WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable lunar colony

  1. Concepts for an export oriented lunar colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kent L.

    1990-12-01

    A model of a lunar domestic economy is presented which consists of 12 sectors, trading 21 goods and services. Material flow for operations and investments are balanced to minimize shortages and surpluses. Prices are formed by targeting a 15-35% return on assets for industry and a 15% after expenses income for labour. From this data, accounting statements, a 14 × 14 cash flow input/output matrix (consisting of 11 industrial sectors, labour, foreign trade and finance), and macroeconomic analyses are prepared which illuminate the most important links in the lunar economy. From this model conclusions are drawn regarding the matter of how best to lay the basis for sustainable colony growth and prosperity.

  2. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  3. System design of a near-self-supporting lunar colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Huang, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts for expanding a 12-man lunar surface base to a more permanent colony of about 180 persons are studied. Guidelines for the colony design are that the colony must perform a useful function, and that design should maximize use of lunar materials and minimize requirements of resupply from the earth. The first use of lunar materials should be for oxygen production, to achieve which large electrical or thermal power inputs are necessary. Some of the efforts which should be directed toward food and plant growth are considered, and those factors from life support and waste control which bear further study are examined. Aspects of power generation, mining, and construction are discussed.

  4. Transport of lunar material to the sites of the colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppenheimer, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    An 'existence proof' is attempted for the feasibility of transport of lunar material to colonies in space. Masses of lunar material are accelerated to lunar escape by a tracked magnetically levitated mass driver; aim precision is to 1 km miss distance at L5 per mm/sec velocity error at the lunar surface. Mass driver design and linear synchronous motor drive design are discussed; laser-sensed checkpoints aid in velocity and directional precision. Moon-L5 trajectories are calculated. The design of the L5 construction station, or 'catcher vehicle,' is described; loads are received by chambers operating in a 'Venus flytrap' mode. Further research studies needed to round out the concept are listed explicitly.

  5. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, A. F.; Turner, M. F.; Rasky, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine and analyze architecture concepts for an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure system that can extend the life, functionality, and distance traveled of surface mobility missions.

  6. Sustainable Development in Pre-Colonial, Colonial, and Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Africa may be the ancient origin of human civilization, “civilization” has since been a concept rooted in and reused by the West. Thus, Africa's true strength, its ingenuity for survival, must emerge from the shadows behind imperial discourse to successfully attain and sustain development. Keywords: Sustainable ...

  7. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  8. Lunar exploration and development--a sustainable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth-Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lunar exploration and development—A sustainable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-07-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation.

  10. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the framework needed to gradually develop an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop cis-lunar and surface capabilities for mutual benefit while sharing cost and risk in the development phase and then allowing for transfer of operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, energy storage devices, communication relay satellites, local communication towers, and surface mobility operations.

  11. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS

  12. The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , political or environmental development can take place in Africa until African masses demand for good governance and engage in ideology-based social revolution in ending the reins of corrupt leadership. Keywords: post-colonialism, politics, ...

  13. W.W.W. Moon The Why, What and When of a Permanent Manned Lunar Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, M.

    Several reasons for going back to the Moon are listed: scientific study of our natural satellite, Earth and in general the Solar System; exploitation of the resources of Outer Space; geopolitical considerations that made Apollo possible and are still valid in the long term; advancement of manned spaceflight, as robot- based exploration is time-wise inefficient and politically negligible. Technological, organisational and legal challenges are then outlined. After a discussion of human physiology, building materials and transporta- tion of people and goods, an underground polar location is proposed as settlement site, either within kilometre-size lava tubes or man-made caves. An analysis of spaceflight history is conducted to determine a target date for returning to the Moon to stay. In the absence of political or commercial competition, experience indicates the last decades of the XXI century. To shorten this timescale, it is recommended to focus on accomplishing the task of establishing a reliable lunar travel and settlement system, rather than developing new technologies: simplifying the goals of each single step forward (as was the case of the Clementine mission) and concentrating on production-ready (or almost-ready) equipment (compare the ill- fated X-33 to the dependable Soyuz capsules)

  14. W.W.W. MOON? The why, what and when of a permanent manned lunar colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Several reasons for going back to the Moon are listed: scientific study of our natural satellite, Earth and in general the Solar System; exploitation of the resources of Outer Space; geopolitical considerations that made Apollo possible and are still valid in the long term; advancement of manned spaceflight, as robot-based exploration is time-wise inefficient and politically negligible. Technological, organisational and legal challenges are then outlined. After a discussion of human physiology, building materials and transportation of people and goods, an underground polar location is proposed as settlement site, either within kilometre-size lava tubes or man-made caves. An analysis of spaceflight history is conducted to determine a target date for returning to the Moon to stay. In the absence of political or commercial competition, experience indicates the last decades of the XXI century. To shorten this timescale, it is recommended to focus on accomplishing the task of establishing a reliable lunar travel and settlement system, rather than developing new technologies: simplifying the goals of each single step forward (as was the case of the Clementine mission) and concentrating on production-ready (or almost-ready) equipment (compare the ill-fated X-33 to the dependable Soyuz capsules).

  15. The Lunar Space Tug: A sustainable bridge between low Earth orbits and the Cislunar Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, M.; Paissoni, C. A.; Viola, N.; Denaro, A.; Gargioli, E.; Massobrio, F.

    2017-09-01

    The International Space Station is the first space human outpost and over the last 15 years, it has represented a peculiar environment where science, technology and human innovation converge together in a unique microgravity and space research laboratory. With the International Space Station entering the second part of its life and its operations running steadily at nominal pace, the global space community is starting planning how the human exploration could move further, beyond Low-Earth-Orbit. According to the Global Exploration Roadmap, the Moon represents the next feasible path-way for advances in human exploration towards the nal goal, Mars. Based on the experience of the ISS, one of the most widespread ideas is to develop a Cislunar Station in preparation of long duration missions in a deep space environment. Cislunar space is de ned as the area of deep space under the influence of Earth-Moon system, including a set of special orbits, e.g. Earth-Moon Libration points and Lunar Retrograde Orbit. This habitat represents a suitable environment for demonstrating and testing technologies and capabilities in deep space. In order to achieve this goal, there are several crucial systems and technologies, in particular related to transportation and launch systems. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is a reusable transportation capsule designed to provide crew transportation in deep space missions, whereas NASA is developing the Space Launch System, the most powerful rocket ever built, which could provide the necessary heavy-lift launch capability to support the same kind of missions. These innovations would allow quite-fast transfers from Earth to the Cislunar Station and vice versa, both for manned and unmanned missions. However, taking into account the whole Concept of Operations for both the growth and sustainability of the Cislunar Space Station, the Lunar Space Tug can be considered as an additional, new and fundamental element for the mission architecture. The

  16. Sustainability Formation of Machine Cells in Group Technology Systems Using Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinarayanan Arunagiri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and sustainability of a cellular manufacturing system (CMS in batch type manufacturing is highly valued. This is done using a systematic method of equipment into machine cells, and components into part families, based on the suitable similar criteria. The present work discusses the cell formation problem, with the objective of minimizing the cumulative cell load variation and cumulative intercellular moves. The quantity of parts, operation sequences, processing time, capacity of machines, and workload of machineries were considered as parameters. For the grouping of equipment, the modified artificial bee colony (MABC algorithm is considered. The computational procedure of this approach is explained by using up to 40 machines and 100 part types. The result obtained from MABC is compared with the findings acquired from the genetic algorithm (GA and ant colony system (ACS in the literature.

  17. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  18. Self-sustaining Mars colonies utilizing the North Polar Cap and the Martian atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J; Maise, G; Paniagua, J

    2001-01-01

    A revolutionary new concept for the early establishment of robust, self-sustaining Martian colonies is described. The colonies would be located on the North Polar Cap of Mars and utilize readily available water ice and the CO2 Martian atmosphere as raw materials to produce all of the propellants, fuel, air, water, plastics, food, and other supplies needed by the colony. The colonists would live in thermally insulated large, comfortable habitats under the ice surface, fully shielded from cosmic rays. The habitats and supplies would be produced by a compact, lightweight (~4 metric tons) nuclear powered robotic unit termed ALPH (Atomic Liberation of Propellant and Habitat), which would land 2 years before the colonists arrived. Using a compact, lightweight 5 MW (th) nuclear reactor/steam turbine (1 MW(e)) power source and small process units (e.g., H2O electrolyzer, H2 and O2 liquefiers, methanator, plastic polymerizer, food producer, etc.) ALPH would stockpile many hundreds of tons of supplies in melt cavities under the ice, plus insulated habitats, to be in place and ready for use when the colonists landed. With the stockpiled supplies, the colonists would construct and operate rovers and flyers to explore the surface of Mars. ALPH greatly reduces the amount of Earth supplied material needed and enables large permanent colonies on Mars. It also greatly reduces human and mission risks and vastly increases the capability not only for exploration of the surrounding Martian surface, but also the ice cap itself. The North Polar Cap is at the center of the vast ancient ocean that covered much of the Martian Northern Hemisphere. Small, nuclear heated robotic probes would travel deep (1 km or more) inside the ice cap, collecting data on its internal structure, the composition and properties of the ancient Martian atmosphere, and possible evidence of ancient life forms (microfossils, traces of DNA, etc.) that were deposited either by wind or as remnants of the ancient ocean

  19. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  20. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  1. Space Colony from a Commercial Asteroid Mining Company Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Grandl, Werner; Pinni, Martina; Benaroya, Haym

    2008-01-01

    Commercial mining towns on Earth become cities. Company towns need commerce to drive the growth and economy of early space colonies. Water is an early resource for camp consumables plus propellant export sales from asteroid mining operations at proposed burned out comets with water methane ice cores for sustainable growth over 50 years, financed from profits and capable with affordable logistics to support resource recovery. One co-author's perspective includes remote resource recovery sites on Earth. Other co-authors' experiences include architecture, lunar habitation, and architectural space colony concepts. This paper combines these experiences to propose commercial opportunities possible as mankind moves beyond one planet. Alaska's North Slope commercial history indicates that different multiple logistics transportation systems are required to reduce the risk to humans and families moved in before the oil flowed. Commercial enterprises have risked $20 billion and spent hundreds of billions in private money after profits were created. The lessons learned are applied to a burned out comet designated Wilson-Harrington (1979) and explores the architecture for early living within the burned out comet disk created from ice recovery and later sealed with an expected methane ice interior. Considered is the recovery of the resources, the transport of water back to Earth orbit or L-1, plus later the development of more comfortable space colony living. Commercial markets produce cities on Earth and the same can happen on Space Colonies. The key is an ``in place'' affordable commercial logistics system that can service, stimulate and sustain a 50-year commercial propellant market.

  2. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  3. Lunar Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  4. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  5. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  6. The lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P; Tikoo, Sonia M

    2014-12-05

    The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ∼3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Building the Foundations for a Large-Scale, Cross-Sector Collaboration for a Sustainable and Permanent Return to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoglou, A.

    2017-10-01

    This presentation will describe how to build the foundations needed for a large scale, cross-industry collaboration to enable a sustainable and permanent return to the Moon based on system leadership, cross-sector partnership, and inclusive business.

  8. Lunar Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support extended lunar operations, precision localization and route mapping is required for planetary EVA, manned rovers and lunar surface mobility units. A...

  9. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  10. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  11. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  12. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  13. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  14. The colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1 receptor sustains ERK1/2 activation and proliferation in breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Morandi

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in western countries. Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1 and its receptor (CSF-1R regulate macrophage and osteoclast production, trophoblast implantation and mammary gland development. The expression of CSF-1R and/or CSF-1 strongly correlates with poor prognosis in several human epithelial tumors, including breast carcinomas. We demonstrate that CSF-1 and CSF-1R are expressed, although at different levels, in 16/17 breast cancer cell lines tested with no differences among molecular subtypes. The role of CSF-1/CSF-1R in the proliferation of breast cancer cells was then studied in MDAMB468 and SKBR3 cells belonging to different subtypes. CSF-1 administration induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and enhanced cell proliferation in both cell lines. Furthermore, the inhibition of CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling, by CSF-1R siRNA or imatinib treatment, impaired CSF-1 induced ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation. We also demonstrate that c-Jun, cyclin D1 and c-Myc, known for their involvement in cell proliferation, are downstream CSF-1R in breast cancer cells. The presence of a proliferative CSF-1/CSF-1R autocrine loop involving ERK1/2 was also found. The wide expression of the CSF-1/CSF-1R pair across breast cancer cell subtypes supports CSF-1/CSF-1R targeting in breast cancer therapy.

  15. Russian Lunar Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  16. RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain affordable human and robotic space exploration, the ability to live off the land at the exploration site will be essential. NASA calls this ability in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and is focusing on finding ways to sustain missions first on the Moon and then on Mars. The ISRU project aims to develop capabilities to technology readiness level 6 for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and early human missions returning to the Moon. NASA is concentrating on three primary areas of ISRU: (1) excavating, handling, and moving lunar regolith, (2) extracting oxygen from lunar regolith, and (3) finding, characterizing, extracting, separating, and storing volatile lunar resources, especially in the permanently shadowed polar craters. To meet the challenges related to technology development for these three primary focus areas, the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project was initiated in February 2005, through funding by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. RESOLVE's objectives are to develop requirements and conceptual designs and to perform breadboard concept verification testing of each experiment module. The final goal is to deliver a flight prototype unit that has been tested in a relevant lunar polar environment. Here we report progress toward the third primary area creating ways to find, characterize, extract, separate, and store volatile lunar resources. The tasks include studying thermal, chemical, and electrical ways to collect such volatile resources as hydrogen, water, nitrogen, methane, and ammonia. We approached this effort through two subtasks: lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) and regolith volatile characterization (RVC).

