, was estimated at 14%. This discrepancy indicates that when using microscopy as the sole diagnostic test, malaria is being over-diagnosed by approximately a factor of five in this setting. At the public clinic, apparent malaria prevalence based on microscopy was 74%. If similar rates of over-diagnosis are assumed, 5,285 patients of the 6,769 patients positively diagnosed with malaria using microscopy were likely given unnecessary anti-malarials, and their true cause of illness was not addressed. The introduction of RDTs to the
Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân
Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were...... villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature = 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache...
Bernard A Okech
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in Mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the Kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. The underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. We therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria control knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP that the residents in Mwea applied in an integrated fashion, also known as integrated malaria management (IMM. METHODS: Integrated Malaria Management was assessed among community members of Mwea division, central Kenya using KAP survey. The KAP study evaluated community members' malaria disease management practices at the home and hospitals, personal protection measures used at the household level and malaria transmission prevention methods relating to vector control. Concurrently, we also passively examined the prevalence of malaria parasite infection via outpatient admission records at the major referral hospital in the area. In addition we studied the mosquito vector population dynamics, the malaria sporozoite infection status and entomological inoculation rates (EIR over an 8 month period in 6 villages to determine the risk of malaria transmission in the entire division. RESULTS: A total of 389 households in Mwea division were interviewed in the KAP study while 90 houses were surveyed in the entomological study. Ninety eight percent of the households knew about malaria disease while approximately 70% of households knew its symptoms and methods to manage it. Ninety seven percent of the interviewed households went to a health center for malaria diagnosis and treatment. Similarly a higher proportion (81% used anti-malarial medicines bought from local pharmacies. Almost 90% of households reported
Okech, Bernard A; Mwobobia, Isaac K; Kamau, Anthony; Muiruri, Samuel; Mutiso, Noah; Nyambura, Joyce; Mwatele, Cassian; Amano, Teruaki; Mwandawiro, Charles S
During an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in Mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the Kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. The underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. We therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria control knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) that the residents in Mwea applied in an integrated fashion, also known as integrated malaria management (IMM). Integrated Malaria Management was assessed among community members of Mwea division, central Kenya using KAP survey. The KAP study evaluated community members' malaria disease management practices at the home and hospitals, personal protection measures used at the household level and malaria transmission prevention methods relating to vector control. Concurrently, we also passively examined the prevalence of malaria parasite infection via outpatient admission records at the major referral hospital in the area. In addition we studied the mosquito vector population dynamics, the malaria sporozoite infection status and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) over an 8 month period in 6 villages to determine the risk of malaria transmission in the entire division. A total of 389 households in Mwea division were interviewed in the KAP study while 90 houses were surveyed in the entomological study. Ninety eight percent of the households knew about malaria disease while approximately 70% of households knew its symptoms and methods to manage it. Ninety seven percent of the interviewed households went to a health center for malaria diagnosis and treatment. Similarly a higher proportion (81%) used anti-malarial medicines bought from local pharmacies. Almost 90% of households reported owning and using an insecticide treated bed net
Johansson, Emily White
Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have great potential to improve quality care and rational drug use in malaria-endemic settings although studies have shown common RDT non-compliance. Yet, evidence has largely been derived from limited hospital settings in few countries. This article reviews a PhD thesis that analyzed national surveys from multiple sub-Saharan African countries to generate large-scale evidence of malaria diagnosis practices and its determinants across different contexts. Design A mixed-methods approach was used across four studies that included quantitative analysis of national household and facility surveys conducted in multiple sub-Saharan African countries at the outset of new guidelines (Demographic and Health Surveys and Service Provision Assessments). Qualitative methods were used to explore reasons for quantitative findings in select settings. Results There was low (17%) and inequitable test uptake across 13 countries in 2009–2011/12, with greater testing at hospitals than at peripheral clinics (odds ratio [OR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.69) or community health workers (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23–0.43) (Study I). Significant variation was found in the effect of diagnosis on antimalarial use at the population level across countries (Uganda OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66–1.06; Mozambique OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.33–5.39) (Study II). A Malawi national facility census indicated common compliance to malaria treatment guidelines (85% clients with RDT-confirmed malaria prescribed first-line treatment), although other fever assessments were not often conducted and there was poor antibiotic targeting (59% clients inappropriately prescribed antibiotics). RDT-negative patients had 16.8 (95% CI: 8.6–32.7) times higher odds of antibiotic overtreatment than RDT-positive patients conditioned by cough or difficult breathing complaints (Study III). In Mbarara (Uganda), health workers reportedly prescribed antimalarials to RDT
Emily White Johansson
Full Text Available Background: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have great potential to improve quality care and rational drug use in malaria-endemic settings although studies have shown common RDT non-compliance. Yet, evidence has largely been derived from limited hospital settings in few countries. This article reviews a PhD thesis that analyzed national surveys from multiple sub-Saharan African countries to generate large-scale evidence of malaria diagnosis practices and its determinants across different contexts. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used across four studies that included quantitative analysis of national household and facility surveys conducted in multiple sub-Saharan African countries at the outset of new guidelines (Demographic and Health Surveys and Service Provision Assessments. Qualitative methods were used to explore reasons for quantitative findings in select settings. Results: There was low (17% and inequitable test uptake across 13 countries in 2009–2011/12, with greater testing at hospitals than at peripheral clinics (odds ratio [OR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.69 or community health workers (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23–0.43 (Study I. Significant variation was found in the effect of diagnosis on antimalarial use at the population level across countries (Uganda OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66–1.06; Mozambique OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.33–5.39 (Study II. A Malawi national facility census indicated common compliance to malaria treatment guidelines (85% clients with RDT-confirmed malaria prescribed first-line treatment, although other fever assessments were not often conducted and there was poor antibiotic targeting (59% clients inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. RDT-negative patients had 16.8 (95% CI: 8.6–32.7 times higher odds of antibiotic overtreatment than RDT-positive patients conditioned by cough or difficult breathing complaints (Study III. In Mbarara (Uganda, health workers reportedly prescribed antimalarials to
Premaratne, Risintha; Ortega, Leonard; Janakan, Navaratnasingam; Mendis, Kamini N
Fifty years after narrowly missing the opportunity to eliminate malaria from Sri Lanka in the 1960s, the country has now interrupted malaria transmission and sustained this interruption for more than 12 months - no indigenous malaria cases have been reported since October 2012. This was achieved through a period overlapping with a 30-year separatist war in areas that were endemic for malaria. The challenge now, of sustaining a malaria-free country and preventing the reintroduction of malaria to Sri Lanka, is examined here in the context of rapid postwar developments in the country. Increased travel to and from the country to expand development projects, businesses and a booming tourist industry, and the influx of labour and refugees from neighbouring malarious countries combine with the continued presence of malaria vectors in formerly endemic areas, to make the country both receptive and vulnerable to the reintroduction of malaria. The absence of indigenous malaria has led to a loss of awareness among the medical profession, resulting in delayed diagnosis of malaria despite the availability of an extensive malaria diagnosis service. Highly prevalent vector-borne diseases such as dengue are competing for health-service resources. Interventions that are necessary at this critical time include sustaining a state-of-the-art surveillance and response system for malaria, and advocacy to maintain awareness among the medical profession and at high levels of government, sustained funding for the Anti-Malaria Campaign and for implementation research and technical guidance on elimination. The malaria-elimination effort should be supported by rigorous analyses to demonstrate the clear economic and health benefits of eliminating malaria, which exceed the cost of a surveillance and response system. An annual World Health Organization review of the programme may also be required.
Giannetti, B.F.; Demétrio, J.F.C.; Bonilla, S.H.; Agostinho, F.; Almeida, C.M.V.B.
This paper presents an environmental emergy-based diagnosis of Brazil compared with Russia, India, China, South Africa and United States. Reflections on the Brazilian sustainable development are presented and discussed based on the evaluations published since 1979. The variation of the emergy per capita for Brazil from 1979 to 2007 indicates that the country's growth is tied to the exploitation of non renewable natural resources which do not directly reflect in the welfare of the population. The total emergy exported per unit of gross domestic product increased in the period, suggesting that the country exports more emergy than that contained in the money received for the exportation. With the help of the emergy indices, the future development of Brazil is explored and discussed. The comparison among the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries and United States indicates that what may be appropriate and usable within one country may not be within another and that to achieve the global sustainability two concomitant actions may occur: (i) the reduction of the total emergy use in developed economies, and (ii) the reduction of indigenous resources exportation in developing economies. - Highlights: • Future Brazilian development is explored from the energy perspective. • Solution is to increase exports of raw resources and the creation of a national market. • Brazilian development path is limited by the demand for money provided by exportation. • The need to increase the economic performance along with a decrease in emergy requirements. • It is essential to understand that there are limits for economic growth
Pareek, Anil; Chandurkar, Nitin; Gogtay, Nithya; Deshpande, Alaka; Kakrani, Arjun; Kaneria, Mala; Karmakar, Partha; Jain, Arvind; Kochar, Dhanpat; Chogle, Arun; Ray, Arnab
Background. Primaquine is used to eradicate latent Plasmodium vivax parasite from liver, with administration of standard dose daily up to 14 days. We studied efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sustained release (SR) formulation of primaquine in comparison with conventional primaquine in preventing relapse of P. vivax malaria. Methods. Microscopically confirmed cases of P. vivax malaria received chloroquine therapy for three days. Aparasitemic and asymptomatic patients were then randomized ...
Atkinson, Carter T.
Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.
Dunyo, S K; Afari, E A; Koram, K A; Ahorlu, C K; Abubakar, I; Nkrumah, F K
A study was conducted in 1997 to compare the accuracy of presumptive diagnosis of malaria in children aged 1-9 years performed by caretakers of the children to that of health centre staff in 2 ecological zones in southern Ghana. Similar symptoms were reported in the children at home and at the health centre. In the home setting, symptoms were reported the same day that they occurred, 77.6% of the children with a report of fever were febrile (axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C) and 64.7% of the reports of malaria were parasitologically confirmed. In the health centre, the median duration of symptoms before a child was seen was 3 days (range 1-14 days), 58.5% of the children with a report of fever were febrile and 62.6% of the clinically diagnosed cases were parasitologically confirmed. In the 2 settings almost all the infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. Parasite density was 3 times higher in the health centre cases compared to the home-diagnosed cases. Early and appropriate treatment of malaria detected in children by caretakers may prevent complications that arise as a result of persistence of symptoms and attainment of high parasitaemic levels.
Chong, Soon Eu; Mohamad Zaini, Rhendra Hardy; Suraiya, Siti; Lee, Kok Tong; Lim, Jo Anne
Dengue and malaria are two common, mosquito-borne infections, which may lead to mortality if not managed properly. Concurrent infections of dengue and malaria are rare due to the different habitats of its vectors and activities of different carrier mosquitoes. The first case reported was in 2005. Since then, several concurrent infections have been reported between the dengue virus (DENV) and the malaria protozoans, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Symptoms of each infection may be masked by a simultaneous second infection, resulting in late treatment and severe complications. Plasmodium knowlesi is also a common cause of malaria in Malaysia with one of the highest rates of mortality. This report is one of the earliest in literature of concomitant infection between DENV and P. knowlesi in which a delay in diagnosis had placed a patient in a life-threatening situation. A 59-year old man staying near the Belum-Temengor rainforest at the Malaysia-Thailand border was admitted with fever for 6 days, with respiratory distress. His non-structural protein 1 antigen and Anti-DENV Immunoglobulin M tests were positive. He was treated for severe dengue with compensated shock. Treating the dengue had so distracted the clinicians that a blood film for the malaria parasite was not done. Despite aggressive supportive treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU), the patient had unresolved acidosis as well as multi-organ failure involving respiratory, renal, liver, and haematological systems. It was due to the presentation of shivering in the ICU, that a blood film was done on the second day that revealed the presence of P. knowlesi with a parasite count of 520,000/μL. The patient was subsequently treated with artesunate-doxycycline and made a good recovery after nine days in ICU. This case contributes to the body of literature on co-infection between DENV and P. knowlesi and highlights the clinical consequences, which can be severe. Awareness should be raised among
Breman, Joel G
The renewed interest in malaria research and control is based on the intolerable toll this disease takes on young children and pregnant women in Africa and other vulnerable populations; 150 to 300 children die each hour from malaria amounting to 1 to 2 million deaths yearly. Malaria-induced neurologic impairment, anemia, hypoglycemia, and low birth weight imperil normal development and survival. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to drugs and Anopheles mosquitoes to insecticides has stimulated discovery and development of artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) and other drugs, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (with synthetic pyrethroids) and a search for non-toxic, long-lasting, affordable insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Malaria vaccine development and testing are progressing rapidly and a recombinant protein (RTS,S/AS02A) directed against the circumsporozoite protein is soon to be in Phase 3 trials. Support for malaria control, research, and advocacy through the Global Fund for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, WHO and other organizations is resulting in decreasing morbidity and mortality in many malarious countries. Sustainability of effective programs through training and institution strengthening will be the key to malaria elimination coupled with improved surveillance and targeted research.
Dawit G. Ayele
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the use of the Rasch model by assessing the appropriateness of the demographic, social-economic and geographic factors in providing a total score in malaria RDT in accordance with the model’s expectations. The baseline malaria indicator survey was conducted in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia by The Carter Center in 2007. The result shows high reliability and little disordering of thresholds with no evidence of differential item functioning.
Andrés F Vallejo
Full Text Available Most commonly used malaria diagnostic tests, including microscopy and antigen-detecting rapid tests, cannot reliably detect low-density infections which are frequent in low transmission settings. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR are highly sensitive but remain too laborious for field deployment. In this study, the applicability of a malaria diagnosis kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP was assessed in malaria endemic areas of Colombia with Plasmodium vivax predominance.First, a passive case detection (PCD study on 278 febrile patients recruited in Tierralta (department of Cordoba was conducted to assess the diagnostic performance of the mLAMP method. Second, an active case detection (ACD study on 980 volunteers was conducted in 10 sentinel sites with different epidemiological profiles. Whole blood samples were processed for microscopic and mLAMP diagnosis. Additionally RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR were used as reference tests. In the PCD study, P. falciparum accounted for 23.9% and P. vivax for 76.1% of the infections and no cases of mixed-infections were identified. Microscopy sensitivity for P. falciparum and P. vivax were 100% and 86.1%, respectively. mLAMP sensitivity for P. falciparum and P. vivax was 100% and 91.4%, respectively. In the ACD study, mLAMP detected 65 times more cases than microscopy. A high proportion (98.0% of the infections detected by mLAMP was from volunteers without symptoms.mLAMP sensitivity and specificity were comparable to RT-PCR. LAMP was significantly superior to microscopy and in P. vivax low-endemicity settings and under minimum infrastructure conditions, it displayed sensitivity and specificity similar to that of single-well RT-PCR for detection of both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections. Here, the dramatically increased detection of asymptomatic malaria infections by mLAMP demonstrates the usefulness of this new tool for diagnosis, surveillance, and screening in
Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.
Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so...... that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can...
Korenromp Eline L
Full Text Available Abstract Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST, extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent. Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination. Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy
Walk, J.; Schats, R.; Langenberg, M.C.; Reuling, I.J.; Teelen, K.; Roestenberg, M.; Hermsen, C.C.; Visser, L.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.
BACKGROUND: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) has become well-established in the evaluation of drugs and vaccines. Anti-malarial treatment is usually initiated when thick blood smears are positive by microscopy. This study explores the effects of using the more sensitive qPCR as the primary
Banoth, Earu; Kasula, Vamshi Krishna; Gorthi, Sai Siva
Fast and automated diagnostic devices are bound to play a significant role in the on-going efforts toward malaria eradication. In this article, we present the realization of a portable device for quantitative malaria diagnostic testing at the point-of-care. The device measures optical absorbance (at λ=405 nm) of single cells flowing through a custom-designed microfluidic channel. The device incorporates the required functionality to align the microfluidic channel with the optical interrogation region. Variation in optical absorbance is used to differentiate red blood cells (both healthy and infected) from other cellular components of whole blood. Using the instrument, we have measured single-cell optical absorbance levels of different types of cells present in blood. High-throughput single-cell-level measurements facilitated by the device enable detection of malaria, even from a few microliters of blood. Further, we demonstrate the detection of malaria from a suspension containing all cellular components of whole blood, which validates its usability in real-world diagnostic scenarios.
Nair, Chandrasekhar Bhaskaran; Manjula, Jagannath; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Nagendrappa, Prakash B; Manoj, Mulakkapurath Narayanan; Malpani, Sukriti; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Subbarao, Pillarisetti Venkata; Ramamoorthy, Siva; Ghosh, Susanta K
considered not only for malaria diagnosis but also for active surveillance and epidemiological intervention.
Patricia A Reis
Full Text Available Neurological impairments are frequently detected in children surviving cerebral malaria (CM, the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The pathophysiology and therapy of long lasting cognitive deficits in malaria patients after treatment of the parasitic disease is a critical area of investigation. In the present study we used several models of experimental malaria with differential features to investigate persistent cognitive damage after rescue treatment. Infection of C57BL/6 and Swiss (SW mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA or a lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii XL (PyXL, respectively, resulted in documented CM and sustained persistent cognitive damage detected by a battery of behavioral tests after cure of the acute parasitic disease with chloroquine therapy. Strikingly, cognitive impairment was still present 30 days after the initial infection. In contrast, BALB/c mice infected with PbA, C57BL6 infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and SW infected with non lethal Plasmodium yoelii NXL (PyNXL did not develop signs of CM, were cured of the acute parasitic infection by chloroquine, and showed no persistent cognitive impairment. Reactive oxygen species have been reported to mediate neurological injury in CM. Increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated dienes was detected in the brains of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with CM, indicating high oxidative stress. Treatment of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with additive antioxidants together with chloroquine at the first signs of CM prevented the development of persistent cognitive damage. These studies provide new insights into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction after rescue therapy for CM that may have clinical relevance, and may also be relevant to cerebral sequelae of sepsis and other disorders.
Boyce, Ross M; Muiru, Anthony; Reyes, Raquel; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Matte, Michael; Siedner, Mark J
The World Health Organization recommends that all suspected malaria cases receive a parasitological diagnosis prior to treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy. A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials evaluating RDTs for the management of patients with fever found substantial reductions in anti-malarial prescriptions when health workers adhered to treatment protocols based on test results. However few studies have reported on the impact of RDTs on health systems outside research settings. The study comprised a retrospective interrupted time series analysis, comparing rates of malaria diagnosis, treatment, and resource utilization before and after introduction of RDTs at a peripheral health facility in rural Western Uganda. The use of malaria diagnostic tests was graphically depicted throughout the study period and fit regression models to identify correlates of three outcomes of interest: (1) length of stay (2) the proportion of patients referred to a higher-level health facility, and (3) administration of antibiotics. Over the course of the study period, 14,357 individuals underwent diagnostic testing for malaria with either a RDT (9,807) or microscopy (4,550). The proportion of patients with parasite-based diagnoses more than tripled to 34% after the introduction of RDTs. RDTs largely replaced microscopy as the diagnostic method of choice. Compared to patients admitted during the pre-RDT period, patients admitted to the health centre with malaria in the post-RDT period had significantly reduced odds of being referred to another health centre (AOR=0.49, P=0.038), receiving antibiotics (AOR=0.42, Pintroduction of RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria at a rural health facility in Uganda. The results show a reduction in referrals and shorter mean inpatient LOS even as antibiotics were prescribed less frequently. This change greatly increased laboratory throughput and the resultant proportion of patients receiving a parasite-based diagnosis.
Vyas, Siddharth; Genis, Vladimir; Friedman, Gary
This paper investigates the feasibility of a cost effective high gradient magnetic separation based device for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a blood sample. The design utilizes magnetic properties of hemozoin present in malaria-infected red blood cells (mRBCs) in order to separate and concentrate them inside a microfluidic channel slide for easier examination under the microscope. The design consists of a rectangular microfluidic channel with multiple magnetic wires positioned on top of and underneath it along the length of the channel at a small angle with respect to the channel axis. Strong magnetic field gradients, produced by the wires, exert sufficient magnetic forces on the mRBCs in order to separate and concentrate them in a specific region small enough to fit within the microscope field of view at magnifications typically required to identify the malaria parasite type. The feasibility of the device is studied using a model where the trajectories of the mRBCs inside the channel are determined using first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) solved numerically using a multistep ODE solver available within MATLAB. The mRBCs trajectories reveal that it is possible to separate and concentrate the mRBCs in less than 5 min, even in cases of very low parasitemia (1-10 parasites/μL of blood) using blood sample volumes of around 3 μL employed today.
Flores, Wilfredo C.; Ojeda, Osvaldo A.; Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R.
In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. (author)
Seung Ah Lee
Full Text Available Miniaturization of imaging systems can significantly benefit clinical diagnosis in challenging environments, where access to physicians and good equipment can be limited. Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope (SROFM offers high-resolution imaging in the form of an on-chip device, with the combination of microfluidics and inexpensive CMOS image sensors. In this work, we report on the implementation of color SROFM prototypes with a demonstrated optical resolution of 0.66 µm at their highest acuity. We applied the prototypes to perform color imaging of red blood cells (RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a particularly harmful type of malaria parasites and one of the major causes of death in the developing world.
Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Hansen, Kristian Schultz
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed...... departments were enrolled from March 2010 to February 2011. Of these, a random sample of 1,627 was selected to measure additional socio-economic characteristics. Costing was performed following the standard step-down cost allocation and the ingredients approach. Effectiveness was measured as the number...
Prevalence of malaria parasitemia and accuracy of microscopic diagnosis in Haiti, October 1995 Prevalencia de parasitemia por malaria y precisión del diagnóstico microscópico en Haití, octubre de 1995
S. Patrick Kachur
Full Text Available In October 1995 the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Haiti surveyed 42 health facilities for the prevalence and distribution of malaria infection. They examined 1 803 peripheral blood smears from patients with suspected malaria; the overall slide positivity rate was 4.0% (range, 0.0% to 14.3%. The rate was lowest among 1- to 4-year-old children (1.6% and highest among persons aged 15 and older (5.5%. Clinical and microscopic diagnoses of malaria were unreliable; the overall sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis was 83.6%, specificity was 88.6%, and the predictive value of a positive slide was 22.2%. Microscopic diagnoses need to be improved, and adequate surveillance must be reestablished to identify areas where transmission is most intense. The generally low level of malaria is encouraging and suggests that intensified control efforts targeted to the areas of highest prevalence could further diminish the effect of malaria in Haiti.En octubre de 1995 el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Población de Haití inspeccionó 42 establecimientos de salud para determinar la prevalencia y distribución de la infección por malaria. Se examinaron 1 803 frotis de sangre periférica obtenidos de pacientes con sospecha de tener esa enfermedad; la tasa general de positividad de los frotis fue de 4,0% (con un recorrido de 0,0 a 14,3%. La tasa más baja (1,6% se ob-servó en el grupo de niños de 1 a 4 años y la más alta en personas de 15 años de edad o mayores (5,5%. Los diagnósticos clínico y microscópico de la malaria fueron poco confiables; la sensibilidad general del diagnóstico microscópico fue de 83,6% y su especificidad de 88,6%, y el valor predictivo de un frotis positivo fue de 22,2%. Es preciso mejorar los diagnósticos microscópicos y reestablecer una vigilancia adecuada a fin de identificar las zonas donde la transmisión es más intensa. La frecuencia relativamente baja de la malaria es un dato alentador y sugiere que el refuerzo
Full Text Available We conducted a research project aimed at strengthening local government and the community for a sustainable malaria control strategy. The project began with a baseline diagnosis of malaria prevalence, a KAP survey, entomology, and health services delivery, after which an epidemiological study was performed to identify risk factors associated with malaria, thereafter used to plan intervention measures. A program evaluation was conducted five years later. By using an ecosystem approach to reanalyze data, this paper discusses how malaria arises from a complex interaction of cultural, economic, ecological, social, and individual factors. Intervention measures require an intersectorial and transdisciplinary approach that does not exist at the moment. Health sector leadership is limited, and there is no true community participation. Implications for research, including the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, study design, and complexity of data analysis are discussed. Finally, implications for malaria control are discussed, stressing the differences between the ecosystem and integrated disease control approaches.
Maloney, Kathleen; Ward, Abigail; Krenz, Bonnie; Petty, Nora; Bryson, Lindsay; Dolkart, Caitlin; Visser, Theodoor; Le Menach, Arnaud; Scott, Valerie K; Cohen, Justin M; Mtumbuka, Esther; Mkude, Sigsbert
Tanzania has seen a reduction in the fraction of fevers caused by malaria, likely due in part to scale-up of control measures. While national guidelines require parasite-based diagnosis prior to treatment, it is estimated that more than half of suspected malaria treatment-seeking in Tanzania initiates in the private retail sector, where diagnosis by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy is illegal. This pilot study investigated whether the introduction of RDTs into Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) under realistic market conditions would improve case management practices. Dispensers from ADDOs in two intervention districts in Tanzania were trained to stock and perform RDTs and monitored quarterly. Each district was assigned a different recommended retail price to evaluate the need for a subsidy. Malaria RDT and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) uptake and availability were measured pre-intervention and 1 year post-intervention through structured surveys of ADDO owners and exiting customers in both intervention districts and one contiguous control district. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to compare the three districts and identify predictive variables for testing. A total of 310 dispensers from 262 ADDOs were trained to stock and perform RDTs. RDT availability in intervention ADDOs increased from 1% (n = 172) to 73% (n = 163) during the study; ACT medicines were available in 75% of 260 pre-intervention and 68% of 254 post-intervention ADDOs. Pre-treatment testing performed within the ADDO increased from 0 to 65% of suspected malaria patients who visited a shop (95% CI 60.8-69.6%) with no difference between intervention districts. Overall parasite-based diagnosis increased from 19 to 74% in intervention districts and from 3 to 18% in the control district. Prior knowledge of RDT availability (aOR = 1.9, p = 0.03) and RDT experience (aOR = 1.9, p = 0.01) were predictors for testing. Adherence data
Geniberto Cesar de Araújo
Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyse the sustainability degree of the Municipality of Touros located in Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast of Brazil through the "Barometer of Sustainability” methodology, in 2010. This is a descriptive, exploratory and applicative study. The data collection was based on secondary source such as the databases of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the National Confederation of Municipalities, as well as the Institute for Sustainable Development and Environment of Rio Grande do Norte from October, 2010 to July, 2011. Regarding the choice of indicators applied, it was done taking into account the availability of data for the municipality. Hence, the human subsystem (HWI and ecological (EWI indicators were: life expectancy, child mortality, malnutrition, fertility rate, water supply, sanitation, literacy rate, education, literacy, energy consumption, agricultural production, environmental protection area, and vegetable extraction. It was applied thirteen indicators in the Barometer of Sustainability methodology. The degree obtained for the human subsystem was 48, showing that the municipality is in a satisfactory position. Concerning the ecological subsystem, the situation is potentially sustainable, a value of 67.58, which means a satisfactory score. Therefore, Touros has a strong potential for sustainability, requiring public policies for health and education and specifically for agricultural production and environmental protection area.
Self-diagnosis of influenza, yellow fever, typhoid, and pneumonia was also common. Conclusion: Self-diagnosis and presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs and other antibiotic medications that are readily available without a prescription may compromise health outcomes for febrile adults and children. Key words: ...
Immunological reactions are commonly used in diagnostic procedures on the basis of their high levels of specificity and sensitivity. Antibodies or antigens labelled with various markers have been found to be particularly useful for assays of logical substances. The applications of Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assays (ELISA) to research on various tropical and non-tropical diseases is now well established. The procedure depends on the labelling of one of the reactants with enzymes which can be detected accurately by an appropriate substrate. The detection mechanism depends on the labelling of one of the reactants in such a way that their their reactivity is not impaired or affected. In the present study, ELISA was applied to sera from kampumbu area of Isoka district in the Northern province of Zambia. The objective of this presentation is to show the relative positivity rate for antigen and antibody and the endemicity of schistosomiasis and malaria as assessed by classical parasitological procedures. (author)
Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
; and levering of African Union and regional economic communities to address the cross-border dimension of malaria control. It was agreed that countries needed to secure adequate domestic and external funding for sustained commitment to malaria elimination; strengthen national malaria control programmes in the context of broader health system strengthening; ensure free access to long-lasting insecticide treated nets and malaria diagnosis and treatment for vulnerable groups; strengthen human resource capacity at central, district and community levels; and establish strong logistics, information and surveillance systems. Conclusion It is critically important for countries to have a clear vision and strategy for malaria elimination; effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; draw lessons from other African countries that have succeeded to dramatically reduce the burden of malaria; and sustain funding and ongoing interventions.
Sambo, Luis Gomes; Ki-Zerbo, Georges; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri
communities to address the cross-border dimension of malaria control.It was agreed that countries needed to secure adequate domestic and external funding for sustained commitment to malaria elimination; strengthen national malaria control programmes in the context of broader health system strengthening; ensure free access to long-lasting insecticide treated nets and malaria diagnosis and treatment for vulnerable groups; strengthen human resource capacity at central, district and community levels; and establish strong logistics, information and surveillance systems. It is critically important for countries to have a clear vision and strategy for malaria elimination; effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; draw lessons from other African countries that have succeeded to dramatically reduce the burden of malaria; and sustain funding and ongoing interventions.
Magnussen, P; Ndawi, B; Sheshe, A K
. Chloroquine (25 mg/kg given over 3 days) was used for treatment. Malariometric surveys on children aged 7-15 years (mean 10 years) were conducted once a year (1995-1997). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 100% of infections and the parasite prevalence varied between 32.7 and 35.3% from 1995 to 1997....... The number of malaria cases (cases/1000 registered school children) diagnosed and treated by school teachers was 159 (67) in 1995, 324 (124) in 1996, 348 (128) in 1997 and 339 (108) in 1998. Children in grades 1-4 (age 7-13) accounted for 64.6% of cases. Symptoms and oral temperature were recorded for 1258...... children. Of those, 992 (78.9%) complained of fever and at least one other symptom when presenting to teachers, 98 (7.8%) had fever as their only complaint and 168 (13.5%) presented without a perception of fever, but with other symptoms. Of these children, 36 (21.4%) had a temperature > or =37.5 degrees C...
Background: Sustainable Development Goal number three call for complete reversal in the incidence of malaria by 2030. Malaria however remains a health priority in sub-Saharan Africa, with children under five experiencing the highest morbidity and mortality. In clinical settings, management of malaria cases has primarily ...
Ricardo Luiz Dantas MACHADO
Full Text Available We report an adaptation of a technique for the blood sample collection (GFM as well as for the extraction and amplification of Plasmodium DNA for the diagnosis of malaria infection by the PCR/ELISA. The method of blood sample collection requires less expertise and saves both time and money, thus reducing the cost by more than half. The material is also suitable for genetic analysis in either fresh or stored specimens prepared by this method.Relatamos a adaptação de uma técnica para coleta de amostras (MFV e outra para extração, amplificação de DNA de parasitas da malária para diagnóstico por PCR/ELISA. O método de coleta de amostras requer menos habilidade e economisa tempo e dinheiro, assim reduzindo a mais da metade o custo. O material é também adequado para análise genética em especimens frescos ou estocados, preparados por este método.
Hristov, Angélica Domingues; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Ferreira, José Jarbas Bittencourt; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Inoue, Juliana; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; Sanchez, Arianni Rondelli; Ramos-Sanchez, Eduardo Milton; Di Santi, Silvia Maria
Studies on autochthonous malaria in low-transmission areas in Brazil have acquired epidemiological relevance because they suggest continued transmission in what remains of the Atlantic Forest. In the southeastern portion of the state of São Paulo, outbreaks in the municipality of Juquitiba have been the focus of studies on the prevalence of Plasmodium, including asymptomatic cases. Data on the occurrence of the disease or the presence of antiplasmodial antibodies in pregnant women from this region have not previously been described. Although Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women has been widely addressed in the literature, the interaction of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae with this cohort has been poorly explored to date. We monitored the circulation of Plasmodium in pregnant women in health facilities located in Juquitiba using thick blood film and molecular protocols, as well as immunological assays, to evaluate humoural immune parameters. Through real-time and nested polymerase chain reaction, P. vivax and P. malariae were detected for the first time in pregnant women, with a positivity of 5.6%. Immunoassays revealed the presence of IgG antibodies: 44% for ELISA-Pv, 38.4% for SD-Bioline-Pv and 18.4% for indirect immunofluorescence assay-Pm. The high prevalence of antibodies showed significant exposure of this population to Plasmodium. In regions with similar profiles, testing for a malaria diagnosis might be indicated in prenatal care.
Angélica Domingues Hristov
Full Text Available Studies on autochthonous malaria in low-transmission areas in Brazil have acquired epidemiological relevance because they suggest continued transmission in what remains of the Atlantic Forest. In the southeastern portion of the state of São Paulo, outbreaks in the municipality of Juquitiba have been the focus of studies on the prevalence of Plasmodium, including asymptomatic cases. Data on the occurrence of the disease or the presence of antiplasmodial antibodies in pregnant women from this region have not previously been described. Although Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women has been widely addressed in the literature, the interaction of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae with this cohort has been poorly explored to date. We monitored the circulation of Plasmodium in pregnant women in health facilities located in Juquitiba using thick blood film and molecular protocols, as well as immunological assays, to evaluate humoural immune parameters. Through real-time and nested polymerase chain reaction, P. vivax and P. malariae were detected for the first time in pregnant women, with a positivity of 5.6%. Immunoassays revealed the presence of IgG antibodies: 44% for ELISA-Pv, 38.4% for SD-Bioline-Pv and 18.4% for indirect immunofluorescence assay-Pm. The high prevalence of antibodies showed significant exposure of this population to Plasmodium. In regions with similar profiles, testing for a malaria diagnosis might be indicated in prenatal care.
Lorenz, Camila; Marques, Tatiani Cristina; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Suesdek, Lincoln
Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii is a primary vector of Plasmodium parasites in Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Adult females of An. cruzii and An. homunculus, which is a secondary malaria vector, are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics only. These two species may occur syntopically with An. bellator, which is also a potential vector of Plasmodium species and is morphologically similar to An. cruzii and An. homunculus. Identification of these species based on female specimens is often jeopardised by polymorphisms, overlapping morphological characteristics and damage caused to specimens during collection. Wing geometric morphometrics has been used to distinguish several insect species; however, this economical and powerful tool has not been applied to Kerteszia species. Our objective was to assess wing geometry to distinguish An. cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator. Specimens were collected in an area in the Serra do Mar hotspot biodiversity corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome (Cananeia municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil). The right wings of females of An. cruzii (n= 40), An. homunculus (n= 50) and An. bellator (n= 27) were photographed. For each individual, 18 wing landmarks were subjected to standard geometric morphometrics. Discriminant analysis of Procrustean coordinates was performed to quantify wing shape variation. Individuals clustered into three distinct groups according to species with a slight overlap between representatives of An. cruzii and An. homunculus. The Mahalanobis distance between An. cruzii and An. homunculus was consistently lower (3.50) than that between An. cruzii and An. bellator (4.58) or An. homunculus and An. bellator (4.32). Pairwise cross-validated reclassification showed that geometric morphometrics is an effective analytical method to distinguish between An. bellator, An. cruzii and An. homunculus with a reliability rate varying between 78-88%. Shape analysis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii is a primary vector of Plasmodium parasites in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest. Adult females of An. cruzii and An. homunculus, which is a secondary malaria vector, are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics only. These two species may occur syntopically with An. bellator, which is also a potential vector of Plasmodium species and is morphologically similar to An. cruzii and An. homunculus. Identification of these species based on female specimens is often jeopardised by polymorphisms, overlapping morphological characteristics and damage caused to specimens during collection. Wing geometric morphometrics has been used to distinguish several insect species; however, this economical and powerful tool has not been applied to Kerteszia species. Our objective was to assess wing geometry to distinguish An. cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator. Methods Specimens were collected in an area in the Serra do Mar hotspot biodiversity corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome (Cananeia municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The right wings of females of An. cruzii (n= 40, An. homunculus (n= 50 and An. bellator (n= 27 were photographed. For each individual, 18 wing landmarks were subjected to standard geometric morphometrics. Discriminant analysis of Procrustean coordinates was performed to quantify wing shape variation. Results Individuals clustered into three distinct groups according to species with a slight overlap between representatives of An. cruzii and An. homunculus. The Mahalanobis distance between An. cruzii and An. homunculus was consistently lower (3.50 than that between An. cruzii and An. bellator (4.58 or An. homunculus and An. bellator (4.32. Pairwise cross-validated reclassification showed that geometric morphometrics is an effective analytical method to distinguish between An. bellator, An. cruzii and An. homunculus with a reliability
Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal
Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C
and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children...... should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy.......0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were...
mask the disease and make diagnosis difficult. Should malaria then develop, it is allegedly an easy matter to ... Wear garments that fully cover arms and legs when outdoors between sunset and sunrise. • Light cotton ..... 2004; 329(7476) : 1212. 10. Nosten F, Brasseur P. Combination ther- apy for malaria: the way forward?
Wijayalath, Wathsala; Majji, Sai; Villasante, Eileen F; Brumeanu, Teodor D; Richie, Thomas L; Casares, Sofia
Malaria is a deadly infectious disease affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Among the five species of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum accounts for the highest morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. Since humans are the only natural hosts for P. falciparum, the lack of convenient animal models has hindered the understanding of disease pathogenesis and prompted the need of testing anti-malarial drugs and vaccines directly in human trials. Humanized mice hosting human cells represent new pre-clinical models for infectious diseases that affect only humans. In this study, the ability of human-immune-system humanized HLA-DR4.RagKO.IL2RγcKO.NOD (DRAG) mice to sustain infection with P. falciparum was explored. Four week-old DRAG mice were infused with HLA-matched human haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and examined for reconstitution of human liver cells and erythrocytes. Upon challenge with infectious P. falciparum sporozoites (NF54 strain) humanized DRAG mice were examined for liver stage infection, blood stage infection, and transmission to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Humanized DRAG mice reconstituted human hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver endothelial cells, and erythrocytes. Upon intravenous challenge with P. falciparum sporozoites, DRAG mice sustained liver to blood stage infection (average 3-5 parasites/microlitre blood) and allowed transmission to An. stephensi mosquitoes. Infected DRAG mice elicited antibody and cellular responses to the blood stage parasites and self-cured the infection by day 45 post-challenge. DRAG mice represent the first human-immune-system humanized mouse model that sustains the complex vertebrate life cycle of P. falciparum without the need of exogenous injection of human hepatocytes/erythrocytes or P. falciparum parasite adaptation. The ability of DRAG mice to elicit specific human immune responses to P. falciparum parasites may help deciphering immune correlates
Eisele, Thomas P.; Silumbe, Kafula; Yukich, Josh; Hamainza, Busiku; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Miller, John M.
Editors' Summary Background The World Health Organization estimates that there are over 200 million cases of malaria each year, with nearly 1 million deaths. The majority of these deaths are among children living in sub-Saharan Africa, and Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite responsible. Malaria transmission can be prevented by insect control measures, and current treatment regimens use antimalarial drugs. Recently, the use of highly effective artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs)...
Informed decision-making before changing to RDT: a comparison of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and identification of malaria parasites in Kassala, eastern Sudan
Osman, Mamoun M. M.; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Sedig, Mohamed F.; de Bes, Laura; Babikir, Adil M.; Mohamedani, Ahmed A.; Mens, Petra F.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are promoted for the diagnosis of malaria in many countries. The question arises whether laboratories where the current method of diagnosis is microscopy should also switch to RDT. This problem was studied in Kassala, Sudan where the issue of switching to RDT is under
Mens, Petra F.; van Amerongen, Aart; Sawa, Patrick; Kager, Piet A.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.