  17. Erosive Wear Characterization of Materials for Lunar Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpagazehe, Jeremiah N.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Higgs, C. Fred, III

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Apollo missions revealed that exhaust from the retrorockets of landing spacecraft may act to significantly accelerate lunar dust on the surface of the Moon. A recent study by Immer et al. (C. Immer, P.T. Metzger, P.E. Hintze, A. Nick, and R. Horan, Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III, Icarus, Vol. 211, pp. 1089-1102, 2011) investigated coupons returned to Earth from the Surveyor III lunar probe which were subjected to lunar dust impingement by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing. Their study revealed that even with indirect impingement, the spacecraft sustained erosive damage from the fast-moving lunar dust particles. In this work, results are presented from a series of erosive wear experiments performed on 6061 Aluminum using the JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Optical profilometry was used to investigate the surface after the erosion process. It was found that even short durations of lunar dust simulant impacting at low velocities produced substantial changes in the surface.

  18. On colonial grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, Peter Alexander René van

    1998-01-01

    As a study of the colonial situations of first millennium BC Sardinia, this book is as much an investigation into colonialism as a sociological category, as it explores the specific historical conditions of a particular region. Taking a fresh look at colonialism in Mediterranean archaeology from a

  19. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  20. Lunar based massdriver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Manfred; Gabrielli, Roland Atonius; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, René

    2017-05-01

    The results of a lunar massdriver mission and system analysis are discussed and show a strong case for a permanent lunar settlement with a site near the lunar equator. A modular massdriver concept is introduced, which uses multiple acceleration modules to be able to launch large masses into a trajectory that is able to reach Earth. An orbital mechanics analysis concludes that the launch site will be in the Oceanus Procellarum a flat, Titanium rich lunar mare area. It is further shown that the bulk of massdriver components can be manufactured by collecting lunar minerals, which are broken down into its constituting elements. The mass to orbit transfer rates of massdriver case study are significant and can vary between 1.8 kt and 3.3 megatons per year depending on the available power. Thus a lunar massdriver would act as a catalyst for any space based activities and a game changer for the scale of feasible space projects.

  1. A lunar polar expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Thomas

    This paper reviews issues related to a five-person expedition to the lunar north pole which primarily addresses site selection and the requirements for transportation, power, and life support. A one-year stay on the lunar surface is proposed based on available technology, and proposals are detailed for incorporating flight-proven systems, abort or rescue options, and the use of the base as the nucleus for subsequent operations. Specific details are given regarding lunar orbital data, the characteristics of the proposed base, power and consumables requirements, and equipment such as two-person lunar roving vehicles and space suits. During the expedition: (1) water is recycled; (2) Autolanders are used to deliver equipment; (3) two rovers are included in the mass budget; (4) the lunar surface is studied in detail. A polar lunar-base site offers the advantages of unobstructed astronomy, enhanced heat rejection, and the potential for reuse.

  2. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  3. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A lunar venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.

    1989-01-01

    As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

  5. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin egresses lunar module on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed egressing the lunar module during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  6. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen,, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Cohen, B. A.; Sellar, G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanentlyshadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system.

  7. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  8. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  9. Lunar Excavator Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes to create a tool for simulation-based verification of lunar excavator designs. Energid will combine the best of 1) automatic control...

  10. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  11. Technologies for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Indyk, S.

    2017-10-01

    Honeybee Robotics, with its partners, developed numerous technologies for lunar exploration. Most of these technologies are at high TRL and have been designed for small landers, rovers, as well as astronauts. This abstract presents several of these technologies.

  12. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; McCurdy, Greg

    1992-09-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  13. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  14. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    organization, we show how an overarching colonial discourse – although not acknowledged – shapes the experience that foreign employees have of work. This leaves foreign workers in an integration dilemma, as they are expected to suppress home-country values and identities in order to become accepted, while...... at the same time they always are bound to fail to become ‘Swedish’ because of the same foreign origins. Although Swedish culture – partly by distancing itself from having a colonial past – has successfully built up an image of openness, we argue that without acknowledging and confronting the role...... that European colonial history has played in the shaping of national identity, Swedish organizations (and organizations in other western countries not assumed to have a colonial history) will not be able to integrate their foreign employees successfully....

  15. Chlorine in Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs, and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, [1]), given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO (e.g., [2]). When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks (e.g., [3-4]), lunar samples often display heavy chlorine isotope compositions [5-9]. Boyce et al. [8] found a correlation between delta Cl-37 (sub Ap) and bulk-rock incompatible trace elements (ITEs) in lunar basalts, and used this to propose that early degassing of Cl (likely as metal chlorides) from the LMO led to progressive enrichment in remaining LMO melt in Cl-37over Cl-35- the early degassing model. Barnes et al. [9] suggested that relatively late degassing of chlorine from urKREEP (to yield delta Cl-37 (sub urKREEP greater than +25 per mille) followed by variable mixing between KREEPy melts and mantle cumulates (characterized by delta Cl-370 per mille) could explain the majority of Cl isotope data from igneous lunar samples. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed an in situ study of chlorine isotopes and abundances of volatiles in lunar apatite from a diverse suite of lunar basalts spanning a range of geochemical types.

  16. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  17. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  18. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  19. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  20. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  1. Lunar Crustal Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, I. S.; O'Brien, H. E.

    1996-03-01

    Intense bombardment during the first 600 Ma of lunar history has rendered the task of reconstructing the stratigraphy of the lunar crust especially difficult. On a planetary scale, the distribution of lithologies around multi-ringed basins coupled with orbital geochemical data reveal that the lunar crust is heterogeneous both laterally and vertically. Ejecta from the large multi-ringed basins is exclusively of crustal origin since twenty five years of lunar sample study have failed to identify any unequivocal mantle samples. Given the most recent determination of crustal thickness, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of around 60 km. In the younger multi-ringed basins (Orientale and Imbrium), the occurrence of anorthosites in inner rings is consistent with an anorthositic upper crust (Al2O3 = 26-28 wt.%). On the other hand, basin impact melts, most notably the low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) composition associated with the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins, are distinctly more mafic with a composition corresponding to norite (Al2O3 ~ 20 wt.%). Cratering models suggest that such melts are generated at the lower to middle crustal depths (30 to 60 km). The paucity of unequivocal deep-seated crystalline plutonic rocks is also consistent with cratering models which suggest that unmelted rock fragments in ejecta blankets are most likely derived from the upper part of the crust. Consequently, the possibility exists that no crystalline lunar samples from deeper that ~30 km are present in the returned sample collection.

  2. Lunar solar-power system: Commerical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, David R.

    1995-01-01

    The proposed Lunar Solar-Power (LSP) System collects solar power on the moon. The power is converted to beams of microwaves and transmitted to fields of microwave receivers (rectennas) on Earth that provide electric power to local and regional power grids. LSP can provide abundant and low cost energy to Earth to sustain several centuries of economic development on Earth and in space. The LSP power is independent of the biosphere (global warming, weather, and climate changes), independent of reserves of terrestrial non-renewable and renewable power, and is low in total costs compared to other large scale power systems. Efficient utilization of the moon as a platform for solar collectors/power transmitters and as a source of building materials is key to the development and emplacement of the LSP System. LSP development costs can be significantly reduced by the establishment of a manned lunar base.

  3. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  4. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  5. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  6. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  7. Sustained receptor activation and hyperproliferation in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mice with a severe congenital neutropenia/acute myeloid leukemia-derived mutation in the G-CSF receptor gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Hermans (Mirjam); C. Heijmans-Antonissen (Claudia); A.C. Ward (Alister); A.E. Mayen (Angelique); R.E. Ploemacher (Robert); I.P. Touw (Ivo)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn approximately 20% of cases of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), mutations are found in the gene encoding the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSF-R). These mutations introduce premature stop codons, which result in truncation of 82-98

  8. The SELENE project and Japanese future lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yutaka; Takizawa, Yoshisada; Sasaki, Susumu

    2005-07-01

    The Japanese large-scale lunar orbiting mission, SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer), is planned to be launched in FY2006 (tentative) by H-IIA launch vehicle. The SELENE has 15 onboard mission instruments and will produce global maps of various selenological informations such as elemental abundance, topography, gravity field, magnetic field of the Moon, and it will demonstrate the fundamental technologies required in the future lunar exploration, such as lunar polar orbit injection, three-axis attitude stabilization/orbit controls, and heat controls. In addition, SELENE has the high-definition television camera (HDTV) to get clear movie of the rising Earth from the lunar horizon for public affair mission. SELENE is now under sustaining design phase. The flight model components were manufactured, and the interface tests between the bus-system and the mission instruments were completed by the end of March 2004. As the successor of SELENE, JAXA is studying the mission scenario for Japanese future lunar exploration, including the development of the essential technologies, the lunar science and the human activities on the moon.

  9. The Lunar orbit paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Newton's formula for gravity force gives greather force intensity for atraction of the Moon by the Sun than atraction by the Earth. However, central body in lunar (primary orbit is the Earth. So appeared paradox which were ignored from competent specialist, because the most important problem, determination of lunar orbit, was inmediately solved sufficiently by mathematical ingeniosity - introducing the Sun as dominant body in the three body system by Delaunay, 1860. On this way the lunar orbit paradox were not canceled. Vujičić made a owerview of principles of mechanics in year 1998, in critical consideration. As an example for application of corrected procedure he was obtained gravity law in some different form, which gave possibility to cancel paradox of lunar orbit. The formula of Vujičić, with our small adaptation, content two type of acceleration - related to inertial mass and related to gravity mass. So appears carried information on the origin of the Moon, and paradox cancels.

  10. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    point of a deep moonquake source. After releasing both the penetrators, the spacecraft will make a trajectory control manoeuver and will be injected onto a near-circular orbit whose altitude is about. 200 km from the lunar surface. The data gathered by the scientific instruments will be numerically compressed and stored in a.

  11. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  12. Lunar exospheric argon modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, Cesare; Chaufray, J.-Y.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hurley, D. M.; Hodges, R. R.; Bayless, A. J.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    Argon is one of the few known constituents of the lunar exosphere. The surface-based mass spectrometer Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) deployed during the Apollo 17 mission first detected argon, and its study is among the subjects of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission investigations. We performed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutral atomic argon that we use to better understand its transport and storage across the lunar surface. We took into account several loss processes: ionization by solar photons, charge-exchange with solar protons, and cold trapping as computed by recent LRO/Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) mapping of Permanently Shaded Regions (PSRs). Recycling of photo-ions and solar radiation acceleration are also considered. We report that (i) contrary to previous assumptions, charge exchange is a loss process as efficient as photo-ionization, (ii) the PSR cold-trapping flux is comparable to the ionization flux (photo-ionization and charge-exchange), and (iii) solar radiation pressure has negligible effect on the argon density, as expected. We determine that the release of 2.6 × 1028 atoms on top of a pre-existing argon exosphere is required to explain the maximum amount of argon measured by LACE. The total number of atoms (1.0 × 1029) corresponds to ∼6700 kg of argon, 30% of which (∼1900 kg) may be stored in the cold traps after 120 days in the absence of space weathering processes. The required population is consistent with the amount of argon that can be released during a High Frequency Teleseismic (HFT) Event, i.e. a big, rare and localized moonquake, although we show that LACE could not distinguish between a localized and a global event. The density of argon measured at the time of LACE appears to have originated from no less than four such episodic events. Finally, we show that the extent of the PSRs that trap

  13. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jak; Chu, Philip; Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris; Santoro, Chris

    2013-01-01

    NASA s plans for a lunar outpost require extensive excavation. The Lunar Surface Systems Project Office projects that thousands of tons of lunar soil will need to be moved. Conventional excavators dig through soil by brute force, and depend upon their substantial weight to react to the forces generated. This approach will not be feasible on the Moon for two reasons: (1) gravity is 1/6th that on Earth, which means that a kg on the Moon will supply 1/6 the down force that it does on Earth, and (2) transportation costs (at the time of this reporting) of $50K to $100K per kg make massive excavators economically unattractive. A percussive excavation system was developed for use in vacuum or nearvacuum environments. It reduces the down force needed for excavation by an order of magnitude by using percussion to assist in soil penetration and digging. The novelty of this excavator is that it incorporates a percussive mechanism suited to sustained operation in a vacuum environment. A percussive digger breadboard was designed, built, and successfully tested under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The breadboard was run in vacuum to more than 2..times the lifetime of the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill, throughout which the mechanism performed and held up well. The percussive digger was demonstrated to reduce the force necessary for digging in lunar soil simulant by an order of magnitude, providing reductions as high as 45:1. This is an enabling technology for lunar site preparation and ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) mining activities. At transportation costs of $50K to $100K per kg, reducing digging forces by an order of magnitude translates into billions of dollars saved by not launching heavier systems to accomplish excavation tasks necessary to the establishment of a lunar outpost. Applications on the lunar surface include excavation for habitats, construction of roads, landing pads, berms, foundations, habitat shielding, and ISRU.

  14. Colony Collapse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    In CCD, the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for remaining immature bees and the queen. EPA and USDA are working to understand and resolve this problem.

  15. Property Status of Lunar Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar material. Lunar samples have been returned in the past by means of the Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) missions and, while most of the material re- mains government property and is used for scientific means, a small fraction has been transferred abroad and some has entered the private market. Apollo-collected moon- rocks have been offered, symbolically, to heads of States, and some foreign nations have subsequently transferred ownership to private individuals. The same, lunar ma- terial of Soviet provenience has entered the private market, this forming a valuable legal precedent for the lawfulness of sale of lunar material. Recently, plans were made public to award the Apollo astronauts with lunar rocks. While in the US there is a popular misconception that it is illegal to own lunar material, the truth lies elsewhere. As the Apollo samples are the property of the US government and a small fraction was stolen, lost, or misplaced, the US government intends to recover this material, unlawfully owned. In the same time, a significant number of individuals have been prosecuted for offering for sale fake lunar rocks. The present paper will analyse the different categories of lunar material according to its ownership status, and will as- sert that private property of lunar material is lawful, and lunar material that will be returned in the future will be able to enter the market without hindrances.

  16. Small Lunar Lander - A Near Term Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Uwe; Kyr, Peter; Bolz, Joerg; Bischof, Bernd

    In preparation of the Ministerial Conference in November 2008, the European Space Agency is currently developing a roadmap leading to the capability to sustain long term planetary exploration missions and manned missions to Moon and Mars. Embedded in the cornerstone missions of today's European planetary exploration program, which are marked by the two robotic Exo-Mars and Mars Sample Return missions, ESA has defined a Small Lunar Landing Mission serving as a precursor mission allowing to validate key enabling technologies for planetary exploration, while providing a scientific platform to Lunar exploration at the same time. In reply for the call for missions fitting into the mission time frame ranging from 2014 through 2016, EADS Astrium has proposed a Lunar Lander which can be launched by a Soyuz Fregat, combined with a programmatic planning with the goal being ready to fly within the given time. In the meantime, a European lunar exploration program has gained momentum such that the goals of the proposed mission have been expanded towards the preparation of technologies required for the logistics of lunar exploration including transportation to the Moon and back, building and supporting large scale outposts up to permanently manned bases. These key functions are the capability of autonomous, soft and precision landing, the Rendez-Vous in lunar orbit, plus the provision of surface mobility for science and logistic operations. The paper will first present the concept of the proposed Lunar Landing mission, describe the technical design and programmatic planning, and put it into context of the Mars Sample Return mission. The spacecraft shall be launched into the GTO by a Soyuz Fregat from the Kourou Space Center, and travel to the Moon from there on direct, 5 days transfer trajectory. The spacecraft is a single stage lander with the capability to autonomously perform all operations from launcher separation down to the lunar surface. A lunar rover shall provide

  17. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  18. Lunar crane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In many lunar construction scenarios, mechanical cranes in some form will be indispensible in moving large masses around with various degrees of fine positioning. While thorough experience exists in the use of terrestrial cranes new thinking is required about the design of cranes to be used in extraterrestrial construction. The primary driving force for this new thinking is the need to automate the crane system so that space cranes can be operated as telerobotic machines with a large number of automatic capabilities. This is true because in extraterrestrial construction human resources will need to be critically rationed. The design problems of mechanisms and control systems for a lunar crane must deal with at least two areas of performance. First, the automated crane must be capable of maneuvering a large mass, so that when the mass arrives at the target position there are only small vibrations. Secondly, any residue vibrations must be automatically damped out and a fine positioning must be achieved. For extraterrestrial use there are additional challenges to a crane design - for example, to design a crane system so that it can be transformed for other construction uses. This initial project in crane design does not address such additional issues, although they may be the subject of future CSC research. To date the Center has designed and analyzed many mechanisms. The fundamental problem of trade-offs between passively stabilizing the load and actively controlling the load by actuators was extensively studied. The capability of 3D dynamics modeling now exists for such studies. A scaled model of a lunar crane was set up and it has been most fruitful in providing basic understanding of lunar cranes. Due to an interesting scaling match-up, this scaled model exhibits the load vibration frequencies one would expect in the real lunar case. Using the analytical results achieved to date, a laboratory crane system is now being developed as a test bed for verifying a wide

  19. Recycling Colonial Cultural Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Troels Degn

    2017-01-01

    Danish art collective Superflex’ project Porcelain Pirates for the Zeeuws Museum in Middelburg, the Netherlands, is a fascinating and complex example of how a museum collection of artefacts from a colonial past may gain critical new meaning by means of cultural production and curatorial strategy...... as a nationally Dutch and regionally Zeelandish dimension. The installation and the television series is based on peculiar historical construction based on the Zeeuws Museem’s collection of porcelain: The Dutch capture of the Portuguese vessel San Jago which set sail from Goa bound for Lisbon in 1601 with one....... This paper provides an analysis of Superflex’ project with special reference to the cultural recycling of artefacts tied up with a sensitive colonial context. The analysis focuses especially on the role of the artefact and the way the project contributes to and challenges regional and national postcolonial...

  20. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  1. Mobile continuous lunar excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A novel approach to the concept of lunar mining and the use of in situ oxygen, metallics, and ceramics is presented. The EVA time required to set up, relocate, and maintain equipment, as well as the cost per pound of shipping the mining and processing equipment to the moon are considered. The proposed soil fracturing/loading mechanisms are all based loosely on using the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Frame. All use motor driven tracks for mobility in the forward/reverse and left/right direction. All mechanisms employ the concept of rototillers which are attached to a gantry which, through the use of motor-driven lead screws, provide the rototillers with an up/down capability. A self-reactant excavator, a local mass enhanced excavator, and a soil reactant excavator are illustrated.

  2. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  3. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  4. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  5. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  6. Lunar Laser Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    gallium arsenide ( InGaAs ) quad- rant detector enables fast spatial acqui- sition and coarse tracking of the optical uplink. Transmit and receive...October–November 2013 month-long demonstration of the high-data-rate transmission from a lunar-orbiting satellite. The array of transmit apertures is...located above the array of receive apertures. This work is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under U.S. Air Force

  7. First lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  8. Towards a lunar base programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    When the requisite technlogy exists, the U.S. political process will inevitably include lunar surface activities as a major space objective. This article examines a manned lunar base in terms of three distinct functions: the scientific investigation of the moon and its environment; development of the capability to use lunar resources for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system; and conduct of R and D leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting manned lunar base. Three scenarios are outlined with respect to each possible function.

  9. Lunar rover navigation concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James D.

    1993-01-01

    With regard to the navigation of mobile lunar vehicles on the surface, candidate techniques are reviewed and progress of simulations and experiments made up to now are described. Progress that can be made through precursor investigations on Earth is considered. In the early seventies the problem was examined in a series of relevant tests made in the California desert. Meanwhile, Apollo rovers made short exploratory sorties and robotic Lunokhods traveled over modest distances on the Moon. In these early missions some of the required methods were demonstrated. The navigation problem for a lunar traverse can be viewed in three parts: to determine the starting point with enough accuracy to enable the desired mission; to determine the event sequence required to reach the site of each traverse objective; and to redetermine actual positions enroute. The navigator's first tool is a map made from overhead imagery. The Moon was almost completely photographed at moderate resolution by spacecraft launched in the sixties, but that data set provides imprecise topographic and selenodetic information. Therefore, more advanced orbital missions are now proposed as part of a resumed lunar exploration program. With the mapping coverage expected from such orbiters, it will be possible to use a combination of visual landmark navigation and external radio and optical references (Earth and Sun) to achieve accurate surface navigation almost everywhere on the near side of the Moon. On the far side and in permanently dark polar areas, there are interesting exploration targets where additional techniques will have to be used.

  10. HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dražić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction. Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants.

  11. Polar Resources: The Key To Development of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, William E.

    2017-01-01

    There are plenty of unanswered science questions regarding the Moon that justify surface missions: (1) However the rate of science missions launched remains painfully slow: (a) Google X-Prize Landers may offer more opportunities, but the jury is still out: (2) Science alone will not be enough to sustain long term interest in the Moon by the Congress (or the Public) nor will it generate a frequent mission rate. We need something that drives a frequent and continual reason to go to the Moon: (1) Lunar tourism not practical in the near term; (2) Lunar Resources can be the economic driver that enables regular access to the lunar surface.

  12. The Dust Management Project: Characterizing Lunar Environments and Dust, Developing Regolith Mitigation Technology and Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth?s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting long-term operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it?s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, plans, and accomplishments will be presented.

  13. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  14. Diurnally-Varying Lunar Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Farrell, W. M.; Vilas, F.

    2016-12-01

    Dayside, non-polar lunar hydration signatures have been observed by a handful of instruments and present insights into the lunar water cycle. In this study, we utilize the unique measurements from the current Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to study the phenomenon of diurnally-varying dayside lunar hydration. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard LRO senses a strong far-ultraviolet water absorption edge indicating hydration in small abundances in the permanently shadowed regions as well as on the lunar dayside. We report on diurnal variability in hydration in different terrain types. We investigate the importance of different sources of hydration, including solar wind bombardment and meteoroid bombardment, by observing trends during magnetotail and meteor stream crossings.

  15. Food and Coloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Albán Achinte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author tackles the alimentary dimension of life, as something that goes beyond the simple act of ingesting food to acquire nutrients, to concentrate on the cultural implications of eating. To eat is more than to feed oneself, for eating is never by itself a wholly innocent act; that is, eating is never completely stripped from the social relationships of those gathered around a table.From this perspective, the article examines coloniality in all its forms (of power, of knowledge and of being, and shows their function as mechanisms of both alimentary enunciation and classification, that are responsible of the gastronomic supplantation of produce and food from the New World with the goods and customs that were so dear to European settlers (not forgetting that the influx of products and seasonings went also in the other direction. The colonizing project included thus, besides its religious, political and administrative pretenses, a gastronomical element, to be found in the eagerness of the colonizers to reproduce the alimentary imprint of their homeland in the new found territories, at least as far as the circumstances and the climate allowed it. Among all the facets the production of knowledge can acquire, gastronomy has been poorly studied —not to say completely silenced— in its role as a token of cultural divides, in which a coloniality of flavors and palates has been carried out.

  16. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  17. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  18. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  19. Unmanned in situ experiment on lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Ohuchi, Hideo

    A robotic experiment on lunar materials in the context of lunar base and lunar resources utilization is designed. A mobile robotic laboratory is sent to the lunar surface by an H-2 rocket to perform exploration for resources and experimental processing/handling of the surface materials.

  20. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  1. Financing Nigeria's Colonial Administration: A Comparative Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The approachadopted is at once historical and analytical showing how colonial fiscalpolicies of deliberate diminution of public expenditure helped to sustain atrend in fiscal balance even when that affected investment in the criticalareas of infrastructure development and promoted an expenditureorientation that favoured the ...

  2. The importance of mining to Nigeria's economy in colonial times ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's sudden leap into oil wealth in the early 1960s caused the neglect of agriculture and solid mineral resources which sustained her economy during the colonial period and the critical years of the civil war. But the oil glut in the 1980s and the subsequent collapse of Nigeria's economy brought about a rethinking of how ...

  3. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  4. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  5. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Cameroon's bilingual heritage and describes post-colonial attitudes and tendencies towards language and language use in the country's educational system. The intent is to show that Cameroon's bilingual heritage - a colonial legacy - has led to an unnecessary and chaotic national competition among ...

  6. Towards a Moon Village: Young Lunar Explorers Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard; Batenburg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Moon Village Workshop at ESTEC on the 14th December 2015 was organized by ILEWG/ESTEC in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. The workshop participants split in three working groups focusing on Moon Habitat Design, science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and engaging stakeholders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacu-um. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community

  7. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  8. Adsorption of Water on JSC-1A Lunar Simulant Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, John; Sah, Shweta; Burghaus, Uwe; Street, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing probes sent to the moon in the 1990s indicated that water may exist in areas such as the bottoms of deep, permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles, buried under regolith. Water is of paramount importance for any lunar exploration and colonization project which would require self-sustainable systems. Therefore, investigating the interaction of water with lunar regolith is pertinent to future exploration. The lunar environment can be approximated in ultra-high vacuum systems such as those used in thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Questions about water dissociation, surface wetting, degree of crystallization, details of water-ice transitions, and cluster formation kinetics can be addressed by TDS. Lunar regolith specimens collected during the Apollo missions are still available though precious, so testing with simulant is required before applying to use lunar regolith samples. Hence, we used for these studies JSC-1a, mostly an aluminosilicate glass and basaltic material containing substantial amounts of plagioclase, some olivine and traces of other minerals. Objectives of this project include: 1) Manufacturing samples using as little raw material as possible, allowing the use of surface chemistry and kinetics tools to determine the feasibility of parallel studies on regolith, and 2) Characterizing the adsorption kinetics of water on the regolith simulant. This has implications for the probability of finding water on the moon and, if present, for recovery techniques. For condensed water films, complex TDS data were obtained containing multiple features, which are related to subtle rearrangements of the water adlayer. Results from JSC-1a TDS studies indicate: 1) Water dissociation on JSC-1a at low exposures, with features detected at temperatures as high as 450 K and 2) The formation of 3D water clusters and a rather porous condensed water film. It appears plausible that the sub- m sized particles act as nucleation centers.