Microscopy is frequently used for malaria diagnosis, but at low parasitemia, it becomes less sensitive and time consuming. Molecular tools allow for specific/sensitive diagnosis, but current formats, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR assays,
Heggheim, Åsmund; Blomberg, Bjørn; Mørch, Kristine
About 60 patients with malaria are admitted to Norwegian hospitals every year. The prescription figures for malaria medication may suggest that Norwegians are increasingly exposed to malaria infection. All Norwegian hospitals with a department of internal medicine were sent an electronic questionnaire for reporting the available methods for diagnosing and treating malaria. There was a 100% response (48/48). Microscopy for malaria diagnosis was available at 92% (44/48) and a rapid test for detecting malaria antigen at 67% (32/48), while 6% (3/48) had no malaria detection test available. Artesunate and quinine for intravenous treatment were both available at 6% (3/48), only artesunate at 27% (13/48) and only quinine at 27% (13/48) of the hospitals. Drugs for intravenous treatment of severe malaria were not available at 40% (19/48) of the hospitals. More than a third of Norwegian hospitals lack preparedness for treating severe malaria, and some hospitals lack diagnostic procedures. Severe malaria is a condition that may rapidly become life-threatening and is treated with artesunate or quinine intravenously. All Norwegian hospitals should have procedures for emergency treatment of the disease.
Le Menach, Arnaud; Tatem, Andrew J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Randell, Heather; Patil, Anand P; Smith, David L
The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zanzibar has reached historic lows. Improving control requires quantifying malaria importation rates, identifying high-risk travelers, and assessing onwards transmission.Estimates of Zanzibar's importation rate were calculated through two independent methodologies. First, mobile phone usage data and ferry traffic between Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania were re-analyzed using a model of heterogeneous travel risk. Second, a dynamic mathematical model of importation and transmission rates was used.Zanzibar residents traveling to malaria endemic regions were estimated to contribute 1-15 times more imported cases than infected visitors. The malaria importation rate was estimated to be 1.6 incoming infections per 1,000 inhabitants per year. Local transmission was estimated too low to sustain transmission in most places.Malaria infections in Zanzibar largely result from imported malaria and subsequent transmission. Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination appears feasible by implementing control measures based on detecting imported malaria cases and controlling onward transmission.
Mubi, Marycelina; Kakoko, Deodatus; Ngasala, Billy; Premji, Zul; Peterson, Stefan; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas
The success of the universal parasite-based malaria testing policy for fever patients attending primary health care (PHC) facilities in Tanzania will depend highly on health workers' perceptions and practices. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the present use of malaria diagnostics (rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy), prescription behaviour and factors affecting adherence to test results at PHC facilities in Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania. Exit interviews were conducted with fever patients at PHC facilities and information on diagnostic test performed and treatment prescribed were recorded. Interviews with prescribers to assess their understanding, perceptions and practices related to RDTs were conducted, and health facility inventory performed to assess availability of staff, diagnostics and anti-malarial drugs. The survey was undertaken at ten governmental PHC facilities, eight of which had functional diagnostics. Twenty health workers were interviewed and 195 exit interviews were conducted with patients at the PHC facilities. Of the 168 patients seen at facilities with available diagnostics, 105 (63%) were tested for malaria, 31 (30%) of whom tested positive. Anti-malarial drugs were prescribed to all patients with positive test results, 14% of patients with negative results and 28% of patients not tested for malaria. Antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed to patients with negative test results compared to patients with positive results (81 vs 39%, p malaria (84 vs 69%, p = 0.01). Stock-outs of RDTs and staff shortage accounted for the low testing rate, and health worker perceptions were the main reason for non-adherence to test results. Anti-malarial prescription to patients with negative test results and those not tested is still practiced in Tanzania despite the universal malaria testing policy of fever patients. The use of malaria diagnostics was also associated with higher prescription of antibiotics among
Gopakumar, Gopalakrishna Pillai; Swetha, Murali; Sai Siva, Gorthi; Sai Subrahmanyam, Gorthi R K
The present paper introduces a focus stacking-based approach for automated quantitative detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from blood smear. For the detection, a custom designed convolutional neural network (CNN) operating on focus stack of images is used. The cell counting problem is addressed as the segmentation problem and we propose a 2-level segmentation strategy. Use of CNN operating on focus stack for the detection of malaria is first of its kind, and it not only improved the detection accuracy (both in terms of sensitivity [97.06%] and specificity [98.50%]) but also favored the processing on cell patches and avoided the need for hand-engineered features. The slide images are acquired with a custom-built portable slide scanner made from low-cost, off-the-shelf components and is suitable for point-of-care diagnostics. The proposed approach of employing sophisticated algorithmic processing together with inexpensive instrumentation can potentially benefit clinicians to enable malaria diagnosis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Uzochukwu, Benjamin Sc; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Uguru, Nkoli P; Ughasoro, Maduka D; Ezeoke, Ogochukwu P
The introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has improved the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, any successful control of malaria will depend on socio-economic factors that influence its management in the community. Willingness to pay (WTP) is important because consumer responses to prices will influence utilization of services and revenues collected. Also the consumer's attitude can influence monetary valuation with respect to different conditions ex post and ex ante. WTP for RDT for Malaria was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in rural and urban communities in southeast Nigeria. The ex post WTP was assessed at the health centers on 618 patients immediately following diagnosis of malaria with RDT and the ex ante WTP was assessed by household interviews on 1020 householders with a prior history of malaria. For the ex ante WTP, 51% of the respondents in urban and 24.7% in rural areas were willing to pay for RDT. The mean WTP (235.49 naira) in urban is higher than WTP (182.05 Naira) in rural areas. For the ex post WTP, 89 and 90.7% of the respondents in urban and rural areas respectively were WTP. The mean WTP (372.30 naira) in urban is also higher than (296.28 naira) in rural areas. For the ex post scenario, the lower two Social Economic Status (SES) quartiles were more willing to pay and the mean WTP is higher than the higher two SES while in the ex ante scenario, the higher two SES quartiles were more WTP and with a higher WTP than the lower two SES quartile. Ex ante and ex post WTP were directly dependent on costs. The ex post WTP is higher than the ex ante WTP and both are greater than the current cost of RDTs. Urban dwellers were more willing to pay than the rural dwellers. The mean WTP should be considered when designing suitable financial strategies for making RDTs available to communities.
Singh, R; Singh, D P; Gupta, R; Savargaonkar, D; Singh, O P; Nanda, N; Bhatt, R M; Valecha, N
The conventional molecular diagnosis of malaria uses 18S rRNA-based PCR assay employing blood samples. This assay presents limitation in terms of long turnaround time and increased chances of false-positive results. Here, we evaluated one-step singleplex or multiplex PCR assay based on high copy species-specific consensus repeat sequences (CRS) along with standard 18S rRNA nested PCR (18S n-PCR) assay to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax infection using blood and saliva samples from Indian febrile patients. Out of 327 patients, 187 were found to be positive for malaria parasites by microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. Among these 130 were P. vivax and 57 were P. falciparum cases. The 18S n-PCR assay and CRS PCR assay identified 186 out of 187 cases (99.4 %). Multiplex CRS PCR assay detected Plasmodium in 176 out of 187 cases (94.1 %). Both singleplex and multiplex CRS PCR assay identified 6 mixed infection cases, while 18S n-PCR assay detected 10 mixed infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum, which were not recognized by microscopy. Non-invasive Plasmodium detection rate with DNA derived from saliva samples was highest for 18S n-PCR (87.36 %), followed by singleplex CRS (81 %) and multiplex CRS PCR assay (70.5 %). Specificity for P. vivax and P. falciparum detection for all assays was 98.48 % and 100 % respectively. Detection rate for P. vivax in saliva correlated with parasite density for CRS target-based assays. The species-specific CRS PCR, either as a singleplex or multiplex assay, can have an impact on diagnosis and epidemiological studies in malaria.
were cured with antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine, quinine, artemether, and artesunate. CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms of congenital malaria vary significantly between cases, so clear and early diagnosis is difficult. We suggest that active surveillance might be necessary for neonates born to mothers with a history of malaria.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandler, Clare Ir
on diagnosis and treatment of malaria at drug shops, and affordable prices for mRDTs and ACTs in order to inform the design of the intervention and implementation modalities. The intervention required careful design with the intention to be acceptable, sustainable and effective. Critical components...
Full Text Available Los avances recientes en el diagnóstico de infecciones causadas por Plasmodium falciparum han permitido considerar la posibilidad de complementar la microscopia óptica con una prueba estandarizada de captura de antígenos con tiras reactivas basada en la detección de una proteína específica del parásito, que es segregada por los estadios sanguíneos asexuados y los gametocitos inmaduros, pero no por otros estadios. Los ensayos de campo indican que esta prueba proporciona resultados replicables con un umbral de detección de parasitemia de P. falciparum similar al obtenido con microscopia habitual de alta calidad para malaria y una especificidad y sensibilidad de alrededor de 90% en comparación con la microscopia habitual con extensión de sangre en capa gruesa. La estabilidad, reproducibilidad y facilidad de uso de la prueba indican claramente sus posibilidades de aplicación en el tratamiento de la malaria, particularmente en el nivel de atención de salud periférico, siempre y cuando se pueda garantizar su precisión y su costo sea módico. También debe considerarse la posibilidad de usarla más ampliamente donde lo justifiquen los requisitos operativos y los recursos y donde las decisiones se basen en una evaluación adecuada de los sistemas de prestación de asistencia de salud existentes.Recent advances in the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections have made it possible to consider supplementing light microscopy with a standardized dipstick antigen capture assay based on the detection of a parasite-specific protein, which is secreted by the asexual blood stages and immature gametocytes but not by the other stages. Field trials indicate that this dipstick assay provides consistently reproducible results, with a threshold of detection of P. falciparum parasitaemia similar to that obtained by high quality routine malaria microscopy and a specificity and sensitivity of around 90% compared with standard thick blood film
Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund
BACKGROUND: The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine pl...
Chiguzo, A N; Mugo, R W; Wacira, D G; Mwenda, J M; Njuguna, E W
To demonstrate that micro-franchising system is an effective way of improving access to effective health care such as the introduction of first line antimalarias in populations living in underserved rural areas in Kenya. A descriptive study. Child and family wellness (CFW) micro-franchised nurse run clinics in Kenya. In 2007, 39.3% of RDTs carried out were positive for malaria. All malaria positive (RDTs and microscopy) patients received artemether lumefantrine (AL) according to their weight in accordance with the Government approved treatment guidelines. During the same period a total of 3,248 community members were reached with malaria information, however, community expectations took longer to change as patients demanded AL even when the malaria diagnosis was negative. Initially, this led to the dispensing of other antimalarials to patients with malaria like symptoms even with a negative test. This demand decreased with more community education on the importance of the tests. Engaging the private sector though with challenges proved feasible and appropriate in accessing malaria treatment based on clinical diagnosis supported by RDTs to confirm the diagnosis instead of presumptive treatment based on fever. This led to a reduction of antimalarial prescriptions by more than 50%, implying better patient care, rational drug use as well as cost savings on malaria treatment. A micro-franchising system is an effective and sustainable way of improving access to effective health care by populations living in underserved rural areas of Africa. With appropriate supportive training and supervision, the system can adapt to changes in treatment guidelines and to new regimens.
Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Ali, Arwa A; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Tawfek, Rehab; Mahmud, Rohela
Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. A household-based, cross-sectional malaria survey was conducted in Mawza District, a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate. A total of 488 participants were screened using LM and PfHRP-2/pLDH RDT. Positive samples (160) and randomly selected negative samples (52) by both RDT and LM were further analysed using 18S rRNA-based nested PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDT were 96.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.9-98.3), 56.0% (95% CI: 44.7-66.8), 76.3% (95% CI: 69.0-82.3), and 90.4% (95% CI: 78.8-96.8), respectively. On the other hand, LM showed sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI: 29.6-46.3), specificity of 97.6% (95% CI: 91.7-99.7), PPV of 95.9% (95% CI: 86.3-98.9), and NPV of 51.3% (95% CI: 43.2-59.2). The sensitivity of LM dropped to 8.5% for detecting asymptomatic malaria. Malaria prevalence was 32.8% (32.1 and 37.5% for ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with the RDT compared with 10.7% (10.8 and 9.4% for age groups of ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with LM. Among asymptomatic malaria individuals, LM and RDT-based prevalence rates were 1.6 and 25.6%, respectively. However, rates of 88.2 and 94.1% of infection with P. falciparum were found
Yaw A Afrane
Full Text Available Currently, intensive malaria control programs are being implemented in Africa to reduce the malaria burden. Clinical malaria data from hospitals are valuable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating the impacts of these interventions. However, the reliability of hospital-based data for true malaria incidence is often questioned because of diagnosis accuracy issues and variation in access to healthcare facilities among sub-groups of the population. This study investigated how diagnosis and treatment practices of malaria cases in hospitals affect reliability of hospital malaria data.The study was undertaken in health facilities in western Kenya. A total of 3,569 blood smears were analyzed after being collected from patients who were requested by clinicians to go to the hospital's laboratory for malaria testing. We applied several quality control measures for clinical malaria diagnosis. We compared our slide reading results with those from the hospital technicians. Among the 3,390 patients whose diagnoses were analyzed, only 36% had clinical malaria defined as presence of any level of parasitaemia and fever. Sensitivity and specificity of clinicians' diagnoses were 60.1% (95% CI: 61.1-67.5 and 75.0% (95% CI: 30.8-35.7, respectively. Among the 980 patients presumptively treated with an anti-malarial by the clinicians without laboratory diagnosis, only 47% had clinical malaria.These findings revealed substantial over-prescription of anti-malarials and misdiagnosis of clinical malaria. More than half of the febrile cases were not truly clinical malaria, but were wrongly diagnosed and treated as such. Deficiency in malaria diagnosis makes health facility data unreliable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating impacts of malaria interventions. Improving malaria diagnosis should be a top priority in rural African health centers.
Background: Malaria, earlier considered rare in neonates, has been reported with increasing frequency in the last decade. Neonatal malaria diagnosis is challenging because the clinical features are non-specific, variable and also overlap with bacterial infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of neonatal malaria and ...
Hänscheid, Thomas; Längin, Matthias; Codices, Vera; Luty, Adrian J F; Adegnika, Ayola A; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P
Plasmodium falciparum sequesters in the placenta. Cell-Dyn automated flow cytometric haematology analysers have the capacity to detect haemozoin-containing circulating leukocytes during routine FBC analysis. In Lambaréné, Gabon, 685 FBCs of pregnant women were analysed, yielding 86.8% sensitivity and 78.5% specificity compared to microscopy. In a subset of 37 Cell-Dyn positive but microscopy negative samples, PCR detected five positive cases. This methodology may serve as an adjunct rapid diagnostic tool for malaria during pregnancy, even in microscopically negative cases.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC. Keywords: Cerebral malaria, cytokine storm, DIC, heparin ...
uncomplicated malaria in the health centres as well as late arrival at the hospital. Early laboratory and clinical diagnosis, correct treatment and improved quality management are key strategies for malaria control. Key words: Hypoglycaemia, Malaria, Children. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a major global threat to health, ...
Even now, malaria treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. There are several principal methods for diagnosing malaria. All these methods have their disadvantages.Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practiced where laboratory tests are not readily available. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The technique of slide preparation, staining and reading are well known and standardized, and so is the estimate of the parasite density and parasite stages. Microscopy is not always available or feasible at primary health services in limited resource settings due to cost, lack of skilled manpower, accessories and reagents required. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are potential tools for parasite-based diagnosis since the tests are accurate in detecting malaria infections and are easy to use. The test is based on the capture of parasite antigen that released from parasitized red blood cells using monoclonal antibodies prepared against malaria antigen target. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), depend on DNA amplification approaches and have higher sensitivity than microscopy. PCR it is not widely used due to the lack of a standardized methodology, high costs, and the need for highly-trained staff.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the
School-based diagnosis and treatment of malaria by teachers using rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of the Learner Treatment Kit, southern Malawi.
Mphwatiwa, Treza; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mtali, Austin; Okello, George; Nguluwe, Paul; Chatsika, Hard; Roschnik, Natalie; Halliday, Katherine E; Brooker, Simon J; Mathanga, Don P
Training teachers to diagnose uncomplicated malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic tests and treat with artemisinin-based combination therapy has the potential to improve the access of primary school children (6-14 years) to prompt and efficient treatment for malaria, but little is known about the acceptability of such an intervention. This qualitative study explored experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of a programme of school-based malaria case management via a first-aid kit-the Learner Treatment Kit (LTK)-implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Zomba district, Malawi. From 29 primary schools where teachers were trained to test and treat school children for malaria using the LTK, six schools were purposively selected on the basis of relative intervention usage (low, medium or high); school size and geographical location. In total eight focus group discussions were held with school children, parents and guardians, and teachers; and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the school, district and national levels. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The LTK was widely perceived by respondents to be a worthwhile intervention, with the opinion that trained teachers were trusted providers of malaria testing and treatment to school children. Benefits of the programme included a perception of improved access to malaria treatment for school children; decreased school absenteeism; and that the programme supported broader national health and education policies. Potential barriers to successful implementation expressed included increased teacher workloads, a feeling of inadequate supervision from health workers, lack of incentives and concerns for the sustainability of the programme regarding the supply of drugs and commodities. Training teachers to test for and treat uncomplicated malaria in schools was well received by both users and implementers alike, and
Socio-economic differences and health seeking behaviour for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the Bamako initiative programme in south-east Nigeria
Onwujekwe Obinna E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. It is not known how user fees introduced under the Bamako Initiative (BI system affect healthcare seeking among different socio-economic groups in Nigeria for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Reliable information is needed to initiate new policy thrusts to protect the poor from the adverse effect of user fees. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1594 female household primary care givers or household head on their socio-economic and demographic status and use of malaria diagnosis and treatment services. Principal components analysis was used to create a socio-economic status index which was decomposed into quartiles and chi-square for trends was used to calculate for any statistical difference. Results The study showed that self diagnosis was the commonest form of diagnosis by the respondents. This was followed by diagnosis through laboratory tests, community health workers, family members and traditional healers. The initial choice of care for malaria was a visit to the patent medicine dealers for most respondents. This was followed by visit to the government hospitals, the BI health centres, traditional medicine healers, private clinics, community health workers and does nothing at home. Furthermore, the private health facilities were the initial choice of treatment for the majority with a decline among those choosing them as a second source of care and an increase in the utilization of public health facilities as a second choice of care. Self diagnosis was practiced more by the poorer households while the least poor used the patent medicine dealers and community health workers less often for diagnosis of malaria. The least poor groups had a higher probability of seeking treatment at the BI health centres (creating equity problem in BI, hospitals, and private clinics and in using laboratory procedures. The least
Laktabai, Jeremiah; Platt, Alyssa; Menya, Diana; Turner, Elizabeth L; Aswa, Daniel; Kinoti, Stephen; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme
Community health workers (CHWs) play an important role in improving access to services in areas with limited health infrastructure or workforce. Supervision of CHWs by qualified health professionals is the main link between this lay workforce and the formal health system. The quality of services provided by lay health workers is dependent on adequate supportive supervision. It is however one of the weakest links in CHW programs due to logistical and resource constraints, especially in large scale programs. Interventions such as point of care testing using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) require real time monitoring to ensure diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a mobile health technology platform to remotely monitor malaria RDT (mRDT) testing by CHWs for quality improvement. As part of a large implementation trial involving mRDT testing by CHWs, we introduced the Fionet system composed of a mobile device (Deki Reader, DR) to assist in processing and automated interpretation of mRDTs, which connects to a cloud-based database which captures reports from the field in real time, displaying results in a custom dashboard of key performance indicators. A random sample of 100 CHWs were trained and provided with the Deki Readers and instructed to use it on 10 successive patients. The CHWs interpretation was compared with the Deki Reader's automatic interpretation, with the errors in processing and interpreting the RDTs recorded. After the CHW entered their interpretation on the DR, the DR provided immediate, automated feedback and interpretation based on its reading of the same cassette. The study team monitored the CHW performance remotely and provided additional support. A total of 1251 primary and 113 repeat tests were performed by the 97 CHWs who used the DR. 91.6% of the tests had agreement between the DR and the CHWs. There were 61 (4.9%) processing and 52 (4.2%) interpretation errors among the primary tests. There was a tendency
Full Text Available Community health workers (CHWs play an important role in improving access to services in areas with limited health infrastructure or workforce. Supervision of CHWs by qualified health professionals is the main link between this lay workforce and the formal health system. The quality of services provided by lay health workers is dependent on adequate supportive supervision. It is however one of the weakest links in CHW programs due to logistical and resource constraints, especially in large scale programs. Interventions such as point of care testing using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs require real time monitoring to ensure diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a mobile health technology platform to remotely monitor malaria RDT (mRDT testing by CHWs for quality improvement.As part of a large implementation trial involving mRDT testing by CHWs, we introduced the Fionet system composed of a mobile device (Deki Reader, DR to assist in processing and automated interpretation of mRDTs, which connects to a cloud-based database which captures reports from the field in real time, displaying results in a custom dashboard of key performance indicators. A random sample of 100 CHWs were trained and provided with the Deki Readers and instructed to use it on 10 successive patients. The CHWs interpretation was compared with the Deki Reader's automatic interpretation, with the errors in processing and interpreting the RDTs recorded. After the CHW entered their interpretation on the DR, the DR provided immediate, automated feedback and interpretation based on its reading of the same cassette. The study team monitored the CHW performance remotely and provided additional support.A total of 1251 primary and 113 repeat tests were performed by the 97 CHWs who used the DR. 91.6% of the tests had agreement between the DR and the CHWs. There were 61 (4.9% processing and 52 (4.2% interpretation errors among the primary tests. There was a
Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mar 2, 2005 ... Microscopy is the oldest technique and is referred to as the "gold standard". There are two forms of microscopic techniques, the Romanosky stains and the fluorescent technique. Several stains that have been used for staining the thick and thin blood films include. Giemsa, Field, Jaswant Singh Bhattacharji, ...
Burkot, Camilla; Naidi, Laura; Seehofer, Liesel; Miles, Kevin
What motivates community-based health workers to provide care in rural and remote areas, often on a voluntary or casual basis, is a key question for program managers and public health officials. This paper examines how a range of incentives offered as part of the Marasin Stoa Kipa program, a community-based malaria diagnosis and treatment program that has been implemented since 2007 within a major oil and gas development area in Papua New Guinea, are perceived and critiqued by community-based health workers. Nineteen interviews and seven focus group discussions with the workers who deliver services and members of the communities served by the program, conducted between November 4 and 25, 2015, reveal a pattern of mixed motivations and changes in motivation over time. This can be attributed partly to the unique social and economic circumstances in which the program is operating. Changes in the burden of disease as well as in global and national health services policy with implications for local level program operations also had an impact, as did the nature of relationships between program managers, community-based health workers, and program beneficiaries. Overall, the findings suggest that while financial and in-kind incentives can be a useful tool to motivate voluntary or minimally-compensated community-based health workers, they must be carefully structured to align with local social, economic, and epidemiological realities over the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G
In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.
Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O
Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test.
Combining parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based and histidine-rich protein 2-based rapid tests to improve specificity for diagnosis of malaria Due to Plasmodium knowlesi and other Plasmodium species in Sabah, Malaysia.
Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Barber, Bridget E; Parameswaran, Uma; Bird, Elspeth; Piera, Kim; Aziz, Ammar; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M
Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria in Malaysia. Microscopic misdiagnosis is common and may delay appropriate treatment. P. knowlesi can cross-react with "species-specific" parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) monoclonal antibodies used in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax. At one tertiary-care hospital and two district hospitals in Sabah, we prospectively evaluated two combination RDTs for malaria diagnosis by using both a pan-Plasmodium-pLDH (pan-pLDH)/P. falciparum-specific-pLDH (Pf-pLDH) RDT (OptiMAL-IT) and a non-P. falciparum VOM-pLDH/Pf-HRP2 RDT (CareStart). Differential cross-reactivity among these combinations was hypothesized to differentiate P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium monoinfections. Among 323 patients with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi (n = 193), P. falciparum (n = 93), and P. vivax (n = 37) monoinfections, the VOM-pLDH individual component had the highest sensitivity for nonsevere (35%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 43%) and severe (92%; CI, 81 to 100%) P. knowlesi malaria. CareStart demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 42% (CI, 34 to 49%) and specificity of 74% (CI, 65 to 82%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 83% (CI, 66 to 93%) and specificity of 71% (CI, 65 to 76%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 97% (CI, 90 to 99%) and specificity of 99% (CI, 97 to 100%). OptiMAL-IT demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 32% (CI, 25 to 39%) and specificity of 21% (CI, 15 to 29%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 60% (CI, 42 to 75%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 94 to 99%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 82% (CI, 72 to 89%) and specificity of 39% (CI, 33 to 46%). The combination of CareStart plus OptiMAL-IT for P. knowlesi using predefined criteria gave a sensitivity of 25% (CI, 19 to 32%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 92 to 99%). Combining two RDT combinations was highly specific for P. knowlesi malaria diagnosis; however, sensitivity was poor. The specificity of pLDH RDTs was decreased for P. vivax and P
Relación costo-efectividad del uso de pruebas rápidas para el diagnóstico de la malaria en la Amazonia peruana Cost-effectiveness ratio of using rapid tests for malaria diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon
Ángel Martín Rosas Aguirre
promotores de salud a otras comunidades con condiciones similares a las estudiadas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness ratios of three options for diagnosing malaria at the local health provider in 50 communities near the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Calculation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of three options for diagnosing malaria-not using rapid tests, using rapid tests, and accessing microscopy-in patients presenting with fever in 50 communities near Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, communities with limited access to microscopy that depend on a network of local health providers. The incremental costs and effects of the two latter options were calculated and compared with the first option (currently in use. By dividing the incremental costs among the incremental effects, the incremental costeffectiveness ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Using rapid tests would save the Ministry of Health of Peru: US$ 191 for each new case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria treated promptly and appropriately; US$ 31 per new case of P. vivax malaria treated promptly and appropriately;US$ 1 051 per case of acute malaria averted; and US$ 17 655 for each death avoided. Access to microscopy by all the communities would generate an additional cost of: US$ 198 per new case of P. falciparum malaria treated promptly and appropriately; US$ 31 per new case of P. vivax malaria treated promptly and appropriately; US$ 1 086 per case of acute malaria averted; and US$ 18 255 for each death avoided. CONCLUSIONS: The use of rapid tests by local health providers can improve the effectiveness of malaria diagnosis in patients with fever in the 50 communities studied, at a cost lower than the current method. The recommendation is to expand the use of rapid tests among the health providers in communities similar to those studied.
Bauch, Julie A; Gu, Jessica J; Msellem, Mwinyi; Mårtensson, Andreas; Ali, Abdullah S; Gosling, Roly; Baltzell, Kimberly A
if residents believe that they are no longer at risk for malaria. In future studies, a year-round evaluation of the perception of malaria risk and use of preventive measures will inform the timing of education and prevention strategies for sustained malaria control.
Wijayalath, Wathsala; Majji, Sai; Villasante, Eileen F; Brumeanu, Teodor D; Richie, Thomas L; Casares, Sofia
Background Malaria is a deadly infectious disease affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Among the five species of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum accounts for the highest morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. Since humans are the only natural hosts for P. falciparum, the lack of convenient animal models has hindered the understanding of disease pathogenesis and prompted the need of testing anti-malarial drugs and vaccine...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have practical advantages over light microscopy (LM and good sensitivity in severe falciparum malaria in Africa, their utility where severe non-falciparum malaria occurs is unknown. LM, RDTs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods have limitations, and thus conventional comparative malaria diagnostic studies employ imperfect gold standards. We assessed whether, using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs which do not require a reference method, RDTs could safely direct initial anti-infective therapy in severe ill children from an area of hyperendemic transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 797 Papua New Guinean children hospitalized with well-characterized severe illness for whom LM, RDT and nested PCR (nPCR results were available. For any severe malaria, the estimated prevalence was 47.5% with RDTs exhibiting similar sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV to nPCR (≥96.0%. LM was the least sensitive test (87.4% and had the lowest NPV (89.7%, but had the highest specificity (99.1% and positive predictive value (98.9%. For severe falciparum malaria (prevalence 42.9%, the findings were similar. For non-falciparum severe malaria (prevalence 6.9%, no test had the WHO-recommended sensitivity and specificity of >95% and >90%, respectively. RDTs were the least sensitive (69.6% and had the lowest NPV (96.7%. CONCLUSIONS: RDTs appear a valuable point-of-care test that is at least equivalent to LM in diagnosing severe falciparum malaria in this epidemiologic situation. None of the tests had the required sensitivity/specificity for severe non-falciparum malaria but the number of false-negative RDTs in this group was small.
This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally. Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Date Released: 4/18/2008.
Background: Prompt access to early diagnosis and effective antimalarial treatment at health facilities is one of the major strategies for reducing the burden of malaria. Objective: To assess treatment seeking behaviour and its determinant factors among malaria patients attending malaria control laboratories (MCLs). Methods: ...
Because of the unexpected nature of the disease, diagnosis is often delayed and severe and complicated malaria is common. Objectives. ... Conclusion. Odyssean malaria cases are inevitable in South Africa, given the volume of road, rail and air traffic from malaria risk areas into Gauteng and other non-endemic provinces.
Cohen, Jessica; Cox, Alex; Dickens, William; Maloney, Kathleen; Lam, Felix; Fink, Günther
In Uganda, as in most other malaria-endemic countries, presumptive treatment for malaria based on symptoms without a diagnostic blood test is still very common. While diagnostic testing in public sector facilities is increasing, many people in Uganda who suspect malaria visit private sector outlets to purchase medications. Increasing the availability and uptake of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria in private outlets could help increase diagnostic testing for malaria but raises questions about the patient demand for and valuation of testing that are less critical for public sector introduction. In preparation for a behaviour change campaign to encourage and sustain the demand for RDTs in drug shops, eight focus group discussions with a total of 84 community members were conducted in six districts across Uganda's Eastern Region in November-December 2011. Focus groups explored incentives and barriers to seeking diagnosis for malaria, how people react to test results and why, and what can be done to increase the willingness to pay for RDTs. Overall, participants were very familiar with malaria diagnostic testing and understood its importance, yet when faced with limited financial resources, patients preferred to spend their money on medication and sought testing only when presumptive treatment proved ineffective. While side effects did seem to be a concern, participants did not mention other potential costs of taking unnecessary or ineffective medications, such as money wasted on excess drugs or delays in resolution of symptoms. Very few individuals were familiar with RDTs. In order to boost demand, these results suggest that private sector RDTs will have to be made convenient and affordable and that targeted behaviour change campaigns should strive to increase the perceived value of diagnosis.
Lim, Renly; Tripura, Rupam; J Peto, Thomas; Sareth, Ma; Sanann, Nou; Davoeung, Chan; Nguon, Chea; Cheah, Phaik Yeong
Background : Countries in Southeast Asia are working to eliminate multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria, a major cause of mortality in tropical regions. Malaria is declining but transmission persists in many rural areas and among forest workers and isolated populations. In these remote communities, conventional health services and education are limited. Mobilising and educating these populations require new approaches as many people are illiterate and do not attend village meetings. This article describes a qualitative study to assess the feasibility of a drama project as a community engagement strategy. Methods : A drama project was conducted in twenty villages in Cambodia with three key messages: to use insecticide-treated bednets and repellents, to get early diagnosis and treatment, and to learn about risks of forest-acquired malaria. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the drama team members, village malaria workers, local health staffs and villagers, to explore the feasibility of using drama to engage the community and the associated challenges. Results : 29 people were interviewed, which included 18 semi-structured interviews and one focus group discussion. Analysis of the interviews resulted in development of the following seven themes: i) exposure to malaria and engagement activities, ii) readiness and barriers to participation, iii) understanding and learning about malaria using drama, iv) entertainment value and engagement method preferences, v) challenges to community engagement, vi) future participation and vii) sustainability. The event saw a very positive response, with an encouraging average participation rate of 66%. The project faced several challenges including logistic problems, rescheduling due to raining season, and time- and budget-constraints. Conclusions : Our evaluation demonstrated that the drama project was feasible in promoting awareness and understanding of malaria prevention and control. Audience members perceived drama as
Allen, Lisa K; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Manyama, Mange
Misdiagnosis of malaria is a major problem in Africa leading not only to incorrect individual level treatment, but potentially the acceleration of the spread of drug resistance in low-transmission areas. In this paper we report on the outcomes of a simple intervention that utilized a social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to reduce misdiagnosis associated with hospital-based microscopy of malaria in a low-transmission area of rural Tanzania. A pre-post assessment was conducted on patients presenting to the hospital outpatient department with malaria and non-malaria like symptoms in January 2009 (pre-intervention) and June 2009 (post-intervention). All participants were asked a health seeking behavior questionnaire and blood samples were taken for local and quality control microscopy. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine magnitude of misdiagnosis with local microscopy pre- versus- post intervention. Local microscopy pre-intervention specificity was 29.5% (95% CI = 21.6% - 38.4%) whereas the post intervention specificity was 68.6% (95% CI = 60.2% - 76.2%). Both pre and post intervention sensitivity were difficult to determine due to an unexpected low number of true positive cases. The proportion of participants misdiagnosed pre-intervention was 70.2% (95%CI = 61.3%-78.0%) as compared to 30.6% (95%CI = 23.2%-38.8%) post-intervention. This resulted in a 39.6% reduction in misdiagnosis of malaria at the local hospital. The magnitude of misdiagnosis for the pre-intervention participants was 5.3 (95%CI = 3.1-9.3) that of the post-intervention participants. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that a simple intervention can meaningfully reduce the magnitude of microscopy-based misdiagnosis of malaria for those individuals seeking treatment for uncomplicated malaria. We anticipate that this intervention will facilitate a valuable and sustainable change in malaria diagnosis at the local hospital.
Campuzano-Zuluaga, Germán; Hänscheid, Thomas; Grobusch, Martin P.
For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO
Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy
Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...
Nyland, J; Wera, J; Henzman, C; Miller, T; Jakob, R; Caborn, D N M
To sustain natural systems, there must be an ongoing balance between environmental, social, and economic considerations. A key element of sustainability theory is to identify the most vulnerable surroundings. The most vulnerable knee tissue is the articular cartilage as it is the last line of osteoarthritis (OA) defense. This tissue has a poor capacity for healing. Based on sustainability theory and social ecology concepts we propose that several key factors contribute to knee function preservation. Factors include health history, genetic predisposition, personal behaviors, and socio-environmental factors in addition to local-regional-global physiological system function. Addressing only some of these factors or any one factor in isolation may lead to less than optimal treatment effectiveness. The purpose of this commentary is to introduce a medical, surgical and rehabilitation management approach for patients with knee OA that considers more than physical function improvement. This approach also considers social, emotional, and environmental factors to better ensure patient satisfaction, fulfilled expectations and successful outcomes. A clinical care pathway is presented for a 57-year-old patient with medial compartment knee OA who is contemplating early arthroplasty versus a knee function preservation treatment approach. Early arthroplasty refers to high revision likelihood based on a minimum 15 year prosthesis life-expectancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard
Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.
Bell, David; Fleurent, Alessandra E; Hegg, Michael C; Boomgard, John D; McConnico, Caitlin C
Despite advances in diagnostic technology, significant gaps remain in access to malaria diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and misdiagnosis leads to unnecessary waste of resources, poor disease management, and contributes to a cycle of poverty in low-resourced communities. Despite much effort and investment, few new technologies have reached the field in the last 30 years aside from lateral flow assays. This suggests that much diagnostic development effort has been misdirected, and/or that there are fundamental blocks to introduction of new technologies. Malaria diagnosis is a difficult market; resources are broadly donor-dependent, health systems in endemic countries are frequently weak, and the epidemiology of malaria and priorities of malaria programmes and donors are evolving. Success in diagnostic development will require a good understanding of programme gaps, and the sustainability of markets to address them. Targeting assay development to such clearly defined market requirements will improve the outcomes of product development funding. Six market segments are identified: (1) case management in low-resourced countries, (2) parasite screening for low density infections in elimination programmes, (3) surveillance for evidence of continued transmission, (4) clinical research and therapeutic efficacy monitoring, (5) cross-checking for microscopy quality control, and (6) returned traveller markets distinguished primarily by resource availability. While each of these markets is potentially compelling from a public health standpoint, size and scale are highly variable and continue to evolve. Consequently, return on investment in research and development may be limited, highlighting the need for potentially significant donor involvement or the introduction of novel business models to overcome prohibitive economics. Given the rather specific applications, a well-defined set of stakeholders will need to be on board for the successful introduction and scaling of any new
Essuman, Vera A; Ntim-Amponsah, Christine T; Astrup, Birgitte S
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic areas, reliably establishing parasitaemia for diagnosis of malaria can be difficult. A retinopathy with some features unique to severe malaria with a predictive value on prognosis, has been described. Detection of this retinopathy could be a useful...... diagnostic tool. This study was designed to determine the diagnostic usefulness of retinopathy on ophthalmoscopy in severe malaria syndromes: Cerebral malaria (CM) and non-cerebral severe malaria (non-CM), i.e. malaria with respiratory distress (RD) and malaria with severe anaemia (SA), in Ghanaian children....... Secondly, to determine any association between retinopathy and the occurrence of convulsions in patients with CM. Methods and subjects A cross-sectional study of consecutive patients on admission with severe malaria who were assessed for retinal signs, at the Department of Child Health, Korle-Bu Teaching...
Mok, C K; Cheung, K L; Wai, K H; Ong, G B
Two cases of malaria developing immediately after open-heart surgery are reported to illustrate that malaria is one of the rarer causes of postoperative pyrexia. The diagnosis can easily be missed, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and even mortality. It is important for cardiac surgeons to be aware of this possibility in malaria-free as well as malaria-endemic areas as patients or blood donors who come from or have recently visited an endemic area are potential victims or sources of the inf...
... 216 million clinical episodes, and 445,000 deaths. Biology, Pathology, Epidemiology Among the malaria species that infect ... Cinchona spp., South America, 17th century). Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...
... the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. The parasites migrate to the liver, mature and enter the bloodstream, where they rupture red blood cells. An infected pregnant woman can transmit malaria ...
Ruiz, Daniel; Poveda, German; Quinonez, Martha Lucia; Velez Ivan, Dario; Rojas, William; Zuluaga, Juan Santiago
A vector-borne disease model has been developed to represent the entomological, epidemiological and climatic interactions of malaria transmission conductive to disease outbreaks in Nuqui prone-region, Choco province, along the pacific Colombian coast. Considering breeding place availability model and several predator-prey-food models allow us to represent the vectorial densities fluctuations observed during the field's campaigns. The comprehensive model has been applied to represent malaria incidence during the period Nov/1997-Feb/2001 (1200 days simulation period), when both El Nino and la Nina events strongly affected the hydro-climatology of Colombia. The model has been run for observed climatic patterns such as mean daily temperatures, total daily precipitation records, and mean daily relative humidities gathered by a nearby climatological station. Diverse temperature scenarios have been considered to deepen the understanding of the entomological-climatic linkages conductive to malaria outbreaks. Sensitivity analysis and instabilities cases have been also studied during the experimentation-validation processes. Obtained results allow us to conclude that the model constitutes a promising tool to deepen the understanding of the ecological, entomological, and epidemiological linkages conductive to malaria outbreaks
Febrile patients in malaria-endemic areas need rapid and accurate diagnosis to ensure prompt access to antimalarial treatment to avoid severe disease. As most fevers in malaria-endemic areas of South Africa are not caused by malaria, and symptom-based diagnosis is highly nonspecific, rapid demonstration of the ...