  9. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  10. Lunar Magmatic Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvasil, H.; McCubbin, F. M.; Lindsley, D. H.

    2009-05-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo Missions prompted a variety of experimental investigations (e.g., [1-4]) which form the basis of our current understanding of lunar compositional evolution. The observed low abundances of solidus temperature-suppressing volatiles justified volatile-free experiments. However, the low-pressure nature of the samples makes it unlikely that volatiles were retained during magma ascent and eruption. In an effort to re-assess the lunar mantle volatile budget, we are focusing on the mineral apatite because of its incorporation of F, Cl, and OH as essential structural constituents and its greater ability to retain such volatiles relative to melt. Apatite grains analyzed from magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7111, 14161,7269 and 14161,7264), KREEPy impact melt rocks associated with magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7233; 14161,7110; 14161,7062; 12033,634-25; SaU 169-4), and mare basalts (79195; 12037,224; 74246; 12023,147,1; 10084; LAP 02205; LAP 03632; NWA 2977) by electron microprobe using the technique of [5,6] show two distinct compositional groups. Apatite from the mare basalts analyzed are primarily mixtures of fluor- "missing component" (OH?) apatite with low Cl abundance, while that from the magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks are fluor-chlor mixtures. Apatite/basaltic melt partition coefficients for F, Cl, and H2O from the data of [7] provide first estimates of magmatic volatile abundances in lunar magmas. They suggest that magmatic water may have been more abundant than F and Cl at the stage of apatite crystallization in mare basalts. In contrast, at this stage, the magmas that produced the Mg-and alkali suite minerals were F- and Cl-dominated. These results have wide-reaching implications regarding the chemical and physical evolution of the Moon and therefore, the next generation of experimental investigations. [1] Walker et al. 1973 EPSL 20, 325-336. [2] Walker et al. 1975 GCA 39, 1219-1235. [3] Longhi 1992 GCA 69

  11. Pressurized lunar rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar

    1992-05-01

    The pressurized lunar rover (PLR) consists of a 7 m long, 3 m diameter cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, directional lighting, cameras, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The PLR shell is constructed of a layered carbon-fiber/foam composite. The rover has six 1.5 m diameter wheels on the main body and two 1.5 m diameter wheels on the trailer. The wheels are constructed of composites and flex to increase traction and shock absorption. The wheels are each attached to a double A-arm aluminum suspension, which allows each wheel 1 m of vertical motion. In conjunction with a 0.75 m ground clearance, the suspension aids the rover in negotiating the uneven lunar terrain. The 15 N-m torque brushless electric motors are mounted with harmonic drive units inside each of the wheels. The rover is steered by electrically varying the speeds of the wheels on either side of the rover. The PLR trailer contains a radiosotope thermoelectric generator providing 6.7 kW. A secondary back-up energy storage system for short-term high-power needs is provided by a bank of batteries. The trailer can be detached to facilitate docking of the main body with the lunar base via an airlock located in the rear of the PLR. The airlock is also used for EVA operation during missions. Life support is a partly regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center. The water absorbs any damaging radiation, allowing the command center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. Guidance, navigation, and control are supplied by a strapdown inertial measurement unit that works with the on-board computer. Star mappers provide periodic error correction.

  12. Colonial state formation without integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexopoulou Giannakitsa, Kleoniki; Juif, Dácil

    2017-01-01

    Samir Amin (1972) divided the African continent into three "macro-regions of colonial influence" with distinct socio-economic systems and labour practices: Africa of the colonial trade or peasant economy, Africa of the concession-owning companies, and Africa of the labour reserves. We argue that

  13. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  14. Toward an International Lunar Polar Volatiles Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen international space agencies are participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG is a voluntary, non-binding international coordination mechanism through which individual agencies may exchange information regarding interests, objectives, and plans in space exploration with the goal of strengthening both individual exploration programs as well as the collective effort. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the Moon and cis-lunar space, and continuing to near-Earth asteroids, and Mars. Space agencies agree that human space exploration will be most successful as an international endeavor, given the challenges of these missions. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public.

  15. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  16. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  17. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  18. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  19. Excavation costs for lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III

    1979-01-01

    A lunar strip mining system is presented which is capable of excavating and transporting 3 million metric tons of ore per year to a central processing plant on the moon's surface. The mining system would grow from a single front-end loader in the first year, to a fleet of ten haulers in the 30th year. Lunar personnel requirements would consist of a single individual, whose primary function would be to perform maintenance. All of the mining equipment would either operate automatically or by remote control from earth. The projected cost for the lunar mining system is approximately $12 to $37 per ton of ore over the life of the mine, an important part of the overall economics of exploiting lunar resources.

  20. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  1. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  2. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  3. Lunar volatiles: balancing science and resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Dana

    In the context of human exploration of the moon, the volatiles postulated to exist at the lunar poles have value as resources as well as scientific significance. Once sustained human operations commence on the moon, society will move from a paradigm in which examination of planetary materials has been unconstrained to one where use of those materials will support habitability and further exploration. A framework for the scientific investigation of lunar volatiles that allows for eventual economic exploitation can guide both activities and resolve the conflicts that will inevitably develop if the postulated lunar volatiles prove to be both extant and accessible. Scientific constraints on the framework include characterization at both poles of the isotopes, elements, and molecules in the volatiles, their relative and absolute abundances, and their horizontal and vertical distribution. A subset of this data is necessary in order to assess, develop, and initiate resource exploitation. In addition, the scientific record of volatiles in the cold traps can be contaminated by the cold-trapping of migrating volatiles released from operations elsewhere on the moon even if the indigenous, cold-trapped volatiles are not utilized. Possible decision points defining the transition from science-dominated to exploitation-dominated use include technology limits in the 70K environment, evolving science priorities (funding), and the resolution of major science issues. Inputs to policy development include any North vs. South Pole differences in volatile characteristics and the suitability of the volatiles to enable further scientific exploration of the moon. In the absence of national sovereignty on the moon, enforcement of any framework is an open question, particularly if science and commercial interests are in competition. The framework, processes, and precedent set by how we as a society choose to handle the scientific bounty and resource promise of lunar volatiles may eventually

  4. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  5. Development of a Lunar Consumables Storage and Distribution Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Notardonato, William

    2004-01-01

    NASA is in the preliminary planning stages for a future lunar base as a response to President George W. Bush's recent announcement of a new sustained exploration program beyond low earth orbit. Kennedy Space Center engineers are supporting this program by utilizing experience in Spaceport system design and operations to help develop a Lunar Consumables Depot. This depot will store propellants, life support fluids, and other consumables either transported from Earth or manufactured from In Situ resources. The depot will distribute these consumables in an energy efficient manner to end users including spacecraft, habitation modules, and rovers. This paper addresses some of the changes to lunar base architecture design as a result of advances in knowledge of lunar resources over the past 35 years, as well as technology advances in the area of In Situ Resource Utilization and consumable storage and distribution. A general system level description of the depot will be presented, including overall design philosophy and high level requirements. Finally, specific subsystem technologies that have been or will be developed by KSC will be addressed. Examples of these technologies are automated umbilicals, cryogenic refrigerators, novel storage vessels, advanced heat switches and heat exchangers, and self healing gaskets and wires.

  6. Orbital Space Solar Power Option for a Lunar Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges to the implementation of a continuously manned lunar base is power. During the lunar day (14 Earth days), it is conceptually simple to deploy solar arrays to generate the estimated 35 kilowatts of continuous power required. However, generating this level of power during the lunar night (also 14 Earth days) has been an extremely difficult problem to solve. Conventional solutions range from the requirement that the base be located at the lunar south pole so as to take advantage of the continuous sunshine available there to developing a space-qualified nuclear reactor and power plant to generate the needed energy. There is a third option: Use the soon-to-be-available Space Launch System to place a space based solar power station in lunar orbit that would beam the needed energy to the lunar base. Several detailed studies have been performed by NASA, universities and others looking at the lunar south pole for locating the base. The results are encouraging: by taking advantage of the moon's orbital tilt, large solar arrays can be deployed there to track the sun continuously and generate the power needed to sustain the base. The problem with this approach is inherent to its design: it will only work at the lunar south pole. There is no other site on the Moon with geometry favorable to generating continuous solar power. NASA has also considered the development of a compact fission reactor and power plant to generate the needed power, allowing the base to be sited anywhere on the Moon. The problem with this approach is that there are no space fission reactors available, none are being planned and the cost of developing one is prohibitively expensive. Using an orbiting space based solar power station to generate electrical power and beam it to a base sited anywhere on the moon should therefore be considered. The technology to collect sunlight, generate greater than the estimated 35 kilowatts of power, and beam it to the surface using

  7. Lunar-A mission: Outline and current status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jess/114/06/0761-0768. Keywords. Lunar-A; penetrator; lunar exploration; lunar interior; lunar seismology; heat flow. Abstract. The scientific objective of the Lunar-A,Japanese Penetrator Mission,is to explore the lunar interior by seismic and heat-flow experiments.Two penetrators containing ...

  8. INDIGENOUS SPACES IN COLONIAL DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Ferraz Barbosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous spaces constituted at the beginning of the colonial period represented a threat to the plans of implantation and development of the Portuguese-Brazilian colonial economy. Although little studied, they were distributed along the coast and inland of the captaincy of Pernambuco as the documents selected for this study point out. It is a question of the analysis of sources about cultures, spaces and indigenous frontiers, subjects that did not receive in-depth interpretations when studying the growth of Portuguese or Dutch colonial space.

  9. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  10. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  11. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Exploration Policy enacted by the US Congress in 2005 calls for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests. In 2006, NASA released the Lunar Architecture Study, which proposed establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon with international participation to extend human presence beyond Earth's orbit, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere. The establishment of sustained human presence on the Moon for science and exploration combines the design, integration, and operation challenges experienced from both the short Apollo lunar missions and the build-up and sustained crew operations of the International Space Station (ISS). Apollo experience reminds developers and mission planners that hardware must operate under extremely harsh environmental and abrasive conditions and every kilogram of mass and payload must be critical to achieve the mission s objectives due to the difficulty and cost of reaching the lunar surface. Experience from the ISS reminds developers and mission planners that integration of all hardware must be designed and planned from the start of the program, operations and evolution of capabilities on a continuous basis are important, and long-term life-cycle costs and logistical needs are equally or more important than minimizing early development and test costs. Overarching all of this is

  12. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  13. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  14. Language teaching and graphic colonial.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Yaneth Chaparro Cardozo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study a reflection of the colonial baroque ornamentation from education and graphic blocks; analyzing aspects such as creating maps of the Basilica Church Cathedral Santiago de Tunja. This research tests the interpretation of the drawing and construction of ornamental figures of the native nature of the region in the colonies of the city of Tunja, Boyacá churches. This study of the visual reconstruction of the routes that make a group of children on the reinterpretation of the ...

  15. Spawning of the colonial coral Cladocora caespitosa (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) in the Southern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kružić, P.; Žuljević, A.; Nikolić, V.

    2008-06-01

    Data on sexual reproduction of scleractinian coral species living in temperate zones, particularly in the Mediterranean Sea, are quite scarce. This paper describes sexual reproduction of the colonial coral Cladocora caespitosa from Veliko jezero (Mljet Island) in the Adriatic Sea. Spawned orange eggs and white sperm bundles were observed on the coral bank of C. caespitosa two nights before the full moon (20 June 2005) coinciding with increasing water temperature and correlated with the lunar cycle. Spawning was observed during five nights, involving about 30% of the colonies from the coral bank. Different colonies on the bank released only one type of gamete during the reproductive period. The diameter of the sperm bundles ranged from 100 to 200 μm (average 163 μm; SD = 47.08), while the female gametes diameter ranged from 300 to 500 μm (average 416 μm; SD = 73.12).

  16. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  17. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is, to a large extent, covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it has been produced by meteorite impacts since the...

  18. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being...

  19. Lunar stone saw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  20. Injuries of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera Carnica Stored in Own and Stranger Queenright Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajdel Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in 2008 and 2010 in the experimental apiary of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Worker bees were stored in transport cages in their own colonies and stranger colonies. The number of injuries and the death rate were checked twice, after 3 and 7 days of storage. In total, 6720 bees were examined (3360 workers from their own colonies and the same number from stranger colonies. The number of injured and dead workers had an exponential distribution (skewness>1. The worker bees sustained significantly more leg injuries (missing leg segments - 92 - 96% than injuries of arolia (13 - 15%, wings (1 - 7% or antennae (1 - 2. Worker bees stored in stranger colonies were injured significantly more frequently than worker bees stored in their own colonies. A significantly greater number of bees died in stranger colonies than in own colonies. The fact that bees stored in own colonies were injured proves that, even if they have the same smell, bees kept in cages provoke aggressive behavior from bees belonging to the banking colony.