Denis, M B; Meek, S R
There are around half a million cases of malaria with 5-10,000 deaths per year in Cambodia. Incidence rates vary in different parts of the country. Malaria control is hampered by multiple drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum, inaccessibility to the major vector, poor security in most malarious areas, and lack of resources. The control strategy emphasises improvement of clinical management and provision of prompt and accurate diagnosis in order to reduce morbidity and to prevent mortality. In addition health information and drug distribution systems are being improved. The use of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets and health education are being promoted. Particular attention is given to returning refugees as they settle into the country.
Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jurg; Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Smith, Thomas A; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H
Malaria not only remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, but it also impedes socioeconomic development, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Rapid and unprecedented urbanization, going hand-in-hand with often declining economies, might have profound implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria, as the relative disease burden increases among urban dwellers. Reviewing the literature and using a modeling approach, we find that entomologic inoculation rates in cities range from 0 to 54 per year, depending on the degree of urbanization, the spatial location within a city, and overall living conditions. Using the latest United Nations figures on urbanization prospects, nighttime light remotely sensed images, and the "Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa" results on climate suitability for stable malaria transmission, we estimate that 200 million people (24.6% of the total African population) currently live in urban settings where they are at risk of contracting the disease. Importantly, the estimated total surface area covered by these urban settings is only approximately 1.1-1.6% of the total African surface. Considering different plausible scenarios, we estimate an annual incidence of 24.8-103.2 million cases of clinical malaria attacks among urban dwellers in Africa. These figures translate to 6-28% of the estimated global annual disease incidence. Against this background, basic health care delivery systems providing early diagnosis and early treatment and preventive actions through mother and child health programs and the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets for the rapidly growing numbers of the urban poor must be improved alongside well-tailored and integrated malaria control strategies. We propose environmental management and larviciding within well-specified productive sites as a main feature for such an integrated control approach. Mitigation of the current burden of malaria in urban African settings, in turn, is a necessity for stimulating
Grobusch Martin P
Full Text Available Abstract For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ≥ 95% in samples with > 100 parasites/μl. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment and to minimizing adverse outcomes. Expert light microscopy remains the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis in most clinical settings. However, it requires an explicit request from clinicians and has variable accuracy. Malaria diagnosis with flow cytometry-based haematology analysers could become an important adjuvant diagnostic tool in the routine laboratory work-up of febrile patients in or returning from malaria-endemic regions. Haematology analysers so far studied for malaria diagnosis are the Cell-Dyn®, Coulter® GEN·S and LH 750, and the Sysmex XE-2100® analysers. For Cell-Dyn analysers, abnormal depolarization events mainly in the lobularity/granularity and other scatter-plots, and various reticulocyte abnormalities have shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 49% to 97% and 61% to 100%, respectively. For the Coulter analysers, a 'malaria factor' using the monocyte and lymphocyte size standard deviations obtained by impedance detection has shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% to 98% and 72% to 94%, respectively. For the XE-2100, abnormal patterns in the DIFF, WBC/BASO, and RET-EXT scatter-plots, and pseudoeosinophilia and other abnormal haematological variables have been described, and multivariate diagnostic models have been designed with overall sensitivities and specificities of 86% to 97% and 81% to 98%, respectively. The accuracy for malaria diagnosis may vary according to species, parasite load, immunity and clinical context where the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years, associated with the increasing accessibility of accurate diagnosis through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and new World Health Organization guidelines recommending parasite-based diagnosis prior to anti-malarial therapy. However, light microscopy, established over 100 years ago and frequently considered the reference standard for clinical diagnosis, has been neglected in control programmes and in the malaria literature and evidence suggests field standards are commonly poor. Microscopy remains the most accessible method for parasite quantitation, for drug efficacy monitoring, and as a reference of assessing other diagnostic tools. This mismatch between quality and need highlights the importance of the establishment of reliable standards and procedures for assessing and assuring quality. This paper describes the development, function and impact of a multi-country microscopy external quality assurance network set up for this purpose in Asia. Methods Surveys were used for key informants and past participants for feedback on the quality assurance programme. Competency scores for each country from 14 participating countries were compiled for analyses using paired sample t-tests. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants including the programme facilitators and national level microscopists. Results External assessments and limited retraining through a formalized programme based on a reference slide bank has demonstrated an increase in standards of competence of senior microscopists over a relatively short period of time, at a potentially sustainable cost. The network involved in the programme now exceeds 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific, and the methods are extended to other regions. Conclusions While the impact on national programmes varies, it has translated in some instances into a strengthening of national microscopy standards and offers a
Full Text Available Background: Countries in Southeast Asia are working to eliminate multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria, a major cause of mortality in tropical regions. Malaria is declining but transmission persists in many rural areas and among forest workers and isolated populations. In these remote communities, conventional health services and education are limited. Mobilising and educating these populations require new approaches as many people are illiterate and do not attend village meetings. This article describes a qualitative study to assess the feasibility of a drama project as a community engagement strategy. Methods: A drama project was conducted in twenty villages in Cambodia with three key messages: to use insecticide-treated bednets and repellents, to get early diagnosis and treatment, and to learn about risks of forest-acquired malaria. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the drama team members, village malaria workers, local health staffs and villagers, to explore the feasibility of using drama to engage the community and the associated challenges. Results: 29 people were interviewed, which included 18 semi-structured interviews and one focus group discussion. Analysis of the interviews resulted in development of the following seven themes: i exposure to malaria and engagement activities, ii readiness and barriers to participation, iii understanding and learning about malaria using drama, iv entertainment value and engagement method preferences, v challenges to community engagement, vi future participation and vii sustainability. The event saw a very positive response, with an encouraging average participation rate of 66%. The project faced several challenges including logistic problems, rescheduling due to raining season, and time- and budget-constraints. Conclusions: Our evaluation demonstrated that the drama project was feasible in promoting awareness and understanding of malaria prevention and control. Audience members perceived
Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jacobsen, E
An increasing number of cases of malaria, imported to Denmark, are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and severe and complicated cases are more often seen. In the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 23 out of 32 cases, hospitalized from 1.1-30.6.1988, i.e. 72%, were caused by P...
Diagnóstico tardio de malária em área endêmica de dengue na extra-Amazônia Brasileira: experiência recente de uma unidade sentinela no estado do Rio de Janeiro Delayed diagnosis of malaria in a dengue endemic area in the Brazilian extra-Amazon: recent experience of a malaria surveillance unit in state of Rio de Janeiro
Anielle de Pina Costa
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A letalidade da malária na região extra-amazônica é cerca de 80 vezes maior do que na Amazônia, que concentra 99,8% dos casos do país. Em áreas de transmissão de dengue, como o Rio de Janeiro, o atraso no diagnóstico e tratamento da malária dos pacientes com febre, provenientes de áreas endêmicas de malária, pode ser, entre outros fatores, devido à confusão entre o diagnóstico das duas doenças pelos generalistas da rede de assistência médica. Neste trabalho, apresentamos as consequências do atraso diagnóstico em três pacientes com malária por Plasmodium falciparum; P. malariae e P. vivax, que, após o périplo habitual para tratamento de dengue, procuraram a nossa instituição onde foram corretamente diagnosticados e submetidos aos tratamentos adequados. MÉTODOS: Descrição de três casos de malária diagnosticada tardiamente e encaminhados ao IPEC/ FIOCRUZ, entre os anos de 2007 e 2008. RESULTADOS: uma brasileira proveniente de Moçambique, primo-infectada por P. falciparum, com malária diagnosticada após 6 dias do início da febre, morreu com malária cerebral e choque. Outro paciente com malária por P. malariae teve um curso grave e prolongado, mas ficou curado após o tratamento específico. A terceira paciente diagnosticada tardiamente apresentou malária por P. vivax adquirida na região de Mata Atlântica no Estado do Rio. CONCLUSÕES: Os profissionais de saúde do Rio devem ser treinados para aperfeiçoar a vigilância e o tratamento oportuno da malária e evitar desfechos mórbidos e fatais. Sugere-se que uma investigação de focos de malária autóctone em áreas de mata no estado seja realizada.INTRODUCTION: The mortality of malaria in the extra-Amazon region is about 80 times higher than in the Amazon region, where malaria is concentrated (99.8% of cases. In areas of dengue transmission, delay in the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in patients with fever who reside in areas of malaria
Chuang, Ting-Wu; Soble, Adam; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Mkhonta, Nomcebo; Seyama, Eric; Mthethwa, Steven; Pindolia, Deepa; Kunene, Simon
Swaziland aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, imported cases from neighbouring endemic countries continue to sustain local parasite reservoirs and initiate transmission. As certain weather and climatic conditions may trigger or intensify malaria outbreaks, identification of areas prone to these conditions may aid decision-makers in deploying targeted malaria interventions more effectively. Malaria case-surveillance data for Swaziland were provided by Swaziland's National Malaria Control Programme. Climate data were derived from local weather stations and remote sensing images. Climate parameters and malaria cases between 2001 and 2015 were then analysed using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models and distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). The incidence of malaria in Swaziland increased between 2005 and 2010, especially in the Lubombo and Hhohho regions. A time-series analysis indicated that warmer temperatures and higher precipitation in the Lubombo and Hhohho administrative regions are conducive to malaria transmission. DLNM showed that the risk of malaria increased in Lubombo when the maximum temperature was above 30 °C or monthly precipitation was above 5 in. In Hhohho, the minimum temperature remaining above 15 °C or precipitation being greater than 10 in. might be associated with malaria transmission. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of short-term climate variations on malaria transmission in Swaziland. The geographic separation of imported and locally acquired malaria, as well as population behaviour, highlight the varying modes of transmission, part of which may be relevant to climate conditions. Thus, the impact of changing climate conditions should be noted as Swaziland moves toward malaria elimination.
Duijts, Saskia F A; Kieffer, Jacobien M; van Muijen, Peter; van der Beek, Allard J
Most cancer survivors are able to return to work at some point after diagnosis. However, literature on sustained employability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is limited. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the influence of change in employment status on HRQoL in cancer survivors long term after diagnosis, and to identify predictors of work continuation in occupationally active survivors. We used prospective data (T0 = two years after diagnosis, T1 = one-year follow-up, and T2 = two-year follow-up) from a cohort of cancer survivors that had an employment contract and were of working age at T0 (N = 252, 69.8% female). Groups were formed on the basis of change in employment status: 'continuously not working' (19.8%), 'positive change in employment status' (5.6%), 'negative change in employment status' (14.7%), and 'continuously working' (59.9%). ANCOVA was used to explore the relationship between change in employment status and HRQoL at T1. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to identify predictors of work continuation (at T1 and T2) in survivors that were occupationally active at T0 (N = 212). 'Continuously working' survivors scored significantly better on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales: role functioning, fatigue, pain, constipation, global health/QoL and the Summary score, than 'continuously not working' survivors, and better on physical, role and emotional functioning, fatigue, financial impact, global health/QoL and the Summary score than survivors with a 'negative change in employment status' (effect size range = 0.49-0.74). In occupationally active survivors, a high score on current work ability was associated with work continuation one year later [odds ratio (OR) 1.46; 95% CI 1.11-1.92]. Cancer survivors 'continuously working' function better and have a better health and QoL than those who are not able to work. However, in occupationally active cancer survivors, one should monitor those with low self
... Malaria About Malaria FAQs Fast Facts Disease Biology Ecology Human Factors Sickle Cell Mosquitoes Parasites Where Malaria ... medications being taken (to assess potential drug-drug interactions), the cost of the medicines, and the potential ...
... with malaria each year. Most cases are in sub-Saharan Africa. (Asia, Latin America, and parts of Europe are ... children who are malnourished . Can Malaria Be Prevented? Health authorities try to prevent malaria by using mosquito- ...
Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus, and is one of the most prevalent diseases in Africa and around the world. Emergency physicians in both endemic and non-endemic regions often encounter initial presentations of malaria, and knowledge about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease is crucial in caring for these patients. This article covers briefly the epidemiology of malaria and the lifecycle of the Plasmodium parasite. This is followed by a discussion of the clinical evaluation, diagnosis, and management of patients with malaria, as pertinent to the African emergency physician.
Zarling, Stasya; Berenzon, Dmitriy; Dalai, Sarat; Liepinsh, Dmitry; Steers, Nick; Krzych, Urszula
Ag-specific memory T cell responses elicited by infections or vaccinations are inextricably linked to long-lasting protective immunity. Studies of protective immunity amongst residents of malaria endemic areas indicate that memory responses to Plasmodia antigens are not adequately developed or maintained, as persons who survive episodes of childhood malaria are still vulnerable to either persistent or intermittent malaria infections. In contrast, multiple exposures to radiation-attenuated Plasmodia sporozoites (γ-spz) induce long-lasting protective immunity to experimental sporozoite challenge. We previously demonstrated that sterile protection induced by Plasmodium berghei (Pb) γ-spz is MHC-class I-dependent and CD8 T cells are the key effectors. IFN-γ+CD8 T cells that arise in Pb γ-spz immunized B6 mice are found predominantly in the liver and are sensitive to levels of liver-stage Ag depot and they express CD44hiCD62Llo markers indicative of effector/effector memory (E/EM) phenotype. The developmentally related central memory (CM) CD8 T cells express elevated levels of CD122 (IL-15Rβ), which suggests that CD8 TCM cells depend upon IL-15 for maintenance. Using IL-15 deficient mice, we demonstrate here that although protective immunity is inducible in these mice, protection is short-lived, mainly owing to the inability of CD8 TCM cells to survive in the IL-15 deficient milieu. We present a hypothesis consistent with a model whereby intrahepatic CD8 TCM cells, being maintained by IL-15-mediated survival and basal proliferation, are conscripted into CD8 TE/EM cell pool during subsequent infections. PMID:23589611
Zimmerman, R H
The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.
Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Ujiie, Mugen; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used widely in the diagnosis of malaria. Although the effectiveness of RDTs for malaria has been described in many previous studies, the low performance of RDT particularly for Plasmodium ovale malaria in traveller has rarely been reported. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on Japanese travellers diagnosed with malaria at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between January 2004 and June 2013. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by microscopic examination, RDT, and polymerase chain reaction in all patients. The RDTs used in our study were Binax NOW Malaria (Binax Inc., Scarborough, Maine, USA) (BN) and SD Malaria Antigen Pf/Pan (Standard Diagnostics Inc., Korea) (SDMA). We compared the sensitivity of the RDTs to P. ovale malaria and Plasmodium vivax malaria. A total of 153 cases of malaria were observed, 113 of which were found among Japanese travellers. Nine patients with P. ovale malaria and 17 patients with P. vivax malaria undergoing RDTs were evaluated. The overall sensitivity of RDTs for P. ovale malaria and P. vivax malaria was 22.2% and 94.1%, respectively (P < 0.001). The sensitivity of SDMA for P. ovale malaria and P. vivax malaria was 50% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of BN for P. vivax malaria was 90.0%, but it was ineffective in detecting the cases of P. ovale malaria. The sensitivity of RDTs was not high enough to diagnose P. ovale malaria in our study. In order not to overlook P. ovale malaria, therefore, microscopic examination is indispensable.
Agomo, Chimere O.; Anorlu, Rose I.; Agomo, Philip U.
Prevalence rates reported for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria vary considerably. The accuracy of results of malaria diagnosis is dependent on training, experience, and motivation of the microscopist as well as the laboratory facility available. Results of training programmes on malaria microscopy have shown low levels of sensitivity and specificity of those involved in malaria diagnosis routinely and for research. This study was done to ascertain the true prevalence of malaria in pregnancy in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. A total of 1,084 pregnant women were recruited into this study. Blood smears stained with Giemsa were used for malaria diagnosis by light microscopy. Malaria infection during pregnancy presents mostly as asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of malaria in this population was 7.7% (95% confidence interval; 6.2-9.4%). Factors identified to increase the risk of malaria infection include young maternal age (< 20 years), and gravidity (primigravida). In conclusion, this study exposes the over-diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy and the need for training and retraining of laboratory staffs as well as establishing the malaria diagnosis quality assurance programme to ensure the accuracy of malaria microscopy results at all levels. PMID:19488427
Full Text Available This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change.
Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L
1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9
Bauch Julie A
. Successful efforts to reduce malaria in Zanzibar will be jeopardized if residents believe that they are no longer at risk for malaria. In future studies, a year-round evaluation of the perception of malaria risk and use of preventive measures will inform the timing of education and prevention strategies for sustained malaria control.
Winn, Laura K; Lesser, Adriane; Menya, Diana; Baumgartner, Joy N; Kipkoech Kirui, Joseph; Saran, Indrani; Prudhomme-O'Meara, Wendy
The continued success of community case management (CCM) programs in low-resource settings depends on the ability of these programs to retain the community health workers (CHWs), many of whom are volunteers, and maintain their high-quality performance. This study aims to identify factors related to the motivation and satisfaction of CHWs working in a malaria CCM program in two sub-counties in Western Kenya. We interviewed 70 CHWs who were trained to administer malaria rapid diagnostic tests as part of a broader study evaluating a malaria CCM program. We identified factors related to CHWs' motivation and their satisfaction with participation in the program, as well as the feasibility of program scale-up. We used principal components analysis to develop an overall CHW satisfaction score and assessed associations between this score and individual CHW characteristics as well as their experiences in the program. The majority of CHWs reported that they were motivated to perform their role in this malaria CCM program by a personal desire to help their community (69%). The most common challenge CHWs reported was a lack of community understanding about malaria diagnostic testing and CHWs' role in the program (39%). Most CHWs (89%) reported that their involvement in the diagnostic testing intervention had either a neutral or a net positive effect on their other CHW activities, including improving skills applicable to other tasks. CHWs who said they strongly agreed with the statement that their work with the malaria program was appreciated by the community had a 0.76 standard deviation (SD) increase in their overall satisfaction score (95% confidence interval CI = 0.10-1.24, P = 0.03). Almost all CHWs (99%) strongly agreed that they wanted to continue their role in the malaria program. Overall, CHWs reported high satisfaction with their role in community-based malaria diagnosis, though they faced challenges primarily related to community understanding and
Individual and household-level determinants of malaria infection in under-5 children from north-west and southern Nigeria : A cross-sectional comparative study based on the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey
Introduction Nigeria has the highest malaria burden worldwide. The 2010 and 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Surveys (NMIS) suggest an improvement in malaria indicators, with the North West zone lagging behind. This study aimed to identify the individual and household-level malaria determinants in north-west and southern Nigeria, using Rapid Diagnostic Testing (RDT) and microscopy for malaria diagnosis. Methods Data on 3,358 children aged 6-59 months from north-west and southern Nigeria from th...
[Introduction]: The Blantyre Integrated Malaria Initiative (BIMI) is a district-wide malaria-control effort, supported jointly by the Government of Malawi and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). BIMI was established in Blantyre District, Malawi in 1998 to promote sustainable and effective strategies to ...
Treatment choices of malaria amongst the women were oral drugs 123 (49.4%), injections 116 (46.6%) herbs 5 (2.0%) and unspecified 5(2.0%). In the event of ... Sustained health education especially to less educated women is strongly advocated to enhance to knowledge of malaria and practice of preventive measures.
Chirombo, J.; Lowe, R.; Kazembe, L.
Malaria is one of the most important diseases in the world today, common in tropical and subtropical areas with sub-Saharan Africa being the region most burdened, including Malawi. This region has the right combination of biotic and abiotic components, including socioeconomic, climatic and environmental factors that sustain transmission of the disease. Differences in these conditions across the country consequently lead to spatial variation in risk of the disease. Analysis of nationwide survey data that takes into account this spatial variation is crucial in a resource constrained country like Malawi for targeted allocation of scare resources in the fight against malaria. Previous efforts to map malaria risk in Malawi have been based on limited data collected from small surveys. The Malaria Indicator Survey conducted in 2010 is the most comprehensive malaria survey carried out in Malawi and provides point referenced data for the study. The data has been shown to be spatially correlated. We use Bayesian logistic regression models with spatial correlation to model the relationship between malaria presence in children and covariates such as socioeconomic status of households and meteorological conditions. This spatial model is then used to assess how malaria varies spatially and a malaria risk map for Malawi is produced. By taking intervention measures into account, the developed model is used to assess whether they have an effect on the spatial distribution of the disease and Bayesian kriging is used to predict areas where malaria risk is more likely to increase. It is hoped that this study can help reveal areas that require more attention from the authorities in the continuing fight against malaria, particularly in children under the age of five.
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal
Malaria-endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programs to provide malaria diagnosis and treatment to populations living beyond the reach of health systems. However, there is limited evidence describing the referral practices of CHWs. We examined the impact of malaria...... (ACT) for malaria and recognize signs and symptoms for referral to health centers. CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria based on clinical symptoms, whereas intervention arm CHWs used mRDTs. CHWs recorded ACT prescriptions, mRDT results, and referral inpatient registers...... more distant from health centers were more likely to be referred (low transmission only). CHWs using mRDTs and ACTs increased referral compared with CHWs using a presumptive diagnosis. To address these concerns, referral training should be emphasized in CHW programs as they are scaled-up....
Jun 2, 2014 ... behavior. Interventions to control malaria are required to also control common comorbidities. Key words: Co-morbidity, costs, health-seeking pattern, ... or no diagnostic tests were used to confirm malaria. This arguably contributed to the over‑diagnosis of malaria and hence multiple drug prescribing in ...
Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M
/features/ars.html) and improve the ability of CDC to track, guide treatment, and manage drug resistance in malaria parasites both domestically and globally. For this effort to be successful, specimens should be submitted for all cases diagnosed in the United States. Clinicians should consult CDC Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria in the United States and contact the CDC Malaria Hotline for case management advice, when needed. Malaria treatment recommendations can be obtained online at https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment/ or by calling the Malaria Hotline at 770-488-7788 or toll-free at 855-856-4713.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham
learned and policy implications. RESULTS: Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible. To scale-up this intervention however, drug shop practices need to be regulated since the registration process was not clear, supervision was inadequate and record keeping was poor. Although initially......, in the design was important for ownership and sustainability. The involvement of village health teams in community sensitization to the new malaria treatment and diagnosis policy was a success and this strategy is recommended for future interventions. CONCLUSION: Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible...
Foca, A; Barreca, G S; Barbieri, V; Matera, G; Liberto, M C; De Rosa, M
Geographical position, an increasing flow of immigrants and refugees coming from regions where malaria is endemic might further increase those cases of malaria imported to Calabria due to travel on military missions, visiting relatives, business and leisure. However, few reports have been published regarding malaria imported into the southern Italian region of Calabria. Based on data from our laboratory, official reports received from the Italian Ministry of Health and Regional Health Offices, an epidemiological analysis of malaria cases registered in Calabria from January 1988 to December 2001 is reported. The epidemiological and clinical features concerning the cases are discussed. A total of 34 slide-confirmed malaria cases were observed in Calabria during the period in question. Infections were mostly acquired in Africa (84.8%), while remaining infections came from Asia (9.1%) and South America and Europe (6.0%). Length of stay in the endemic area did not increase the infection risk. Etiological diagnosis indicated Plasmodium falciparum as the species most often involved (60.6%), followed by Plasmodium vivax (36.3%) and P. vivax/Plasmodium malariae mixed infection (3.0%). The mortality rate was about 3.0%. The number of cases during the second seven-year period of this study was almost double that of the first seven-year period. Correct chemoprophylaxis was performed by only 27.3% of our studied subjects. Delay of malaria diagnosis ranged between 4 days and 1 month. In conclusion, increases in malaria cases, mostly due to P. falciparum, delay in diagnosis and reporting to the Regional Health Office, as well as the increasing arrival of refugees from endemic areas, are epidemiological concerns in Calabria, the southernmost region of continental Italy.
Taylor, Walter R J; Cañon, Viviam; White, Nicholas J
Lung involvement in malaria has been recognized for more than 200 hundred years, yet our knowledge of its pathogenesis and management is limited. Pulmonary edema is the most severe form of lung involvement. Increased alveolar capillary permeability leading to intravascular fluid loss into the lungs is the main pathophysiologic mechanism. This defines malaria as another cause of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Pulmonary edema has been described most often in non-immune individuals with Plasmodium falciparum infections as part of a severe systemic illness or as the main feature of acute malaria. P.vivax and P.ovale have also rarely caused pulmonary edema.Clinically, patients usually present with acute breathlessness that can rapidly progress to respiratory failure either at disease presentation or, interestingly, after treatment when clinical improvement is taking place and the parasitemia is falling. Pregnant women are particularly prone to developing pulmonary edema. Optimal management of malaria-induced ALI/ARDS includes early recognition and diagnosis. Malaria must always be suspected in a returning traveler or a visitor from a malaria-endemic country with an acute febrile illness. Slide microscopy and/or the use of rapid antigen tests are standard diagnostic tools. Malaria must be treated with effective drugs, but current choices are few: e.g. parenteral artemisinins, intravenous quinine or quinidine (in the US only). A recent trial in adults has shown that intravenous artesunate reduces severe malaria mortality by a third compared with adults treated with intravenous quinine. Respiratory compromise should be managed on its merits and may require mechanical ventilation.Patients should be managed in an intensive care unit and particular attention should be paid to the energetic management of other severe malaria complications, notably coma and acute renal failure. ALI/ARDS may also be related to a coincidental bacterial
... leading to hypoglycaemia in children could be attributed to poverty, malnutrition, inadequate management of uncomplicated malaria in the health centres as well as late arrival at the hospital. Early laboratory and clinical diagnosis, correct treatment and improved quality management are key strategies for malaria control.
challenge in the fight against malaria is proper diagnosis of cases. Reliance on clinical ... Inclusion criteria were subjects over 6 months old; all outpatients that the prescribing clinician has indicated require malaria tests. Exclusion criteria was based on subjects less than 6 months of age, all severe cases requiring hospital ...
Background: Community perceptions relating to causation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are the main socio-cultural factors which can influence malaria prevention and control. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a rural community on malaria, the mosquito vector and antimalarial drugs.
Keywords: Malaria, paediatric patients, parasite density, prevalence, laboratory diagnosis, treatment. INTRODUCTION. The bare facts are that malaria is a public health problem in more than 90 countries inhabited by 40% of the world's population and that there are 300 – 500 million cases annually with a mortality of 1·5 – 2· ...
Background: Adequate diagnosis of Malaria is achieved by detection and identification of malaria parasites through examination of Giemsa's stained blood films by competent personnel. Objective: To identify the competency of laboratory personnel of the clinical laboratories attached to primary health care centres at ...
Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the
Farenhorst, Marit; Mouatcho, Joel C.; Kikankie, Christophe K.; Brooke, Basil D.; Hunt, Richard H.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Knols, Bart G. J.; Coetzee, Maureen
The evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is threatening the effectiveness and sustainability of malaria control programs in various parts of the world. Through their unique mode of action, entomopathogenic fungi provide promising alternatives to chemical control. However, potential
Ayele Dawit G
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT. Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.
Kavanaugh, Michael; Bavaro, Mary
Malaria in Jamaica is a real, but uncommon entity and poses a health risk to our Department of Defense personnel, which should not be overlooked in returning travelers. Malaria in Jamaica was actually considered eradicated in the 1960s, but there has been a reemergence attributed to the combination of Haitian nationals as well as endemic Anopheles mosquitoes in the Kingston area. Our facility recently admitted a 33-year-old Marine who had two Emergency Department visits before being evaluated for malaria. He had returned from Kingston 14 days before presentation, which included fever, night sweats, and headache followed by a period of malaise prior to the next paroxysm. He was found to have a 1.5% parasitemia with Malaria falciparum that borders on severe malaria. Fortunately, he was treated effectively with atovaquone/proguanil and had a favorable outcome. The Center for Disease Control acknowledges that malaria is present in Jamaica, but only recommends mosquito avoidance without prophylaxis. This case emphasizes the need to consider malaria in differential diagnosis in Jamaica as well as in any returning travelers with fever because of broad global travel. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Hviid, L; Theander, T G; Abu-Zeid, Y A
Sixteen patients suffering from acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria were studied. All were residents of an area of unstable malaria-transmission in Eastern Sudan. Blood-samples were drawn at diagnosis, and 7 and 30 days later. Blood-samples from thirteen donors, drawn outside the malaria...... convalescence. Five donors examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed no increase in surface expression of IL-2 receptor on peripheral lymphocytes. The data indicate that acute P. falciparum malaria causes a depletion of antigen-reactive T-cells from the peripheral circulation, probably due...
In this article, I investigate the ramifications of health data production in the health fight against malaria in and around Dakar, Senegal. Malaria health development funding at the community level is contingent on performativity; the Global Fund's "performance-based funding," for example, requires that local actors produce certain forms of evidence and that intermediaries synthesize this evidence into citable data. Analyzing the practices of diagnosis and approximation in health clinics and in global malaria documents, I argue that data production in Senegal is conditioned by and reifies preconceived notions of malaria as a problem addressable by the enumeration of technological fixes.
Serge Brice Assi
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of artesunate-amodiaquine fixed-dose combination tablets (ASAQ Winthrop® in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Côte d’Ivoire. Two enrolment periods (November 2009 to May 2010 and March to October 2013 were compared using an identical design. Subjects with proven monospecific P. falciparum infection according to the WHO diagnostic criteria were eligible. 290 patients during each period received a dose of ASAQ Winthrop tablets appropriate for their age. The primary outcome measure was PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response at Day 28 in the per protocol population (255 in Period 1 and 240 in Period 2. This was achieved by 95.7% of patients during Period 1 and 96.3% during Period 2. Over 95% of patients were afebrile at Day 3 and complete parasite clearance was achieved at Day 3 in >99% of patients. Nineteen adverse events in nineteen patients were considered as possibly related to treatment, principally vomiting, abnormal liver function tests, and pruritus. There was no evidence for loss of effectiveness over the three-year period in spite of strong drug pressure. This trial was registered in the US Clinical Trials Registry (clinical.trials.gov under the identifier number NCT01023399.
do Rosario Virgilio E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum is the major species responsible for malaria transmission on the island of Príncipe, in the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (STP. Indoor residual spraying (IRS has been intensively deployed on the island, since 2003. Other measures included intermittent preventive therapy (IPT, since 2004, as well as artemisinin-based therapy (ACT and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs from 2005. The work was coordinated by the Ministry of Health of STP through their Centro Nacional de Endemias (CNE and the impact of such an integrated control programme on the prevalence and epidemiology of malaria in Príncipe was evaluated. Methods The scaling-up of preventive strategies included IRS, LLINs, IPT for pregnant women, as well as early diagnosis and prompt treatment with ACT. Regular implementation of an island-wide IRS programme was carried out yearly in 2003-2005, and later in 2008. Malaria incidence and prevalence were estimated based on passive case detection and active case detection, respectively. Slide positivity rate (SPR was used as an indicator of any increase of malaria cases during and after the control programme was initiated. Results Regular IRS achieved a coverage of 85-90% for each of the four annual cycles (2003-2005, annually and one spraying in 2008 while usage of LLINs was never superior to 50% from 2006-2009. Coverage of IPT steadily increased from 50% in 2004 to 80% in 2008. Since 2006, over 90% of uncomplicated malaria patients received ACT treatment. Severe malaria cases were hospitalized and treated with quinine. Monthly trends of SPR were constantly over 50% in 2003, but steadily decreased below 10% in 2006. SPR has been below 5% since 2007, but an increase to up to 15% was noted in June 2009 when 16 imported cases were detected. A steep decline by 99% of malaria incidence was observed between 2003 and 2008, with an incidence risk of the population of five per thousand, in 2008. No
Gilbert, Mark; Taylor, Darlene; Michelow, Warren; Grace, Daniel; Balshaw, Robert; Kwag, Michael; Lim, Elgin; Fischer, Benedikt; Patrick, David; Ogilvie, Gina; Coombs, Daniel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Rekart, Michael
Increased viral load during early HIV infection (EHI) disproportionately contributes to HIV transmission among gay men. We examined changes in sexual behavior that may pose a risk of HIV transmission (condomless anal sex (AS) with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner, CAS-SDU) in a cohort of 25 gay men newly diagnosed during EHI who provided information on 241 sexual partners at six time points following diagnosis. Twenty-two (88%) participants reported ≥1 AS partner (median time to first AS 80 days) and 12 (55%) reported ≥1 partnership involving CAS-SDU (median 116 days). In hierarchical generalized linear mixed effects models, AS was significantly less likely in all time periods following diagnosis and more likely with serodiscordant partners. The likelihood of CAS-SDU decreased three months after diagnosis and was higher in recently versus acutely infected participants. Most men in our study abstained from sex immediately after diagnosis with sustained longer-term reduction in CAS-SDU, confirming the importance of timely diagnosis during EHI.
Visser, Theodoor; Bruxvoort, Katia; Maloney, Kathleen; Leslie, Toby; Barat, Lawrence M; Allan, Richard; Ansah, Evelyn K; Anyanti, Jennifer; Boulton, Ian; Clarke, Siân E; Cohen, Jessica L; Cohen, Justin M; Cutherell, Andrea; Dolkart, Caitlin; Eves, Katie; Fink, Günther; Goodman, Catherine; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Lal, Sham; Mbonye, Anthony; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Petty, Nora; Pontarollo, Julie; Poyer, Stephen; Schellenberg, David; Streat, Elizabeth; Ward, Abigail; Wiseman, Virginia; Whitty, Christopher J M; Yeung, Shunmay; Cunningham, Jane; Chandler, Clare I R
Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR) that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions. Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators. Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges. Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic services may hold
Full Text Available Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions.Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators.Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges.Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic
Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that over 70% of patients with suspected malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, diagnose and manage their illness at home without referral to a formal health clinic. Of those patients who do attend a formal health clinic, malaria overdiagnosis rates are estimated to range between 30–70%. Methods This paper details an observational cohort study documenting the number and cost of repeat consultations as a result of malaria overdiagnosis at two health care providers in a rural district of Mozambique. 535 adults and children with a clinical diagnosis of malaria were enrolled and followed over a 21 day period to assess treatment regimen, symptoms, number and cost of repeat visits to health providers in patients misdiagnosed with malaria compared to those with confirmed malaria (determined by positive bloodfilm reading. Results Diagnosis based solely on clinical symptoms overdiagnosed 23% of children ( Conclusion Overdiagnosis of malaria results in a greater number of healthcare visits and associated cost for adult patients. Additionally, it is clear that the poorest individuals pay significantly more proportionally for their healthcare making it imperative that the treatment they receive is correct in order to prevent wastage of limited economic resources. Thus, investment in accurate malaria diagnosis and appropriate management at primary level is critical for improving health outcomes and reducing poverty.
Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf
reduction measures and their associations with selected background characteristics. Two hundred and twenty women were tested for malaria parasitaemia and questioned about their malaria prevention and treatment practices. Results: The results showed a prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia of 9.......1%. No statistically significant associations were observed between selected background characteristics and malaria infection status. However, school attendance was significantly associated with insecticide-treated net ownership (OR¼ 6.52, 95% CI 2.37–17.94; p ¼ 0.001) and access to malaria diagnosis and treatment (OR...... selected background characteristics. Educational attainment, information and communication about malaria prevention and control play a pivotal role in increasing and improving use of malaria risk reduction measures....
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Lesner, Tine Hjernø; Østerdal, Lars Peter
, ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced...... to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. RESULTS: Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs......BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice...
Moss, William J; Norris, Douglas E; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Scott, Alan; Mulenga, Modest; Mason, Peter R; Chipeta, James; Thuma, Philip E
The burden of malaria has decreased dramatically within the past several years in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including regions of Southern Africa. Important to effective regional malaria control in Southern Africa is the appreciation that the reductions in malaria have not been achieved uniformly, with some countries experiencing resurgence. Understanding the reasons for sustained low-level malaria transmission in the face of control efforts, why malaria control efforts have not been successful in particular epidemiological settings and the epidemiological and transmission patterns following resurgence are critical to improving further malaria control and possible elimination. The overall goal of the International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research in Southern Africa is to contribute to regional malaria control efforts that can be sustained beyond the duration of the project. This goal will be achieved through a combination of: (1) state-of-the-art research on malaria epidemiology, vector biology and the genetics of the malaria parasite in three different epidemiological settings; (2) collaborations with national malaria control programs to develop locally adapted and sustainable control strategies; and (3) training, career development and capacity building at research institutions throughout the region. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, IMACCESS® developed a new malaria test (VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™, based on the detection of falciparum malaria (HRP-2 and non-falciparum malaria (aldolase. Methods The performance of this new malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT was assessed using 1,000 febrile patients seeking malaria treatment in four health centres in Cambodia from August to December 2011. The results of the VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan were compared with those obtained by microscopy, the CareStart Malaria™ RDT (AccessBio® which is currently used in Cambodia, and real-time PCR (as “gold standard”. Results The best performances of the VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ test for detection of both Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum were with 20–30 min reading times (sensitivity of 93.4% for P. falciparum and 82.8% for non-P. falciparum and specificity of 98.6% for P. falciparum and 98.9% for non-P. falciparum and were similar to those for the CareStart Malaria™ test. Conclusions This new RDT performs similarly well as other commercially available tests (especially the CareStart Malaria™ test, used as comparator, and conforms to the World Health Organization’s recommendations for RDT performance. It is a good alternative tool for the diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in remote forested areas in Cambodia. As a national strategy to strengthen community-based malaria control, the Cambodian government has been running the Village Malaria Worker (VMW project since 2001. This study sought to examine the nature and quality of the VMWs' services. Methods Data collection was carried out in February and March 2008 through interviews with one of the two VMWs who takes the lead in malaria control activities in each of the 315 VMW villages (n = 251. The questionnaire addressed 1 the sociodemographic characteristics of VMWs, 2 service quality, 3 actions for malaria prevention and vector control, and 4 knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Results VMWs were effective in conducting diagnosis with Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs and prescribing anti-malarials to those who had positive RDT results, skills that they had acquired through their training programmes. However, most other services, such as active detection, explanations about compliance, and follow-up of patients, were carried out by only a small proportion of VMWs. The variety of actions that VMWs took for malaria prevention and vector control was small (average action index score 12.8/23, and their knowledge was very limited with less than 20% of the VMWs giving correct answers to six out of seven questions on malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Knowledge of vector breeding places and malaria transmission were significant determinants of both the quality of VMWs' services and the variety of their actions for malaria prevention and vector control. Conclusions VMWs' services focused primarily on diagnosis and treatment. Their focus needs to be broadened to cover other aspects of malaria control in order to further strengthen community-based malaria control. VMWs' actions and knowledge also need substantial improvement. Strengthening training programmes can help achieve better
Doreen Nkiru Eugene-Ezebilo
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the medicines and dosage that mothers who engage in home-based malaria management administer to children aged ≤ 5 years having signs and symptoms associated with malaria and to discuss the possibilities of designing an effective home-based malaria management strategy. Methods: The data were obtained from face-to-face semi-structured interviews conducted with mothers in the Ugbowo Community of Benin City, Nigeria who were selected using multistage systematic random sampling technique. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, arithmetic mean, simple percentages and bar chart. Results: Approximately 90% of the interviewees engaged in home-based malaria management and 10% patronized the hospital. Most of the interviewees who engaged in home-based malaria management administered medicines that stimulates the production of red blood cells and supplies vitamins to children having signs and symptoms of malaria, followed by painkillers and anti-malaria and cough medicine was the least. Of the anti-malaria medicines administered to children, almost 80% of the interviewees administered chloroquine to children, 15% quinine and 3% halfan. Approximately 60% of the interviewees had the correct knowledge of the dosage regime for chloroquine, 38% for quinine and 9% for halfan. Conclusions: Although home-based malaria management is important, it cannot serve as a substitute to the hospital. Some diseases have signs and symptoms that are similar to that of malaria which implies that administering anti-malaria medicines to a child without confirmatory tests might lead to irredeemable complications in that child. If the strategy is to make home-based malaria management effective and sustainable mothers, community health officials should be involved in designing the strategy. Simple rapid diagnostic test kits for malaria should be made available to community health officials and pharmacists so that confirmatory tests could be
Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Vong, Sirenda; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Xiao, Ning
Malaria is the most important parasitic protozoan infection that has caused serious threats to human health globally. China has had success in reducing the morbidity and mortality of malaria to the lowest level through sustained and large-scale interventions. Although the total number of malaria cases declined gradually, the burden of the imported malaria cases mainly from Southeast Asian and African countries has increased substantially since 2000, posing a severe threat to public health in China. This review explores and analyses the epidemiological characteristics of the imported malaria based on data from 2000 to 2012, in order to provide theoretical bases and insights into effective prevention, avoid the resurgence of malaria in malaria-susceptible areas and develop appropriate strategies to protect people's health in China. This review also intends to offer the useful information of innovative approaches and tools that are required for malaria elimination in various settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dunia. Berdasarkan klasifikasi klinis, malaria dibedakan atas malaria berat dan malaria tanpa komplikasi. Malaria serebral merupakan komplikasi terberat dari malaria falsiparum.Telah dilakukan penelitian seksi silang terhadap penderita malaria falciparum yang dirawat inap di Bangsal Penyakit Dalam RS. Perjan. Dr. M. Djamil Padang dari bulan Juni 2002 sampai Juni 2006. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan jumlah sampel sebanyak 60 orang, terdiri dari 16 orang penderita malaria serebral dan 44 orang penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi.Data penelitian menunjukan terdapat perbedaan bermakna nilai hematokrit (p<0,05 dan jumlah leukosit (p<0,05 antara penderita malaria serebral dengan penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi. Dan terdapat korelasi positif antara nilai hemoglobin dengan hematokrit (r=0,864; p<0,05 pada penderita malaria falsiparum.Kata kunci: malaria serebral, malaria tanpa komplikasi, malaria falsiparumAbstract Malaria is still a problem of health of world society. Based on the clinical classification, are distinguished on severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Cerebral malaria is the worst complication of falciparum malaria. Cross section of the research done at the Hospital Dr. M. Djamil Padang againts medical record of malaria patients who are hospitalized in the Internal Medicine from June 2002 until June 2004. In this study, a total sample of 60 people, consisting of 16 cerebral malaria and 44 uncomplicated malaria. Data showed there were significant differences for hematocrit values (p <0.05 and total leukocytes values (p <0.05 between cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria patients. There is a positive correlation between hemoglobin with hematocrit values (r = 0.864; p <0.05 of falciparum malaria patients. Keywords: cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria, falciparum malaria
Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng
Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity.