  1. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  2. Lunar Outpost and its construction scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Yuzawa, Yoshinori; Horie, Michihiko; Amagata, Raita; Honda, Tetsuya

    A Lunar Outpost (LO) is a man-tended frontier facility that Japan may construct on the lunar mare in around 2010. The objective of the Lunar Outpost is to perform various experiments such as observation, material procesing, life science missions during the shorttime period. It will be a demonstration project for the permanently manned Lunar Base (LB). The Lunar Outpost has three major missions. The primary misssion to be a precursor of the manned Lunar Base. The secondary mission is to verify technologies required for the manned Lunar Base. The tertiary mission is to conduct experiments including lunar resource utilizations and adaptability of human beings to the lunar environment. The period of LO operations will be limited to three years. The first year is a construction phases and covers five lunar landings. The second and third years are the man-tended operational phase in which experiments and observation will be conducted on the lunar surface. There will be a total of nine lunar landings; three cargo landings and six passenger landings. Three crew members will stay at the LO for tend days for each passenger landing. The system structure and functions of the subsystems are described. A configuration of the LO which satisfies the missions and systems requirements is proposed. The configuration consists of a Habitation Module, a Laboratory/Logistics Module, an Electric Module, and a Rover with Airlock. A construction scenario is written to transport and integrate these elements.

  3. Lunar flyby transfers between libration point orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie; Qi, Rui

    2017-06-01

    Lunar flyby or lunar gravity assist is a classical technique to change the energy and trajectory of space vehicle in space mission. In this paper, lunar flyby transfers between Sun-Earth/Moon libration point orbits with different energies are investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem. Distinguished by behaviours before and after lunar flyby, classification of lunar flyby orbits is defined and studied. Research indicates that junction point of special regions of four types of lunar flyby orbits denotes the perilune of lunar flyby transfer between libration point orbits. Based on those special perilunes, retrograde and prograde lunar flyby transfers are discussed in detail, respectively. The mean energy level transition distribution is proposed and applied to analyse the influence of phase angle and eccentricity on lunar flyby transfers. The phase space is divided into normal and chaotic intervals based on the topology pattern of transfers. A continuation strategy of lunar flyby transfer in the bicircular model is presented. Numerical examples show that compared with the single-impulse transfers based on patched invariant manifolds, lunar flyby transfers are more energy efficient. Finally, lunar flyby transfers are further extended to the realistic models.

  4. International Collaboration in Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K. Bruce; Horack, John M.; Nall, Mark; Leahy, Bart. D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration commits the United States to return astronauts to the moon by 2020 using the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. Like the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s, this effort will require preliminary reconnaissance in the form of robotic landers and probes. Unlike Apollo, some of the data NASA will rely upon to select landing sites and conduct science will be based on international missions as well, including SMART-1, SELENE, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Opportunities for international cooperation on the moon also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The European Space Agency's SMART-1 orbiter (Figure 1) is making the first comprehensive inventory of key chemical elements in the lunar surface. It is also investigating the impact theory of the moon's formation.'

  5. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  6. Introduction to EGU session "Lunar Science and Exploration Towards Moon Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" Towards Moon Village" will address: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs polar lander, SLIM, Chandrayaan2, Chang'E 4 & 5, Lunar Resource Prospector, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties - Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns, support studies - ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with new stakeholders. The Moon Village is an open concept proposed by ESA DG with the goal of a sustainable human and robotic presence on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. Multiple goals of the Moon Village include planetary science, life sciences, astronomy, fundamental research, resources utilisation, human spaceflight, peaceful cooperation, economical development, inspiration, training and capacity building. ESA director general has revitalized and enhanced the original concept of MoonVillage discussed in the last decade. Space exploration builds on international collaboration. COSPAR and its ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group (created in 1994) have fostered collaboration between lunar missions [4-8]. A flotilla of lunar orbiters has

  7. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  8. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-01-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  9. Geopolymers from lunar and Martian soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Alessio; Alberini, Federico; Meyer, Marit E.

    2017-01-01

    This work discusses the geopolymerization of lunar dust simulant JSC LUNAR-1A and Martian dust simulant JSC MARS-1A. The geopolymerization of JSC LUNAR-1A occurs easily and produces a hard, rock-like, material. The geopolymerization of JSC MARS-1A requires milling to reduce the particle size. Tests were carried out to measure, for both JSC LUNAR-1A and JSC MARS-1A geopolymers, the maximum compressive and flexural strengths. In the case of the lunar simulant, these are higher than those of conventional cements. In the case of the Martian simulant, they are close to those of common building bricks.

  10. Design and Field Test of a Mass Efficient Crane for Lunar Payload Handling and Inspection: The Lunar Surface Manipulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R.; King, Bruce D.; Jones, Thomas Carno; Dorsey, John T.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    Devices for lifting, translating and precisely placing payloads are critical for efficient Earthbased construction operations. Both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. Lunar payloads include: a) prepackaged hardware and supplies which must be unloaded from landers and then accurately located at their operational site, b) sensor packages used for periodic inspection of landers, habitat surfaces, etc., and c) local materials such as regolith which require grading, excavation and placement. Although several designs have been developed for Earth based applications, these devices lack unique design characteristics necessary for transport to and use on the harsh lunar surface. These design characteristics include: a) composite components, b) compact packaging for launch, c) simple in-field reconfiguration and repair, and d) support for tele-operated or automated operations. Also, in contrast to Earth-based construction, where special purpose devices dominate a construction site, a lunar outpost will require versatile devices which provide operational benefit from initial construction through sustained operations. This paper will detail the design of a unique, high performance, versatile lifting device designed for operations on the lunar surface. The device is called the Lunar Surface Manipulation System to highlight the versatile nature of the device which supports conventional cable suspended crane operations as well as operations usually associated with a manipulator such as precise positioning where the payload is rigidly grappled by a tool attached to the tip of the device. A first generation test-bed to verify design methods and operational procedures is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center and recently completed field tests at Moses Lake Washington. The design relied on non-linear finite element analysis which is shown to correlate favorably with

  11. Simulation of a Lunar Surface Base Power Distribution Network for the Constellation Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Toby; Maslowski, Edward A.; Colozza, Anthony; McFarland, Willard; Prokopius, Kevin P.; George, Patrick J.; Hussey, Sam W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Power Distribution Network Study team worked to define, breadboard, build and test an electrical power distribution system consistent with NASA's goal of providing electrical power to sustain life and power equipment used to explore the lunar surface. A testbed was set up to simulate the connection of different power sources and loads together to form a mini-grid and gain an understanding of how the power systems would interact. Within the power distribution scheme, each power source contributes to the grid in an independent manner without communication among the power sources and without a master-slave scenario. The grid consisted of four separate power sources and the accompanying power conditioning equipment. Overall system design and testing was performed. The tests were performed to observe the output and interaction of the different power sources as some sources are added and others are removed from the grid connection. The loads on the system were also varied from no load to maximum load to observe the power source interactions.

  12. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  13. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...

  14. Language teaching and graphic colonial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yaneth Chaparro Cardozo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a reflection of the colonial baroque ornamentation from education and graphic blocks; analyzing aspects such as creating maps of the Basilica Church Cathedral Santiago de Tunja. This research tests the interpretation of the drawing and construction of ornamental figures of the native nature of the region in the colonies of the city of Tunja, Boyacá churches. This study of the visual reconstruction of the routes that make a group of children on the reinterpretation of the design in the construction of maps of colonial baroque in the creation and graphic composition. Given the importance of aesthetics in the visual language manuals maples ornaments of the cathedral with a look from the pedagogy and education in studies of iconography Erwin Panofsky in understanding the phenomenon of space. 

  15. Colonialism: nexus for myriad religious contentions in post-colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contact between African Traditional Religion (ATR) and Christianity is inextricably linked to European economic activities that culminated into colonialism. The contact was in fact, between two opposing cultures –African and European. Christianity since its introduction is perceived as an embodiment of Western culture, ...

  16. Colonial and post-colonial aspects of Australian identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Bruce; Donoghue, Jed

    2007-06-01

    Since the 1988 Bicentennial and the 2001 centenary of federation celebrations colonial images have flourished in Australia, highlighting the roles of convicts and free settlers during early colonization. Old sites, such as Port Arthur have been re-invigorated, and in 2004 Tasmanians celebrated the bicentenary of 'white' settlement. However, social scientists have given little attention to the role of colonial and post-colonial figures and myths as aspects of Australian national identity. We seek to address this issue by examining how convicts, free settlers, bushrangers and ANZACs are associated with contemporary identity in Australia. We examine evidence from the 2003 Australian Survey of Social Attitudes and find that historical figures such as the ANZACs and post-World War II immigrants comprise important aspects of national identity. A substantial majority of Australians judged ANZACs to be important, countering recent claims of the 'demise of the digger'. Sporting heroes are also at the core of Australian identity. Colonial figures appear to be far less important, although views on national identity vary according to social location. In particular, left-wing, university educated, younger, postmaterialist Australians view convicts and bushrangers as relatively important, indicating the salience of the larrikin in Australian identity.

  17. International partnership in lunar missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric catapult launchers on lunar surface. The low gravity and hard vacuum on the Moon's surface is, however, a very great advantage from space transportation considerations for the return flight to Earth. Space vehicles could leave the. Moon without burning any fuel at all. A horizontal launching track like those used on ...

  18. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  19. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  20. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  1. Lunar Geoscience: Key Questions for Future Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James

    2014-05-01

    Lunar Geoscience: Key Questions for Future Lunar Exploration James W. Head, Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 USA. (Invited paper/solicited talk for EGU 2014 PS2.3 Lunar session, Bernard H. Foing, Convener EGU PS2.3) The last several decades of intensive robotic exploration of the Moon has built on early Apollo and Luna exploration to provide fundamental knowledge of Earth's satellite and an excellent perspective on the most well-documented planetary body other than Earth. This new planetological perspective has raised substantial new questions about the nature of the origin of the Moon, its early differentiation and bombardment history, its internal thermal evolution, the production of its secondary crust as exemplified by the lunar maria, and tertiary crust as potentially seen in steep-sided domes and impact melt differentiates, the abundance of interior volatiles and their role in volcanic eruptions, and the abundance of surface volatiles and their concentration in polar regions. On the basis of this new information, a series of specific outstanding geoscience questions can be identified that can serve as guides for future human and robotic exploration. These include: 1) What is the nature and abundance of impact melt seas and what rock types do they produce upon differentiation and solidification? 2) Where are lunar mantle samples located on the lunar surface and what processes are responsible for placing them there? 3) What processes are responsible for producing the silica-rich viscous domes, such as those seen at Gruithuisen? 4) What are the volatile species involved in the emplacement of lunar pyroclastic deposits and what clues do they provide about deep magmatic volatiles and shallow volatile formation processes? 5) How do we account for the differing characteristics of regional dark mantling pyroclastic deposits? 6) When did mare basalt volcanism begin (earliest cryptmaria) and how and where is it manifested? 7

  2. Early lunar geology and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Despite a number of human and robotic missions to the Moon, there are still important unanswered questions about its early evolution, and how it came to be the object we observe today. Here we use observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques to examine three important events that took place early in lunar history and have left a lasting signature. The first event is the formation of the largest basin on the Moon, the South Pole-Aitken Basin. We develop a systematic method to define the previously unknown boundaries of this degraded structure and quantify its gross shape. We also combine a number of remote sensing data sets to constrain the origin of heat producing elements in its interior. The second event we examine is the evolution of the lunar orbit, and the coupling between the Moon's early geophysical properties and the growth of orbital eccentricity. We use analytical models for tidal deformations and orbit evolution to show that the shape of the Moon suggests its early orbit was highly eccentric. However, we are also able to explain the presently high eccentricity entirely by traditional, secular tidal growth while the early Moon was hot. The third event we examine is the magnetization of lunar samples. We perform extensive paleomagnetic measurements of an ancient, deep-seated lunar sample, and determine that a long-lived magnetic field like that of a core dynamo is the most plausible explanation for its magnetic remanence. In sum, the earliest portion of lunar history has been largely obscured by later geologic events, but a great deal can still be learned from this formative epoch. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  3. Changing Views on Colonial Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, P.K.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of a rational study and in order to arrive at a balanced appreciation of nineteenth and twentieth century heritage worldwide, architecture and town planning realized under colonial rule requires special attention. This paper describes the strengths and need for a revised vision of

  4. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  5. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    thrips; ants; butterflies; moths; bats ; and hummingbirds and other birds. 2 Berenbaum, M.R., University of Illinois, Statement before the... vampire mite (Varroa destructor) and the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi), and also colony declines due to the pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.12 Other reasons

  6. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  7. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  8. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  9. Structural, Physical, and Compositional Analysis of Lunar Simulants and Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Paul; Street, Kenneth W.; Gaier, James

    2008-01-01

    Relative to the prior manned Apollo and unmanned robotic missions, planned Lunar initiatives are comparatively complex and longer in duration. Individual crew rotations are envisioned to span several months, and various surface systems must function in the Lunar environment for periods of years. As a consequence, an increased understanding of the surface environment is required to engineer and test the associated materials, components, and systems necessary to sustain human habitation and surface operations. The effort described here concerns the analysis of existing simulant materials, with application to Lunar return samples. The interplay between these analyses fulfills the objective of ascertaining the critical properties of regolith itself, and the parallel objective of developing suitable stimulant materials for a variety of engineering applications. Presented here are measurements of the basic physical attributes, i.e. particle size distributions and general shape factors. Also discussed are structural and chemical properties, as determined through a variety of techniques, such as optical microscopy, SEM and TEM microscopy, Mossbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman microspectroscopy, inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence mapping. A comparative description of currently available stimulant materials is discussed, with implications for more detailed analyses, as well as the requirements for continued refinement of methods for simulant production.