Askling Helena H
Full Text Available Abstract In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Malaria Cases in the U.S. Reach 40-Year High: Information and Guidance for Clinicians. The number of malaria cases reported in the United States in 2011 was the largest since 1971, representing a 14 percent increase from 2010 and a 48 percent increase from 2008. A CDC subject matter expert describes malaria prevention strategies aimed at reducing the risk of malaria in travelers, discusses the diagnosis of malaria in patients with suspect malaria, and explains the treatment options for confirmed malaria cases. Created: 2/26/2014 by Center for Global Health (CGH); Malaria Branch; Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 2/26/2014.
Hommel, Benjamin; Galloula, Alexandre; Simon, Anne; Buffet, Pierre
Hyposplenism, due to splenectomy, inherited red blood cell disorders or acquired conditions such as celiac disease, has an important impact on the severity of malaria, especially in non-immune patients. Conversely, that malaria may reveal functional hyposplenism has not been described previously. A 31-year old gardener was diagnosed with an uncomplicated attack of Plasmodium malariae 11 years after leaving the endemic area. In addition to trophozoites and schizonts, thick and thin smears also showed Howell-Jolly bodies, pointing to functional hyposplenism. This was later confirmed by the presence of a calcified spleen in the context of S/β + sickle-cell syndrome in a patient previously unaware of this condition. Malaria may reveal hyposplenism. Although Howell-Jolly bodies are morphologically similar to nuclei of young Plasmodium trophozoite, distinction on smears is based on the absence of cytoplasm and irregular size of Howell-Jolly bodies. In the patient reported here, hyposplenism was revealed by the occurrence of P. malariae infection relatively late in life. Timely diagnosis of hyposplenism resulted in the implementation of appropriate measures to prevent overwhelming infection with capsulated bacteria. This observation highlights the importance of diagnosing hyposplenism in patients with malaria despite the morphological similarities between ring nuclei and Howell-Jolly bodies on thick smears.
A diagnosis of cerebral malaria was made, and the patient was commenced on intravenous quinine and parenteral paracetamol. He was transfused while on admission in the emergency room. The patient regained consciousness after 12 days of treatment but was found to have blindness and deafness following reviews by.
Impoinvil Daniel E
Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with
Beier, John C; Keating, Joseph; Githure, John I; Macdonald, Michael B; Impoinvil, Daniel E; Novak, Robert J
Integrated vector management (IVM) is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1) evidence-based decision-making, 2) integrated approaches 3), collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4) advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5) capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with existing biomedical
Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K
The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528
Shi-Ying, Zhu; Yi-Qing, Xie; Ming-Zhen, He; Wei-Ming, Wang
To grasp the malaria epidemic situation in Changzhou City from 2010 to 2014, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting malaria control strategies and measures. The epidemiological data of malaria cases in the special report system from 2010 to 2014 were collected, and the malaria epidemic situation and the diagnosis and treatment of malaria patients were analyzed. There were 132 malaria cases reported in Changzhou City from 2010 to 2014, with a decrease of 27.47% compared to 182 cases from 2005 to 2009. Among the 132 cases, 2 cases were local infected cases and the remaining 130 cases were imported cases. Four cases were clinically diagnosed and 128 cases were laboratory confirmed, with 97 cases of malignant malaria, 14 cases of vivax malaria, 13 cases of ovale malaria, and 4 cases of quartan malaria. The 132 cases were distributed in five districts：56 cases in Jintan City, 51 cases in Liyang City, 19 cases in Tianning District, 3 cases in Wujin District, and 3 cases in Xinbei District. The median duration between the onset and treatment of the disease was 2 days, and the median duration between the diagnosis and treatment was 1 day. The diagnosing units were concentrated on the county-level disease control agencies, and medical institutions at county and municipal levels, accounting for 92.42% (122/132). From 2011 to 2014, there were no local malaria cases. From 2012 to 2014, there have been no local malaria cases in Changzhou City, and the goal of eliminating malaria has been achieved basically. However, there are still many imported malaria cases, and the infected species are diverse. Therefore, imported malaria is still the key of malaria prevention and control.
Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J
In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...
Full Text Available Malaria is an epidemic health disease and a rapid, accurate diagnosis is necessary for proper intervention. Generally, pathologists visually examine blood stained slides for malaria diagnosis. Nevertheless, this kind of visual inspection is subjective, error-prone and time-consuming. In order to overcome the issues, numerous methods of automatic malaria diagnosis have been proposed so far. In particular, many researchers have used mathematical morphology as a powerful tool for computer aided malaria detection and classification. Mathematical morphology is not only a theory for the analysis of spatial structures, but also a very powerful technique widely used for image processing purposes and employed successfully in biomedical image analysis, especially in preprocessing and segmentation tasks. Microscopic image analysis and particularly malaria detection and classification can greatly benefit from the use of morphological operators. The aim of this paper is to present a review of recent mathematical morphology based methods for malaria parasite detection and identification in stained blood smears images.
Full Text Available International financing for malaria increased more than 18-fold between 2000 and 2011; the largest source came from The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund. Countries have made substantial progress, but achieving elimination requires sustained finances to interrupt transmission and prevent reintroduction. Since 2011, global financing for malaria has declined, fueling concerns that further progress will be impeded, especially for current malaria-eliminating countries that may face resurgent malaria if programs are disrupted.This study aims to 1 assess past total and Global Fund funding to the 34 current malaria-eliminating countries, and 2 estimate their future funding needs to achieve malaria elimination and prevent reintroduction through 2030.Historical funding is assessed against trends in country-level malaria annual parasite incidences (APIs and income per capita. Following Kizewski et al. (2007, program costs to eliminate malaria and prevent reintroduction through 2030 are estimated using a deterministic model. The cost parameters are tailored to a package of interventions aimed at malaria elimination and prevention of reintroduction.The majority of Global Fund-supported countries experiencing increases in total funding from 2005 to 2010 coincided with reductions in malaria APIs and also overall GNI per capita average annual growth. The total amount of projected funding needed for the current malaria-eliminating countries to achieve elimination and prevent reintroduction through 2030 is approximately US$8.5 billion, or about $1.84 per person at risk per year (PPY (ranging from $2.51 PPY in 2014 to $1.43 PPY in 2030.Although external donor funding, particularly from the Global Fund, has been key for many malaria-eliminating countries, sustained and sufficient financing is critical for furthering global malaria elimination. Projected cost estimates for elimination provide policymakers with an indication of the
Zelman, Brittany; Kiszewski, Anthony; Cotter, Chris; Liu, Jenny
Background International financing for malaria increased more than 18-fold between 2000 and 2011; the largest source came from The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). Countries have made substantial progress, but achieving elimination requires sustained finances to interrupt transmission and prevent reintroduction. Since 2011, global financing for malaria has declined, fueling concerns that further progress will be impeded, especially for current malaria-eliminating countries that may face resurgent malaria if programs are disrupted. Objectives This study aims to 1) assess past total and Global Fund funding to the 34 current malaria-eliminating countries, and 2) estimate their future funding needs to achieve malaria elimination and prevent reintroduction through 2030. Methods Historical funding is assessed against trends in country-level malaria annual parasite incidences (APIs) and income per capita. Following Kizewski et al. (2007), program costs to eliminate malaria and prevent reintroduction through 2030 are estimated using a deterministic model. The cost parameters are tailored to a package of interventions aimed at malaria elimination and prevention of reintroduction. Results The majority of Global Fund-supported countries experiencing increases in total funding from 2005 to 2010 coincided with reductions in malaria APIs and also overall GNI per capita average annual growth. The total amount of projected funding needed for the current malaria-eliminating countries to achieve elimination and prevent reintroduction through 2030 is approximately US$8.5 billion, or about $1.84 per person at risk per year (PPY) (ranging from $2.51 PPY in 2014 to $1.43 PPY in 2030). Conclusions Although external donor funding, particularly from the Global Fund, has been key for many malaria-eliminating countries, sustained and sufficient financing is critical for furthering global malaria elimination. Projected cost estimates for elimination provide
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Methods Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Results Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237, the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61 and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61. Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%. Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5% were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231 of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis
Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Abdallahi, Mohamed Ould; Ba, Hâmpaté; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Trape, Jean-François; Salem, Ali Ould Mohamed
Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237), the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61) and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61). Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%). Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5%) were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231) of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale) are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis of malaria has a very low positive predicted value. The
Martens, W.J.M.; Rotmans, J.; Niessen, L.W. (RIVM Global Modelling and Sustainable Development Group and Environmental Forecasting Bureau, Bilthoven (Netherlands))
In order to assess the impact of an anthropogenic climate change on the transmission of malaria, an integrated assessment model has been developed. In the model the direct effects of a change in temperature and precipitation on the transmission potential of a mosquito population are assessed by means of the vectorial capacity (the number of potentially infected contacts inflicted by the mosquito population per infectious person per day) and the related critical mosquito density. The most important parameters of the vectorial capacity and critical mosquito density are: the longevity of the mosquito, the frequency of taking blood meals from humans and the duration of the development of the parasite inside the mosquito. The effect of a human-induced climate change on human health is evaluated by assessing the change in malaria prevalence and disease burden. A sustainable development index, which is an aggregate of an environmental pressure indicator, a health indicator and a socio-economic development indicator is introduced and discussed. Such an index can be used to determine whether future projections are sustainable. The simulation results indicate a worldwide increase of potential malaria risk and an extension of the areas conducive to malaria transmission. In the endemic malarious areas of the tropics and subtropics, malaria prevalence and consequently the number of years of healthy life lost due to malaria may increase. The rate of temperature change is also expected to exceed the recommended target level of 0.1[degree]C per decade. In non-malarious areas the risk of introduction of malaria associated with imported cases of malaria increases to some extent as a result of the increasing importance of modern transport systems (e.g. air travel) in introducing malaria into receptive areas. However, sound interpretation of the change in malaria risk as simulated must be performed within the framework of local conditions.
van der Hoek Wim
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.
A importância do perfil clínico-laboratorial no diagnóstico diferencial entre malária e hepatite aguda viral Importance of clinical and laboratory profiles for the differential diagnosis of malaria and acute viral hepatitis
Cacyane Naiff do Amaral
early malaria diagnosis in childhood. METHODS: Two groups were studied, each including 30 children between 2 and 10 years of age. The patients presented either primary malaria infection or acute viral hepatitis, confirmed by thick blood film and tests for markers of viral hepatitis A and B. The patients were submitted to the following evaluations: erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit dosage, hepatic enzymes, urea, creatinine and bilirubin dosage. Clinical and laboratory findings were described for both groups and compared. Individuals with alterations on the physical exam in both groups were compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Baseline clinical findings were the same in all patients: fever, headache, digestive problems and dark urine. One half of malaria patients did not present the classical malaria signs, but all of them presented fever, differently from patients with hepatitis. In malaria patients, anemia and thrombocytopenia were significantly more frequent than in hepatitis patients. A remarkable increase of bilirubin and hepatic enzyme levels was found in hepatitis patients. CONCLUSIONS: A detailed physical examination and a thorough evaluation of non-specific laboratory tests are sufficient to allow the presumptive diagnosis of both malaria and viral hepatitis, and to reinforce the early diagnosis and treatment of malaria.
P. N. Harianto
Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is a serious and often fatal complication of severe malaria. This condition has been reported in many parts of the world including from Thailand (1983 and from Indonesia by Hoffman (1988 and Harianto (1990. Two main causes that can lead to development of this condition are quinine administration and the severity of the malaria condition itself. A case study is presented about development of prolonged hypoglycemia after quinine administration. A 41 years old male was hospitalized with 4 days history of fever, headache vomiting and icterus. On examination he was found to be in good mental status, had a normal blood pressure, and a body temperature of 40°C. He also had icterus and hepatomegaly. Laboratory examination on admission showed malaria slide positive forRfalciparum ring 30-40, with parasite count of 3% (+ on day I. CBC showed: WBC of 21,700/mm3 and platelet count of 40,000/mm3. Blood chemistry showed glucose level of 77 mm %, serum bilirubin of 29.34 mg % (direct 21.87 mg % SGOT 31 u/l, SGPT 20 u/l, serum ureum 167 mg %, creatinine of 3.36 mg %, serum Na 123 m Eq/L and K 3.99 Eq/L. Urinalysis was normal except for specific gravity of 1.07. After diagnosis of bilious malaria was confirmed, the patient was given i.v. quinine 500 mg diluted in 500 ml 5% dextrose, infused over 4 hours and repeated every 8 hours. On day IVi.v. quinine was switched to oral preparation of 600 mg given bid and the next day quinine was changed to oral chloroquine. The day after admission (30 hours after quinine administration, blood glucose dropped to 21 mg %, 16-46 mg % on day III, and to less than 10 mg % on day IV. It gradulty returned to normal afterwards. Administration of 10% dextrose and boluses of 40% glucose were able to keep the patient in good clinical condition and prevent death. Malaria slide improved on day III, became negative by day IV and serum bilirubin also decreased on follow up. Hypoglycemia should be expected in severe malaria
Shretta, Rima; Avanceña, Anton L V; Hatefi, Arian
Declining donor funding and competing health priorities threaten the sustainability of malaria programmes. Elucidating the cost and benefits of continued investments in malaria could encourage sustained political and financial commitments. The evidence, although available, remains disparate. This paper reviews the existing literature on the economic and financial cost and return of malaria control, elimination and eradication. A review of articles that were published on or before September 2014 on the cost and benefits of malaria control and elimination was performed. Studies were classified based on their scope and were analysed according to two major categories: cost of malaria control and elimination to a health system, and cost-benefit studies. Only studies involving more than two control or elimination interventions were included. Outcomes of interest were total programmatic cost, cost per capita, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). All costs were converted to 2013 US$ for standardization. Of the 6425 articles identified, 54 studies were included in this review. Twenty-two were focused on elimination or eradication while 32 focused on intensive control. Forty-eight per cent of studies included in this review were published on or after 2000. Overall, the annual per capita cost of malaria control to a health system ranged from $0.11 to $39.06 (median: $2.21) while that for malaria elimination ranged from $0.18 to $27 (median: $3.00). BCRs of investing in malaria control and elimination ranged from 2.4 to over 145. Overall, investments needed for malaria control and elimination varied greatly amongst the various countries and contexts. In most cases, the cost of elimination was greater than the cost of control. At the same time, the benefits of investing in malaria greatly outweighed the costs. While the cost of elimination in most cases was greater than the cost of control, the benefits greatly outweighed the cost. Information from this review provides guidance to
Cohen, Justin M; Smith, David L; Cotter, Chris; Ward, Abigail; Yamey, Gavin; Sabot, Oliver J; Moonen, Bruno
Considerable declines in malaria have accompanied increased funding for control since the year 2000, but historical failures to maintain gains against the disease underscore the fragility of these successes. Although malaria transmission can be suppressed by effective control measures, in the absence of active intervention malaria will return to an intrinsic equilibrium determined by factors related to ecology, efficiency of mosquito vectors, and socioeconomic characteristics. Understanding where and why resurgence has occurred historically can help current and future malaria control programmes avoid the mistakes of the past. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify historical malaria resurgence events. All suggested causes of these events were categorized according to whether they were related to weakened malaria control programmes, increased potential for malaria transmission, or technical obstacles like resistance. The review identified 75 resurgence events in 61 countries, occurring from the 1930s through the 2000s. Almost all resurgence events (68/75 = 91%) were attributed at least in part to the weakening of malaria control programmes for a variety of reasons, of which resource constraints were the most common (39/68 = 57%). Over half of the events (44/75 = 59%) were attributed in part to increases in the intrinsic potential for malaria transmission, while only 24/75 (32%) were attributed to vector or drug resistance. Given that most malaria resurgences have been linked to weakening of control programmes, there is an urgent need to develop practical solutions to the financial and operational threats to effectively sustaining today's successful malaria control programmes.
Background Considerable declines in malaria have accompanied increased funding for control since the year 2000, but historical failures to maintain gains against the disease underscore the fragility of these successes. Although malaria transmission can be suppressed by effective control measures, in the absence of active intervention malaria will return to an intrinsic equilibrium determined by factors related to ecology, efficiency of mosquito vectors, and socioeconomic characteristics. Understanding where and why resurgence has occurred historically can help current and future malaria control programmes avoid the mistakes of the past. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify historical malaria resurgence events. All suggested causes of these events were categorized according to whether they were related to weakened malaria control programmes, increased potential for malaria transmission, or technical obstacles like resistance. Results The review identified 75 resurgence events in 61 countries, occurring from the 1930s through the 2000s. Almost all resurgence events (68/75 = 91%) were attributed at least in part to the weakening of malaria control programmes for a variety of reasons, of which resource constraints were the most common (39/68 = 57%). Over half of the events (44/75 = 59%) were attributed in part to increases in the intrinsic potential for malaria transmission, while only 24/75 (32%) were attributed to vector or drug resistance. Conclusions Given that most malaria resurgences have been linked to weakening of control programmes, there is an urgent need to develop practical solutions to the financial and operational threats to effectively sustaining today’s successful malaria control programmes. PMID:22531245
Regina N Rabinovich
Full Text Available Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the "Global Technical Strategy" and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community's ability to eradicate it globally.
Rabinovich, Regina N; Drakeley, Chris; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Hall, B Fenton; Hay, Simon I; Hemingway, Janet; Kaslow, David C; Noor, Abdisalan; Okumu, Fredros; Steketee, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Wells, Timothy N C; Whittaker, Maxine A; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Wirth, Dyann F; Whitfield, Kate; Alonso, Pedro L
Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the "Global Technical Strategy" and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community's ability to eradicate it globally.
The incidence of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is falling and in many countries on the continent the pattern of malaria infection within the country is becoming more heterogeneous. National malaria control programmes need to take this into account and the 'one size fits all' approach to malaria control may no longer be appropriate, with individual approaches being needed in different parts of a country. This applies particularly to decisions on the introduction of new control tools. Recent experience with Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention and with the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine provides examples of interventions which need to be deployed on a restricted rather than a national basis, taking account of differences in climate and the intensity of malaria infection between regions within a country. Designing, implementing and monitoring more complex national malaria control programmes will require staff skilled in many disciplines, and substantial funding will be needed to sustain these more complex control programmes, even though the burden of the disease is falling. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection. Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Date Released: 5/29/2008.
Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B
Despite global efforts to control malaria, the illness remains a significant public health threat. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against malaria, but an efficacious vaccine would represent an important public health tool for successful malaria elimination. Malaria vaccine development continues to be hindered by a poor understanding of antimalarial immunity, a lack of an immune correlate of protection, and the genetic diversity of malaria parasites. Current vaccine development efforts largely target Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, with some research on transmission-blocking vaccines against asexual stages and vaccines against pregnancy-associated malaria. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate is RTS,S, and early results of ongoing Phase 3 testing show overall efficacy of 46% against clinical malaria. The next steps for malaria vaccine development will focus on the design of a product that is efficacious against the highly diverse strains of malaria and the identification of a correlate of protection against disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai
Full Text Available Malaria is still the number one killer especially among the young children and is responsible for one death per minute in the world. Overall, between 250-500 million cases of the disease occur worldwide causing more than one million deaths annually about 90% of which in children under five years of age. Although the spread of the disease is worldwide but it is seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions of all continents and is more so in sub-Saharan Africa. Five parasite species transmitted by more than 70 potent Anopheles mosquito vectors are responsible for the occurrence of the disease and its spread. There have beenseveral approaches for malaria diagnosis, management and prevention as a whole and in children (as the most vulnerable group in particular with various degrees of success. In this context works undertaken by international organizations such as Roll Back Malaria, Global Fund, UNICEF, as well as None for Profit international agencies and also at the national levels are promising in malaria control. However, drug and insecticide resistance, constraints in access to health care, poverty and the like are among the main challenges ahead. In this review paper the situation of malaria and its management measures with especial reference to children are discussed
Camburn, Anna E; Ingram, R Joan H; Holland, David; Read, Kerry; Taylor, Susan
To describe the current malaria situation in Auckland, New Zealand. We collected data on all cases of malaria diagnosed in Auckland from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2009. Enhanced surveillance was arranged with all hospital and community haematology laboratories in the region. Laboratories notified us when a diagnosis of malaria was made. After obtaining informed consent the patient was asked about their travel, prophylaxis taken and symptoms. Laboratory results were collected. There were 36 cases of malaria in 34 patients. Consent could not be obtained from two patients so data is from 34 cases in 32 patients. (One patient had P.falciparum then later P.vivax, the other had P.vivax and relapsed.) There were 24 males and 8 females with a median age of 21 years (range 6 months to 75 years). Eleven of the 32 were New Zealand residents. 8 of these 11 had travelled to visit friends or relatives (VFR) while 3 were missionaries. In this group 6 had P.falciparum, 4 P.vivax and one had both. Twenty-one of the 32 were new arrivals to New Zealand: 11 refugees and 10 migrants. Malaria in Auckland is seen in new arrivals and VFR travellers, not in tourist travellers.
Tarigan, P.; Ginting, F.
Malaria cases are often misdiagnosis by clinicians in tropical areas like Indonesia. Some cases show overlapping signs and symptoms of another infection that are common in the tropical areas such as typhoid, dengue, and leptospirosis. It can be misdiagnosed in practice and led to a wrong management that can end fatally. Severe malaria is usually caused by Plasmodium falciparum. P. vivax can also cause severe malaria but the cases reported are uncommon. Since infections with severe P. vivax that generally results in serious disease is quite uncommon in Indonesia, their identification and management are important. We report a case of severe malaria with sepsis, renal injury and hepatic impairment associated with malaria in a 70-year-old male. Clinical manifestations included anemia, sepsis, and elevated serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, and procalcitonin. The rapid diagnostic test for malaria and microscopic examination of blood smears were positive for P. vivax. The patient was treated as severe malaria with intravenous artesunate for six days, followed by oral treatment of primaquine for 14 days. Intravenous fluid therapy, antipyretic, anti-malaria and antibiotic treatment were administered. The patient was stable and then discharged from the hospital. The prognosis depends much on early diagnosis and appropriate supportive treatment.
Houston, David J K; Tuck, Jeremy J H
Malaria continues to be a disease of importance to travelers and the military is no exception. Individual protection measures based on advice, bite avoidance, chemoprophylaxis, and diagnosis are advocated for protection against the disease. However, the military has an additional strand to malaria protection--the chain of command. To describe the experience of a British military deployment where the Force Commander took a proactive approach to malaria protection. In 512 person-weeks of exposure in a theater with high rates of transmission of malaria, with an enduring threat of asymmetric military action and with a proactive approach by the chain of command to the implementation of malaria protection policy, no malaria cases developed. The chain of command can have a significant impact on compliance with malaria protection measures, which might reduce incidence of the disease in the deployed population.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham; Chandler, Clare I; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal
Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control in the private health sector. A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons learned and policy implications. Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible. To scale-up this intervention however, drug shop practices need to be regulated since the registration process was not clear, supervision was inadequate and record keeping was poor. Although initially it was anticipated that introducing a new practice of record keeping would be cumbersome, but at evaluation this was not found to be a constraint. This presents an important lesson for introducing health management information system into drug shops. Involving stakeholders, especially the district health team, in the design was important for ownership and sustainability. The involvement of village health teams in community sensitization to the new malaria treatment and diagnosis policy was a success and this strategy is recommended for future interventions. Introducing RDTs into drug shops was feasible and it increased appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy. It is anticipated that the lessons presented will help better implementation of similar interventions in the private sector.
Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking behaviours in Abeokuta, south-west Nigeria. ... Self-diagnosis for the disease was more common (60.8%) among the participants, compared to other measures; seeking laboratory test (26.5%) and clinical diagnosis (9.1%). A good proportion of the ...
The study found that Acon-Pf is suitable along side microscopy in the accurate diagnosis of malaria in Enugu State. The use of Acon- Pf and thick smear tests in parallel, first collecting the Acon-Pf results, as it contributes in reading the thin smear result for confirmation of species, diagnosis and assessment of parasitaemia.
Coulibaly, Drissa; Travassos, Mark A; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Tolo, Youssouf; Laurens, Matthew B; Traore, Karim; Diarra, Issa; Niangaly, Amadou; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Sissoko, Mody; Guindo, Bouréima; Douyon, Raymond; Guindo, Aldiouma; Kouriba, Bourema; Sissoko, Mahamadou S; Sagara, Issaka; Plowe, Christopher V; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Thera, Mahamadou A
The recent decline in malaria incidence in many African countries has been attributed to the provision of prompt and effective anti-malarial treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and to the widespread distribution of long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs). At a malaria vaccine-testing site in Bandiagara, Mali, ACT was introduced in 2004, and LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2007 to infants after they complete the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) schedule and to pregnant women receiving antenatal care. These strategies may have an impact on malaria incidence. To document malaria incidence, a cohort of 400 children aged 0 to 14 years was followed for three to four years up to July 2013. Monthly cross-sectional surveys were done to measure the prevalence of malaria infection and anaemia. Clinical disease was measured both actively and passively through continuous availability of primary medical care. Measured outcomes included asymptomatic Plasmodium infection, anaemia and clinical malaria episodes. The incidence rate of clinical malaria varied significantly from June 2009 to July 2013 without a clear downward trend. A sharp seasonality in malaria illness incidence was observed with higher clinical malaria incidence rates during the rainy season. Parasite and anaemia point prevalence also showed seasonal variation with much higher prevalence rates during rainy seasons compared to dry seasons. Despite the scaling up of malaria prevention and treatment, including the widespread use of bed nets, better diagnosis and wider availability of ACT, malaria incidence did not decrease in Bandiagara during the study period.
Hansen, Kristian S; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal
was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) performed by CHWs in two areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. CHWs were trained to perform mRDTs and treat children with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT......In Sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5, due to lack of access to prompt and appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Many countries have scaled-up community health workers (CHWs) as a strategy towards improving access. The present study......) in the intervention arm while CHWs offered treatment based on presumptive diagnosis in the control arm. Data on the proportion of children with fever 'appropriately treated for malaria with ACT' were captured from a randomised trial. Health sector costs included: training of CHWs, community sensitisation, supervision...
Ebhuoma, Osadolor; Gebreslasie, Michael; Magubane, Lethumusa
The change of the malaria control intervention policy in South Africa (SA), re-introduction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), may be responsible for the low and sustained malaria transmission in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We evaluated the effect of the re-introduction of DDT on malaria in KZN and suggested practical ways the province can strengthen her already existing malaria control and elimination efforts, to achieve zero malaria transmission. We obtained confirmed monthly malaria cases in KZN from the malaria control program of KZN from 1998 to 2014. The seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) intervention time series analysis (ITSA) was employed to model the effect of the re-introduction of DDT on confirmed monthly malaria cases. The result is an abrupt and permanent decline of monthly malaria cases (w 0 =-1174.781, p-value=0.003) following the implementation of the intervention policy. The sustained low malaria cases observed over a long period suggests that the continued usage of DDT did not result in insecticide resistance as earlier anticipated. It may be due to exophagic malaria vectors, which renders the indoor residual spraying not totally effective. Therefore, the feasibility of reducing malaria transmission to zero in KZN requires other reliable and complementary intervention resources to optimize the existing ones. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The serological diagnosis of infections from Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus is of a great importance especially during pregnancy for the risk of maternal-fetal infections. Serological testing have evolved with time and are many on the market with different levels of specificity and sensivity. The aim of the study was to determine the analytical and clinical concordance between two methods for the determination of specific IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus. The total numbers of samples evaluated for T. gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM were 124 and 127, 83 and 87, 129 and 103, respectively. The comparison methods used for this study were Diamedix® enzime imunoassay run in MAGO-Plus Delta Biologicals® Immunodiagnostics System (routinely used and Vitros© Eci chemiluminescence immunoassay run in Vitros ECiQ Immunodiagnostics System ORTHO-Clinical Diagnostics Johnson & Johnson company.Vidas bioMérieux was take as referee method to evaluate discrepant results. Analytical concordance ranged between 87 and 97%, clinical concordance ranged between 93 and 99%. Despite differences in detection antibodies (specific IgG and IgM and revelation of signal the methods evaluated show generally good levels of clinical concordance.The results are consistent with references and External Quality Assurance Programs.
Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan
Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Free treatment, rapid malaria diagnostic tests and malaria village workers can hasten progress toward achieving the malaria related millennium development goals: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience from Chad, Sierra-Leone and Mali
Full Text Available Halving the burden of malaria by 2015 and ensuring that 80% of people with malaria receive treatment is among the health related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Despite political momentum toward achieving this target, progress is slow and many with malaria (particularly in poor and rural communities in Africa are still without access to effective treatment. Finding ways to improve access to anti-malarial treatment in Africa is essential to achieve the malaria related and other MDG targets. During its work in Chad, Sierra Leone and Mali in the period 2004 to 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières showed that it was possible to significantly improve access to effective malaria treatment through: i the removal of health centre level user fees for essential healthcare for vulnerable population groups, ii the introduction of free community based treatment for children using malaria village workers to diagnose and treat simple malaria in communities where geographical and financial barriers limited access to effective malaria care, iii the improved diagnosis and treatment of malaria using rapid diagnosis tests and artemisinin based combination therapy, at both health facilities and in the community. This paper describes and discusses these strategies and their related impact.
People living in the rural areas spend more to have access to malaria control tools. Location of respondent has a positive effect on expenditures and use of malaria control tools. The National Malaria Administration (NMA) and (SMA) State Malaria Administration should continually determine the access that the poorest and ...
Khuu, Diana; Eberhard, Mark L; Bristow, Benjamin N; Javanbakht, Marjan; Ash, Lawrence R; Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J
Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified. Time trends in malaria cases were assessed using negative binomial regression. From 2000 to 2014, there were an estimated 22,029 malaria-related hospitalizations (4.88 per 1 million population) in the United States, including 182 in-hospital deaths and 4,823 severe malaria cases. The rate of malaria-related hospitalizations did not change significantly over the study period. The largest number of malaria-related hospitalizations occurred in August. Malaria-related hospitalizations occurred disproportionately among patients who were male, black, or 25-44 years of age. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority of malaria-related hospitalizations. On average, malaria patients were hospitalized for 4.36 days with charges of $25,789. Patients with a malaria diagnosis were more often hospitalized in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic census divisions, urban teaching, private not-for-profit, and large-bed-size hospitals. Malaria imposes a substantial disease burden in the United States. Enhanced primary and secondary prevention measures, including strategies to increase the use of pretravel consultations and prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed.
Carlucci, James G; Blevins Peratikos, Meridith; Cherry, Charlotte B; Lopez, Melanie L; Green, Ann F; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Moon, Troy D
Malaria is the leading cause of death among children in Mozambique. Prevalence and factors associated with malaria are not well studied among children in rural Zambézia Province. Whether prevalence of malaria varies across diverse districts within the province is unknown. A cross-sectional survey of female heads of household was conducted during April and May 2014, a period of peak malaria transmission. Data were collected on up to two randomly selected children aged 6-59 months per household. The outcome of interest was self-report of symptomatic malaria confirmed by diagnostic test in the past 30 days. Analyses accounted for the two-stage cluster sample design. Prevalence of symptomatic malaria was calculated for the province and three over-sampled focus districts-Alto Molócuè, Morrumbala, and Namacurra. Multivariable logistic regression of symptomatic malaria diagnosis included: district, age, sex, education, bed net use, urban setting, distance to health facility, income, roofing material, and pig farming. Data were collected on 2540 children. Fifty percent were female, and the median age was 24 months. Sixty percent of children slept under bed nets the night prior to the survey, but utilization varied between districts (range 49-89%; p malaria rapid diagnostic test or blood smear, and 67% of those had a positive test result and therefore met our case definition of self-reported symptomatic malaria. There were significant differences in prevalence of fever (p malaria was 13% and among focus districts ranged from 14% in Morrumbala to 17% in Namacurra (p malaria. Self-reported symptomatic malaria is highly prevalent among children in Zambézia Province, Mozambique and varies significantly between diverse districts. Factors facilitating access to health services are associated with symptomatic malaria diagnosis. These findings should inform resource allocation in the fight against malaria in Mozambique.
Kuladeepa Ananda Vaidya; Sukesh K
The technical capability to perform a correct and timely diagnosis of malaria infection in an ill patient is of critical importance since symptoms of complicated malaria may suddenly develop, leading to death of the patient. Even though peripheral blood smear examination is considered as the gold standard technique, tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used and more sensitive in detecting malaria parasite. Here we are briefly highlighting ...
Although it is not certain when malaria began to appear in Korea, malaria is believed to have been an endemic disease from ancient times. It was Dr. H. N. Allen (1858-1932) who made the first description and diagnosis of malaria in terms of Western medicine. In his first year report (1885) of Korean Government Hospital he mentioned malaria as the most prevalent disease. Very effective anti-malarial drug quinine was imported and it made great contribution in treating malaria. After Japan had annexed Korea in 1910, policies for public health system were fundamentally revised. Japan assumed control of Korean medical institutions and built high-quality Western hospitals for the health care of Japanese residents. The infectious diseases which were under special surveillance were cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, typhus, scarlet fever, smallpox, and paratyphoid fever. Among chronic infectious diseases tuberculosis and leprosy were those under special control. Malaria, however, was not one of these specially controlled infectious diseases although it was widely spread throughout the peninsula. But serious studies on malaria were carried out by Japanese medical scientists. In particular, a Japanese parasitologist Kobayasi Harujiro(1884-1969) carried out extensive studies on human parasites, including malaria, in Korea. According to his study, most of the malaria in Korea turned out to be tertian fever. In spite of its high prevalence, malaria did not draw much attention from the colonial authorities and no serious measure was taken since tertian fever is a mild form of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and is not so much fatal as tropical malaria caused by P. falciparum. And tertian malaria was easily controlled by taking quinine. Although the majority of malaria in Korea was tertian fever, other types were not absent. Quartan fever was not rarely reported in 1930s. The attitude of colonial authorities toward malaria in Korea was contrasted with that in Taiwan. After
Serengbe, Gustave Bobossi; Moyen, Jean-Methode; Fioboy, Rosine; Beyam, Edith Narcisse; Kango, Cyriaque; Bangue, Colette; Manirakiza, Alexandre
Implementation of malaria control strategies may face major social and cultural challenges. Hence, understanding local knowledge about malaria helps in designing sustainable community-based malaria control programmes. We designed a pilot survey in communities in the Central African Republic to evaluate recognition of malaria symptoms, perceptions of the causes of malaria and knowledge of key preventive measures. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four districts. Households were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling, with villages (in Lobaye, Ouham and Ouaka) and boroughs (in Bangui City) as first-stage units and households as second-stage units. A total of 2920 householders were interviewed. Most of the respondents attributed malaria to mosquito bites (65.5%), but less than 50% were familiar with the classical symptoms of malaria. Hygiene and sanitation were the most frequently mentioned methods for preventing malaria (81.1%). Despite the relatively high rate of ownership of insecticide-treated nets (72.1%), community perception of these nets as a preventive measure against mosquito bites was very low (6.5%). The correct perceptions that mosquitoes cause malaria transmission and of environmental management for prevention are encouraging; however, awareness about the usefulness of insecticide treated-nets for malaria prevention must be raised. This study provided the national malaria control programme with baseline data for planning appropriate health education in communities.
Each January, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) estimates numbers of malaria infections among U.S. service members using a surveillance case definition to identify "malaria cases". These cases include individuals with a hospital discharge diagnosis of malaria and those who were reported with malaria through military notifiable event reporting systems. This report compares the MSMR surveillance case definition with other proposed case definitions to demonstrate the degree to which estimates of numbers of malaria cases are dependent upon clinical settings, data sources and case-defining rules used to produce such estimates. For example, including outpatient diagnoses as malaria cases would more than double the 2010 case count. As compared with cases defined using other proposed case definitions, many more MSMR-defined cases had records of a specific Plasmodium species, a laboratory test for malaria and recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Interpretations of the results of MSMR reports should consider how "cases" are defined.
available tools and weapons in the arsenal. Yes, we must support research into vaccine development, and genetic engineering approaches against the mosquito vector, but the immediate vision of malaria control is within reach – on all continents, especially in Africa. 1 Karen Iley. 2006. Malaria Deaths are the Hardest to ...
Hansen, Daniel Aaen
Malaria is a life threatening disease found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Each year it kills 781 000 individuals; most of them are children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum...
Oinical Pharmacology, University of the Witwa~ersrand. REFERENCES. 1. Olarunde A. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and malaria in. Africa. Trans R Sac Trup Med Hyg 1977; 71: 80-81. 2. Fogh S, Jepsen S, Efferset>e P. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kenya. Trans R Sac Trup Med ...
Cates, Jordan E.; Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie
were identified by the Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability...... be multiplicative interaction between malaria infection at enrollment and low MUAC within studies conducted in Africa; however, this finding was not consistent on the additive scale, when accounting for multiple comparisons, or when using other definitions of malaria and malnutrition. The major limitations...... of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies. Conclusions : Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk...
Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...
Leslie, Toby; Mikhail, Amy; Mayan, Ismail; Anwar, Mohammed; Bakhtash, Sayed; Nader, Mohammed; Chandler, Clare; Whitty, Christopher J M; Rowland, Mark
To assess the accuracy of malaria diagnosis and treatment at primary level clinics in Afghanistan. Prospective observational study. 22 clinics in two Afghan provinces, one in the north (adjoining Tajikistan) and one in the east (adjoining Pakistan); areas with seasonal transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. 2357 patients of all ages enrolled if clinicians suspected malaria. Established (>5 years) microscopy (12 clinics in east Afghanistan), newly established microscopy (five clinics in north Afghanistan), and no laboratory (five clinics in north Afghanistan). All clinics used the national malaria treatment guidelines. Proportion of patients positive and negative for malaria who received a malaria drug; sensitivity and specificity of clinic based diagnosis; prescriber's response to the result of the clinic slide; and proportion of patients positive and negative for malaria who were prescribed antibiotics. Outcomes were measured against a double read reference blood slide. In health centres using clinical diagnosis, although 413 of 414 patients were negative by the reference slide, 412 (99%) received a malaria drug and 47 (11%) received an antibiotic. In clinics using new microscopy, 37% (75/202) of patients who were negative by the reference slide received a malaria drug and 60% (103/202) received an antibiotic. In clinics using established microscopy, 50.8% (645/1269) of patients who were negative by the reference slide received a malaria drug and 27.0% (342/1269) received an antibiotic. Among the patients who tested positive for malaria, 94% (443/472) correctly received a malaria drug but only 1 of 6 cases of falciparum malaria was detected and appropriately treated. The specificity of established and new microscopy was 72.9% and 79.9%, respectively. In response to negative clinic slide results, malaria drugs were prescribed to 270/905 (28.8%) and 32/154 (21%) and antibiotics to 347/930 (37.3%) and 99/154 (64%) patients in established and new
Southern Sudan Medical Journal Vol 4. No 1. February ... i.e. blood film examination under the microscope. There .... Do not use salicylic acid preparations. Use eye lubricant ointments rather than eye drops. A6. No, this child seems very seriously affected. Possible causes of death are sepsis, dehydration and malnutrition.
organisms from the gut, through an intestinal wall subjected to the stress of microcirculatory obstruction by para - sitized erythrocytes, is also...in a recent review the authors concluded that it was not necessary (M. Wolfe, personal communication, 1992). Chloroquine may exacerbate psoriasis
Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R; Fobia, Wendelina; Kenangalem, Enny; Lampah, Daniel A; Hasanuddin, Afdal; Warikar, Noah; Sugiarto, Paulus; Tjitra, Emiliana; Anstey, Nick M; Price, Ric N
In areas where malaria is endemic, infants aged <3 months appear to be relatively protected from symptomatic and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but less is known about the effect of Plasmodium vivax infection in this age group. To define malaria morbidity in the first year of life in an area where both multidrug-resistant P. falciparum and P. vivax are highly prevalent, data were gathered on all infants attending a referral hospital in Papua, Indonesia, using systematic data forms and hospital computerized records. Additional clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected from inpatients aged <3 months. From April 2004 through April 2008, 4976 infants were admitted to the hospital, of whom 1560 (31%) had malaria, with infection equally attributable to P. falciparum and P. vivax. The case-fatality rate was similar for inpatients with P. falciparum malaria (13 [2.2%] of 599 inpatients died) and P. vivax malaria (6 [1.0%] of 603 died; P= .161), whereas severe malarial anemia was more prevalent among those with P. vivax malaria (193 [32%] of 605 vs. 144 [24%] of 601; P= .025). Of the 187 infants aged <3 months, 102 (56%) had P. vivax malaria, and 55 (30%) had P. falciparum malaria. In these young infants, infection with P. vivax was associated with a greater risk of severe anemia (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-5.91; P= .041) and severe thrombocytopenia (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-10.6; P= .036) compared with those who have P. falciparum infection. P. vivax malaria is a major cause of morbidity in early infancy. Preventive strategies, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment should be initiated in the perinatal period.
Graves Patricia M
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and
Mukonka, Victor M; Chanda, Emmanuel; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Elbadry, Maha A; Wamulume, Pauline K; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Lubinda, Jailos; Laytner, Lindsey A; Zhang, Wenyi; Mushinge, Gabriel; Haque, Ubydul
Malaria is an important health burden in Zambia with proper diagnosis remaining as one of the biggest challenges. The need for reliable diagnostics is being addressed through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, without sufficient laboratory amenities in many parts of the country, diagnosis often still relies on non-specific, clinical symptoms. In this study, geographical information systems were used to both visualize and analyze the spatial distribution and the risk factors related to the diagnosis of malaria. The monthly reported, district-level number of malaria cases from January 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the National Malaria Control Center (NMCC). Spatial statistics were used to reveal cluster tendencies that were subsequently linked to possible risk factors, using a non-spatial regression model. Significant, spatio-temporal clusters of malaria were spotted while the introduction of RDTs made the number of clinically diagnosed malaria cases decrease by 33% from 2009 to 2014. The limited access to road network(s) was found to be associated with higher levels of malaria, which can be traced by the expansion of health promotion interventions by the NMCC, indicating enhanced diagnostic capability. The capacity of health facilities has been strengthened with the increased availability of proper diagnostic tools and through retraining of community health workers. To further enhance spatial decision support systems, a multifaceted approach is required to ensure mobilization and availability of human, infrastructural and technological resources. Surveillance based on standardized geospatial or other analytical methods should be used by program managers to design, target, monitor and assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of malaria diagnostic resources country-wide.
Hueting, R.; Reijnders, L.
The notion sustainability has many definitions and interpretations, which are not always in favor of the development of sustainability. Therefore, a narrow definition of sustainability is required [nl
Francis D. Krampa
Full Text Available The impact of malaria on global health has continually prompted the need to develop effective diagnostic strategies. In malaria endemic regions, routine diagnosis is hampered by technical and infrastructural challenges to laboratories. These laboratories lack standard facilities, expertise or diagnostic supplies; thus, therapy is administered based on clinical or self-diagnosis. There is the need for accurate diagnosis of malaria due to the continuous increase in the cost of medication, and the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains. However, the widely utilized Giemsa-stained microscopy and immunochromatographic tests for malaria are liable to several drawbacks, including inadequate sensitivity and false-positive outcomes. Alternative methods that offer improvements in performance are either expensive, have longer turnaround time or require a level of expertise that makes them unsuitable for point-of-care (POC applications. These gaps necessitate exploration of more efficient detection techniques with the potential of POC applications, especially in resource-limited settings. This minireview discusses some of the recent trends and new approaches that are seeking to improve the clinical diagnosis of malaria.
St-Martin, Gry; Thusgaard, Mikkel; Simonsen, Hanne Marie
We present three cases of malaria in refugee children newly arrived from Sub-saharan Africa. Only one of the three children had fever and all had high parasite loads (2,5-14% parasitemia). Malaria is an important differential diagnosis in refugees from endemic areas, regardless of whether...
Farenhorst, M.; Hilhorst, A.; Thomas, M.B.; Knols, B.G.J.
Mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides is considered a serious threat for the sustainable use of contemporary malaria vector control methods. Fungal entomopathogens show potential as alternative biological control agents against (insecticide-resistant) anophelines. This study was designed to
Ncogo, Policarpo; Herrador, Zaida; Romay-Barja, Maria; García-Carrasco, Emely; Nseng, Gloria; Berzosa, Pedro; Santana-Morales, Maria A; Riloha, Matilde; Aparicio, Pilar; Valladares, Basilio; Benito, Agustín
Malaria has traditionally been a leading public health problem in Equatorial Guinea. After completion, in September 2011, of the integrated set of interventions against malaria launched by the Global Fund Malaria Programme in the mainland area, the epidemiological situation of malaria remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of malaria and associated factors based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) in Bata district, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the National Malaria Control Programme. From June to August 2013, a representative cross sectional survey using a multistage, stratified, cluster-selected sample was carried out in urban zones and rural villages from Bata district. Data on socio-demographic, health status and malaria-related behaviours was collected. Malaria diagnosis was performed by RDT. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malaria prevalence and its association with different factors. Prevalence of malaria was higher in rural settings (58.9 %; CI 95 % 55.2-62.5 %) than in the sampled urban communities (33.9 %; CI 95 % 31.1-36.9 %). Presence of anaemia was also high, especially in rural sites (89.6 vs. 82.8 %, p age group, the most affected age range being 13 months-14 years old. Other significant covariates were ethnic group (only in urban sites), number of adults living in the house (only in rural villages) previous history of fever, anaemia (only in urban sites) and sleeping under a bed net. Moreover, those who never slept under a bed net were two times more likely to have malaria. The prevalence of malaria was high in Bata district, especially in rural villages. The National Programme to fight malaria in Equatorial Guinea should take into account the differences found between rural and urban communities and age groups to target appropriately those worst affected. The findings of this study will assist in planning and undertaking regional policy and other
Tawiah, Theresa; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Baiden, Frank
(ACT) in all suspected malaria patients. The use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) would make it possible for prescribers to diagnose malaria at point-of-care and better target the use of antimalarials. Therefore, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on the introduction of m......RDTs for management of malaria in under-five children in a high transmission area in Ghana where presumptive diagnosis was the norm in public health centres. Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled trial where thirty-two health centres were randomised into test-based diagnosis of malaria using mRDTs (intervention...
Alho, Regina M; Machado, Kim Vinícius Amaral; Val, Fernando F A; Fraiji, Nelson A; Alexandre, Marcia A A; Melo, Gisely C; Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Lacerda, Marcus V G
Transfusion-transmitted (TT) malaria is an alternative infection route that has gained little attention from authorities, despite representing a life-threatening condition. There has been no systematic review of this health problem in American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TT malaria in the Americas and identify factors associated with lethality based on the studies published in the literature. Potentially relevant papers in all languages were retrieved from MEDLINE and LILACS. Additional articles were obtained from reviews and original papers. Publications on screening of candidate blood donors and on surveillance of TT malaria cases were included. Odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Epidemiological characteristics of blood donors of TT malaria cases, including a pooled positivity of different tests for malaria diagnosis, were retrieved. A total of 63 publications regarding TT malaria from seven countries were included, from 1971 to 2016. A total of 422 cases of TT malaria were recorded. Most TT malaria cases were in females (62.0%) and 39.5% were in the ≥61 years-old age group. About half of all cases were from Mexico (50.7%), 40.3% from the United States of America (USA) and 6.6% from Brazil. Gyneco-obstetrical conditions (67.3%), surgical procedures (20.6%) and complications from neoplasias (6.1%) were the most common indications of transfusion. Packed red blood cells (RBCs) (50.7%) and whole blood (43.3%) were the blood products mostly associated with TT malaria. Cases were mostly caused by Plasmodium malariae (58.4%), followed by Plasmodium vivax (20.7%) and Plasmodium falciparum (17.9%). A total of 66.6% of cases were diagnosed by microscopy. Incubation period of 2-3 weeks was the most commonly observed (28.6%). Lethality was seen in 5.3% of cases and was associated with living in non-endemic countries, P. falciparum infection and concomitant
Lennon, Shirley Evelyn; Miranda, Adolfo; Henao, Juliana; Vallejo, Andres F; Perez, Julianh; Alvarez, Alvaro; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates
Even though malaria incidence has decreased substantially in Guatemala since 2000, Guatemala remains one of the countries with the highest malaria transmission in Mesoamerica. Guatemala is committed to eliminating malaria as part of the initiative 'Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and the Island of Hispaniola' (EMMIE); however, it is still in the control phase. During the past decade, the government strengthened malaria control activities including mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bed nets, early diagnosis and prompt treatment. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria, including gametocytes, in three areas of Guatemala using active case detection (ACD) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in three departments with varying transmission intensities: Escuintla, Alta Verapaz and Zacapa. Blood samples from 706 volunteers were screened for malaria using microscopy and qPCR which was also used to determine the prevalence of gametocytes among infected individuals. Results were collected and analysed using REDCap and R Project, respectively. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy in only 2.8 % (4/141) of the volunteers from Escuintla. By contrast, qPCR detected a prevalence of 7.1 % (10/141) in the same volunteers, 8.4 % (36/429) in Alta Verapaz, and 5.9 % (8/136) in Zacapa. Overall, 7.6 % (54/706) of the screened individuals were positive, with an average parasitaemia level of 40.2 parasites/μL (range 1-1133 parasites/μL) and 27.8 % carried mature gametocytes. Fifty-seven percent (31/54) of qPCR positive volunteers were asymptomatic and out of the 42.6 % of symptomatic individuals, only one had a positive microscopy result. This study found a considerable number of asymptomatic P. vivax infections that were mostly submicroscopic, of which, approximately one-quarter harboured mature gametocytes. This pattern is likely to contribute to maintaining transmission across the
... Global Activities Sub-Saharan Africa President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) Kenya Malawi Tanzania Malaria in Pregnancy in Latin ... planning and implementation of the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI), a $3 billion initiative to rapidly increase malaria ...
resistant strains. Rodent malaria strains resistant to Halofantrine and to quinine nave been deve’oped and these will be inclided in future bcod...of rodent malaria continues to expand with the inclusion of strains resistant to Halofantrine, quinine and artemisinin. In addition, we are producing...report, st :Jies cve ’t~P-ntrhe ’ crrs.’.on 9f resistano r c I ris 2 ro - lJ ln Il ll lh- - malaria to two compounds, halofantrine and quinine , using our
Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...
Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (Unesp), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)
Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.
Anielle de Pina-Costa
Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites
Jia, Cong-ying; Yang, Wen-zhou; Gao, Hong-xia; Yu, Chao
To understand the malaria epidemic situation in Huai'an City in 2014, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting effective strategies and measures to eliminate malaria. The reported malaria cases from the Internet Reporting System and the epidemiological data of malaria of Huai'an City in 2014 were collected and analyzed statistically. A total of 56 malaria cases were reported in Huai'an City in 2014 with the incidence of 0.12/10,000, and 43.59% of increasing rate compared with the previous year (39 cases). All these cases were imported from African countries. There were 50 cases of falciparum malaria, 4 cases of ovale malaria, 1 case of quartan malaria and 1 case of mixed infections. All the patients were male and aged 24-59 years. Totally 96.43% of the patients (54 cases) were peasants and 69.64% of them (39 cases) only received junior high school education. The malaria cases were mainly distributed in Huai'an District (32 cases), Xuyi County (8 cases) and Huaiyin District (6 cases), totally accounting for 82.14%. There was no significant seasonal variation in the reporting time of the cases. The median time from onset to seeing a doctor was 2 days and the median time from seeing a doctor to being diagnosed was 1 day. Totally 16.67% of the patients (8 cases) were misdiagnosed when they first visited a doctor. All the patients were laboratory confirmed and all of them received the standard treatment after diagnosis. There have been no local malaria cases reported from Huai'an City in the last three years. However, the situation of imported malaria is more serious and the species of infected Plasmodium are more diverse. Therefore, to accomplish the aim of malaria elimination in the whole city, it is necessary to further strengthen the multi-sectoral cooperation, health education, malaria screening and professional training to control the imported malaria.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011 a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6% microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44 year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.
Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Canjun; Zhou, Sheng; Sun, Junling; Zhang, Zike; Geng, Qibin; Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C A; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Weizhong
With the dramatic increase in international travel among Chinese people, the risk of malaria importation from malaria-endemic regions threatens the achievement of the malaria elimination goal of China. Epidemiological investigations of all imported malaria cases were conducted in nine provinces of China from 1 Nov, 2013 to 30 Oct, 2014. Plasmodium species, spatiotemporal distribution, clinical severity, preventive measures and infection history of the imported malaria cases were analysed using descriptive statistics. A total of 1420 imported malaria cases were recorded during the study period, with P. falciparum (723 cases, 50.9 %) and P. vivax (629 cases, 44.3 %) being the two predominant species. Among them, 81.8 % of cases were in Chinese overseas labourers. The imported cases returned from 41 countries, mainly located in Africa (58.9 %) and Southeast Asia (39.4 %). About a quarter (25.5 %, 279/1094) of counties in the nine study provinces were affected by imported malaria cases. There were 112 cases (7.9 %) developing complicated malaria, including 12 deaths (case fatality rate: 0.8 %). Only 27.8 % of the imported cases had taken prophylactic anti-malarial drugs. While staying abroad, 27.7 % of the cases had experienced two or more episodes of malaria infection. The awareness of clinical manifestations and the capacity for malaria diagnosis were weak in private clinics and primary healthcare facilities. Imported malaria infections among Chinese labourers, returned from various countries, poses an increasing challenge to the malaria elimination programme in China. The risk of potential re-introduction of malaria into inland malaria-free areas of China should be urgently addressed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health authorities of Niger have implemented several malaria prevention and control programmes in recent years. These interventions broadly follow WHO guidelines and international recommendations and are based on interventions that have proved successful in other parts of Africa. Most performance indicators are satisfactory but, paradoxically, despite the mobilization of considerable human and financial resources, the malaria-fighting programme in Niger seems to have stalled, as it has not yet yielded the expected significant decrease in malaria burden. Indeed, the number of malaria cases reported by the National Health Information System has actually increased by a factor of five over the last decade, from about 600,000 in 2000 to about 3,000,000 in 2010. One of the weaknesses of the national reporting system is that the recording of malaria cases is still based on a presumptive diagnosis approach, which overestimates malaria incidence. Methods An extensive nationwide survey was carried out to determine by microscopy and RDT testing, the proportion of febrile patients consulting at health facilities for suspected malaria actually suffering from the disease, as a means of assessing the magnitude of this problem and obtaining a better estimate of malaria morbidity in Niger. Results In total, 12,576 febrile patients were included in this study; 57% of the slides analysed were positive for the malaria parasite during the rainy season, when transmission rates are high, and 9% of the slides analysed were positive during the dry season, when transmission rates are lower. The replacement of microscopy methods by rapid diagnostic tests resulted in an even lower rate of confirmation, with only 42% of cases testing positive during the rainy season, and 4% during the dry season. Fever alone has a low predictive value, with a low specificity and sensitivity. These data highlight the absolute necessity of confirming all reported
Kosina, Pavel; Honegr, Karel; Forstl, Miroslav; Cermáková, Zuzana
Malaria is the fourth most frequent cause of death in African children. Connected with perinatal diseases as well as gastrointestinal and respiratory infections malaria has been still a serious health problem of that region. Occurrence of tropical malaria in infants reported in European countries is relatively rare. Not only from that reason, the assesment of diagnosis in children under one year of age seems to be obviously more difficult. The authors report the malaria in five-month-old infant from Cameroon who became ill during his stay in the Czech Republic. Non-specific symptoms, high level of parasitemia and impairment of blood coagulation were the main features of the emergent infection. On conclusion, the lack of suitable forms of childrens antimalarial drugs both for profylaxis and treatment is mentioned.
Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Chen, Bin; Cao, Yaming; Fan, Qi; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Zhou, Guofa
Despite significant improvement in the malaria situation of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), malaria control for the region continues to face a multitude of challenges. The extremely patchy malaria distribution, especially along international borders, makes disease surveillance and targeted control difficult. The vector systems are also diverse with dramatic differences in habitat ecology, biting behavior, and vectorial capacity, and there is a lack of effective transmission surveillance and control tools. Finally, in an era of heavy deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies, the region acts as an epicenter of drug resistance, with the emergence of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum posing a threat to both regional and global malaria elimination campaigns. This problem is further exacerbated by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin drugs. Accordingly, this Southeast Asian Malaria Research Center, consisting of a consortium of US and regional research institutions, has proposed four interlinked projects to address these most urgent problems in malaria control. The aims of these projects will help to substantially improve our understanding of malaria epidemiology, vector systems and their roles in malaria transmission, as well as the mechanisms of drug resistance in parasites. Through the training of next-generation scientists in malaria research, this program will help build up and strengthen regional research infrastructure and capacities, which are essential for sustained malaria control in this region. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruktanonchai, Nick W; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J; Alegana, Victor A; Caughlin, T Trevor; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Smith, David L
Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum serve as a reservoir of parasites for malaria transmission. Identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers within a region may reduce the parasite reservoir and influence malaria transmission in that area. Methods Using computer simulation, this analysis explored the impact of community screening campaigns (CSC followed by systematic treatment of P. falciparum asymptomatic carriers (AC with artemether-lumefantrine (AL on disease transmission. The model created by Okell et al (originally designed to explore the impact of the introduction of treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy on malaria endemicity was modified to represent CSC and treatment of AC with AL, with the addition of malaria vector seasonality. The age grouping, relative distribution of age in a region, and degree of heterogeneity in disease transmission were maintained. The number and frequency of CSC and their relative timing were explored in terms of their effect on malaria incidence. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the factors with the greatest impact on the model predictions. Results The simulation showed that the intervention that had the largest effect was performed in an area with high endemicity (entomological inoculation rate, EIR > 200; however, the rate of infection returned to its normal level in the subsequent year, unless the intervention was repeated. In areas with low disease burden (EIR Conclusions Community screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers with AL may reduce malaria transmission significantly. The initial level of disease intensity has the greatest impact on the potential magnitude and duration of malaria reduction. When combined with other interventions (e.g. long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, rapid diagnostic tests, prompt diagnosis and treatment, and, where appropriate, indoor residual spraying the effect of this intervention can be
Hetzel, Manuel W; Reimer, Lisa J; Gideon, Gibson; Koimbu, Gussy; Barnadas, Céline; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo
Papua New Guinea exhibits a complex malaria epidemiology due to diversity in malaria parasites, mosquito vectors, human hosts, and their natural environment. Heterogeneities in transmission and burden of malaria at various scales are likely to affect the success of malaria control interventions, and vice-versa. This manuscript assesses changes in malaria prevalence, incidence and transmission in sentinel sites following the first national distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Before and after the distribution of LLINs, data collection in six purposively selected sentinel sites included clinical surveillance in the local health facility, household surveys and entomological surveys. Not all activities were carried out in all sites. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches. Diagnosis of malaria infection in humans was done by rapid diagnostic test, light microscopy and PCR for species confirmation. Following the roll-out of LLINs, the average monthly malaria incidence rate dropped from 13/1,000 population to 2/1,000 (incidence rate ratio = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.09-0.17; P < 0.001). The average population prevalence of malaria decreased from 15.7 % pre-LLIN to 4.8 % post-LLIN (adjusted odds ratio = 0.26; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.33; P < 0.001). In general, reductions in incidence and prevalence were more pronounced in infections with P. falciparum than with P. vivax. Additional morbidity indicators (anaemia, splenomegaly, self-reported fever) showed a decreasing trend in most sites. Mean Anopheles man biting rates decreased from 83 bites/person/night pre-LLIN to 31 post-LLIN (P = 0.008). Anopheles species composition differed between sites but everywhere diversity was lower post-LLIN. In two sites, post-LLIN P. vivax infections in anophelines had decreased but P. falciparum infections had increased despite the opposite observation in humans. LLIN distribution had distinct effects on P. falciparum and P. vivax. Higher resilience of
Rauber, K.; Enkerlin, H.L.; Riemann, H.; Schoeppe, W.
We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible.
... 1088) or fax (1-800-FDA-0178) The advantage to having your health care provider file the ... Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...
Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan
)  highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... of key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know...
The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization (WHO) held its fifth meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 12 to 14 March 2014. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting.Meeting sessions covered: maintaining universal coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets; combining indoor residual spraying with long-lasting insecticidal nets; the sound management of old long-lasting insecticidal nets; malaria diagnosis in low transmission settings; the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria (2016 -2025); and Technical Expert Group updates on vector control, the RTS,S vaccine, the Malaria Treatment Guidelines, anti-malarial drug resistance and containment, and surveillance, monitoring and evaluation.Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to WHO Member States by the WHO Global Malaria Programme.
proteins in plastid segregation mutants of Toxoplasma gandii. L. Biot. Parasito . Today 11, 1-4 (1995). Chem. 276, 28436-28442 (2001). 11. Su, X. et al... parasito - gene mapping studies have shown that regions of gene synteny exist phorous vacuole membrane29 . between species of rodent malaria9 and between...Carucci, D. J. Rodent models of malaria in the genomics era. Trends Parasito , 18, selection of karyotype mutants and non-gametocyte producer mutants
the doses of pyrimethamine used for treatment of malaria (Weniger, 1979b). It may be used for treatment of malaria in pregnancy. The question of...derivatives are still being determined. A number of formulations have been shown to be effective, but in China only three peparations , qinghaosu suppositories...Clinical Pharmacology 15: 471-479. Gustafsson LL. Rombo L, Alvan Get al (1983b) On the question of dose-dependent chloro- quine elimination of a single
proguanil, doxycycline) along with the correct clothing, DEET repellents and insecticidal treated bed nets should be considered when entering these areas during September to May. The definitive diagnosis of malaria warrants the immediate ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quite often symptoms of malaria go unrecognized or untreated. According to the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, 70% of the malaria cases that are treated at home are mismanaged. Up to 82% of all malaria episodes in sub-Saharan Africa are treated outside the formal health sector. Fast and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria is extremely important in reducing morbidity and mortality. Method Data from 70 different countries is pooled together to construct a panel dataset of health and socio-economic variables for a time span of (1960–2004. The generalized two-stage least squares and panel data models are used to investigate the impact of information and communication network (ICN variables on malaria death probability. The intensity of ICN is represented by the number of telephone main lines per 1,000 people and the number of television sets per 1,000 people. Results The major finding is that the intensity of ICN is associated with reduced probability of deaths of people that are clinically identified as malaria infected. The results are robust for both indicators i.e. interpersonal and mass communication networks and for all model specifications examined. Conclusion The results suggest that information and communication networks can substantially scale up the effectiveness of the existing resources for malaria prevention. Resources spent in preventing malaria are far less than needed. Expanded information and communication networks will widen the avenues for community based "participatory development", that encourages the use of local information, knowledge and decision making. Timely information, immediate care and collective knowledge based treatment can be extremely important in reducing child mortality and achieving the millennium development goal.
Parul D Shah
Full Text Available Context: Despite a wide overlap between endemic areas for two important vector-borne infections, malaria and dengue, published reports of co-infections are scarce till date. Aims: To find the incidence of dengue and malaria co-infection as well as to ascertain the severity of such dengue and malaria co-infection based on clinical and haematological parameters. Setting and Design: Observational, retrospective cross-sectional study was designed including patients who consulted the tertiary care hospital of Ahmedabad seeking treatment for fever compatible with malaria and/or dengue. Subjects and Methods: A total of 8364 serum samples from clinically suspected cases of fever compatible with malaria and/or dengue were collected. All samples were tested for dengue NS-1 antigen before 5 days of onset of illness and for dengue IgM after 5 days of onset of illness. In all samples, malaria diagnosis was based on the identification of Plasmodium parasites on a thin and thick blood films microscopy. Results: Only 10.27% (859 patients with fever were tested positive for dengue and 5.1% (434 were tested positive for malaria. 3.14% (27 dengue cases show concurrent infection with malarial parasites. Hepatomegaly and jaundice 37.03% (10, haemorrhagic manifestations 18.51% (5 and kidney failure 3.7% (1, haemoglobin <12 g/dl 100% (27 and thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/cmm 96.29% (26 were common in malaria and dengue co-infections and were much more common in Plasmodium falciparum infections. Conclusion: All febrile patients must be tested for malaria and dengue, both otherwise one of them will be missed in case of concurrent infections which could lead to severe diseases with complications.
Kotepui, Manas; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Uthaisar, Kwuntida
Dengue fever (DF) and malaria are the two major public health concerns in tropical countries such as Thailand. Early differentiation between dengue and malaria could help clinicians to identify patients who should be closely monitored for signs of dengue hemorrhagic fever or severe malaria. This study aims to build knowledge on diagnostic markers that are used to discriminate between the infections, which frequently occur in malaria-endemic areas, such as the ones in Thailand. A retrospective study was conducted in Phop Phra Hospital, a hospital located in the Thailand-Burma border area, a malaria-endemic area, between 2013 and 2015. In brief, data on 336 patients infected with malaria were compared to data on 347 patients infected with DF. White blood cells, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio were significantly lower in patients with DF compared to patients with malaria (P dengue and malaria infection. This study concluded that several hematological parameters were different for diagnosing DF and malaria. A decision tree model revealed that using neutrophils, lymphocyte, MCHC, and gender was guided to discriminate patients with dengue and malaria infection. In addition, using these markers will thus lead to early detection, diagnosis, and prompt treatment of these tropical diseases.
A.L. MALISA* and M. NDUKAI1. Department of B olog cal Sc ences, Faculty of Sc ence, Soko ne Un vers ty of Agr culture, P.O. Box 3038,. Morogoro, Tanzan a. Abstract: Community knowledge and practice related to malaria is important for the implementation of appropriate, effective and sustainable interventions. This study ...
Miles, Alistair; Harding, Nicholas J.; Botta, Giordano; Clarkson, Chris S.; Antao, Tiago; Kozak, Krzysztof; Schrider, Daniel R.; Kern, Andrew D.; Redmond, Seth; Sharakhov, Igor; Pearson, Richard D.; Bergey, Christina; Fontaine, Michael C.; Donnelly, Martin J.; Lawniczak, Mara K. N.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Ayala, Diego; Besensky, Nora J.; Burt, Austin; Caputo, Beniamino; della Torre, Alessandra; Fontaine, Michael C.; Godfrey, H. Charles J.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Midega, Janet; Neafsey, Daniel E.; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Pinto, Joao; Riehle, Michelle M.; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Weetman, David; Wilding, Craig S.; White, Bradley J.; Troco, Arlete D.; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Costantini, Carlo; Rohatgi, Kyanne R.; Besansky, Nora J.; Elissa, Nohal; Coulibaly, Bouhacar; Dinis, Joao; Midegal, Janet; Mbogo, Charles; Bejon, Philip; Mawejje, Henry D.; Stalker, Jim; Rockett, Kirk; Drury, Eleanor; Mead, Daniel; Jeffreys, Anna; Hubbard, Christina; Rowlands, Kate; Isaacs, Alison T.; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Malangone, Cinzia; Vauterin, Paul; Jeffery, Ben; Wright, Ian; Hart, Lee; Kluczyriski, Krzysztof; Cornelius, Victoria; MacInnisn, Bronwyn; Henrichs, Christa; Giacomantonio, Rachel
The sustainability of malaria control in Africa is threatened by the rise of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit the disease(1). To gain a deeper understanding of how mosquito populations are evolving, here we sequenced the genomes of 765 specimens of Anopheles gambiae and
strategies using IRS to be more effective, meaningful and sustainable, aspects such as community knowledge, attitudes and practices has to be taken into consideration (Okumu et al.,. 2011). Thus this study investigated community knowledge, attitudes and practices on indoor residual spraying as a control tool for malaria ...
Background: Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is the 3rd leading cause of death for children under five years worldwide. Home-based management of malaria may go a long way in reducing the attending morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in this group ...
Pedrosa, Catarina Areias
Full Text Available Objective: To report the clinical presentation of malarial retinopathy in an adult, emphasizing the importance of this diagnosis for the clinical suspicion and prognosis of cerebral malaria. Methods: A 39-year-old caucasian man presented with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acidemia and acute renal failure, developing severe encephalopathy. The diagnosis of malaria was done and after systemic stabilization, the patient noticed a central scotoma in the left eye. Ophthalmological examination revealed retinal features of malarial retinopathy. Results: At one-month follow-up, the patient had improved his systemic condition and the left eye scotoma had disappeared. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and on examination almost all lesions had regressed. Conclusion: Malarial retinopathy is a diagnostic factor and a prognosis indicator of severe infection, usually with brain involvement. The knowledge of the ophthalmological features associated with severe malaria, which is more frequent in children but can also occur in adults, becomes imperative in order to reduce the risk of neurologic sequelae and associated mortality.
Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria merupakan penyakit endemik di Indonesia dan mempengaruhi hampir seluruh komponen darah. Anemia dan trombositopenia merupakan komplikasi malaria terkait hematologi yang paling sering, dan mendapat banyak perhatian pada literatur ilmiah karena berhubungan dengan mortalitas. Penurunan jumlah trombosit berkaitan dengan berbagai penyebab diantaranya lisis dimediasi imun, sekuestrasi pada limpa, gangguan pada sumsum tulang dan fagositosis oleh makrofag. Infeksi malaria menyebabkan abnormalitas pada struktur dan fungsi trombosit. Kejadian trombositopenia dapat dijadikan petunjuk penting malaria akut.AbstractMalaria are endemic infection in Indonesia and are commonly associated with hematological abnormalities. Anemia and thrombocytopenia are the most common complication of malaria, and has been reported because its mortality. Thrombocytopenia is caused by immune lysis mechanism, spleen’s sequestration, defect in bone marrow and macrophage phagocytosis. Malaria infection causes the abnormality in the structure and function of platelets. The presence of thrombocytopenia is important as an indicator of acute malaria.
Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N K
Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as "forest malaria" and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in "real-time". A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time.
Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U. (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis and Dept. of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India))
Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients
Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U.
Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 , and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients
Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang
Malaria creates serious health and economic problems which call for integrated management strategies to disrupt interactions among mosquitoes, the parasite and humans. In order to reduce the intensity of malaria transmission, malaria vector control may be implemented to protect individuals against infective mosquito bites. As a sustainable larval control method, the use of larvivorous fish is promoted in some circumstances. To evaluate the potential impacts of this biological control measure on malaria transmission, we propose and investigate a mathematical model describing the linked dynamics between the host-vector interaction and the predator-prey interaction. The model, which consists of five ordinary differential equations, is rigorously analysed via theories and methods of dynamical systems. We derive four biologically plausible and insightful quantities (reproduction numbers) that completely determine the community composition. Our results suggest that the introduction of larvivorous fish can, in principle, have important consequences for malaria dynamics, but also indicate that this would require strong predators on larval mosquitoes. Integrated strategies of malaria control are analysed to demonstrate the biological application of our developed theory.
Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy
Malaria is a serious global health problem which is especially devastating to the developing world. Most malaria control programs use insecticides for controlling mosquito populations. Large scale usage of these insecticides exerts massive selection pressure on mosquitoes resulting in insecticide resistant mosquito breeds. Thus, developing alternative strategies are crucial for sustainable malaria control. Here, we explore the usefulness of an alternative strategy, paratransgenesis: the introduction of genetically engineered plasmodium killing bacteria inside the mosquito gut. The genetically modified bacterial culture is housed in cotton balls dipped in a sugar solution (sugar bait) and they enter a mosquito's midgut when it drinks from a sugar bait. We study scenarios where vectors and hosts mix homogeneously as well as heterogeneously and calculate the amount of baits required to prevent a malaria outbreak. Given the baits are attractive, we show that the basic reproductive number drops rapidly with the increase in bait density. Furthermore, we propose a targeted bait distribution strategy for minimizing the reproductive number for the heterogeneous case. Our results can prove to be useful for designing future experiments and field trials of alternative malaria control mechanisms and they also have implications on the development of malaria control programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
die every day from malaria, conventional efforts to control the disease have not worked. Malaria parasites are .... and other animals. Mosquito nets. Provide insecticide-treated bednets to groups at high risk for malaria, namely young children and pregnant women, through partnerships with nongovernmental organizations ...
Sim, Jae Eun; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Won-Joo
Facial diplegia has diverse etiologies, including viral and bacterial infections such as diphtheria, syphilis and Lyme disease, and also protozoal infection in very rarely cases. A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral weakness of the upper and lower facial muscles. Examination revealed that the patient had a facial diplegia of the peripheral type. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated the presence of the asexual trophozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax with ring-form trophozoites, which led to a diagnosis of malaria. A serum work-up revealed increased IgG titers of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein and ganglioside GD1b. The patient was administered antimalarial treatment, 1 week after which he showed signs of recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of facial diplegia after malaria infection, providing evidence that the mechanism underlying the condition is related to immune-mediated disease. Facial diplegia can manifest after P. vivax infection.
B S GARG
Full Text Available The last few years have seen a marked change in the understanding of malaria mmunology.We have very little knowledge on immunity of Malaria based on experiments in humanbeings due to ethical reasons. Whatsoever our knowledge exists at present is based onexperimentas in mice and monkey. However it is clear that it is sporzoite or merozoitewhich is directly exposed to our immune system in the life cycle of Malaria parasite. On thebasis of human experiments we can draw inference that immunity to malaria is species.specific (on cross immunity, stage specific and strain specific as well acquired in the response to surface antigen and relapsed antigen although the parasite also demonstrates escape machanism to immune system.So the host system kills or elimi nate the parasite by means of (a Antbody to extracell~ular form of parasite with the help of mechanism of Block invasion, Agglutination or opsonization and/or (b Cellular machanism-either by phago-cytosis of parasite or by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ABCC (? or by effects of mediators like tumor necrosis fJ.ctor (TNF in cerebaral malaria or crisis forming factor as found in sudan or by possible role of lysis mechanism.However, inspite of all these theories the parasite has been able to invade the immunesystem by virtue of its intracellular development stage specificity, sequestration in capillaries and also by its unusual characteristics of antigenic diversity and antigenic variation.
Hill, Adrian V S
There is no licenced vaccine against any human parasitic disease and Plasmodium falciparum malaria, a major cause of infectious mortality, presents a great challenge to vaccine developers. This has led to the assessment of a wide variety of approaches to malaria vaccine design and development, assisted by the availability of a safe challenge model for small-scale efficacy testing of vaccine candidates. Malaria vaccine development has been at the forefront of assessing many new vaccine technologies including novel adjuvants, vectored prime-boost regimes and the concept of community vaccination to block malaria transmission. Most current vaccine candidates target a single stage of the parasite's life cycle and vaccines against the early pre-erythrocytic stages have shown most success. A protein in adjuvant vaccine, working through antibodies against sporozoites, and viral vector vaccines targeting the intracellular liver-stage parasite with cellular immunity show partial efficacy in humans, and the anti-sporozoite vaccine is currently in phase III trials. However, a more effective malaria vaccine suitable for widespread cost-effective deployment is likely to require a multi-component vaccine targeting more than one life cycle stage. The most attractive near-term approach to develop such a product is to combine existing partially effective pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidates.
This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.
Menya, Diana; Logedi, John; Manji, Imran; Armstrong, Janice; Neelon, Brian; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme
In high-resource settings, 'pay-for-performance' (P4P) programs have generated interest as a potential mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability. However, there has been little or no experimental evidence to guide the development or assess the effectiveness of P4P incentive programs in developing countries. In the developing world, P4P programs are likely to rely, at least initially, on external funding from donors. Under these circumstances, the sustainability of such programs is in doubt and needs assessment. We describe a cluster-randomized controlled trial underway in 18 health centers in western Kenya that is testing an innovative incentive strategy to improve management of an epidemiologically and economically important problem--diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The incentive scheme in this trial promotes adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines for laboratory confirmation of malaria before treatment, a priority area for the Ministry of Health. There are three important innovations that are unique to this study among those from other resource-constrained settings: the behavior being incentivized is quality of care rather than volume of service delivery; the incentives are applied at the facility-level rather than the individual level, thus benefiting facility infrastructure and performance overall; and the incentives are designed to be budget-neutral if effective. Linking appropriate case management for malaria to financial incentives has the potential to improve patient care and reduce wastage of expensive antimalarials. In our study facilities, on average only 25% of reported malaria cases were confirmed by laboratory diagnosis prior to the intervention, and the total treatment courses of antimalarials dispensed did not correspond to the number of cases reported. This study will demonstrate whether facility rather than individual incentives are compelling enough to improve case management, and whether these incentives lead to
Poostchi, Mahdieh; Silamut, Kamolrat; Maude, Richard J; Jaeger, Stefan; Thoma, George
Malaria remains a major burden on global health, with roughly 200 million cases worldwide and more than 400,000 deaths per year. Besides biomedical research and political efforts, modern information technology is playing a key role in many attempts at fighting the disease. One of the barriers toward a successful mortality reduction has been inadequate malaria diagnosis in particular. To improve diagnosis, image analysis software and machine learning methods have been used to quantify parasitemia in microscopic blood slides. This article gives an overview of these techniques and discusses the current developments in image analysis and machine learning for microscopic malaria diagnosis. We organize the different approaches published in the literature according to the techniques used for imaging, image preprocessing, parasite detection and cell segmentation, feature computation, and automatic cell classification. Readers will find the different techniques listed in tables, with the relevant articles cited next to them, for both thin and thick blood smear images. We also discussed the latest developments in sections devoted to deep learning and smartphone technology for future malaria diagnosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This investigation was conducted between March and July, 2010 in Portharcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The method of diagnosis utilised by the hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories was thick and thin method and malaria parasite was identified using standard criteria. In all the zones of the study, high ...