  10. A cislunar transportation system fuelled by lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    A transportation system for a self sustaining economy in cislunar space is discussed. The system is based on liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion whose fuels are derived from ice mined at the polar regions of the Moon. The elements of the transportation system consist of the Advanced Cryogenic Evolved Stage (ACES) and the XEUS lander, both being developed by United Launch Alliance (ULA). The main propulsion elements and structures are common between ACES and XEUS. Both stages are fully reusable with refueling of their LO2/LH2 propellants. Utilization of lunar sourced propellants has the potential to dramatically lower the cost of transportation within the cislunar environs. These lower costs dramatically lower the barriers to entry of a number of promising cislunar based activities including space solar power. One early application of the architecture is providing lunar sourced propellant to refuel ACES for traditional spacecraft deployment missions. The business case for this application provides an economic framework for a potential lunar water mining operation.

  11. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  12. Controlled environment crop production - Hydroponic vs. lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of controlled environment crop production in a lunar colony is discussed. Findings on the effects of optimal root-zone and aerial environments derived as part of the NASA CELSS project at Utah State are presented. The concept of growing wheat in optimal environment is discussed. It is suggested that genetic engineering might produce the ideal wheat cultivar for CELSS (about 100 mm in height with fewer leaves). The Utah State University hydroponic system is outlined and diagrams of the system and plant container construction are provided. Ratio of plant mass to solution mass, minimum root-zone volume, maintenance, and pH control are discussed. A comparison of liquid hydrophonic systems and lunar regoliths as substrates for plant growth is provided. The physiological processes that are affected by the root-zone environment are discussed including carbon partitioning, nutrient availability, nutrient absorption zones, root-zone oxygen, plant water potential, root-produced hormones, and rhizosphere pH control.

  13. Discussion of thermal extraction chamber concepts for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Hager, Philipp; Parzinger, Stephan; Dirlich, Thomas; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Walter, Ulrich

    The Exploration group of the Institute of Astronautics (LRT) of the Technische Universitüt a München focuses on long-term scenarios and sustainable human presence in space. One of the enabling technologies in this long-term perspective is in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). When dealing with the prospect of future manned missions to Moon and Mars the use of ISRU seems useful and intended. The activities presented in this paper focus on Lunar ISRU. This basically incorporates both the exploitation of Lunar oxygen from natural rock and the extraction of solar wind implanted particles (SWIP) from regolith dust. Presently the group at the LRT is examining possibilities for the extraction of SWIPs, which may provide several gaseous components (such as H2 and N2) valuable to a human presence on the Moon. As a major stepping stone in the near future a Lunar demonstrator/ verification experiment payload is being designed. This experiment, LUISE (LUnar ISru Experiment), will comprise a thermal process chamber for heating regolith dust (grain size below 500m), a solar thermal power supply, a sample distribution unit and a trace gas analysis. The first project stage includes the detailed design and analysis of the extraction chamber concepts and the thermal process involved in the removal of SWIP from Lunar Regolith dust. The technique of extracting Solar Wind volatiles from Regolith has been outlined by several sources. Heating the material to a threshold value seems to be the most reasonable approach. The present paper will give an overview over concepts for thermal extraction chambers to be used in the LUISE project and evaluate in detail the pros and cons of each concept. The special boundary conditions set by solar thermal heating of the chambers as well as the material properties of Regolith in a Lunar environment will be discussed. Both greatly influence the design of the extraction chamber. The performance of the chamber concepts is discussed with respect to the

  14. Global lunar-surface mapping experiment using the Lunar Imager/Spectrometer on SELENE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haruyama, Junichi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Ohtake, Makiko; Morota, Tomokatsu; Honda, Chikatoshi; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Torii, Masaya; Ogawa, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    .... Japan will launch the lunar polar orbiter SELENE (Kaguya) (Kato et al., 2007) in 2007 as the first mission of the Japanese long-term lunar exploration program and acquire data for scientific knowledge and possible utilization of the Moon...

  15. Fundamental Problems of Lunar Research, Technical Solutions, and Priority Lunar Regions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Bricheva, S. S.; Guseva, E. N.; Demidov, N. E.; Zakharova, M.; Krasil'nikov, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we discuss four fundamental scientific problems of lunar research: (1) lunar chronology, (2) the internal structure of the Moon, (3) the lunar polar regions, and (4) lunar volcanism. After formulating the scientific problems and their components, we proceed to outlining a list of technical solutions and priority lunar regions for research. Solving the listed problems requires investigations on the lunar surface using lunar rovers, which can deliver a set of analytical equipment to places where geological conditions are known from a detailed analysis of orbital information. The most critical research methods, which can answer some of the key questions, are analysis of local geological conditions from panoramic photographs, determination of the chemical, isotopic, and mineral composition of the soil, and deep seismic sounding. A preliminary list is given of lunar regions with high scientific priority.

  16. Various problems in lunar habitat construction scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keiji; Ohtsubo, Koji; Oguchi, Mitsuo; Ohya, Haruhiko; Kanbe, Seiichiro; Ashida, Akira; Sano, Kenichi

    1991-10-01

    Many papers describing the lunar base construction have been published previously. Lunar base has been considered to be a useful facility to conduct future scientific programs and to get new nuclear energy resource, namely 3He, for defending the environmental collapse on Earth and also to develop lunar resources such as oxygen and nitrogen for extending human activities in space more economically. The scale of the lunar base and the construction methods adopted are determined by the scenario of a lunar utilization program but constrained by the availability of the established space transportation technologies. As indicated in the scenarios described in papers regarding lunar base construction, the first steps of lunar missions are the investigation of lunar itself for conducting scientific research and for surveying the lunar base construction sites, the second steps are the outpost construction for conducting man-tended missions, for more precise scientific research and studying the lunar base construction methods, and third steps are the construction of a permanent base and the expansion of this lunar base for exploiting lunar resources. The missions within the first and second steps are all possible using the ferry (OTV) similar to the service and command modules of Apollo Spacecraft because all necessary weights to be landed on the lunar surface for these missions seem to be under the equivalent weight of the Apollo Lunar Lander. On the other hand, the permanent facilities constructed on the lunar surface in the third step requires larger quantities of construction materials to be transported from Earth, and a new ferry (advanced OTV) having higher transportation ability, at least above 6 times, compared with Apollo Service and Command Modules, are to be developed. The largest problems in the permament lunar base construction are related to the food production facilities, 30-40 m 2 plant cultivation area per person are required for providing the nutrition

  17. Lunar Cold Trap Contamination by Landing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Scott T.; Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Tools have been developed to model and simulate the effects of lunar landing vehicles on the lunar environment (Metzger, 2011), mostly addressing the effects of regolith erosion by rocket plumes and the fate of the ejected lunar soil particles (Metzger, 2010). These tools are being applied at KSC to predict ejecta from the upcoming Google Lunar X-Prize Landers and how they may damage the historic Apollo landing sites. The emerging interest in lunar mining poses a threat of contamination to pristine craters at the lunar poles, which act as "cold traps" for water and may harbor other valuable minerals Crider and Vondrak (2002). The KSC Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations Lab tools have been expanded to address the probability for contamination of these pristine "cold trap" craters.

  18. A lunar dust simulant: CLDS-i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Li, Xiongyao; Zhang, Sensen; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Shijie; Li, Yang; Wu, Yanxue

    2017-02-01

    Lunar dust can make serious damage to the spacecrafts, space suits, and health of astronauts, which is one of the most important problems faced in lunar exploration. In the case of rare lunar dust sample, CLDS-i with high similarity to the real lunar dust is an important objective for studying dust protection and dust toxicity. The CLDS-i developed by the Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy Sciences contains ∼75 vol% glass and a little nanophase metal iron (np-Fe0), and with a median particle size about 500 nm. The CLDS-i particles also have complicated shape and sharp edges. These properties are similar to those of lunar dust, and make the CLDS-i can be applied to many fields such as the scientific researches, the treatment technology and toxicological study of lunar dust.

  19. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  20. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2007-01-07

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies.

  1. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin walks on lunar surface near leg of Lunar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, walks on the Moon near a leg of the Lunar Module during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. The astronauts footprints are clearly visible in the foreground.

  2. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  3. The Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, W. C.; Binder, A. B.; Hubbard, G. S.; McMurry, R. E., Jr.; Miller, M. C.; Prettyman, T. H.

    1996-03-01

    The third mission in the NASA Discovery series is Lunar Prospector. It is scheduled for launch on 9 October, 1997 into a circular, 100 km altitude lunar polar orbit. The nominal mission lifetime is one year. One of the five components of its experimental payload is a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS), whose primary scientific objective is to provide global maps of the lunar elemental composition to depths of 20 cm. Scientifically discriminating results are expected for Fe, Ti, U, Th, K, Si, O, and perhaps Al, Ca, and Mg. In combination with a separate neutron spectrometer, also included on Lunar Prospector, a secondary objective of GRS is to search for, and determine the abundance of water ice to depths of 50 cm within permanently shaded craters at the lunar poles. Both experiments will also be used to search for, and determine the abundance of hydrogen implanted by the solar wind into lunar regolith to depths of 50 cm, thereby providing maps of regolith maturity. All Lunar Prospector experiments will be mounted at the ends of three, 1.9-m long booms that define the spin-plane of the satellite. The Lunar Prospector spin axis will be perpendicular to the lunar orbital plane and be flipped by 180deg half way through the mission.

  4. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  5. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  6. Lunar material resources: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of returned lunar samples and a comparison of the physical and chemical processes operating on the Moon and on the Earth provide a basis for predicting both the possible types of material resources (especially minerals and rocks) and the physical characteristics of ore deposits potentially available on the Moon. The lack of free water on the Moon eliminates the classes of ore deposits that are most exploitable on Earth; namely, (1) hydrothermal, (2) secondary mobilization and enrichment, (3) precipitation from a body of water, and (4) placer. The types of lunar materials available for exploitation are whole rocks and their contained minerals, regolith, fumarolic and vapor deposits, and nonlunar materials, including solar wind implantations. Early exploitation of lunar material resources will be primarily the use of regolith materials for bulk shielding; the extraction from regolith fines of igneous minerals such as plagioclase feldspars and ilmenite for the production of oxygen, structural metals, and water; and possibly the separation from regolith fines of solar-wind-implanted volatiles. The only element, compound, or mineral, that by itself has been identified as having the economic potential for mining, processing, and return to Earth is helium-3.

  7. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  8. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  9. African colonial boundaries and nation-building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDS 10

    Britain, France, Germany, Portugal and Belgium. The aim was to stop the issue from degenerating into open war (Afigbo. 1990:129). One major aspect of Africa's colonial heritage is colonial boundaries. Many colonial boundaries in Africa date back to the Berlin conference of 1884-1885, which climaxed the scramble and ...

  10. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical agriculture (1919–1938). We adopt the Dimson–March–Staunton method to compute real geometric annual average rates of return and assess our estimates in an international comparative perspective. We find...

  11. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  12. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  13. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  14. Indigenous Customs and Colonial Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf Kottakkunnummal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the contesting articulations of gender, family, and religion in colonial South India. The article discusses the encounter between matrilineal customs and the Anglo-Muhammadan law in the site of Mappila Muslim matrilineal practices in colonial Malabar, of the Madras Presidency during c. 1910-1928. Young male members of the joint family used the language that matriliny is un-Islamic, and passed laws in the Legislative Assembly to demand that joint family property requires to be inherited in the patrilineal line. Three legislations were passed during the period of 1910-1940 to bring Muslim families in accordance with the ideal notions of familial organization existed in that period. The ideal notions were set up by the precepts of the Anglo-Muhammadan law, the orientalist knowledge of Islam, ideologies of colonial modernity, and dreams of caste and religious reform movements among the people of Malabar, and other neighboring states, Cochin and Travancore. In response to that, there was a re-articulation of customs and familial practices by using legal provisions available in the Islamic law, and an effort for justifying the practices to avoid the ruin of matriliny. Subsequently, the matrilineal Mappilas of Malabar retained matrilineal customs rather intact, though the gender relations and religious practices were re-articulated in the idioms of patriarchy and textuality.

  15. Multi-elemental analysis of colonial and post-colonial Nigerian coins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-elemental analysis of colonial and post-colonial Nigerian coins by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. ... A non-destructive physical method of ion beam analysis; PIXE was employed to investigate elemental properties of colonial and post-colonial Nigerian coins. The weights of the coins varied ...