ABSTRACT. Early and accurate laboratory diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia as well as assessment of its severity which include among other parameters; blood glucose concentration are very important in the management of children with complicated malaria. In this study, the conventional thick blood film ...
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transmitted from person to person by the bite of anopheles ... strategies include diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ..... Employment status. 120. 61.76 .00. Income earning status. 120. 53.94 .00. Socio-cultural conditions and malaria prevention and control practices. Age. 120. 16.79 .00. Education.
Roth, Johanna M.; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; Mens, Pètra F.
Accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for identification and subsequent treatment of the disease. Currently, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the most commonly used diagnostics, next to treatment based on clinical signs only. These tests are easy to deploy, but have a relatively high
This study aims at comparing the diagnostic efficiencies of two commercially available kits for detecting Plasmodium falciparum infection in urine and blood of febrile patients for malaria diagnosis. This was an observational study in which matched blood and urine from symptomatic patients were tested for malaria using two ...
Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Solarte, Yezid; Marin, Catherin; Santos, Mariana; Castellanos, Jenniffer; Beier, John C; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera
Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is considered to be one of the most serious public health problems due to its high global mortality and morbidity rates. Although multiple strategies for controlling malaria have been used, many have had limited impact due to the appearance and rapid dissemination of mosquito resistance to insecticides, parasite resistance to multiple antimalarial drug, and the lack of sustainability. Individuals in endemic areas that have been permanently exposed to the parasite develop specific immune responses capable of diminishing parasite burden and the clinical manifestations of the disease, including blocking of parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. This is referred to as transmission blocking (TB) immunity (TBI) and is mediated by specific antibodies and other factors ingested during the blood meal that inhibit parasite development in the mosquito. These antibodies recognize proteins expressed on either gametocytes or parasite stages that develop in the mosquito midgut and are considered to be potential malaria vaccine candidates. Although these candidates, collectively called TB vaccines (TBV), would not directly stop malaria from infecting individuals, but would stop transmission from infected person to non-infected person. Here, we review the progress that has been achieved in TBI studies and the development of TBV and we highlight their potential usefulness in areas of low endemicity such as Latin America. PMID:21881775
Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is considered to be one of the most serious public health problems due to its high global mortality and morbidity rates. Although multiple strategies for controlling malaria have been used, many have had limited impact due to the appearance and rapid dissemination of mosquito resistance to insecticides, parasite resistance to multiple antimalarial drug, and the lack of sustainability. Individuals in endemic areas that have been permanently exposed to the parasite develop specific immune responses capable of diminishing parasite burden and the clinical manifestations of the disease, including blocking of parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. This is referred to as transmission blocking (TB immunity (TBI and is mediated by specific antibodies and other factors ingested during the blood meal that inhibit parasite development in the mosquito. These antibodies recognize proteins expressed on either gametocytes or parasite stages that develop in the mosquito midgut and are considered to be potential malaria vaccine candidates. Although these candidates, collectively called TB vaccines (TBV, would not directly stop malaria from infecting individuals, but would stop transmission from infected person to non-infected person. Here, we review the progress that has been achieved in TBI studies and the development of TBV and we highlight their potential usefulness in areas of low endemicity such as Latin America.
Coulibaly, Drissa; Travassos, Mark A; Tolo, Youssouf; Laurens, Matthew B; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Traore, Karim; Sissoko, Mody; Niangaly, Amadou; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Guindo, Boureima; Rebaudet, Stanislas; Kouriba, Bourema; Dessay, Nadine; Piarroux, Renaud; Plowe, Christopher V; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Thera, Mahamadou A; Gaudart, Jean
In areas of seasonal malaria transmission, the incidence rate of malaria infection is presumed to be near zero at the end of the dry season. Asymptomatic individuals may constitute a major parasite reservoir during this time. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of clinical malaria and asymptomatic parasitemia over time in a Malian town to highlight these malaria transmission dynamics. For a cohort of 300 rural children followed over 2009-2014, periodicity and phase shift between malaria and rainfall were determined by spectral analysis. Spatial risk clusters of clinical episodes or carriage were identified. A nested-case-control study was conducted to assess the parasite carriage factors. Malaria infection persisted over the entire year with seasonal peaks. High transmission periods began 2-3 months after the rains began. A cluster with a low risk of clinical malaria in the town center persisted in high and low transmission periods. Throughout 2009-2014, cluster locations did not vary from year to year. Asymptomatic and gametocyte carriage were persistent, even during low transmission periods. For high transmission periods, the ratio of asymptomatic to clinical cases was approximately 0.5, but was five times higher during low transmission periods. Clinical episodes at previous high transmission periods were a protective factor for asymptomatic carriage, but carrying parasites without symptoms at a previous high transmission period was a risk factor for asymptomatic carriage. Stable malaria transmission was associated with sustained asymptomatic carriage during dry seasons. Control strategies should target persistent low-level parasitemia clusters to interrupt transmission.
Full Text Available The protective role of SCT in malaria endemic areas has been proved and prevalence of HbS gene in malaria endemic areas is high. Splenic infarction is a well-known complication of SCT, rarely associated with malaria. A Nigerian boy was admitted to our ward after returning from his country of origin, for P. falciparum malaria. He underwent abdominal US for upper right abdominal pain, showing cholecystitis and multiple splenic abscesses. Empiric antibiotic therapy was undertaken. Bartonella, Echinococcus, Entamoeba serologies, blood cultures, Quantiferon test, coproparasitologic exam were negative; endocarditis was excluded. He underwent further blood exams and abdomen MRI, confirming the presence of signal alterations areas, with radiographic appearance of recent post-infarction outcomes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed a percentage of HbS of 40.6% and a diagnosis of SCT was made. Splenic infarction should be taken into account in patients with malaria and localized abdominal pain. Moreover, diagnosis of SCT should be considered.
Joseph Joel Pollak
Full Text Available Accurate malaria diagnosis is critical to prevent malaria fatalities, curb overuse of antimalarial drugs, and promote appropriate management of other causes of fever. While several diagnostic tests exist, the need for a rapid and highly accurate malaria assay remains. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the main diagnostic modalities available, yet they can demonstrate poor performance and accuracy. Automated microscopy platforms have the potential to significantly improve and standardize malaria diagnosis. Based on image recognition and machine learning algorithms, these systems maintain the benefits of light microscopy and provide improvements such as quicker scanning time, greater scanning area, and increased consistency brought by automation. While these applications have been in development for over a decade, recently several commercial platforms have emerged. In this review, we discuss the most advanced computer vision malaria diagnostic technologies and investigate several of their features which are central to field use. Additionally, we discuss the technological and policy barriers to implementing these technologies in low-resource settings world-wide.
Syahputra, A.; Siregar, M. L.; Jamil, K. F.
Indonesia is an endemic malaria country with high levels of morbidity and mortality. In Aceh, by the end of 2016, based on the data from Annual Parasite Incidence, the incidence rate was 0.1 per 1.000 population at risk of malaria. One of severe malaria complications is malaria-related acute kidney injury(MAKI). The death increasesthreefold by the presence of MAKI. A 56 years old male farmer was a resident in Buketmeuh village, Meukek, South Aceh, Indonesia, which was an endemic malaria area. He hadfever for seven days, chills, sweating, joint pain, headache, nausea, vomit, yellow eyes and raved. Concentrated tea-colored urineduring four days before hospital admission with a small amount of urine of 200 cc in 24 hours. The diagnosis established based on the Plasmodium vivax trophozoite finding in the blood smear examination, and the severe malaria clinical descriptions such as black water fever (BWF)with MAKI complications. Artemether injection therapy followed by oral primaquine, dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine phosphate (DHP) and hemodialysis provide a good outcome.
Wu, Song; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Tang, Lin-Hua
The malaria situation in Tibet has been in an active status and the malaria incidence reached the second in China in 2010. Malaria vector prevention and control is one of the important methods for malaria control, while the malaria vectors are still unknown in Tibet. The author summarized the past researches on malaria vectors in Tibet, so as to provide the evidence for improving malaria control investigation in malaria endemic areas of Tibet, with hopes to provide useful vector message for other researcher.
Seghal, P N
A resurgence of malaria in India prompted formation of a Malaria Expert Group, which met in 1996 to formulate an appropriate malaria control strategy. An estimated 20-30 million episodes of malaria occur in India each year. Since malaria is an exclusively focal phenomenon, strategies should be responsive to the epidemiologic characteristics of the five ecotypes: tribal, rural, urban, industrial, and border. Also needed are flexible, individualized strategies for development project areas and Triple Insecticide Resistance Areas. Most malaria deaths are attributable to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Recommended are streamlined logistics for laboratory supplies, monitoring of anti-malarial drugs for possible resistance, training of nongovernmental organizations to open peripheral laboratories, rigorous training for laboratory technicians in malaria diagnosis, training of supervisors for laboratory work and cross-checking of findings, and establishment of graded laboratory facilities for different levels of the health care delivery system. Integration of malaria control into India's primary health care system will require community participation, appropriate technology, intersectoral coordination, and social equity.
Awine, Timothy; Malm, Keziah; Peprah, Nana Yaw; Silal, Sheetal P
Malaria incidence is largely influenced by vector abundance. Among the many interconnected factors relating to malaria transmission, weather conditions such as rainfall and temperature are known to create suitable environmental conditions that sustain reproduction and propagation of anopheles mosquitoes and malaria parasites. In Ghana, climatic conditions vary across the country. Understanding the heterogeneity of malaria morbidity using data sourced from a recently setup data repository for routine health facility data could support planning. Monthly aggregated confirmed uncomplicated malaria cases from the District Health Information Management System and average monthly rainfall and temperature records obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency from 2008 to 2016 were analysed. Univariate time series models were fitted to the malaria, rainfall and temperature data series. After pre-whitening the morbidity data, cross correlation analyses were performed. Subsequently, transfer function models were developed for the relationship between malaria morbidity and rainfall and temperature. Malaria morbidity patterns vary across zones. In the Guinea savannah, morbidity peaks once in the year and twice in both the Transitional forest and Coastal savannah, following similar patterns of rainfall at the zonal level. While the effects of rainfall on malaria morbidity are delayed by a month in the Guinea savannah and Transitional Forest zones those of temperature are delayed by two months in the Transitional forest zone. In the Coastal savannah however, incidence of malaria is significantly associated with two months lead in rainfall and temperature. Data captured on the District Health Information Management System has been used to demonstrate heterogeneity in the dynamics of malaria morbidity across the country. Timing of these variations could guide the deployment of interventions such as indoor residual spraying, Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention or vaccines to optimise
Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Bu, Xiu-qin; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Ben-guang; Chen, Xi-xin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yong-bin
To understand the malaria situation of Shandong Province in 2013, so as to provide the evidence for formulating targeted prevention and control strategy and measures. The data of malaria cases of Shandong Province in 2013 were collected from the Information Management System for Infectious Diseases Report and Information Management System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention. The data of epidemiological characteristics of malaria situation and the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007. There were 131 malaria cases reported in 2013, all of them were imported cases, and 127 cases (96.95%) were imported from African countries. A total of 116 cases (88.55% ) were falciparum malaria cases. Totally 97.71% of the cases were male and the average age of malaria cases was 39 years. A total of 61.83% of the cases were peasants and 65.65% of the cases only received junior high school education. The distribution of malaria cases was concentrated in Tai'an City (32 cases), Yantai City (19 cases) and Weihai City (17 cases),totally acounting for 53.13%. There was no significant seasonal variation in the reporting time of the cases. The median time from on- set to seeing doctor was four days and the median time from seeing doctor to being diagnosed was one day. Totally 35.88% of the cases were misdiagnosed when the first visit to a doctor. All of the cases were laboratory confirmed and 100% of them received the standard treatment after diagnosis. All of the malaria cases were imported cases in Shandong Province in 2013. To control the imported malaria in Shandong Province, it is necessary to further strengthen the multi-sectoral cooperation, health education, malaria screening and professional training.
Hussain, Mohammad A; Dandona, Lalit; Schellenberg, David
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is a cornerstone of malaria control. In India, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) became the first-line treatment for falciparum malaria and rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) kits were recommended for use at the grass-root level in the new malaria treatment policy (2010). Odisha State contributes about one-fourth of the total Indian malaria burden and 40% of falciparum infection. The present study assessed the health system readiness to deploy RDTs and ACT for malaria control across the State. Data collection was carried out from February to July 2012. Five of Odisha's 30 districts were selected through stratified random sampling, with stratification based on the phased roll-out of ACT and RDT. Two administrative 'blocks' were selected randomly in each district and data collected through health facility, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activist (ASHAs) assessments. Key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in the implementation of the malaria control programme. Of the 220 ANMs interviewed, 51.4% had been trained in malaria case management, including the use of ACT and RDT. A high proportion of ANM (80%) and AHSA (77%) had the necessary level of knowledge to be able to use RDT for malaria diagnosis. The proportion of ASHAs trained on malaria case management was 88.9% (209/235). However, 71% of ANM and 55% of ASHAs usually referred falciparum-positive patients to the health facility for treatment, the major reason for referral being the non-availability of drugs at the ANM and ASHA level. The relatively high level of knowledge about how to diagnose and treat malaria at the grass-root level was undermined by the poor availability of RDTs, ACT and primaquine tablets. This was associated with an unnecessarily high referral rate and potential delays in the treatment of this potentially life-threatening infection. Improvements in the supply chain for RDTs and ACT could dramatically
Mamova, Alexandra; Mikolasova, Gertruda; Krčméry, Vladimír; Mulera, Michaela
Clinical presentation of malaria is highly variable and can be mistaken for number of other diseases, including respiratory tract diseases, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, presumptive management of fever as malaria can result in significant overdiagnosis, even in high-risk areas. Quality microscopy services for the diagnosis of malaria are not widely available in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa as well as in substandard conditions of low-income settings and the accuracy of microscopy is usually poor. The aim of the study was to determine how introduction of RDTs influenced diagnostics of malaria in high risk area of Eldoret, Kenya. Documentation of every patient was screened for data of current disease and diagnostic tools used. In patients with suspected malaria, either microscopy, or RDT or both were done to confirm the diagnosis. Initially, incidence of malaria was very high, about 50-70% of all visits in OPD due to any infectious condition. In 2010, when rapid diagnostic tests became available in Eldoret, decrease in incidence of malaria from 49% (2010) to 29% (2011) and further to 5.3% (2016) was noted. At the same time, increased incidence of upper and especially lower respiratory tract infections was noted. Results suggest that upper and lower respiratory tract infections were formerly diagnosed and treated as malaria. Other contributing factors, such as improvement of infrastructure and malaria preventive and treatment programs also play a role in decreasing malaria incidence in rural areas of Kenya, however, RDTs play a key role in proper diagnostics of malaria.
Full Text Available Abstract Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices. More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities, the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between
Mills, Anne; Lubell, Yoel; Hanson, Kara
Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices). More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities), the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between malaria control and economic
Jie, Shao; Wei-Xuan, Chen; Xuan, Zhang
To understand the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Wuxi City, and explore effective strategies and measures for malaria elimination. The data on malaria cases in Wuxi from 2005 to 2014 were collected and analyzed. In Wuxi City, from 2005 to 2014, 201 malaria cases were reported, of which, there were 52 local cases and 149 imported cases. Totally 156 malaria cases were reported from 2005 to 2009, of which 6 cases were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, and 45 malaria cases were reported from 2010 to 2014, of which 23 cases were infected with P. falciparum. From 2005 to 2009, the ratio of male to female was 2.39:1. Migrant workers, farmers and workers were the major infected populations, with a proportion of 41.03%, 17.95% and 9.62%, respectively. From 2010 to 2014, the ratio of male to female was 10.25:1. Workers, farmers and migrant workers were the major infected populations, with a proportion of 37.78%, 11.11% and 6.67%, respectively. The peak of malaria incidence was observed from May to October. From 2005 to 2009, most cases were reported by CDCs, and from 2010 to 2014, most cases were reported by medical institution. There was an increase in proportion of P. falciparum. The control and prevention of malaria should focus on imported cases in the future in Wuxi. The doctors should improve the capacity of malaria diagnosis and treatment.
Naing, Phyo Aung; Maung, Thae Maung; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung
Myanmar has a high burden of malaria with two-third of the population at risk of malaria. One of the basic elements of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative to fight against malaria is early diagnosis and treatment within 24 h of fever. Public awareness about malaria is a key factor in malaria prevention and control and in improving treatment-seeking behaviour. A large community-based survey was carried out in 27 townships of malaria endemic regions in Myanmar in 2015 which reported on the knowledge, behaviour and practices around malaria in the general population. We used the data already collected in this survey to assess (i) general public awareness of malaria and (ii) treatment-seeking behaviour and associated factors among persons with acute undifferentiated fever. A total of 6597 respondents from 6625 households were interviewed (response rate of 99.5%). About 85% of the respondents were aware that mosquito bite was the mode of transmission of malaria and 90% mentioned that malaria was preventable. However, only 16% of the respondents knew about anti-malaria drug resistance. There were certain misconceptions about the transmission of malaria such as dirty water, same blood group, sharing shelter, sleeping/eating together and poor hygiene. Health facility staff were the most common source of information about malaria (80%). Nearly one-fourth (23%) of the respondents with fever resorted to self-medication. Around 28% of the respondents with fever underwent blood testing, less than half of whom (44%) were tested within 24 h. Elderly age group, females, those with poor knowledge about malaria and those residing in non-Regional Artemisinin Resistance Initiative townships were associated with poor treatment-seeking behaviour in case of fever. Although there is fair knowledge on mosquito bite as a mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, there are some misconceptions about transmission of malaria. Those having poor knowledge about malaria have poor treatment
Liu, Yao-Bao; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Wang, Wei-Ming; Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Qi
To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of overseas imported malaria in Jiangsu Province and explore the strategies and priorities in prevention and control, so as to provide the evidence for improving the diagnosis, treatment and management of imported malaria. The data of overseas imported malaria as well as the case epidemiological investigation in Jiangsu Province from July 18, 2011 to June 30, 2012 were collected and analyzed descriptively for the species composition, original countries, population distribution, regional distribution, onset time, diagnosis and treatment, channels to go abroad, and counterparts returned together with the patients. A total of 233 overseas imported malaria cases were reported, and 226 cases (97.0%) were imported from African countries. A total of 208 cases (89.3%) were falciparum malaria, and 224 cases (96.1%) were laboratory-confirmed. The imported malaria cases were young adults who were mainly migrant farmer and skilled male workers. There was no significant seasonal variation for onset time. Totally 145 cases (62.2%) got malaria onset in 20 days after returning home. The median time from onset to seeing doctor was two days and the median time from seeing doctor to being diagnosed was one day. The first visit health facilities by the patients were relatively scattered and the diagnostic health facilities were mainly medical institutions and CDC at the county level and above (220 cases, accounting for 94.4%). The ratio of standard treatment after malaria diagnosis was 100%. A total of 205 cases (88.0%) were workers dispatched to abroad as labor export by the company, and 142 cases (60.9%) cases had counterparts returned together. The situation of overseas imported malaria in Jiangsu Province is severe. It is necessary to further strengthen the professional training and multi-sectoral cooperation, establish the collaborative investigation mechanism for high-risk groups, and take effective prevention and control measures
Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin
La malaria es una enfermedad parasitaria producida por la picadura de un mosquito; una afección que en el año 2015 registró 212 millones de casos y 429.000 muertes. Cada dos minutos, la malaria provocó la muerte de un niño menor de cinco años en todo el mundo. Diferentes científicos a lo largo de todo el mundo han hecho múltiples intentos para combatir esta enfermedad con una vacuna efectiva que pueda erradicarla de raíz.
Amboko, Beatrice I; Ayieko, Philip; Ogero, Morris; Julius, Thomas; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike
Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2-59 months) and adherence to national guidelines. A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12-36 months). The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %). Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 %) were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %). Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 %) children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 %) had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases) although a transition to artesunate (46.1 %) was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely over-use of injectable anti-malarial drugs were observed. Three
Beatrice I. Amboko
Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2–59 months and adherence to national guidelines. Results A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12–36 months. The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %. Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 % were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %. Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 % children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 % had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases although a transition to artesunate (46.1 % was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Conclusions Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely
Age and puberty have been found to contribute to malaria resistance. It is expected that knowledge of natural resistance to malaria may aid in developing Vaccines against this deadly disease. Keywords: malaria resistance, puberty, malaria economy, malaria vaccine. Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 49(5) 2006: 133-142 ...
Full Text Available Abstract Malaria control in Madhya Pradesh is complex because of vast tracts of forest with tribal settlement. Fifty four million individuals of various ethnic origins, accounting for 8% of the total population of India, contributed 30% of total malaria cases, 60% of total falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths in the country. Ambitious goals to control tribal malaria by launching "Enhanced Malaria Control Project" (EMCP by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP, with the World Bank assistance, became effective in September 1997 in eight north Indian states. Under EMCP, the programme used a broader mix of new interventions, i.e. insecticide-treated bed nets, spraying houses with effective residual insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes, rapid diagnostic tests for prompt diagnosis, treatment of the sick with effective radical treatment and increased public awareness and IEC. However, the challenge is to scale up these services. A retrospective analysis of data on malaria morbidity and associated mortality reported under the existing surveillance system of the Madhya Pradesh (Central India for the years 1996–2007 was carried out to determine the impact of EMCP on malaria morbidity and associated mortality. Analysis revealed that despite the availability of effective intervention tools for the prevention and control of malaria, falciparum malaria remains uncontrolled and deaths due to malaria have increased. Precisely, the aim of this epidemiological analysis is to draw lessons applicable to all international aid efforts, bureaucracy, policy makers and programme managers in assessing its project performance as a new Global Malaria Action Plan is launched with ambitious goal of reducing malaria and its elimination by scaling up the use of existing tools.
Lu, Guangyu; Liu, Yaobao; Wang, Jinsong; Li, Xiangming; Liu, Xing; Beiersmann, Claudia; Feng, Yu; Cao, Jun; Müller, Olaf
Continuous training of health workers is a key intervention to maintain their good performance and keep their vigilance during malaria elimination programmes. However, countries progressing toward malaria elimination have a largely decreased malaria disease burden, less frequent exposure of health workers to malaria patients, and new challenges in the epidemiology of the remaining malaria cases. Moreover, competing health priorities and usually a decline in resources and in political commitment also pose challenges to the elimination programme. As a consequence, the acceptability, sustainability, and impact of malaria training and education programmes face challenges. However, little is known of the perceptions and expectations of malaria training and education programmes of health workers being engaged in countries with malaria elimination programmes. This qualitative study provides information on perceptions and expectations of health workers of malaria training programmes from China, which aims to malaria elimination by the year 2020. This study was embedded into a larger study on the challenges and lessons learned during the malaria surveillance strategy in China, involving 42 interviews with malaria experts, health staff, laboratory practitioners, and village doctors at the provincial, city, county, township, and village levels from Gansu province (northwestern China) and Jiangsu province (southeastern China). In the context of an increasing number of imported malaria cases in China, the majority of respondents emphasized the necessity and importance of such programmes and complained about a decreasing frequency of training courses. Moreover, they called for innovative strategies to improve the implementation and sustainability of the malaria training programmes until the elimination goal has been achieved. Perceptions and expectations of health workers from different health centres were quite different. Health workers from higher-level facilities were more
Wang, Wei-Ming; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Liu, Yao-Bao; Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi
To evaluate the effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province through the operation of the national automatic early warning system of infectious diseases. The malaria early warning information was collected from the automatic early warning information subsystem in the national information system for diseases control and prevention. Malaria early warning signals were analyzed from September 1 to December 31, 2012. The statistical analysis was conducted for the completion rates of case investigation within 3 days before and after the application of malaria early warning information system. Jiangsu Province received 85 mobile phone short messages (SMS) of malaria case from early warning system from September 1 to December 31, 2012. After judgments, 23 cases were deleted including 8 repeated cases and 15 cases that were excluded through the microscopy examination and epidemiological investigation by the confirmation of county CDC. From July to December in 2012, the monthly completion rates of case investigation within 3 days were 55.56%, 78.57%, 90.00%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The completion rates of case investigation within 3 days in July, August, September and October were significantly different by chi2 test ( chi2 = 10.66, P early warning system. The malaria warning system from the national infectious diseases can effectively improve the response to malaria cases for primary CDC. It also plays an important role for the timely confirmation and diagnosis of malaria cases.
Ingabire, C.M.; Kateera, F.; Hakizimana, E.; Rulisa, A.; Borne, B. van den; Muvunyi, C.M.; Nieuwold, I.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Mutesa, L.; Vugt, M. van; Alaii, J.
The value of engaging stakeholders for locally relevant responses and sustainable gains in disease control programs has been increasingly acknowledged. As opposed to a traditional top-down implementation of malaria intervention strategies, community bottom up initiatives require that all
Ingabire, Chantal; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; van den Borne, Bart; Muvunyi, Claude; Nieuwold, Ingmar; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Mutesa, Leon; Van Vugt, Michele; Alaii, Jane
The value of engaging stakeholders for locally relevant responses and sustainable gains in disease control programs has been increasingly acknowledged. As opposed to a traditional top-down implementation of malaria intervention strategies, community bottom up initiatives require that all
Quispe, Antonio M.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Clendenes, Martin; Cabezas, Cesar; Leon, Luis M.; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Moreno, Marta; Kaslow, David C.; Grogl, Max; Herrera, Sócrates; Magill, Alan J.; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Lescano, Andres G.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
In February 2014, the Malaria Elimination Working Group, in partnership with the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH), hosted its first international conference on malaria elimination in Iquitos, Peru. The 2-day meeting gathered 85 malaria experts, including 18 international panelists, 23 stakeholders from different malaria-endemic regions of Peru, and 11 MoH authorities. The main outcome was consensus that implementing a malaria elimination project in the Amazon region is achievable, but would require: 1) a comprehensive strategic plan, 2) the altering of current programmatic guidelines from control toward elimination by including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic individuals for antimalarial therapy and transmission-blocking interventions, and 3) the prioritization of community-based active case detection with proper rapid diagnostic tests to interrupt transmission. Elimination efforts must involve key stakeholders and experts at every level of government and include integrated research activities to evaluate, implement, and tailor sustainable interventions appropriate to the region.
Babiker, Hamza A [Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkhod, PO Box 35, Muscat (Oman); Schneider, Petra [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)], E-mail: H.email@example.com
Recent technical advances in malaria research have allowed specific detection of mRNA of genes that are expressed exclusively in sexual stages (gametocytes) of malaria parasites. The specificity and sensitivity of these techniques were validated on cultured laboratory clones of both human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) and rodent parasites (P. chabaudi). More recently, quantitative molecular techniques have been developed to quantify these sexual stages and used to monitor gametocyte dynamics and their transmission to mosquitoes. Molecular techniques showed that the infectious reservoir for malaria is larger than expected from previous microscopic studies; individual parasite genotypes within an infection can simultaneously produce infectious gametocytes; gametocyte production can be sustained for several months, and is modulated by environmental factors. The above techniques have empowered approaches for in-depth analysis of the biology of the transmission stages of the parasite and epidemiology of malaria transmission.
Babiker, Hamza A; Schneider, Petra
Recent technical advances in malaria research have allowed specific detection of mRNA of genes that are expressed exclusively in sexual stages (gametocytes) of malaria parasites. The specificity and sensitivity of these techniques were validated on cultured laboratory clones of both human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) and rodent parasites (P. chabaudi). More recently, quantitative molecular techniques have been developed to quantify these sexual stages and used to monitor gametocyte dynamics and their transmission to mosquitoes. Molecular techniques showed that the infectious reservoir for malaria is larger than expected from previous microscopic studies; individual parasite genotypes within an infection can simultaneously produce infectious gametocytes; gametocyte production can be sustained for several months, and is modulated by environmental factors. The above techniques have empowered approaches for in-depth analysis of the biology of the transmission stages of the parasite and epidemiology of malaria transmission
Tompkins, A. M.; Thomson, M. C.
Simulations of the impact of climate variations on a vector-bornedisease such as malaria are subject to a number of sources ofuncertainty. These include the model structure and parameter settingsin addition to errors in the climate data and the neglect of theirspatial heterogeneity, especially over complex terrain. We use aconstrained genetic algorithm to confront these two sources ofuncertainty for malaria transmission in the highlands of Kenya. Thetechnique calibrates the parameter settings of a process-based,mathematical model of malaria transmission to vary within theirassessed level of uncertainty and also allows the calibration of thedriving climate data. The simulations show that in highland settingsclose to the threshold for sustained transmission, the uncertainty inclimate is more important to address than the malaria modeluncertainty. Applications of the coupled climate-malaria modelling system are briefly presented.
Murhandarwati, E Elsa Herdiana; Fuad, Anis; Sulistyawati; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Bia, Michael Badi; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Kuswantoro; Lobo, Neil F; Supargiyono; Hawley, William A
Malaria has been targeted for elimination from Indonesia by 2030, with varying timelines for specific geographical areas based on disease endemicity. The regional deadline for malaria elimination for Java island, given the steady decrease of malaria cases, was the end of 2015. Purworejo District, a malaria-endemic area in Java with an annual parasite incidence (API) of 0.05 per 1,000 population in 2009, aims to enter this elimination stage. This study documents factors that affect incidence and spatial distribution of malaria in Purworejo, such as geomorphology, topography, health system issues, and identifies potential constraints and challenges to achieve the elimination stage, such as inter-districts coordination, decentralization policy and allocation of financial resources for the programme. Historical malaria data from 2007 to 2011 were collected through secondary data, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions during study year (2010-2011). Malaria cases were mapped using the village-centroid shape file to visualize its distribution with geomorphologic characteristics overlay and spatial distribution of malaria. API in each village in Purworejo and its surrounding districts from 2007 to 2011 was stratified into high, middle or low case incidence to show the spatiotemporal mapping pattern. The spatiotemporal pattern of malaria cases in Purworejo and the adjacent districts demonstrate repeated concentrated occurrences of malaria in specific areas from 2007 to 2011. District health system issues, i.e., suboptimal coordination between primary care and referral systems, suboptimal inter-district collaboration for malaria surveillance, decentralization policy and the lack of resources, especially district budget allocations for the malaria programme, were major constraints for programme sustainability. A new malaria elimination approach that fits the local disease transmission, intervention and political system is required. These changes include timely
Mohsin Bin Mushtaq
Full Text Available Dengue and malaria are both endemic in South Asia and represent a major public health burden in this region. Though there have been some case reports of concurrent infection with dengue and malaria, yet there are only few cases of such infections reported from South Asia. Here, we present a case of a young male returning from a dengue endemic area who tested positive for the virus along with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. In view of the severity of coinfection (Epelboin et al., 2012, overlapping symptoms, and a challenging obscurity of diagnosis, a multidimensional diagnostic approach is suggested.
and the local environment in which the parasites persist. As a result of this integrated approach, Mexico was able to abandon DDT ahead of schedule. 9. Case study. Health. AN ECOSYSTEM APPROACH. IDRC: Peter Bennett. Treatment is delayed when malaria is diagnosed through laboratory analysis of blood samples, ...
May 25, 1974 ... In contrast with our present tragically drought-stricken state, we all longingly recall the previous season when nature gave of her abundance with that memorably high rainfall. We also, however, recall the very real scare of malaria which then arose, particularly in this area; a scare which had medical and ...
resistance has developed.' Extensive research now supports the implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapies to improve cure rates, decrease malaria transmission and delay resistance.8'9 To determine whether current levels of SP resistance remain adequate to support its use in combination.
artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). Resistance to artemisinin is associated with a S769N point ... replaced former mono-therapy options in management of uncomplicated malaria as. 1 recommended by ..... Microbiol 2004; 42: 636-638. 13. Rodulfo H, De Donato M, Mora R, Gonzalez L,. Contreras CE Comparison of the ...
The arte- iincompiicated Plasmodium fkilciparum malaria in mether derivative has good solubility in lipids as adults attending outpatient clinic at the Navrongo. War Memorial Hospital. A total of US patients Weii as aqueous media Wiiii duiei fest Onset Oi' ...
Malaria continues to be one of the main public health problems in the world, ... may not be available. These tests are based on the detection of antigen(s) released from. 6 parasitized red blood cells . In the case of. Plasmodium falciparum, these new methods are ..... increases the chances of spending more on unnecessary ...
20 (May, 2017); 111- 119. Full Length Research Paper ... They were evaluated for the presence, quality, intensity and effects of pain using validated instruments incorporating the category ... malaria with higher risk in children, males, persons with hematocrit <30% and those not using artemisinin-based combination therapy.
Malaria is a major economic and public health problem in mainly sub-Saharan Africa. Globally 300-500 million new infections occur each year with 1-3 million fatal cases in particular young children. The most effective way to reduce disease and death from infectious diseases is to vaccinate
Mutero, Clifford M; Kramer, Randall A; Paul, Christopher; Lesser, Adriane; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kiptui, Rebecca; Kabatereine, Narcis; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh
Policy decisions for malaria control are often difficult to make as decision-makers have to carefully consider an array of options and respond to the needs of a large number of stakeholders. This study assessed the factors and specific objectives that influence malaria control policy decisions, as a crucial first step towards developing an inclusive malaria decision analysis support tool (MDAST). Country-specific stakeholder engagement activities using structured questionnaires were carried out in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The survey respondents were drawn from a non-random purposeful sample of stakeholders, targeting individuals in ministries and non-governmental organizations whose policy decisions and actions are likely to have an impact on the status of malaria. Summary statistics across the three countries are presented in aggregate. Important findings aggregated across countries included a belief that donor preferences and agendas were exerting too much influence on malaria policies in the countries. Respondents on average also thought that some relevant objectives such as engaging members of parliament by the agency responsible for malaria control in a particular country were not being given enough consideration in malaria decision-making. Factors found to influence decisions regarding specific malaria control strategies included donor agendas, costs, effectiveness of interventions, health and environmental impacts, compliance and/acceptance, financial sustainability, and vector resistance to insecticides. Malaria control decision-makers in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania take into account health and environmental impacts as well as cost implications of different intervention strategies. Further engagement of government legislators and other policy makers is needed in order to increase funding from domestic sources, reduce donor dependence, sustain interventions and consolidate current gains in malaria.
Cox, Jonathan; Sovannaroth, Siv; Dy Soley, Lek; Ngor, Pengby; Mellor, Steven; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa
Accurate malaria stratification is essential for effective targeting of interventions but represents a particular challenge in pre-elimination settings. In these settings transmission is typically sufficiently low and spatially heterogeneous to warrant a need for estimates of malaria risk at sub-district or village level but is also likely to be sufficiently high to render the type of decision support systems appropriate to the final stages of malaria elimination impractical. In such a scenario it is arguably more feasible to strengthen existing passive malaria surveillance systems so that routinely generated case data can provide an effective basis for stratifying malaria risk. This paper explores the utility of routine malaria surveillance data for the stratification of malaria risk in Cambodia, where the target is malaria elimination by 2025. A malaria information system (MIS) was developed to generate timely, routine data on temporal and spatial variations in malaria cases reported through public health facilities and village malaria workers (VMWs). The MIS was implemented across all malaria endemic districts in the country during 2010-11. In 2012 MIS data were extracted and assessed on the basis of coverage and completeness. Village-level incidence estimates for 2011 were generated using predefined data inclusion criteria. In 2011, the MIS covered 681 health facilities and 1,489 VMW villages; the overall completeness of monthly reporting was 82& and 97& for health facilities and VMWs respectively. Using these data it was possible to estimate malaria incidence for 89& of villages covered by the MIS. The resulting stratification highlights the highly heterogeneous nature of malaria transmission in Cambodia and underlines the importance of village-level data for effective targeting of interventions, including VMWs. Challenges associated with implementing the MIS and the implications of these for developing viable and sustainable MIS in Cambodia and elsewhere are
Jiménez Beatriz C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in pregnancy is associated with maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, but information on imported cases to non-endemic areas is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of malaria in pregnancy in two general hospitals in Madrid, Spain. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of laboratory-confirmed malaria in pregnant women at the Fuenlabrada University Hospital and the Príncipe de Asturias University Hospital, in Madrid, over a six- and 11-year period, respectively. Relevant epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data was obtained from medical records. Results There were 19 pregnant women among 346 malaria cases (5.4%. The average age was 27 years. The gestational age (trimester was: 53% 3rd, 31% 1st, 16% 2nd. All but one were multigravidae. Three were HIV positive. All were sub-Saharan immigrants: two were recently arrived immigrants and seventeen (89% had visited friends and relatives. None had taken prophylaxis nor seeked pre-travel advice. Presentation: 16 symptomatic patients (fever in fourteen, asthenia in two, three asymptomatic. Median delay in diagnosis: 7.5 days. Laboratory tests: anaemia (cut off Hb level 11 g/dl 78.9% (mild 31.6%, moderate 31.6%, severe 15.8% thrombocytopaenia 73.7%, hypoglycaemia 10.5%. All cases were due to Plasmodium falciparum, one case of hyperparasitaemia. Quinine + clindamycin prescribed in 84%. Outcomes: no severe maternal complications or deaths, two abortions, fifteen term pregnancies, no low-birth-weight newborns, two patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Though cases of malaria in pregnancy are uncommon, a most at risk group is clearly defined: young sub-Saharan mothers visiting friends and relatives without pre-travel counselling and recently-arrived immigrants. The most common adverse maternal and foetal effects were anaemia and stillbirth. Given that presentation can be asymptomatic
... Malaria About Malaria FAQs Fast Facts Disease Biology Ecology Human Factors Sickle Cell Mosquitoes Parasites Where Malaria ... medicines, also consider the possibility of drug-drug interactions with other medicines that the person might be ...
Tutorials for Africa: Malaria In Uganda, the burden of malaria outranks that of all other diseases. This tutorial includes information about how malaria spreads, the importance of treatment and techniques for ...