  16. Development and Commercialization of the Lunar Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The proposed Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth (1, 2, 3, 4). The LSP System may be the only reasonable method for establishing sustainable global energy prosperity within two generations. Commercial power prosperity requires at least 2 kWe/person. For ten billion people this implies 20 TWe and 2,000 TWe-y of electric energy or ~6,000 TWt-y of thermal energy per century (5, 6, 7, 8). A brief overview is presented of a reference LSP System that supplies 20 TWe by 2050. The engineering scales and the cost and benefits of this system are described. In order to provide low cost commercial electric energy, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth (1, 2, 3). In addition, lunar production machinery can be made primarily from lunar materials. Advantages of this approach, versus the reference LSP System, are discussed. Full-scale production of a LSP System will certainly be proceeded by terrestrial and lunar operation of the production machinery and a small-scale demonstration of the operational system (1). Using government funds to establishing a permanent lunar base and the associated transportation system would significantly reduce the upfront cost for the demonstration of a commercial LSP System (2). The government program would provide a legal framework for commercial development of the LSP System (3, 9). The LSP System offers the opportunity to establish a materials industry on the Moon that can produce a growing mass and variety of goods and enable new services of benefit on the Earth and the Moon (10). New priorities are suggested for civilian space programs that can accelerate the establishment

  17. The Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP): A New Tool for Performance Evaluation of Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Stewart, Shaun M.; Lee, David E.; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Constellation Program paves the way for a series of lunar missions leading to a sustained human presence on the Moon. The proposed mission design includes an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), a Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and a lunar lander (Altair) which support the transfer to and from the lunar surface. This report addresses the design, development and implementation of a new mission scan tool called the Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) and its use to provide insight into the integrated (i.e., EDS, Orion, and Altair based) mission cost as a function of various mission parameters and constraints. The Constellation architecture calls for semiannual launches to the Moon and will support a number of missions, beginning with 7-day sortie missions, culminating in a lunar outpost at a specified location. The operational lifetime of the Constellation Program can cover a period of decades over which the Earth-Moon geometry (particularly, the lunar inclination) will go through a complete cycle (i.e., the lunar nodal cycle lasting 18.6 years). This geometry variation, along with other parameters such as flight time, landing site location, and mission related constraints, affect the outbound (Earth to Moon) and inbound (Moon to Earth) translational performance cost. The mission designer must determine the ability of the vehicles to perform lunar missions as a function of this complex set of interdependent parameters. Trade-offs among these parameters provide essential insights for properly assessing the ability of a mission architecture to meet desired goals and objectives. These trades also aid in determining the overall usable propellant required for supporting nominal and off-nominal missions over the entire operational lifetime of the program, thus they support vehicle sizing.

  18. Feasibility Study on Lunar and Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hidehiko; Takazawa, Yoshisada; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Takano, Yutaka; Namura, Eijiro

    1996-10-01

    This technical memorandum summarizes the results of an in-house study on lunar and Mars drone explorations - observation, landing and mobile explorations and sample returns for lunar and Mars respectively. So far, lunar and planet explorations have been primarily performed by the United States and the Soviet Union. ISAS and ESA have also contributed to some extent. The main purpose has been scientific exploration. There are some arguments that lunar and planet explorations should be performed for scientific purposes and the exploitation of them is not necessary. However, most scientific research involve the existence and survival of humankind, so it is not the fact that they cannot be organized from the side of exploitation. Especially, if NASDA makes approaches to lunar and Mars exploration, it should inevitably embrace exploitation plans. In this preface we provide the outline of lunar and Mars exploitation scenarios set up as a premise of the review on lunar and Mars unmanned exploration plans. Various reviews have been performed on whether the Moon or Mars would allow for human activities or survival. Among them, He mill, the solar powered satellite material mill and construction project of relay station to Mars as well as Mars teraforming plan have important issues. These projects have not yet become feasible because their expected investments are too large to make them practical. However, the present time seems the most appropriate to get with lunar and Mars exploitation projects under international cooperation since the realization of a space station is imminent and the international cooperation is being created with the participation of Russia. The international space station project will be continued until the year 2015. The post project has not yet been decided. Therefore, we expect that Japan would propose two successive projects, one is to construct an orbital service station combining manned abilities of the station and orbital service system and the

  19. The reuse of logistics carriers for the first lunar outpost alternative habitat study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carolina

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Definition Branch deals with preliminary concepts/designs of various projects currently in progress at NASA. One of these projects is called the First Lunar Outpost. The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is a proposed permanent lunar base to be located on the moon. In order to better understand the Lunar Habitat, a detailed analysis of the lunar environment as well as conceptual studies of the physical living arrangements for the support crew is necessary. The habitat will be inhabited for a period of 45 days followed by a six month dormant period. Requirements for the habitat include radiation protection, a safe haven for occasional solar flare storms, an airlock module and consumables to support a crew of 4 with a schedule of 34 extra vehicular activities. Consumables in order to sustain a crew of four for 45 days ranges from 430 kg of food to only 15 kg for personal hygiene items. These consumables must be brought to the moon with every mission. They are transported on logistics carriers. The logistics carrier must be pressurized in order to successfully transport the consumables. Refrigeration along with other types of thermal control and variation in pressure are defined by the list of necessary consumables. The objective of the proposed work was to collaborate the Habitat Team with their study on Logistic Carriers as possible alternatives for additional habitable volume. Options for possible reuses was also determined. From this analysis, a recommended design is proposed.

  20. Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'Er, Avraham

    2011-03-01

    As a result of stress due to nutrient limitation or antibiotics, competing individual bacteria within a single colony may lyse sibling cells to release nutrients (cannibalism) or DNA (fratricide). However, we have recently shown that competition is not limited to individuals, but can occur at the colony level [A. Be'er et al., PNAS 106, 428 (2009); A. Be'er et al., PNAS 107, 6258 (2010).] In response to the presence of an encroaching sibling colony, Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacteria secrete a lethal protein, lysing cells at the interface between the colonies. Analysis of the proteins secreted by these competing sibling colonies, combined with a mathematical model, shows how colonies maintain their growth by self-regulating the secretion of two proteins: subtilisin (a well-known growth promoter), and Slf (a previously unknown protein, which is lethal). The results also explain why a single colony is not inhibited by its own secretions.

  1. Robotic Lunar Landers For Science And Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as an ESMD precursor robotic lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting SMD designing small lunar robotic landers for science missions, primarily to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical nodes. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community. This paper describes the current status of the MSFC/APL robotic lunar mission studies and risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing, combined GN&C and avionics testing, and two autonomous lander test articles.

  2. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  3. Nanophase Fe 0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The agglutinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils. Reduction by solar wind hydrogen in agglutinitic melts may have produced immiscible droplets that solidified as globules. The exact mechanism of formation of such Fe0 globules in lunar soils remains ...

  4. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  5. The radiance of lunar objects near opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, Johannes van

    The radiance of lunar objects at phase angles |g| < 5 ° has been measured on plates taken at the Kirkwood and Yerkes Observatories during the lunar eclipse of 18 November 1956. The measurements have been combined on a uniform scale of brightness by comparison with photoelectric determinations of the

  6. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Nall, M. E.; French, R. A.; Muery, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL - US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation’s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar

  7. Past penguin colony responses to explosive volcanism on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen J.; Monien, Patrick; Foster, Louise C.; Loftfield, Julia; Hocking, Emma P.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Fretwell, Peter; Ireland, Louise; Ochyra, Ryszard; Haworth, Anna R.; Allen, Claire S.; Moreton, Steven G.; Davies, Sarah J.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bentley, Michael J.; Hodgson, Dominic A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula have been linked to several environmental factors, but the potentially devastating impact of volcanic activity has not been considered. Here we use detailed biogeochemical analyses to track past penguin colony change over the last 8,500 years on Ardley Island, home to one of the Antarctic Peninsula's largest breeding populations of gentoo penguins. The first sustained penguin colony was established on Ardley Island c. 6,700 years ago, pre-dating sub-fossil evidence of Peninsula-wide occupation by c. 1,000 years. The colony experienced five population maxima during the Holocene. Overall, we find no consistent relationships with local-regional atmospheric and ocean temperatures or sea-ice conditions, although the colony population maximum, c. 4,000-3,000 years ago, corresponds with regionally elevated temperatures. Instead, at least three of the five phases of penguin colony expansion were abruptly ended by large eruptions from the Deception Island volcano, resulting in near-complete local extinction of the colony, with, on average, 400-800 years required for sustainable recovery.

  8. A long-lived lunar core dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Erin K; Weiss, Benjamin P; Cassata, William S; Shuster, David L; Tikoo, Sonia M; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Grove, Timothy L; Fuller, Michael D

    2012-01-27

    Paleomagnetic measurements indicate that a core dynamo probably existed on the Moon 4.2 billion years ago. However, the subsequent history of the lunar core dynamo is unknown. Here we report paleomagnetic, petrologic, and (40)Ar/(39)Ar thermochronometry measurements on the 3.7-billion-year-old mare basalt sample 10020. This sample contains a high-coercivity magnetization acquired in a stable field of at least ~12 microteslas. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by 500 million years. Such a long-lived lunar dynamo probably required a power source other than thermochemical convection from secular cooling of the lunar interior. The inferred strong intensity of the lunar paleofield presents a challenge to current dynamo theory.

  9. Transfer of terrestrial technology for lunar mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.; Green, Patricia A.

    The functions, operational procedures, and major items of equipment that comprise the terrestrial mining process are characterized. These data are used to synthesize a similar activity on the lunar surface. Functions, operations, and types of equipment that can be suitably transferred to lunar operation are identified. Shortfalls, enhancements, and technology development needs are described. The lunar mining process and what is required to adapt terrestrial equipment are highlighted. It is concluded that translation of terrestrial mining equipment and operational processes to perform similar functions on the lunar surface is practical. Adequate attention must be given to the harsh environment and logistical constraints of the lunar setting. By using earth-based equipment as a forcing function, near- and long-term benefits are derived (i.e., improved terrestrial mining in the near term vis-a-vis commercial production of helium-3 in the long term.

  10. Global small-scale lunar cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskiy, Y. N.; Pskovskiy, Y. P.; Rodionova, Z. F.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Chikmachev, V. I.; Volchkova, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    The primary sources information for compiling this map were the photographs of the visible hemisphere obtained by earth-based observatories, the Luna 3 and Zond 3 pictures, and a small number of Lunar Orbiter pictures. The primary content of the complete lunar map is the surface relief and its tonal characteristics. In preparing the map, particular attention was devoted to the variety of lunar relief forms. The color spectrum of the map was selected not only for the natural coloring of the lunar surface, but also with the objective of achieving maximum expressiveness. A lunar globe to scale 1:10 million was prepared along with the preparation of the map. The scale of the globe, half that of the map, led to some selection and generalization of the relief forms. The globe permits maintaining simultaneously geometric similarity of contours, exact proportions of areas, and identical scales in all directions. The globe was prepared in both the Latin and Russian languages.

  11. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...... to shed light over why statues still matter and we argue that affective politics – defined as politics that engage bodies immediately – is due to site-specific actions capable of going viral but likewise to non-photogenic scenes with indexical power. The decolonizing activism of the RMF movement mobilizes...... what we call an affective politics using bodies as main tool....

  12. The logic of hypersocial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2012-01-01

    It is no wonder that we are transfixed with fascination when we stand in the midst of an ocean of flowing ants within a single extensive society of one of the invasive species. Normal terms do not fit anymore: this is not just a colony, but a “supercolony.” The iconic supercolonial species...... is the Argentine ant, infamous as a pest and now very well studied, all the way from having its genome sequenced to its global distribution mapped. As the Argentine ant can be the key to understanding other supercolonial and/or invasive ants, it is very timely that Moffett's review (2012) focuses on how we...

  13. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  14. Mineral chemistry of lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, K; Prinz, M; Bunch, T E

    1970-01-30

    Glass spherules, glass fragments, augite, ferroaugite, titanaugite, pyroxmangite, pigeonite, hypersthene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, maskelynite, olivine, silica, ilmenite, TiO(2), "ferropseudobrookite," spinel, ulvöspinel, native iron, nickel-iron, troilite, and chlorapatite were analyzed with the electron microprobe. There are no indications of large-scale chemical differentiation, chemical weathering, or hydrous minerals. Contributions of meteoritic material to lunar surface rocks are small. Rocks with igneous textures originated from a melt that crystallized at or near the surface, and oxygen fugacities have been low. Shock features indicate that at least some surface material is impact-produced.

  15. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  16. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  17. New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.