Performance of Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis by Diagnostic Laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of a Nation-Wide External Quality Assessment
Mukadi, Pierre; Lejon, Veerle; Barbé, Barbara; Gillet, Philippe; Nyembo, Christophe; Lukuka, Albert; Likwela, Joris; Lumbala, Crispin; Mbaruku, Justin; Vander Veken, Wim; Mumba, Dieudonné; Lutumba, Pascal; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan
The present External Quality Assessment (EQA) assessed microscopy of blood parasites among diagnostic laboratories in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The EQA addressed 445 participants in 10/11 provinces (October 2013–April 2014). Participants were sent a panel of five slides and asked to return a routinely stained slide which was assessed for quality of preparation and staining. Response rate was 89.9% (400/445). For slide 1 (no parasites), 30.6% participants reported malaria, mostly Plasmodium falciparum. Only 11.0% participants reported slide 2 (Plasmodium malariae) correctly, 71.0% reported “malaria” or “Plasmodium falciparum” (considered acceptable). Slide 3 contained Plasmodium falciparum (109/μl) and Trypanosoma brucei brucei trypomastigotes: they were each reported by 32.5% and 16.5% participants respectively, 6.0% reported both. Slide 4 (Trypanosoma) was recognised by 44.9% participants. Slide 5 (Plasmodium ovale) was correctly reported by 6.2% participants, another 68.8% replied “malaria” or “Plasmodium falciparum” (considered acceptable). Only 13.6% of routine slides returned were correctly prepared and stained. The proportion of correct/acceptable scores for at least 4/5 slides was higher among EQA-experienced participants compared to first time participants (40.9% versus 22.4%, p = 0.001) and higher among those being trained < 2 years ago compared to those who were not (42.9% versus 26.3%, p = 0.01). Among diagnostic laboratories in Democratic Republic of the Congo, performance of blood parasite microscopy including non-falciparum species and Trypanosoma was poor. Recent training and previous EQA participation were associated with a better performance. PMID:26788725
Brandi D Freeman
Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including cerebral malaria, a potentially life-threatening encephalopathy. Vasculopathy is thought to contribute to cerebral malaria pathogenesis. The vasoactive compound endothelin-1, a key participant in many inflammatory processes, likely mediates vascular and cognitive dysfunctions in cerebral malaria. We previously demonstrated that C57BL6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA, our fatal experimental cerebral malaria model, sustained memory loss. Herein, we demonstrate that an endothelin type A receptor (ETA antagonist prevented experimental cerebral malaria-induced neurocognitive impairments and improved survival. ETA antagonism prevented blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral vasoconstriction during experimental cerebral malaria, and reduced brain endothelial activation, diminishing brain microvascular congestion. Furthermore, exogenous endothelin-1 administration to P. berghei NK65-infected mice, a model generally regarded as a non-cerebral malaria negative control for P. berghei ANKA infection, led to experimental cerebral malaria-like memory deficits. Our data indicate that endothelin-1 is critical in the development of cerebrovascular and cognitive impairments with experimental cerebral malaria. This vasoactive peptide may thus serve as a potential target for adjunctive therapy in the management of cerebral malaria.
Barber, Bridget E; Rajahram, Giri S; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M
The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation. The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.
Douine, Maylis; Sanna, Alice; Galindo, Muriel; Musset, Lise; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Marchesini, Paola; Magalhaes, Edgard Dias; Suarez-Mutis, Martha; Hiwat, Helene; Nacher, Mathieu; Vreden, Stephen; Garancher, Laure
Illegal gold miners in French Guiana, a French overseas territory ('département') located in Amazonia, often carry malaria parasites (up to 46.8%). While the Guiana Shield Region aims at malaria elimination, the high prevalence of Plasmodium in this hard-to-reach population in conjunction with frequent incorrect use of artemisinin-based anti-malarials could favour the emergence of resistant parasites. Due to geographical and regulatory issues in French Guiana, usual malaria control strategies cannot be implemented in this particular context. Therefore, new strategies targeting this specific population in the forest are required. Numerous discussions among health institutions and scientific partners from French Guiana, Brazil and Suriname have led to an innovative project based on the distribution of kits for self-diagnosis and self-treatment of Plasmodium infections. The kit-distribution will be implemented at "resting sites", which are areas across the border of French Guiana regularly frequented by gold miners. The main objective is to increase the appropriate use and complete malaria treatment after a positive malaria diagnosis with a rapid test, which will be evaluated with before-and-after cross-sectional studies. Monitoring indicators will be collected from health mediators at the time of kit distribution and during subsequent visits, and from illegal gold miners themselves, through a smartphone application. The project funding is multisource, including Ministries of Health of the three countries, WHO/PAHO, and the European Union. This project will start in April 2018 as a 18 month pilot study led by the Clinical Investigation Centre of Cayenne. Results should be available at the end of 2019. This innovative approach may have several limitations which should be taken into account, as potential side effects, kit misuse or resale, declarative main criteria, or no Plasmodium vivax curative treatment. Close monitoring is thus needed. This project may be the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless
Adrienne M. Lucas
The malaria eradication campaign that started in Sri Lanka in the late 1940s virtually eliminated malaria transmission on the island. I use the pre-eradication differences in malaria endemicity within Sri Lanka to identify the effect of malaria eradication on fertility and child survival. Malaria eradication increased the number of live births through increasing age specific fertility and causing an earlier first birth. The effect of malaria on the transition time to higher order births is in...
Berthélemy, Jean-Claude; Thuilliez, Josselin; Doumbo, Ogobara; Gaudart, Jean
In spite of massive efforts to generalize efficient prevention, such as insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) or long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), malaria remains prevalent in many countries and ITN/LLINs are still only used to a limited extent. This study proposes a new model for malaria economic analysis by combining economic epidemiology tools with the literature on poverty traps. A theoretical model of rational protective behaviour in response to malaria is designed, which includes endogenous externalities and disease characteristics. Survey data available for Uganda provide empirical support to the theory of prevalence-elastic protection behaviours, once endogeneity issues related to epidemiology and poverty are solved. Two important conclusions emerge from the model. First, agents increase their protective behaviour when malaria is more prevalent in a society. This is consistent with the literature on "prevalence-elastic behaviour". Second, a 'malaria trap' defined as the result of malaria reinforcing poverty while poverty reduces the ability to deal with malaria can theoretically exist and the conditions of existence of the malaria trap are identified. These results suggest the possible existence of malaria traps, which provides policy implications. Notably, providing ITN/LLINs at subsidized prices is not sufficient. To be efficient an ITN/LLINs dissemination campaigns should include incentive of the very poor for using ITN/LLINs.
Siala, Emna; Gamara, Dhikrayet; Kallel, Kalthoum; Daaboub, Jabeur; Zouiten, Faiçal; Houzé, Sandrine; Bouratbine, Aïda; Aoun, Karim
Four cases of airport malaria were notified for the first time in Tunisia during the summer of 2013. All patients were neighbours living within 2 km of Tunis International Airport. They had no history of travel to malarious countries, of blood transfusion or of intravenous drug use. Although malaria transmission had ceased in Tunisia since 1980, autochthonous infection by local Anopheles mosquitoes was initially considered. However, this diagnostic hypothesis was ruled out due to negative entomological survey and the absence of additional cases.All cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Clinical presentation was severe (important thrombocytopaenia and parasitaemia), because of relatively important delay in diagnosis (average of seven days). This indicates the need to consider malaria while examining airport employees or people living near international airports presenting with fever of unknown origin. It also stresses the need for effective spraying of aircrafts coming from malarious areas.
Sauerwein, R W; Bousema, T
Stimulated by recent advances in malaria control and increased funding, the elimination of malaria is now considered to be an attainable goal for an increasing number of malaria-endemic regions. This has boosted the interest in transmission-reducing interventions including vaccines that target sexual, sporogenic, and/or mosquito-stage antigens to interrupt malaria transmission (SSM-VIMT). SSM-VIMT aim to prevent human malaria infection in vaccinated communities by inhibiting parasite development within the mosquito after a blood meal taken from a gametocyte carrier. Only a handful of target antigens are in clinical development and progress has been slow over the years. Major stumbling blocks include (i) the expression of appropriately folded target proteins and their downstream purification, (ii) insufficient induction of sustained functional blocking antibody titers by candidate vaccines in humans, and (iii) validation of a number of (bio)-assays as correlate for blocking activity in the field. Here we discuss clinical manufacturing and testing of current SSM-VIMT candidates and the latest bio-assay development for clinical evaluation. New testing strategies are discussed that may accelerate the evaluation and application of SSM-VIMT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Farah Hafiz Yusuf,1 Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz,1 Maria Shoaib,1 Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed2 1Department of Medicine, Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Cerebral malaria is a medical emergency. All patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria with neurologic manifestations of any degree should be urgently treated as cases of cerebral malaria. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is due to damaged vascular endothelium by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production and vascular leakage, which result in brain hypoxia, as indicated by increased lactate and alanine concentrations. The levels of the biomarkers’ histidine-rich protein II, angiopoietin-Tie-2 system and plasma osteoprotegrin serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Brain imaging may show neuropathology around the caudate and putamen. Mortality is high and patients who survive sustain brain injury which manifests as long-term neurocognitive impairments. Keywords: cerebral malaria, neurologic manifestations, mortality, biomarkers, brain imaging
Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier
The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier
The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187
Ssempiira, Julius; Nambuusi, Betty; Kissa, John; Agaba, Bosco; Makumbi, Fredrick; Kasasa, Simon; Vounatsou, Penelope
interventions calls for selective implementation of control tools suitable to regional ecological settings. To further reduce malaria burden and sustain malaria control in Uganda, current tools should be supplemented by health system strengthening, and socio-economic development.
effects of the interventions calls for selective implementation of control tools suitable to regional ecological settings. To further reduce malaria burden and sustain malaria control in Uganda, current tools should be supplemented by health system strengthening, and socio-economic development.
Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A. B.
Malaria transmission is closely linked to climatology, hydrology, environment, and the biology of local vectors. These factors interact with each other and non-linearly influence malaria transmission dynamics, making prediction and prevention challenging. Our work attempts to find a universality in the multi-dimensional system of malaria transmission and to develop a theory to predict emergence of malaria given a limited set of environmental and biological inputs.A credible malaria transmission dynamics model, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al., 2008), was used under hypothetical settings to investigate the role of spatial and temporal distribution of vector breeding pools. HYDREMATS is a mechanistic model and capable of simulating the basic reproduction rate (Ro) without bold assumptions even under dynamic conditions. The spatial distribution of pools is mainly governed by hydrological factors; the impact of pool persistence and rainy season length on malaria transmission were investigated. Also analyzed was the impact of the temporal distribution of pools relative to human houses. We developed non-dimensional variables combining the hydrological and biological parameters. Simulated values of Ro from HYDREMATS are presented in a newly-introduced non-dimensional plane, which leads to a some-what universal theory describing the condition for sustainable malaria transmission. The findings were tested against observations both from the West Africa and the Ethiopian Highland, representing diverse hydroclimatological conditions. Predicated Ro values from the theory over the two regions are in good agreement with the observed malaria transmission data.
Valerie A White
Full Text Available The causes of coma and death in cerebral malaria remain unknown. Malarial retinopathy has been identified as an important clinical sign in the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral malaria. As part of a larger autopsy study to determine causes of death in children with coma presenting to hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, who were fully evaluated clinically prior to death, we examined the histopathology of eyes of patients who died and underwent autopsy.Children with coma were admitted to the pediatric research ward, classified according to clinical definitions as having cerebral malaria or another cause of coma, evaluated and treated. The eyes were examined by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. If a child died and permission was given, a standardized autopsy was carried out. The patient was then assigned an actual cause of death according to the autopsy findings. The eyes were examined pathologically for hemorrhages, cystoid macular edema, parasite sequestration and thrombi. They were stained immunohistochemically for fibrin and CD61 to identify the components of thrombi, beta-amyloid precursor protein to detect axonal damage, for fibrinogen to identify vascular leakage and for glial fibrillary acidic protein to detect gliosis. Sixty-four eyes from 64 patients were examined: 35 with cerebral malaria and 29 with comas of other causes. Cerebral malaria was distinguished by sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, the presence and severity of retinal hemorrhages, the presence of cystoid macular edema, the occurrence and number of fibrin-platelet thrombi, the presence and amount of axonal damage and vascular leakage.We found significant differences in retinal histopathology between patients who died of cerebral malaria and those with other diagnoses. These histopathological findings offer insights into the etiology of malarial retinopathy and provide a pathological basis for recently described retinal capillary non-perfusion in children with malarial
Silva, Ivo; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça.; Catarino, Susana O.
Malaria is a parasitic disease with more than a billion people worldwide at risk of contraction. The disease is predominantly widespread in regions with precarious healthcare conditions and resources. Despite the several available malaria diagnostic methods, only two are predominantly used in the field in malaria-endemic countries: microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In this work, an alternative diagnostic system is proposed, based on optical absorption spectrophotometry. The main objective of this paper is the spectrophotometric study of hemozoin as a malaria biomarker, since it is a sub-product of the malaria infection. The optical absorbance of hemoglobin and hemozoin solutions in purified water was measured in the visible spectrum range using a spectrophotometric setup. The results showed main absorbance peaks at 540 nm and 574 nm for hemoglobin, and at 672 nm for hemozoin. The tests performed in aqueous solutions have shown that both hemoglobin and synthetic hemozoin, when alone in solution, were detected by absorbance, with sensitivity of 0.05 g/L, and with a high linearity (R2> 0.92 for all wavelength peaks). Furthermore, it was found that the whole blood and the hemoglobin spectra have similar absorption peaks. By combining whole blood and synthetic hemozoin solutions, it was proved that both the hemozoin and the hemoglobin absorbance peaks could still be detected by spectrophotometry. For instance, in polydimethylsiloxane wells, the proposed method was able to detect hemozoin in whole blood samples for optical paths as low as 3 mm in cylindrical wells, thus proving the capability for this method's miniaturization. With this work, it is possible to conclude that hemozoin is a viable candidate as a biomarker for malaria detection by optical absorption spectrophotometry and also, that an autonomous, fully integrated and low cost miniaturized system, based on such a principle, could provide an efficient diagnosis of malaria.
Matthew R. Boyce
Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs represent one diagnostic method that is used in a variety of contexts to overcome limitations of other diagnostic techniques. Malaria RDTs increase the availability and feasibility of accurate diagnosis and may result in improved quality of care. Though RDTs are used in a variety of contexts, no studies have compared how well or effectively RDTs are used across these contexts. This review assesses the diagnostic use of RDTs in four different contexts: health facilities, the community, drug shops and schools. Methods A comprehensive search of the Pubmed database was conducted to evaluate RDT execution, test accuracy, or adherence to test results in sub-Saharan Africa. Original RDT and Plasmodium falciparum focused studies conducted in formal health care facilities, drug shops, schools, or by CHWs between the year 2000 and December 2016 were included. Studies were excluded if they were conducted exclusively in a research laboratory setting, where staff from the study team conducted RDTs, or in settings outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Results The literature search identified 757 reports. A total of 52 studies were included in the analysis. Overall, RDTs were performed safely and effectively by community health workers provided they receive proper training. Analogous information was largely absent for formal health care workers. Tests were generally accurate across contexts, except for in drug shops where lower specificities were observed. Adherence to RDT results was higher among drug shop vendors and community health workers, while adherence was more variable among formal health care workers, most notably with negative test results. Conclusions Malaria RDTs are generally used well, though compliance with test results is variable – especially in the formal health care sector. If low adherence
Boyce, Matthew R; O'Meara, Wendy P
The World Health Organization recommends parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) represent one diagnostic method that is used in a variety of contexts to overcome limitations of other diagnostic techniques. Malaria RDTs increase the availability and feasibility of accurate diagnosis and may result in improved quality of care. Though RDTs are used in a variety of contexts, no studies have compared how well or effectively RDTs are used across these contexts. This review assesses the diagnostic use of RDTs in four different contexts: health facilities, the community, drug shops and schools. A comprehensive search of the Pubmed database was conducted to evaluate RDT execution, test accuracy, or adherence to test results in sub-Saharan Africa. Original RDT and Plasmodium falciparum focused studies conducted in formal health care facilities, drug shops, schools, or by CHWs between the year 2000 and December 2016 were included. Studies were excluded if they were conducted exclusively in a research laboratory setting, where staff from the study team conducted RDTs, or in settings outside of sub-Saharan Africa. The literature search identified 757 reports. A total of 52 studies were included in the analysis. Overall, RDTs were performed safely and effectively by community health workers provided they receive proper training. Analogous information was largely absent for formal health care workers. Tests were generally accurate across contexts, except for in drug shops where lower specificities were observed. Adherence to RDT results was higher among drug shop vendors and community health workers, while adherence was more variable among formal health care workers, most notably with negative test results. Malaria RDTs are generally used well, though compliance with test results is variable - especially in the formal health care sector. If low adherence rates are extrapolated, thousands of patients may be incorrectly
Bennett, Adam; Avanceña, Anton L V; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Cotter, Chris; Roberts, Kathryn; Gosling, Roly
In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited. Moreover, the most effective strategies for private sector engagement in malaria elimination settings remain unclear. Twenty-five experts in malaria elimination, disease surveillance and private sector engagement were purposively sampled and interviewed. An extensive review of grey and peer-reviewed literature on private sector testing, treatment, and reporting for malaria was performed. Additional in-depth literature review was conducted for six case studies on eliminating and neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. The private health sector can be categorized based on their commercial orientation or business model (for-profit versus nonprofit) and their regulation status within a country (formal vs informal). A number of potentially effective strategies exist for engaging the private sector. Conducting a baseline assessment of the private sector is critical to understanding its composition, size, geographical distribution and quality of services provided. Facilitating reporting, referral and training linkages between the public and private sectors and making malaria a notifiable disease are important strategies to improve private sector involvement in malaria surveillance. Financial incentives for uptake of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy should be combined with training and community awareness campaigns for improving uptake. Private sector providers can also be organized and better engaged through social
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Clarke, Siân E.; Lal, Sham
to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. Methods Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs...... of malaria, resulting in low incremental costs for the health sector at US $0.55 per patient appropriately treated of malaria. High expenditure on non-ACT drugs by households contributed to higher incremental societal costs of US$3.83. Sensitivity analysis showed that mRDTs would become less cost......Background Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access...
Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho
Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.
Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D
. The study reports on the experiences with the establishment of a village health facility and its effect on the treatment-seeking behavior of the population. After the introduction of the village treatment center it quickly took over the role of main provider for diagnosis and treatment of malaria from......Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases is one of the basic elements of the current global malaria control strategy. In order to provide this service to people in rural areas there is a need for new cost-effective approaches. To ensure that such new approaches are acceptable to the target...... communities, it is important to know the rationale for people's malaria treatment-seeking behavior. The present study provides insights into the reasons for people's preferences for different types of healthcare facilities and describes variation of these preferences within a rural community in Sri Lanka...
Martens, W.J.M. [University of Limburg, Department of Mathematics, Maastricht (Netherlands)
The biological activity and geographic distribution of the malaria parasite and its vector are sensitive to climate influences especially temperature and precipitation. In this paper the effects of an increase in temperature on the epidemic potential of malaria are explored. Assessment of the potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk suggests a widespread increase of risk due to an expansion of areas suitable for malaria transmission. The health impact will be most pronounced in populations living in the less economically-developed temperate areas in which endemicity is low or absent. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 9 refs.
Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in India. It is often associated with other infective conditions but concomitant infection of malaria and meningitis are uncommon. We present a case of meningitis with vivax malaria infection in a 24-year-old lady. This case emphasizes the importance of high index of clinical suspicion to detect other infective conditions like meningitis when fever does not improve even after anti-malarial treatment in a patient of malaria before switching therapy suspecting drug resistance, which is quite common in this part of world.
Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J
In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while hypoglyc......In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while...
KV Kanodia; AV Vanikar
Malaria has protean clinical manifestations and renal complications, particularly acute renal failure that could be life threatening. To evaluate the incidence, clinical profile, ou come and predictors of mortality in patients with malarial acute renal failure, we retrospectively studied the last two years records of malaria induced acute renal failure in patients with peripheral smear positive for malarial parasites. One hundred (10.4%) (63 males, 37 females) malaria induced acute renal failure amongst 958 cases of acute renal failure were evaluated. Plasmodium (P). falciparum was reported in 85%, P. vivax in 2%, and both in 13% patients. The mean serum creatinine was 9.2 ± 4.2 mg%, and oligo/anuria was present in 82%; 78% of the patients required hemodialysis. Sixty four percent of the patients recovered completely, 10% incompletely, and 5% developed chronic kidney failure; mortality occurred in 21% of the patients. Low hemoglobin, oligo/anuria on admission, hyperbilirubinemia, cerebral malaria, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and high serum creatinine were the main predictors of mortality. We conclude that malaria is associated with acute renal failure, which occurs most commonly in plasmodium falciparum infected patients. Early diagnosis and prompt dialysis with supportive management can reduce morality and enhance recovery of renal function (Author).
Bont, L; Schepel, N; de Vries, P; Kager, P A
To determine how and where malaria was diagnosed in a forestry area in South-Vietnam and how it was treated. Descriptive. Hieu Liem, Dong Nai province, Vietnam. In the government hospital and health posts malaria diagnosis and treatment were free of charge while treatment had to be paid for in four private clinics. A population survey was carried out in the forestry area and outside this area: the people were examined for splenic enlargement and a blood sample was analysed. Most patients went to private clinics and it was here that malaria was most frequently diagnosed. In 7.5% of the population in the forest area parasites were found while 1.8% of those living outside the forest appeared to have parasites in the blood. None of the persons with parasitaemia had splenomegaly. Splenomegaly was found in 2.9% of the population, 6.7% in and 0.9% outside the forest area. Recent changes in the health sector in Vietnam have liberalized malaria treatment, possibly control. The wide distribution and extensive use of effective drugs like artesunate and mefloquine have probably contributed to reduction of (severe) malaria, but development of resistance to these drugs is to be feared. Control of drug distribution and of prescription practices is urgently needed.
Baswin, A.; Siregar, M. L.; Jamil, K. F.
P. falciparum-induced severe malaria with life-threatening complications like acute kidney injury (AKI), jaundice, cerebral malaria, severe anemia, acidosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A 31-year-old soldier man who works in Aceh Singkil, Indonesia which is an endemic malaria area presented with a paroxysm of fever, shaking chills and sweats over four days, headache, arthralgia, abdominal pain, pale, jaundice, and oliguria. Urinalysis showed hemoglobinuria. Blood examination showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Falciparum malaria was then confirmed by peripheral blood smear, antimalarial medications were initiated, and hemodialysis was performed for eight times. The patient’s condition and laboratory results were quickly normalized. We report a case of P. falciparum-induced severe malaria with AKI and jaundice. The present case suggests that P. falciparum may induce severe malaria with life-threatening complications, early diagnosis and treatment is important to improve the quality of life of patients. Physicians must be alert for correct diagnosis and proper management of imported tropical malaria when patients have travel history in endemic areas.
Lederman, Edith R; Sutanto, Inge; Wibudi, Aris; Ratulangie, Lina; Rudiansyah, Irwan; Fatmi, Aida; Kurniawan, Liliana; Nelwan, Ronald H H; Maguire, Jason D
Autochthonous malaria does not currently occur in Jakarta, the most populous city in Indonesia. Military, forestry, mining, and tourist activities draw Jakarta residents to distant parts of the archipelago with high rates of malaria. Although malaria is a reportable disease in Jakarta, little has been published. We collected demographic and travel information from patients in Jakarta with microscopically confirmed malaria from January 2004 to February 2005, using a standardized data collection form. These results were compared to regional rainfall statistics and transit patterns of Jakarta residents to and from rural areas. Data from 240 patients were collected. Aceh Province was the travel destination most commonly recorded for military members, while Papua and Bangka Island were the most frequently cited by civilians. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 53% of cases, of which 15% had detectable gametocytemia. The most common admission diagnoses were malaria (39%), febrile illness not otherwise specified (23%), viral hepatitis (19%), and dengue (11%). The median time from admission to microscopic diagnosis was 2 days for civilian patients and 2.5 days for military patients. The highest number of cases occurred in May, July, and December with the nadir in October. The diagnosis of malaria may be overlooked and therefore delayed, in nonendemic areas such as Jakarta. Travel destinations associated with contracting malaria vary significantly for civilian and military populations. The factors affecting the peak months of importation likely include rainfall, holiday transit, military flight availability, and referral center locations.
Full Text Available Malaria, a major public health problem worldwide, is a predominant infectious disease in most tropical and subtropical countries. Before 1965, Taiwan was a hyperendemic area, but most cases are now imported. We present our experience of dealing with various malaria infections. Charts of malaria patients visiting university hospitals in southern Taiwan between January 1991 and June 2002 were available for review. All diagnoses were made by positive blood smear and detailed history that included countries visited, paroxysm of symptoms, and medical treatment. Seventeen patients, 6 women and 11 men (mean age, 32.3 ± 11.8 years, were enrolled. Six were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, eight with Plasmodium vivax, two with a combination of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and one with an unidentified infection. All Taiwanese patients infected with P. falciparum (n = 5 contracted the disease in Africa or Indonesia. All Taiwanese patients infected with P. vivax (n = 4 contracted the disease in Southeast Asia or Oceania. Fever and chills were the leading symptoms of malaria. P. falciparum infection was treated with quinine and doxycycline/tetracycline, with the addition of artesunate for cerebral malaria. P. vivax infection was treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Maintaining a high degree of suspicion in patients with a history of travel to malaria-endemic areas is the major cornerstone of malaria diagnosis. Erroneous diagnosis and improper treatment leads to greater morbidity and even mortality.
She, Guo-lin; Ma, Yu-Cai; Wang, Fu-biao
To analyze the current situation of the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria in Hanjiang District and evaluate its effect. According to the Management Scheme on Control of Imported Falciparum Malaria in Yangzhou City, the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria was implemented, and the relevant malaria data were collected and analyzed statistically. The data included plasmodium blood test ratio of fever patients among exported labors and those returned, the ratio of laboratory-confirmed cases among all reported cases of falciparum malaria, the ratio of falciparum malaria patients who received the standard treatment within 24 hours after onset, etc from 2010 to 2012. After the implementation of the comprehensive prevention and control system, the confirmation ratio of falciparum malaria cases within 24 hours following first visit has reached 60.47%, the average time from first visit to confirmation has shortened to 1.8 d, and the average time from onset to confirmation has shortened to 3.7 d. The health education coverage ratio was 100%, the health knowledge awareness ratio was 95.56%, the ratio of patients seeking treatment on own initiative was 100%, the laboratory-confirmed ratio was 100%, and the ratio of standard treatment after malaria diagnosis was 100%. The comprehensive prevention and control system carried out by Hanjiang District has made remarkable achievements.
Portero, José-Luis; Rubio-Yuste, Maria; Descalzo, Miguel Angel; Raso, Jose; Lwanga, Magdalena; Obono, Jaquelina; Nseng, Gloria; Benito, Agustin; Cano, Jorge
Conventional malaria diagnosis based on microscopy raises serious difficulties in weak health systems. Cost-effective and sensitive rapid diagnostic tests have been recently proposed as alternatives to microscopy. In Equatorial Guinea, a study was conducted to assess the reliability of a rapid diagnostic test compared to microscopy. The study was designed in accordance with the directives of the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Initiative (STARD). Peripheral thick and thin films for the microscopy diagnosis and a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria Combo Cassette Test) were performed on under five-year-old children with malaria suspicion. The ICT test detected Plasmodium spp. infection with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 81.9% while P. falciparum diagnosis occurred with a sensitivity of 69.7% and a specificity of 73.7%. The sensitivity of the ICT test increased with higher parasitemias. The general results showed little concordance between the ICT test and microscopy (kappa = 0.28, se: 0.04). In Equatorial Guinea, the ICT Malaria Combo Cassette Test has proven to be an acceptable test to detect high P. falciparum parasitemias. However, the decrease of sensitivity at medium and low parasitemias hampers that ICT can replace properly performed microscopy at present in the diagnosis of malaria in children.
Portero, José-Luis; Rubio-Yuste, Maria; Descalzo, Miguel Angel; Raso, Jose; Lwanga, Magdalena; Obono, Jaquelina; Nseng, Gloria; Benito, Agustin; Cano, Jorge
Conventional malaria diagnosis based on microscopy raises serious difficulties in weak health systems. Cost-effective and sensitive rapid diagnostic tests have been recently proposed as alternatives to microscopy. In Equatorial Guinea, a study was conducted to assess the reliability of a rapid diagnostic test compared to microscopy. The study was designed in accordance with the directives of the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Initiative (STARD). Peripheral thick and thin films for the microscopy diagnosis and a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria Combo Cassette Test) were performed on under five-year-old children with malaria suspicion. The ICT test detected Plasmodium spp. infection with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 81.9% while P. falciparum diagnosis occurred with a sensitivity of 69.7% and a specificity of 73.7%. The sensitivity of the ICT test increased with higher parasitemias. The general results showed little concordance between the ICT test and microscopy (kappa = 0.28, se: 0.04). In Equatorial Guinea, the ICT Malaria Combo Cassette Test has proven to be an acceptable test to detect high P. falciparum parasitemias. However, the decrease of sensitivity at medium and low parasitemias hampers that ICT can replace properly performed microscopy at present in the diagnosis of malaria in children. PMID:22332024
Yhdego, M.; Majura, P. (Ardhi Institute, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania))
A review of the malaria control programs and the problem encountered in the United Republic of Tanzania since 1945 to the year 1986 is discussed. Buguruni, one of the squatter areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, is chosen as a case study in order to evaluate the economic advantage of engineering methods for the control of malaria infection. Although the initial capital cost of engineering methods may be high, the cost effectiveness requires a much lower financial burden of only about Tshs. 3 million compared with the conventional methods of larviciding and insecticiding which requires more than Tshs. 10 million. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of engineering methods are made concerning the upgrading of existing roads and footpaths in general with particular emphasis on drainage of large pools of water which serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes.
Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.
Leslie, T; Mikhail, A; Mayan, I; Anwar, M; Bakhtash, S; Nader, M; Chandler, C; Whitty, CJ; Rowland, M
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of malaria diagnosis and treatment at primary level clinics in Afghanistan. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: 22 clinics in two Afghan provinces, one in the north (adjoining Tajikistan) and one in the east (adjoining Pakistan); areas with seasonal transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. PARTICIPANTS: 2357 patients of all ages enrolled if clinicians suspected malaria. INTERVENTIONS: Established (>5 years) microscopy (12 clin...
Abanyie, Francisca A; Arguin, Paul M; Gutman, Julie
The diagnosis of malaria can be difficult in non-endemic areas, such as the United States, and delays in diagnosis and errors in treatment occur too often. A nationwide survey of laboratories in the United States and its nine dependent territories was conducted in 2010 to determine factors that may contribute to shortcomings in the diagnosis of malaria. This survey explored the availability of malaria diagnostic tests, techniques used, and reporting practices. The survey was completed by 201 participants. Ninety percent reported that their laboratories had at least one type of malaria diagnostic test available on-site. Nearly all of the respondents' laboratories performed thick and thin smears on-site; approximately 50% had access to molecular testing; and only 17% had access to rapid diagnostic tests on-site. Seventy-three percent reported fewer than five confirmed cases of malaria in their laboratory during the 12-month period preceding the survey. Twenty-eight percent stated that results of species identification took more than 24 hours to report. Only five of 149 respondents that performed testing 24 hours a day, 7 days a week complied with all of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines for analysis and reporting of results. Although malaria diagnostic testing services were available to a majority of U.S. laboratories surveyed, very few were in complete compliance with all of the CLSI guidelines for analysis and reporting of results, and most respondents reported very few cases of malaria annually. Laboratories' difficulty in adhering to the rigorous CLSI guidelines and their personnel's lack of practice and proficiency may account for delays and errors in diagnosis. It is recommended that laboratories that infrequently process samples for malaria seek opportunities for practice and proficiency training annually and take advantage of available resources to assist in species identification. © 2011 Abanyie et al; licensee BioMed Central
Wang, Wei-ming; Zhou, Hua-yun; Liu, Yao-bao; Cao, Yuan-yuan; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi
To establish a system of the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria in Jiangsu Prov- ince and provide the new scientific basis for the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria. The data- bases for overseas labor companies and labors in Jiangsu Province were built and the health education was conducted to the overseas labors. The "1-3-7" elimination strategy was established. A weekly reporting system for malaria case details was es- tablished. A system for screening accompanies of imported malaria patients was established. At the end of 2013, the database of companies engaged in labor export was built and1 405 companies were incorporated into the database. The time interval between the symptom onset and the first health facility visit was reduced to 3.07 days in 2013. The time interval be- tween the first health facility visit to malaria diagnosis was reduced to 1.57 days in 2013. The rate of laboratory confirmation was increased to 100% in 2013, and there was a statistically significant difference among the rates of laboratory confirmation from 2009 to 2013 (χ2 = 36.35, P system of the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of overseas imported falciparum malaria.
Dec 31, 2014 ... Background: Malaria has affecting the human popul blood groups and genoty malaria. Aim: malaria in relation to h susceptibility of malaria to malaria with blood groups subjects attending the th metropolis. Results. 60.68% of the population, w. AB respectively, while g prevalence. Blood group O the most ...
which produces health improvements in the most cost effective way for different epidemiological zones. This offers the good value for money for the public health programs and can guide in the allocation of malaria control resources for the post-2015 malaria eradication strategies and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Damodaran, Se; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra
Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality.
Conclusions: These data show that neonatal malaria is not uncommon in The Gambia and that the clinical features are akin to those of neonatal septicaemia. Key words: Malaria; septicaemia; neonate: ... mechanisms such as the milk diet of the infant being deficient in p-amino-benzoic acid,. 9 haematological factors such as ...
Orogade AA, Ogala WN, Aikhionbare HA. Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitaemia - A Suitable. Index for Evaluation of Malaria Vector Control Measures. Nigerian journal of Paediatrics 2002;. 29: 23. To evaluate the impact of malaria vector control measures which form an integral part of the ational guidelines for malaria control, ...
Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10,000 maternal deaths and to at least 200,000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria over-diagnosis in Africa is widespread and costly both financially and in terms of morbidity and mortality from missed diagnoses. An understanding of the reasons behind malaria over-diagnosis is urgently needed to inform strategies for better targeting of antimalarials. Methods In an ethnographic study of clinical practice in two hospitals in Tanzania, 2,082 patient consultations with 34 clinicians were observed over a period of three months at each hospital. All clinicians were also interviewed individually as well as being observed during routine working activities with colleagues. Interviews with five tutors and 10 clinical officer students at a nearby clinical officer training college were subsequently conducted. Results Four, primarily social, spheres of influence on malaria over-diagnosis were identified. Firstly, the influence of initial training within a context where the importance of malaria is strongly promoted. Secondly, the influence of peers, conforming to perceived expectations from colleagues. Thirdly, pressure to conform with perceived patient preferences. Lastly, quality of diagnostic support, involving resource management, motivation and supervision. Rather than following national guidelines for the diagnosis of febrile illness, clinician behaviour appeared to follow 'mindlines': shared rationales constructed from these different spheres of influence. Three mindlines were identified in this setting: malaria is easier to diagnose than alternative diseases; malaria is a more acceptable diagnosis; and missing malaria is indefensible. These mindlines were apparent during the training stages as well as throughout clinical careers. Conclusion Clinicians were found to follow mindlines as well as or rather than guidelines, which incorporated multiple social influences operating in the immediate and the wider context of decision making. Interventions to move mindlines closer to guidelines need to take the
Behrens, Ron H; Neave, Penny E; Jones, Caroline O H
The proportion of all imported malaria reported in travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) in the UK has increased over the past decade and the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum malaria affecting this group has remained above 80% during that period. The epidemiological data suggest that the strategies employed in the UK to prevent imported malaria have been ineffective for VFRs. This paper attempts to identify possible reasons for the failure of the malaria prevention strategy among VFRs and suggest potential alternatives. A review of the current UK malaria prevention guidelines was undertaken and their approach was compared to the few data that are available on malaria perceptions and practices among VFRs. The current UK malaria prevention guidelines focus on educating travellers and health professionals using messages based on the personal threat of malaria and promoting the benefits of avoiding disease through the use of chemoprophylaxis. While malaria morbidity disproportionately affects VFRs, the mortality rates from malaria in VFRs is eight times, and severe disease eight times lower than in tourist and business travellers. Recent research into VFR malaria perceptions and practices has highlighted the complex socio-ecological context within which VFRs make their decisions about malaria. These data suggest that alternative strategies that move beyond a knowledge-deficit approach are required to address the burden of malaria in VFRs. Potential alternative strategies include the use of standby emergency-treatment (SBET) for the management of fevers with an anti-malarial provided pre-travel, the provision of rapid diagnostic testing and treatment regimen based in general-practitioner surgeries, and urgent and walk-in care centres and local accident and emergency (A&E) departments to provide immediate diagnosis and accessible ambulatory treatment for malaria patients. This latter approach would potentially address some of the practical barriers to
algorithm for evaluating seriously sick children, improvements to care delivery and a robust training and evaluation programme for clinicians. Conclusions The case definition developed for the pivotal phase III RTS, S vaccine study is consistent with WHO recommendations, is locally applicable and appropriately balances sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of severe malaria. Processes set up to standardize severe malaria data collection will allow robust assessment of the efficacy of the RTS, S vaccine against severe malaria, strengthen local capacity and benefit patient care for subjects in the trial. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619
Vekemans, Johan; Marsh, Kevin; Greenwood, Brian; Leach, Amanda; Kabore, William; Soulanoudjingar, Solange; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Ansong, Daniel; Evans, Jennifer; Sacarlal, Jahit; Bejon, Philip; Kamthunzi, Portia; Salim, Nahya; Njuguna, Patricia; Hamel, Mary J; Otieno, Walter; Gesase, Samwel; Schellenberg, David
, improvements to care delivery and a robust training and evaluation programme for clinicians. The case definition developed for the pivotal phase III RTS, S vaccine study is consistent with WHO recommendations, is locally applicable and appropriately balances sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of severe malaria. Processes set up to standardize severe malaria data collection will allow robust assessment of the efficacy of the RTS, S vaccine against severe malaria, strengthen local capacity and benefit patient care for subjects in the trial. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619.
Manguin, Sylvie; Foumane, Vincent; Besnard, Patrick; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre
Microscopic blood smear examinations done in health centers of Angola demonstrated a large overdiagnosis of malaria cases with an average rate of errors as high as 85%. Overall 83% of patients who received Coartem ® had an inappropriate treatment. Overestimated malaria diagnosis was noticed even when specific symptoms were part of the clinical observation, antimalarial treatments being subsequently given. Then, malaria overdiagnosis has three main consequences, (i) the lack of data reliability is of great concern, impeding epidemiological records and evaluation of the actual influence of operations as scheduled by the National Malaria Control Programme; (ii) the large misuse of antimalarial drug can increase the selective pressure for resistant strain and can make a false consideration of drug resistant P. falciparum crisis; and (iii) the need of strengthening national health centers in term of human, with training in microscopy, and equipment resources to improve malaria diagnosis with a large scale use of rapid diagnostic tests associated with thick blood smears, backed up by a "quality control" developed by the national health authorities. Monitoring of malaria cases was done in three Angolan health centers of Alto Liro (Lobito town) and neighbor villages of Cambambi and Asseque (Benguéla Province) to evaluate the real burden of malaria. Carriers of Plasmodium among patients of newly-borne to 14 years old, with or without fever, were analyzed and compared to presumptive malaria cases diagnosed in these health centers. Presumptive malaria cases were diagnosed six times more than the positive thick blood smears done on the same children. In Alto Liro health center, the percentage of diagnosis error reached 98%, while in Cambambi and Asseque it was of 79% and 78% respectively. The percentage of confirmed malaria cases was significantly higher during the dry (20.2%) than the rainy (13.2%) season. These observations in three peripheral health centers confirmed what
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA. METHODS: We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. RESULTS: We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy.
Gian Maria Pacifici
Full Text Available Malaria is an infection sustained by three parasites namely: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium ovale. Plasmodium falciparum is the most common and virulent parasite. These parasites are present in different areas of the sub-Saharan African countries and Asia. In 2010, there were an estimated 219 million cases of malaria resulting in 660,000 deaths and, approximately, two-thirds were children. In sub-Saharan African countries, maternal malaria is associated with up to 200,000 estimated infant deaths yearly. Chloroquine was the world's widely used antimalarial drug, but Plasmodium falciparum is now increasingly resistant. However, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax are sensitive to chloroquine. Pregnancy makes women vulnerable to malarial parasites and the risks of anemia, miscarriage, stillbirth and prematurity increase. Resistance to chloroquine is a major concern for treatment of malaria and alternative drugs are needed. Proguanil is safe, being very rarely associated with severe adverse reactions. Chloroquine, mefloquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and amodiaquine have been found to be active against Plasmodium falciparum in-vitro. In the Cameroons, chloroquine was initially replaced by amodiaquine and artemisinin-lumefantrine was gradually introduced in 2004. Tanzania replaced chloroquine with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, and in 2006 artemisinin was introduced in the therapy. Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine should be reserved as a second-line-treatment. Mefloquine may provoke severe neuropsychiatric reactions. In the treatment of Plasmodium malaria, which has a high mortality rate if untreated, a greater risk of adverse reactions to malarial drugs is acceptable. The aim of the present study is to review the published data on the treatment of malaria in infants and their mothers.
Hailegiorgis, Bereket; Girma, Samuel; Melaku, Zenebe; Teshi, Takele; Demeke, Leykun; Gebresellasie, Sintayehu; Yadeta, Damtew; Tibesso, Gudeta; Whitehurst, Nicole; Yamo, Emanuel; Carter, Jane; Reithinger, Richard
Quality laboratory services are a requisite to guide rational case management of malaria. Using a pre-tested, standardized assessment tool, we assessed laboratory diagnostic capacity in 69 primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities as well as specialized laboratories in five administrative zones in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, during February and March 2009. There was marked variability in laboratory diagnostic capacity among the facilities assessed. Of 69 facilities surveyed, 53 provided both comprehensive malaria laboratory diagnosis and outpatient treatment services, five provided malaria microscopy services (referring elsewhere for treatment), and 11 primary care health posts provided rapid diagnostic testing and outpatient malaria treatment. The facilities' median catchment population was 39, 562 and 3581 people for secondary/tertiary and primary health facilities, respectively. Depending on facility type, facilities provided services 24 hrs a day, had inpatient capacity, and access to water and electricity. Facilities were staffed by general practitioners, health officers, nurses or health extension workers. Of the 58 facilities providing laboratory services, 24% of the 159 laboratory staff had received malaria microscopy training in the year prior to this survey, and 72% of the facilities had at least one functional electric binocular microscope. Facilities had variable levels of equipment, materials and biosafety procedures necessary for laboratory diagnosis of malaria. The mean monthly number of malaria blood films processed at secondary/tertiary facilities was 225, with a mean monthly 56 confirmed parasitologically. In primary facilities, the mean monthly number of clinical malaria cases seen was 75, of which 57 were tested by rapid diagnostic test (RDTs). None of the surveyed laboratory facilities had formal quality assurance/quality control protocols for either microscopy or RDTs. This is the first published report on malaria diagnostic
Oduro, Abraham R; Koram, Kwadwo A; Rogers, William; Atuguba, Frank; Ansah, Patrick; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Ansah, Akosua; Anto, Francis; Mensah, Nathan; Hodgson, Abraham; Nkrumah, Francis
Severe falciparum malaria in children was studied as part of the characterization of the Kassena-Nankana District Ghana for future malaria vaccine trials. Children aged 6-59 months with diagnosis suggestive of acute disease were characterized using the standard WHO definition for severe malaria. Of the total children screened, 45.2% (868/1921) satisfied the criteria for severe malaria. Estimated incidence of severe malaria was 3.4% (range: 0.4-8.3%) cases per year. The disease incidence was seasonal: 560 cases per year, of which 70.4% occurred during the wet season (June-October). The main manifestations were severe anaemia (36.5%); prolonged or multiple convulsions (21.6%); respiratory distress (24.4%) and cerebral malaria (5.4%). Others were hyperpyrexia (11.1%); hyperparasitaemia (18.5%); hyperlactaemia (33.4%); and hypoglycaemia (3.2%). The frequency of severe anaemia was 39.8% in children of six to 24 months of age and 25.9% in children of 25-60 months of age. More children (8.7%) in the 25-60 months age group had cerebral malaria compared with 4.4% in the 6-24 months age group. The overall case fatality ratio was 3.5%. Cerebral malaria and hyperlactataemia were the significant risk factors associated with death. Severe anaemia, though a major presentation, was not significantly associated with risk of death. Severe malaria is a frequent and seasonal childhood disease in northern Ghana and maybe an adequate endpoint for future malaria vaccine trials.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothesis is that hemoglobin-based metrics are useful tools for estimating malaria endemicity and for monitoring malaria control strategies. The aim of this study is to compare population hemoglobin mean and anemia prevalence to established indicators of malaria endemicity, including parasite rates, rates of enlarged spleens in children, and records of (presumptive malaria diagnosis among populations living with different levels of malaria transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Convenience sample, multisite cross-sectional household surveys conducted in Papua New Guinea. Correlations (r(2 between population Hb mean and anemia prevalence and altitude, parasite rate, and spleen rate were investigated in children ages 2 to 10 years, and in the general population; 21,664 individuals from 156 different communities were surveyed. Altitude ranged from 5 to 2120 meters. In young children, correlations between altitude and parasite rate, population Hb mean, anemia prevalence, and spleen rate were high (r(2: -0.77, 0.73, -0.81, and -0.68; p1500 m (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In PNG, where Plasmodium vivax accounts for an important part of all malaria infections, population hemoglobin mean and anemia prevalence correlate well with altitude, parasite, and spleen rates. Hb measurement is simple and affordable, and may be a useful new tool, alone or in association with other metrics, for estimating malaria endemicity and monitoring effectiveness of malaria control programs. Further prospective studies in areas with different malaria epidemiology and different factors contributing to the burden of anemia are warranted to investigate the usefulness of Hb metrics in monitoring malaria transmission intensity.
Killeen Gerry F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1 demographics of respondent and household; (2 socio-economic status of the household; (3 knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle; (4 typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5 the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6 the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international
Cao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Weiming; Liu, Yaobao; Cotter, Chris; Zhou, Huayun; Zhu, Guoding; Tang, Jianxia; Tang, Feng; Lu, Feng; Xu, Sui; Gu, Yaping; Zhang, Chao; Li, Julin; Cao, Jun
imported P. ovale sp. and P. malariae cases in Jiangsu Province mainly originated from sub-Saharan Africa such as Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria, and Angola. Although the vast majority of imported malaria cases were due to P. falciparum, the increase in other rare Plasmodium species originating from sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia should be closely monitored at all levels of health providers focusing on diagnosis and treatment of malaria. In addition to a receptive vector environment, long latency periods and misdiagnosis of P. malariae and P. ovale sp. increase the risk of re-introduction of malaria in China.
Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Salem, Mohamed Salem Ould Ahmedou; Basco, Leonardo K; Briolant, Sébastien; Hafid, Jamaleddine; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem
Malaria has become a major public health problem in Mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. This paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in Mauritania. Information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. As the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessary.
Segula, Dalitso; Frosch, Anne P; SanJoaquin, Miguel; Taulo, Dalitso; Skarbinski, Jacek; Mathanga, Don P; Allain, Theresa J; Molyneux, Malcolm; Laufer, Miriam K; Heyderman, Robert S
As control interventions are rolled out, the burden of malaria may shift from young children to older children and adults as acquisition of immunity is slowed and persistence of immunity is short-lived. Data for malaria disease in adults are difficult to obtain because of co-morbid conditions and because parasitaemia may be asymptomatic. Regular surveys of adult admissions to a hospital in Malawi were conducted to characterize the clinical spectrum of malaria and to establish a baseline to monitor changes that occur in future. In 2011-2012, at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Blantyre, four separated one-week surveys in the peak malaria transmission period (wet season) and three one-week surveys in the low transmission period (dry season) were conducted using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) with confirmation of parasitaemia by microscopy. All adults (aged ≥15) being admitted to the adult medical wards regardless of the suspected diagnosis, were enrolled. Participants with a positive malaria test underwent a standardized physical examination and laboratory tests. Malaria syndromes were characterized by reviewing charts and laboratory results on discharge. 765 adult admissions were screened. 63 (8.2%) were RDT-positive with 61 (8.0%) positive by microscopy. Over the course of the seven study weeks, two patients were judged to have incidental parasitaemia, 31 (4.1%) had uncomplicated malaria and 28 (3.7%) had severe malaria. Both uncomplicated and severe malaria cases were more common in the rainy season than the dry season. Prostration (22/28 cases) and hyperparasitaemia (>250,000 parasites/μl) (9/28) were the most common features of severe malaria. Jaundice (4/28), severe anaemia (2/28), hyperlactataemia (2/28), shock (1/28) and haemoglobinuria (1/28) were less commonly seen, and no patient had severe metabolic derangement or organ failure. There were no deaths attributable to malaria. In this study of adults admitted to hospital in southern Malawi, an area with year
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Clarke, Siân E; Lal, Sham; Magnussen, Pascal; Mbonye, Anthony K
Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs following presumptive diagnosis of malaria in the control arm. The effect on the proportion of customers with fever 'appropriately treated of malaria with ACT' was captured during a randomised trial in drug shops in Mukono District, Uganda. Health sector costs included: training of drug shop vendors, community sensitisation, supervision and provision of mRDTs and ACTs to drug shops. Household costs of treatment-seeking were captured in a representative sample of drug shop customers. The introduction of mRDTs in drug shops was associated with a large improvement of diagnosis and treatment of malaria, resulting in low incremental costs for the health sector at US$0.55 per patient appropriately treated of malaria. High expenditure on non-ACT drugs by households contributed to higher incremental societal costs of US$3.83. Sensitivity analysis showed that mRDTs would become less cost-effective compared to presumptive diagnosis with increasing malaria prevalence and lower adherence to negative mRDT results. mRDTs in drug shops improved the targeting of ACTs to malaria patients and are likely to be considered cost-effective compared to presumptive diagnosis, although the increased costs borne by households when the test result is negative are a concern.
Biot, Christophe; Dive, Daniel
This chapter summarizes recent developments in the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of organometallic antimalarials. It begins with a general introduction to malaria and the biology of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with a focus on the heme detoxification system. Then, a number of metal complexes from the literature are reported for their antiplasmodial activity. The second half of the chapter deals with the serendipitous discovery of ferroquine, its mechanism(s) of action, and the failure to induce a resistance. Last, but not least, we suggest that the bioorganometallic approach offers the potential for the design of novel therapeutic agents.
Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
The literature on fake medicaments is sparse, even if approximately 15% of all medicaments are fake, a figure that for antimalarials in particular reaches 50% in parts of Africa and Asia. Sub-standard and fake medicines deplete the public's confidence in health systems, health professionals and in the pharmaceutical industry - and increase the risk that resistance develops. For a traveller coming from a rich Western country, choosing to buy e.g. preventive antimalarials over the internet or in poor malaria-endemic areas, the consequences may be fatal. International trade-, control- and police-collaboration is needed to manage the problem, as is the fight against poverty and poor governance.
John, Chandy C; Kutamba, Elizabeth; Mugarura, Keith; Opoka, Robert O
Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum causes more than 800,000 deaths every year. Primary therapy with quinine or artesunate is generally effective in controlling P. falciparum parasitemia, but mortality from cerebral malaria and other forms of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. Long-term cognitive impairment is also common in children with cerebral malaria. Of the numerous adjunctive therapies for cerebral malaria and severe malaria studied over the past five decades, only one (...
Riley Eleanor M
Full Text Available The global malaria situation has scarcely improved in the last 100 years, despite major advances in our knowledge of the basic biology, epidemiology and clinical basis of the disease. Effective malaria control, leading to a significant decrease in the morbidity and mortality attributable to malaria, will require a multidisciplinary approach. New tools - drugs, vaccine and insecticides - are needed but there is also much to be gained by better use of existing tools: using drugs in combination in order to slow the development of drug resistance; targeting resources to areas of greatest need; using geographic information systems to map the populations at risk and more sophisticated marketing techniques to distribute bed nets and insecticides. Sustainable malaria control may require the deployment of a highly effective vaccine, but there is much that can be done in the meantime to reduce the burden of disease.
Smith Gueye, Cara; Newby, Gretchen; Tulloch, Jim; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Gosling, Roland D
implementation quality and coverage; however analysis and feedback to those implementing malaria elimination in the periphery was not well described. Political commitment and sustained financing contributed to malaria programme success. Consistency of malaria programmes depends on political commitment, human and financial resources, and leadership. Operational capacity of the programme and the overall health system structure and strength are also important aspects. Malaria eradication will require adaptive, well-managed malaria programmes that are able to tailor implementation of evidence-based strategies, founded upon strong sub-national surveillance and response, with adequate funding and human resources.
Full Text Available Clinical trials of interventions designed to prevent severe falciparum malaria in children require a clear endpoint. The internationally accepted definition of severe malaria is sensitive, and appropriate for clinical purposes. However, this definition includes individuals with severe nonmalarial disease and coincident parasitaemia, so may lack specificity in vaccine trials. Although there is no "gold standard" individual test for severe malaria, malaria-attributable fractions (MAFs can be estimated among groups of children using a logistic model, which we use to test the suitability of various case definitions as trial endpoints.A total of 4,583 blood samples were taken from well children in cross-sectional surveys and from 1,361 children admitted to a Kenyan District hospital with severe disease. Among children under 2 y old with severe disease and over 2,500 parasites per microliter of blood, the MAFs were above 85% in moderate- and low-transmission areas, but only 61% in a high-transmission area. HIV and malnutrition were not associated with reduced MAFs, but gastroenteritis with severe dehydration (defined by reduced skin turgor, lower respiratory tract infection (clinician's final diagnosis, meningitis (on cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] examination, and bacteraemia were associated with reduced MAFs. The overall MAF was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.8%-86.1% without excluding these conditions, 89% (95% CI 88.4%-90.2% after exclusions, and 95% (95% CI 94.0%-95.5% when a threshold of 2,500 parasites/mul was also applied. Applying a threshold and exclusion criteria reduced sensitivity to 80% (95% CI 77%-83%.The specificity of a case definition for severe malaria is improved by applying a parasite density threshold and by excluding children with meningitis, lower respiratory tract infection (clinician's diagnosis, bacteraemia, and gastroenteritis with severe dehydration, but not by excluding children with HIV or malnutrition.
Full Text Available The study focuses on integrated malaria control in 23 communities on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, with several elements of an ecosystem approach to human health, including malaria-related sociopolitical, ecological, and economic factors. The program fostered community participation. The program presented here had 2 components: implementation and research. The first was conducted in 23 communities, 21 of which lacked adequate health services in terms of education, community participation, prompt diagnosis and complete treatment, and vector control. Research focused on specific vector control measures and the current national health services decentralization process. The project: 1 created a malaria prevention culture in the community; 2 avoided deaths from malaria (no fatal cases in the 3-year period, compared to 5-8 deaths a year previously; 3 avoided cases of cerebral malaria (no cases, as compared to 90-110 per year previously; 4 reduced malaria incidence by 45.36%; 5 decreased length of sick leave from 7.52 to 3.7 days; 6 established a permanent network of microscope technicians and 2-way radio communications; 7 integrated work by local, regional, and outside institutions; 8 demonstrated efficacy of insecticide-impregnated bednets to reduce malaria transmission.
Full Text Available In Brazil, malaria remains a disease of major epidemiological importance because of the high number of cases in the Amazonian Region. Plasmodium spp infections during pregnancy are a significant public health problem with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, the foetus and the newborn child. In Brazil, the control of malaria during pregnancy is primarily achieved by prompt and effective treatment of the acute episodes. Thus, to assure rapid diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women with malaria, one of the recommended strategy for low transmission areas by World Health Organization and as part of a strategy by the Ministry of Health, the National Malaria Control Program has focused on integrative measures with woman and reproductive health. Here, we discuss the approach for the prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy in Brazil over the last 10 years (2003-2012 using morbidity data from Malaria Health Information System. Improving the efficiency and quality of healthcare and education and the consolidation of prevention programmes will be challenges in the control of malaria during pregnancy in the next decade.
Njuguna, John; Muita, James; Mundia, George
Diagnosis of malaria using only clinical means leads to overdiagnosis. This has implications due to safety concerns and the recent introduction of more expensive drugs. Temperature is a major climatic factor influencing the transmission dynamics of malaria. This study looked at trends in malaria morbidity in the low risk Kenyan district of Nyandarua, coupled with data on temperature and precipitation for the years 2003-2006. July had the highest number of cases (12.2% of all cases) followed by August (10.2% of all cases). July and August also had the lowest mean maximum temperatures, 20.1 and 20.2 °C respectively. April, July and August had the highest rainfall, with daily means of 4.0, 4.3 and 4.9 mm, respectively. Observation showed that the coldest months experienced the highest number of cases of malaria. Despite the high rainfall, transmission of malaria tends to be limited by low temperatures due to the long duration required for sporogony, with fewer vectors surviving. These cold months also tend to have the highest number of cases of respiratory infections. There is a possibility that some of these were misdiagnosed as malaria based on the fact that only a small proportion of malaria cases were diagnosed using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. We conclude that overdiagnosis may be prevalent in this district and there may be a need to design an intervention to minimise it.
Sharma, A K; Aggarwal, O P; Chaturvedi, S; Bhasin, S K
Malaria is a major public health problem in tribal villages of India, where 8% of the country's population lives. Literacy level among tribal population is very low. This study aims to examine the relation between education status and knowledge about malaria among Indian tribal communities. 125 randomly selected tribal respondents from one tribal village each of 17 states were administered a close ended questionnaire by trained interviewers to assess their knowledge about various aspects of malaria. Effect of educational status on the level of knowledge was analyzed using chi square test. Stratified analysis was performed using Mantel Haenszel chi square test to eliminate gender bias. 2125 respondents', randomly selected from 17 tribal villages in as many states, findings were analyzed. Fifty seven percent male and 72% female respondents were illiterate. Only 2% respondents had college level education. Educated females were more knowledgeable than their male counterparts. Mantel Haenszel chi square analysis showed that educated respondents were more knowledgeable than the illiterates, after adjusting for sex of respondents. However, there was gross lack of knowledge regarding diagnosis and treatment of malaria and use of insecticides irrespective of gender and educational status. Improvement in literacy status of tribal population will help in increasing awareness about malaria. Opportunities for disseminating information about various aspects of malaria should be utilized during treatment of malaria cases by health workers.
The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization held its fourth meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 11 to 13 September, 2013. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting.Meeting sessions included: recommendations for achieving universal coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets; guidance on estimating the longevity of insecticide-treated nets; improving capacity in entomology and vector control; a review of the latest evidence on intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy; improving dissemination of Malaria Policy Advisory Committee guidance; updates on the development of the global technical strategy for malaria control and elimination (2016-2025) and the global strategy for control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax; updates from the drug resistance and containment technical expert group, the evidence review group on malaria burden estimation, a consultation on malaria case management indicators, and the constitution of the surveillance, monitoring and evaluation technical expert group; subnational elimination criteria; and consideration for future evidence review groups, including diagnosis in low transmission settings and testing for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.Policy statements, position statements and guidelines that arise from the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme.
S C Parija
Full Text Available Antimalarial chemotherapy is an important component of all malaria control programmes throughout the world. This is especially so in light of the fact that there are no antimalarial vaccines which are available for clinical use at present. Emergence and spread of malaria parasites which are resistant to many of the available antimalarials today is, therefore, a major cause for concern. Till date, resistance to all groups of antimalarials excluding artemisinin has been reported. In recent years, in vitro resistance to even artemisinin has been described. While resistance to antibacterial agents has come to prominence as a clinical problem in recent years, antiparasitic resistance in general and antimalarial resistance in particular has not received much attention, especially in the Indian scenario. The present review deals with commonly used antimalarial drugs and the mechanisms of resistance to them. Various methods of detecting antimalarial resistance and avoiding the same have also been dealt with. Newer parasite targets which can be used in developing newer antimalarial agents and antimalarials obtained from plants have also been mentioned.
Schofield, Louis; Mueller, Ivo
Under appropriate conditions of transmission intensity, functional immunity to malaria appears to be acquired in distinct stages. The first phase reduces the likelihood of severe or fatal disease; the second phase limits the clinical impact of 'mild' malaria; and the third provides partial but incomplete protection against pathogen burden. These findings suggest clinical immunity to mortality and morbidity is acquired earlier, with greater ease, and via distinct mechanisms as compared to anti-parasite immunity, which is more difficult to achieve, takes longer and is only ever partially efficacious. The implications of this view are significant in that current vaccination strategies aim predominantly to achieve anti-parasite immunity, although imparting clinical immunity is the public health objective. Despite enormous relevance for global public health, the mechanisms governing these processes remain obscure. Four candidate mechanisms might mediate clinical immunity, namely immunity to cytoadherence determinants, tolerance to toxins, acquired immunity to toxins, and immunoregulation. This review addresses the targets and determinants of clinical immunity, and considers the implications for vaccine development.
Ondeto, Benyl M; Nyundo, Christopher; Kamau, Luna; Muriu, Simon M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan M; Ochanda, Horace; Mbogo, Charles M
Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations (L 1014S and L 1014F) and elevated activity in carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and monooxygenases. The kdr mutations L 1014S and L 1014F were detected in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis populations. Elevated activity of monooxygenases has been detected in both An. arabiensis and An. gambiae (s.s.) populations while
Esu, Ekpereonne; Effa, Emmanuel E; Opie, Oko N; Uwaoma, Amirahobu; Meremikwu, Martin M
In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended parenteral artesunate in preference to quinine as first-line treatment for people with severe malaria. Prior to this recommendation, many countries, particularly in Africa, had begun to use artemether, an alternative artemisinin derivative. This review evaluates intramuscular artemether compared with both quinine and artesunate. To assess the efficacy and safety of intramuscular artemether versus any other parenteral medication in treating severe malaria in adults and children. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS, ISI Web of Science, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. We also searched the WHO clinical trial registry platform, ClinicalTrials.gov and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials up to 9 April 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intramuscular artemether with intravenous or intramuscular antimalarial for treating severe malaria. The primary outcome was all-cause death.Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD), and presented both measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 18 RCTs, enrolling 2662 adults and children with severe malaria, carried out in Africa (11) and in Asia (7). Artemether versus quinine For children in Africa, there is probably little or no difference in the risk of death between intramuscular artemether and quinine (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.20; 12 trials, 1447 participants, moderate quality evidence). Coma recovery may be about five hours shorter with artemether (MD -5.45, 95% CI -7.90 to -3.00; six trials, 358 participants, low quality evidence
Bougouma Edith C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors play a key role in determining resistance/susceptibility to infectious disease. Susceptibility of the human host to malaria infection has been reported to be influenced by genetic factors, which could be confounders if not taken into account in the assessment of the efficacy of interventions against malaria. This study aimed to assess the relationship between haemoglobin genotypes and malaria in children under five years in a site being characterized for future malaria vaccine trials. Methods The study population consisted of 452 children living in four rural villages. Hb genotype was determined at enrolment. Clinical malaria incidence was evaluated over a one-year period using combined active and passive surveillance. Prevalence of infection was evaluated via bi-annual cross-sectional surveys. At each follow-up visit, children received a brief clinical examination and thick and thin blood films were prepared for malaria diagnosis. A clinical malaria was defined as Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia >2,500 parasites/μl and axillary temperature ≥37.5°C or reported fever over the previous 24 hours. Results Frequencies of Hb genotypes were 73.2% AA; 15.0% AC; 8.2% AS; 2.2% CC; 1.1% CS and 0.2% SS. Prevalence of infection at enrolment ranged from 61.9%-54.1% among AA, AC and AS children. After one year follow-up, clinical malaria incidence (95% CI (episodes per person-year was 1.9 (1.7-2.0 in AA, 1.6 (1.4-2.1 in AC, and 1.7 (1.4-2.0 in AS children. AC genotype was associated with lower incidence of clinical malaria relative to AA genotype among children aged 1–2 years [rate ratio (95% CI 0.66 (0.42-1.05] and 2–3 years [rate ratio (95% CI 0.37 (0.18-0.75]; an association of opposite direction was however apparent among children aged 3–4 years. AS genotype was associated with lower incidence of clinical malaria relative to AA genotype among children aged 2–3 years [rate ratio (95% CI 0.63 (0
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD, 12 key informant interviews (KII and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP. An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in
Kamau, Alice; Nyaga, Victoria; Bauni, Evasius; Tsofa, Benjamin; Noor, Abdisalan M; Bejon, Philip; Scott, J Anthony G; Hammitt, Laura L
Use of bednets reduces malaria morbidity and mortality. In Kilifi, Kenya, there was a mass distribution of free nets to children malaria hospitalization in children Malaria admissions (i.e. admissions to hospital with P. falciparum > 2500 parasitemia per μl) among children malaria among children that reported using a bednet compared to those who did not. We observed 63% and 62% mean bednet ownership and usage, respectively, over the eight-survey period. Among children malaria hospitalization per 1000 child-years was 2.91 compared to 4.37 among those who did not (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.85 [p = 0.001]). On longitudinal surveillance, increasing bednet ownership and usage corresponded to mass distribution campaigns; however, this method of delivering bednets did not result in sustained improvements in coverage. Among children malaria hospitalization.
Santos Lurdes C
Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the close relationship of Portugal with African countries, particularly former Portuguese colonies, the diagnosis of malaria is not a rare thing. When a traveller returns ill from endemic areas, malaria should be the number one suspect. World Health Organization treatment guidelines recommend that adults with severe malaria should be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU. Methods Severe cases of malaria in patients admitted to an ICU were reviewed retrospectively (1990-2011 and identification of variables associated with in-ICU mortality performed. Malaria prediction score (MPS, malaria score for adults (MSA, simplified acute physiology score (SAPSII and a score based on WHO's malaria severe criteria were applied. Statistical analysis was performed using StataV12. Results Fifty nine patients were included in the study, all but three were adults; 47 (79,6% were male; parasitaemia on admission, quantified in 48/59 (81.3% patients, was equal or greater than 2% in 47 of them (97.9%; the most common complications were thrombocytopaenia in 54 (91.5% patients, associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in seven (11.8%, renal failure in 31 (52.5% patients, 18 of which (30.5% oliguric, shock in 29 (49.1% patients, liver dysfunction in 27 (45.7% patients, acidaemia in 23 (38.9% patients, cerebral dysfunction in 22 (37.2% patients, 11 of whom with unrousable coma, pulmonary oedema/ARDS in 22 (37.2% patients, hypoglycaemia in 18 (30.5% patients; 29 (49.1% patients presented five or more dysfunctions. The case fatality rate was 15.2%. Comparing the four scores, the SAPS II and the WHO score were the most sensitive to death prediction. In the univariate analysis, death was associated with the SAPS II score, cerebral malaria, acute renal and respiratory failure, DIC, spontaneous bleeding, acidosis and hypoglycaemia. Age, partial immunity to malaria, delay in malaria diagnosis and the level of parasitaemia were
Yapabandara, Manel A M G; Sarmento, Raul; de Fatima Mota, Maria do Rosario; don Bosco, Johanes; Martins, Nelson; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R
Malaria has been a major public health problem in the newly established Democratic Republic of Timor Leste with over 200,000 cases being reported in 2006 and 2007. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) was established in 2003. The progress made in malaria control in Timor Leste is reported. Records maintained at the NMCP, the district health services, the Health Information and Management System, the National Laboratory on malaria diagnosis and entomological data of the NMCP were reviewed. There has been a 97% decrease in the reported malaria incidence from 2006 (223,002 cases) to 2012 (6,202 cases). 185,106 clinical cases reported in 2006 decreased to 2,016 in 2012 with introduction and expansion of malaria microscopy services and introduction of monovalent RDTs in 2008 and bivalent RDTs in 2010 in all parts of the country. The National Treatment Guidelines using ACT as the first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infections and introduction of monovalent RDTs, led to a 42% and a 33% decrease from 2007 to 2008 in reported clinical and total malaria cases, respectively. LLINs were distributed initially to pregnant females and children under five and later per every two persons living in high-risk areas (based on microstratification at sub-district level). IRS was carried out in three districts in 2010 and extended to six districts in 2012. Anopheles barbirostris and Anopheles subpictus have been incriminated as malaria vectors. A National Laboratory, which routinely cross checks blood smears for quality assurance of microscopy was established. Malaria focal points at regional, district and sub district level, entomology surveillance staff, monitoring and evaluation officers, and quality control technicians were appointed to strengthen malaria control activities at all levels in the country. The 97% decrease in the incidence of malaria in Timor Leste is due to application of evidence-based malaria control methods that included enhancing improved
Karen I Barnes
Full Text Available Between 1995 and 2000, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, experienced a marked increase in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, fuelled by pyrethroid and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. In response, vector control was strengthened and artemether-lumefantrine (AL was deployed in the first Ministry of Health artemisinin-based combination treatment policy in Africa. In South Africa, effective vector and parasite control had historically ensured low-intensity malaria transmission. Malaria is diagnosed definitively and treatment is provided free of charge in reasonably accessible public-sector health-care facilities.We reviewed four years of malaria morbidity and mortality data at four sentinel health-care facilities within KwaZulu-Natal's malaria-endemic area. In the year following improved vector control and implementation of AL treatment, malaria-related admissions and deaths both declined by 89%, and outpatient visits decreased by 85% at the sentinel facilities. By 2003, malaria-related outpatient cases and admissions had fallen by 99%, and malaria-related deaths had decreased by 97%. There was a concomitant marked and sustained decline in notified malaria throughout the province. No serious adverse events were associated causally with AL treatment in an active sentinel pharmacovigilance survey. In a prospective study with 42 d follow up, AL cured 97/98 (99% and prevented gametocyte developing in all patients. Consistent with the findings of focus group discussions, a household survey found self-reported adherence to the six-dose AL regimen was 96%.Together with concurrent strengthening of vector control measures, the antimalarial treatment policy change to AL in KwaZulu-Natal contributed to a marked and sustained decrease in malaria cases, admissions, and deaths, by greatly improving clinical and parasitological cure rates and reducing gametocyte carriage.
Michael, Daniel; Mkunde, Sigsbert Patila
Understanding the key characteristics of malaria testing and treatment is essential to the control of a disease that continues to pose a major risk of morbidity and mortality in mainland Tanzania, with evidence of a resurgence of the disease in recent years. The introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for malaria, alongside policies to promote rational case management following testing, highlights the need for evidence of anti-malarial and testing markets in the country. The results of the most recent mainland Tanzania ACTwatch outlet survey are presented here, including data on the availability, market share and price of anti-malarials and malaria diagnosis in 2016. A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey was conducted between 18th May and 2nd July, 2016. A census of public and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted among a representative sample of administrative units. An audit was completed for all anti-malarials, malaria rapid (RDT) diagnostic tests and microscopy. A total of 5867 outlets were included in the nationally representative survey, across both public and private sectors. In the public sector, availability of malaria testing was 92.3% and quality-assured (QA) ACT was 89.1% among all screened outlets. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was stocked by 51.8% of the public sector and injectable artesunate was found in 71.4% of all screened public health facilities. Among anti-malarial private-sector stockists, availability of testing was 15.7, and 65.1% had QA ACT available. The public sector accounted for 83.4% of the total market share for malaria diagnostics. The private sector accounted for 63.9% of the total anti-malarial market, and anti-malarials were most commonly distributed through accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) (39.0%), duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs) (13.3%) and pharmacies (6.7%). QA ACT comprised 33.1% of the national market share (12
Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.
Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, P H
A study of the cost of malaria at the household level, community perceptions, preventive measures and illness behaviour linked to the disease was undertaken in 5 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The surveyed community had a high knowledge of malaria, although side effects of antimalarial dr...... was on special diets for the sick person, to neutralize the perceived heating effect of the disease and its treatment.......A study of the cost of malaria at the household level, community perceptions, preventive measures and illness behaviour linked to the disease was undertaken in 5 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The surveyed community had a high knowledge of malaria, although side effects of antimalarial...... drugs were often confused with symptoms of the disease. The community sought prompt diagnosis and treatment at 'western-type' facilities, with 84% making use of government facilities as their first choice and 16% preferring private facilities. The preventive measures used were burning coils (54...
Carreira, Joana; Casella, Isabel; Ascenção, Bianca Branco; Luis, Nuno Pinto; Gonçalves, Ana Catarina; Brito, Ana Paula; Sá, Joana Estalagem; Parreira, Mário; Lopes, Delfim; Poças, José
There are four neurological complications that can occur after malaria treatment at a time when the patient is aparasitaemic: delayed cerebellar ataxia, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, post-malaria neurological syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). The authors describe a case of a 54-year-old male who presented with encephalopathy and generalized seizures forty-three days after complete recovery from acute malaria by Plasmodium falciparum. Diagnosis of post-malaria ADEM was made based on the acute onset of the neurological symptoms, characteristic findings in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and prompt response to steroid therapy. ADEM is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually arises after an infection or vaccination. Its occurrence after malaria infection is relatively rare, and to the best of our knowledge there are only thirteen cases described in the literature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Zenz, W; Trop, M; Kollaritsch, H; Reinthaler, F
Increasing tourism and growing numbers of immigrants from malaria-endemic countries are leading to a higher importation rate of rare tropical disorders in European countries. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of connatal malaria in Austria. The patient is the first child of a 24 year old mother who was born in Ghana and immigrated to Austria one and a half years before delivery. She did not stay in an endemic region during this period and did not show fever or any other signs of malaria. The boy was healthy for the first six weeks of his life. In the 8th week of life he was admitted to our hospital due to persistent fever of unknown origin. On physical examination he showed only mild splenomegaly. Routine laboratory testing revealed mild hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin value of 8.3 g/l. In the blood smear Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae were detected. Oral therapy with quinine hydrochloride was successful and blood smears became negative for Plasmodia within 6 days. This case shows that congenital malaria can occur in children of clinically healthy women who were born in malaria-endemic areas even one and a half year after they have immigrated to non-endemic regions.
Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L V; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha
AbstractSri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit-cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka.
Malenga, Tumaini; Kabaghe, Alinune Nathanael; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kadama, Asante; McCann, Robert S; Phiri, Kamija Samuel; van Vugt, Michèle; van den Berg, Henk
Interventions to reduce malaria burden are effective if communities use them appropriately and consistently. Several tools have been suggested to promote uptake and use of malaria control interventions. Community workshops on malaria, using the 'Health Animator' approach, are a potential behaviour change strategy for malaria control. The strategy aims to influence a change in mind-set of vulnerable populations to encourage self-reliance, using community volunteers known as Health Animators. The aim of the paper is to describe the process of implementing community workshops on malaria by Health Animators to improve uptake and use of malaria control interventions in rural Malawi. This is a descriptive study reporting feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness and fidelity of using Health Animator-led community workshops for malaria control. Quantitative data were collected from self-reporting and researcher evaluation forms. Qualitative assessments were done with Health Animators, using three focus groups (October-December 2015) and seven in-depth interviews (October 2016-February 2017). Seventy seven health Animators were trained from 62 villages. A total of 2704 workshops were conducted, with consistent attendance from January 2015 to June 2017, representing 10-17% of the population. Attendance was affected by social responsibilities and activities, relationship of the village leaders and their community and involvement of Community Health Workers. Active discussion and participation were reported as main strengths of the workshops. Health Animators personally benefited from the mind-set change and were proactive peer influencers in the community. Although the information was comprehended and accepted, availability of adequate health services was a challenge for maintenance of behaviour change. Community workshops on malaria are a potential tool for influencing a positive change in behaviour towards malaria, and applicable for other health problems in rural
Background: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Rapid diagnostic tests such as Paracheck Pf are the major tools for falciparum malaria diagnosis as an alternative to microscopy in peripheral health facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck Pf ...
... and P. malariae are recognized as causing malaria in man. P. ovale is the rarest type and seems confined to West Coast of Africa, where it produces mild infection. P. falciparum and its relative P. reichenowi of Chimpanzees and gorillas constitute simian malaria. Key Words: Malaria, Malaria Vectors, Malaria Entomology
Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Betanzos-Reyes, Angel Francisco
To develop a plan to strengthen the control of malaria towards its elimination. In 2009, under the coordination of the National Public HealthInstitute ofMexico, atransdisciplinary equipment of technical and operative experts was conformed to carry out a situational analysis of malaria and control programs and for the selection of effective practices of intervention that would be incorporated to the plan, within the framework of an exercise in Theory of Change. Criteria for thestratificationof thelocalities, based ontheirtransmission characteristics were established. The structural and operative limitations of the control programs were identified. A plan of interventions was elaborated to improve the coverage of epidemiological surveillance, anti-malaria interventions and opportune diagnosis and treatment of cases. The plan delineates progressive phases of implementation: reorganization, intensification of interventions and evaluation of elimination feasibility. The adoption of a regional strategic plan will provide guidance and administrative elements to conform a system that coordinates the activities of the national control programs and facilitate the elimination of malaria in the region.
Full Text Available Abstract A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear.
Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Ferrer, Maria V; Barrera, M A; Pacheco, M; Daza, Vanessa; Franco-Paredes, Carlos
Imported cases of malaria constitute an important public health problem in many countries, even in those with autochthonous cases, where disease could be acquired in these areas and then seen in non-endemic regions. Non-immune populations are susceptible to complications due to malaria infection, particularly in malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, Plasmodium vivax the predominant Plasmodium spp. in Venezuela can also lead to severe malaria. We reviewed retrospectively cases of malaria to identify the clinical features of those imported cases diagnosed at two institutions in Margarita Island (a non-endemic area), Venezuela, in an 8-year period. We conducted a retrospective observational study to identify the clinical and epidemiological features among hospitalized patients at Hospital Central and Hospital Agustin Hernández with malaria acquired at malaria-endemic locations. We identified eighteen imported cases of malaria confirmed by thin and thick peripheral blood smears at these two institutions over an 8-year period. The mean age of diagnosis was 27 years. P. vivax was responsible for the majority of cases. All patients presented with fever, 89% with malaise, 78% with chills, and 67% with myalgia, among others symptoms. Mean haemoglobin levels on admission were 8.1g/dL (100% <12g/dL); platelets: 79,283cells/mm(3) (89% had platelets below 150,000); and a mean total leukocyte count: 3.4x10(3)cells/mm(3) (78% had leukopenia). Thirty nine percent of patients required blood transfusions. Two fatalities were identified (CFR=11%), one associated to severe malaria due to P. falciparum and the other due to a complicated case of P. vivax malaria. Imported cases of malaria due to P. vivax and P. falciparum in the studied population are associated with significant hematological complications. These findings illustrate the importance of educating non-immune populations about the malaria risk and prevention strategies; and from a pubic health perspective, the
Christophides, George K
As the malaria burden persists in most parts of the developing world, the concept of implementation of new strategies such as the use of genetically modified mosquitoes to control the disease continues to gain support. In Africa, which suffers most from malaria, mosquito vector populations are spread almost throughout the entire continent, and the parasite reservoir is big and continuously increasing. Moreover, malaria is transmitted by many species of anophelines with specific seasonal and geographical patterns. Therefore, a well designed, evolutionarily robust and publicly accepted plan aiming at population reduction or replacement is required. The task is twofold: to engineer mosquitoes with a genetic trait that confers resistance to malaria or causes population suppression; and, to drive the new trait through field populations. This review examines these two issues, and describes the groundwork that has been done towards understanding of the complex relation between the parasite and its vector.
McCord, G. C.
Understanding the costs that climate change will exact on society is crucial to devising an appropriate policy response. One of the channels through while climate change will affect human society is through vector-borne diseases whose epidemiology is conditioned by ambient ecology. This paper introduces the literature on malaria,