    1995-12-01

    A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

  18. Criteria for feasibility, health and welfare assessment of requirement to use second and subsequent generations of non-human primates or animals from self-sustaining colonies in research Critères d’évaluation de la faisabilité, de l’incidence sanitaire et des répercussions sur le bien-être animal, relatifs à l'obligation future d'utiliser des primates non humains issus uniquement des animaux de deuxième génération et plus ou des animaux provenant de colonies d'élevage auto-entretenues pour la recherche expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that a feasibility study must be conducted by the European Commission to determine if all sourcing of non-human primates from parents bred in captivity (F2 or from self-sustaining colonies can be achieved. This study should also include an assessment of animal health and welfare. Prior to the initiation of the European Commission’s study, it was considered by EFPIA and FELASA that the criteria to be used in the feasibility, health and welfare assessment should be established by experts to help expedite such a study. This paper identifies those criteria which may be useful in making policy decisions on the confirmation or reconsideration of the timetable for implementation of the F2 requirement. A key requirement before a number of criteria can be assessed is the generation of base-line data relating to the supply and future demand of non-human primates and the health and welfare status of current breeding colonies supplying the European market. Three groups of criteria have been indentified, namely feasibility, science and research and welfare. Within each group, a number of parameters are defined and their rationale for inclusion, together with suggested information points, is discussed.La directive européenne 2010/63/EU sur la protection des animaux utilisés à des fins scientifiques exige qu'une étude de faisabilité soit conduite par la Commission européenne afin de déterminer si l’approvisionnement en primates non-humains à partir de géniteurs élevés en captivité (F2 ou de colonies d'élevage autosuffisantes, peut être possible. Cette étude devra également inclure une évaluation de la santé des animaux et de leur bien-être. Avant le début de cette étude par la Commission européenne, l'EFPIA et FELASA ont estimé que les critères à utiliser pour les évaluations de la faisabilité, de la santé des animaux et du bien

  19. `Boy!': The Hinge of Colonial Double Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Menke

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The French colonial enterprise in Africa enforced racial segregation, yet encouraged Africans to assimilate the French language, culture, and religion. The essay questions these contradictory policies through readings of Ferdinand Oyono's novels. It argues that a figure that embodies undecidability—the colonial servant known as the "boy"—is the locus of the denaturalization of the identities that were simultaneously institutionalized and denied by the Manichaean colonial world.

  20. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  1. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  2. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  3. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.

  4. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  5. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  6. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  7. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  8. Lunar roving vehicle thermal control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R. G.; Paoletti, C. J.; Britt, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A thermal control system was incorporated into the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to maintain temperature sensitive components within appropriate temperature limits during the translunar transportation phase, lunar surface operation, and quiescent periods between lunar traverses. This paper describes the thermal control system and discusses its thermal characteristics during all phases of operation. The basic concept is a passive system which stores internally generated energy during operation with subsequent radiation to space. The external environments are regulated by selected radiative surface finishes. Multi-layer insulation blankets, space radiators, flexible thermal straps, and fusible mass heat sinks were designed to control the temperatures of the electronic components.

  9. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon provides an important window into the early history of the Earth, containing information about planetary composition, magmatic evolution, surface bombardment, and exposure to the space environment. Robotic lunar landers to achieve science goals and to provide precursor technology development and site characterization are an important part of program balance within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). A Robotic Lunar Lan-der mission complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the Moon.

  10. Zinnia Germination and Lunar Soil Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Germination testing was performed to determine the best method for germinating zinnias. This method will be used to attempt to germinate the zinnia seeds produced in space. It was found that seed shape may be critically important in determining whether a seed will germinate or not. The ability of compost and worm castings to remediate lunar regolith simulant for plant growth was tested. It was found that neither treatment effectively improves plant growth in lunar regolith simulant. A potential method of improving lunar regolith simulant by mixing it with arcillite was discovered.

  11. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  12. Payload Design for the Lunar Flashlight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Crabtree, K.; Paine, C.; Sellar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG). These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  13. Correlation of Lunar South Polar Epithermal Neutron Maps: Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector and Lunar Prospector Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Sagdeev, R.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) was developed to refine the lunar surface hydrogen (H) measurements generated by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. LPNS measurements indicated a approx.4,6% decrease in polar epithermal fluxes equivalent to (1.5+/-0,8)% H concentration and are direct geochemical evidence indicating water /high H at the poles. Given the similar operational and instrumental objectives of the LEND and LPNS systems, an important science analysis step for LEND is to test correlation with existing research including LPNS measurements. In this analysis, we compare corrected low altitude epithermal rate data from LPNS available via NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) with calibrated LEND epithermal maps using a cross-correlation technique

  14. Thermophysical properties of lunar media. II - Heat transfer within the lunar surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat transfer within the lunar surface layer depends on several thermophysical properties of the lunar regolith, including the thermal conductivity, the specific heat, the thermal diffusivity, and the thermal parameter. Results of property measurements on simulated lunar materials are presented where appropriate as well as measurements made on the actual samples themselves. The variation of temperature on the moon with depth is considered, taking into account various times of the lunar day. The daily variation in temperature drops to about 1 deg at a depth of only 0.172 meters. The steady temperature on the moon below this depth is 225 K.

  15. Radiation exposure to the orbiting lunar station and lunar surface related to reusable nuclear shuttle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation environment created by the Reusable Nuclear Vehicle (RNS) in performing its normal mission functions while in the lunar vicinity and the impact of that environment on the Orbiting Lunar Station (OLS) and/or the lunar surface are examined. Lunar surface exposures from the operating reactor were evaluated for both the arrival and departure burns and while there is little probability that manned bases would lie along the paths in which measurable exposures would be recorded, the analyses do indicate the need to consider this possibility in planning such operations. Conclusions supported by the analyses and recommended operational constraints for the RNS are presented.

  16. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  17. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  18. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on legal reasoning and legal epistemology within the African context. It examines the system of legal justice in post-colonial Africa and submits that because of the colonial legacy, post-colonial African legal reasoning is methodologically founded on empiricism and positivism. It avers that despite its merit ...

  19. Lunam 2000 (Lunar Atmosphere Mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Fornasier, Sonia; Lazzarin, Monica; Marchi, Simone; Rampazzi, Francesca; Verani, Stefano; Cremonese, Gabriele; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Dolci, Mauro; Benn, Chris R.; Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeff; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Wilson, Jody

    LUNAM 2000 is a small mission dedicated to the coronagraphic imaging in the Na yellow doublet and to UV spectroscopy in the range 2800-3400 Å of the lunar atmosphere. These studies are possible only from Space. The scientific return of LUNAM 2000 has a wider appeal for the study of transient atmospheres of other celestial bodies, in particular of Mercury. The mission is in low Earth-orbit (about 350 km); a sun-synchronous or other orbits are under investigation. The payload has very small weight, dimensions and power requests, and is essentially made with off-the-shelf components. It can be built and launched in less than 3 years from the approval. This time frame nicely overlaps that of the European technological Mission SMART 1 and can greatly add to its scientific return. Furthermore, LUNAM 2000 can give very important information to define a mission to Mercury such as Bepi Colombo.

  20. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  1. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  2. User-oriented design strategies for a Lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukola, Paivi

    'Form follows function can be translated, among other, to communicate a desire to prioritize functional objectives for a particular design task. Thus it is less likely that a design program for a multi-functional habitat, for an all-purpose vehicle, or for a general community, will lead to most optimal, cost-effective and sustainable solutions. A power plant, a factory, a farm and a research center have over centuries had different logistical and functional requirements, despite of the local culture on various parts around the planet Earth. 'The same size fits all' concept is likely to lead to less user-friendly solutions. The paper proposes to rethink and to investigate alternative strategies to formulate objectives for a Lunar base. Diverse scientific experiments and potential future research programs for the Moon have a number of functional requirements that differ from each other. A crew of 4-6 may not be optimal for the most innovative research. The discussion is based on research of Human Factors and Design for visiting professor lectures for a Lunar base project with Howard University and NASA Marshall Space Center 2009-2010.

  3. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  4. Nuclear power systems for the First Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    A recent study effort at NASA has developed a preliminary reference mission description for a human return to the Moon by the end of this decade. The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) would provide the framework for establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon and a necessary step toward eventual piloted trips to Mars. The primary objectives of FLO are to sustain a crew of four on the lunar surface for 45 days during which local roving, surface science, and demonstration-level resource extraction would be accomplished. Power systems capable of meeting the diverse requirements of FLO are a significant engineering challenge. Power requirements range from 10's of watts for small science packages to 10's of kilowatts for the crew habitat. The guidelines imposed on power systems include that they be lightweight, easily deployable, and cost efficient. Nuclear systems such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), dynamic isotope power systems (DIPS), and small reactor power systems offer distinct advantages over solar and electrochemical alternatives. Concepts for modular RTGs and DIPS, and deployable reactor systems relevant to the FLO mission and its evolution are described and compared.

  5. Lunar Regolith Stabilization for Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During lunar exploration, regolith is both the major available resource and a substantial obstacle in establishing a long-term presence. The fine surface dust is...

  6. Energy management study for lunar oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.

  7. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  8. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matchett, John

    2006-01-01

    .... The vacuum pyrolysis method of oxygen production from lunar regolith presents a viable option for in situ propellant production because of its simple operation involving limited resources from earth...

  9. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  10. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freid, Sheldon [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Popovic, Zoya [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Beckett, David R. [Independent Consultant; Anderson, Scott R. [Independent Consultant; Mann, Diana [Independent Consultant; Walker, Stuart [Independent Consultant

    2008-03-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  11. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  12. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop...

  13. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  14. A Framework for Lunar Surface Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, D.; Bleacher, J.; Bell, E.; Cohen, B.; Deans, M.; Evans, C.; Graff, T.; Head, J.; Helper, M.; Hodges, K.; Hurtado, J.; Klaus, K.; Kring, D.; Schmitt, H.; Skinner, J.; Spudis, P.; Tewksbury, B.; Young, K.; Yingst, A.

    2017-05-01

    Successful lunar science will be dependent on mission concept, mobility, robotic/human assets, crew training, field tools, and IT assets. To achieve good science return, element integration must be considered at the start of any exploration program.

  15. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  16. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...

  17. Colonialism in Modern America: The Appalachian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen Matthews, Ed.; And Others

    The essays in this book illustrate a conceptual model for analyzing the social and economic problems of the Appalachian region. The model is variously called Colonialism, Internal Colonialism, Exploitation, or External Oppression. It highlights the process through which dominant outside industrial interests establish control, exploit the region,…

  18. Genetic Analysis of Termite Colonies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...

  19. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  20. Planetary science and resource utilization at a lunar outpost - Chemical analytical facility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    Unresolved issues of lunar geology are reviewed and the role of a lunar outpost in helping to address them is considered. Plans for in situ resource utilization of lunar materials are examined. Concepts for a lunar outpost are described.

  1. Human safety in the lunar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

  2. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  3. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  4. Form and metabolic scaling in colonial animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Humphries, Stuart; Okamura, Beth

    2014-03-01

    Benthic colonial organisms exhibit a wide variation in size and shape and provide excellent model systems for testing the predictions of models that describe the scaling of metabolic rate with organism size. We tested the hypothesis that colony form will influence metabolic scaling and its derivatives by characterising metabolic and propagule production rates in three species of freshwater bryozoans that vary in morphology and module organisation and which demonstrate two- and three-dimensional growth forms. The results were evaluated with respect to predictions from two models for metabolic scaling. Isometric metabolic scaling in two-dimensional colonies supported predictions of a model based on dynamic energy budget theory (DEB) and not those of a model based on fractally branching supply networks. This metabolic isometry appears to be achieved by equivalent energy budgets of edge and central modules, in one species (Cristatella mucedo) via linear growth and in a second species (Lophopus crystallinus) by colony fission. Allometric scaling characterised colonies of a three-dimensional species (Fredericella sultana), also providing support for the DEB model. Isometric scaling of propagule production rates for C. mucedo and F. sultana suggests that the number of propagules produced in colonies increases in direct proportion with the number of modules within colonies. Feeding currents generated by bryozoans function in both food capture and respiration, thus linking metabolic scaling with dynamics of self-shading and resource capture. Metabolic rates fundamentally dictate organismal performance (e.g. growth, reproduction) and, as we show here, are linked with colony form. Metabolic profiles and associated variation in colony form should therefore influence the outcome of biotic interactions in habitats dominated by colonial animals and may drive patterns of macroevolution.

  5. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxian; Mugler, Andrew; Kim, Justin; Jeong, Ha Jun; Levin, Bruce R; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-07-01

    The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d). By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of bacterial

  6. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxian Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d. By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of

  7. Material capture by double lunar gravity assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The equations yielding the performance of a single lunar flyby in removing incoming hyperbolic excess velocity to capture payloads on interplanetary trajectories are briefly derived. The impossibility of using a single lunar flyby to capture a body entering the earth-moon system with a hyperbolic velocity in excess of about 1.9 km/s is discussed, and a method of using a double flyby of the moon to significantly improve this performance is developed. The equations for achieving a double lunar flyby are derived by solving the orbital equations and Lambert's problem both for the incoming trajectory in the plane of the moon's orbit and for arbitrary declination. For the in-plane case it is shown that the maximum removable hyperbolic excess velocity is 2.2687 km/s. For the inclined case, it is shown that the use of a double lunar flyby allows capture for declinations in excess of 54 degrees, and that for declinations less than 38 degrees the double lunar flyby offers better performance than the single lunar flyby.

  8. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Meanwhile, astronaut Michael Collins piloted the command module in a parking orbit around the moon. This photo is of Edwin Aldrin walking on the lunar surface. Neil Armstrong, who took the photograph, can be seen reflected in Aldrin's helmet visor. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle, and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  9. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Egresses From Lunar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Shown here is Aldrin Jr. making his exit from the LM to the lunar surface. Armstrong, who was already on the surface, took this photograph. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. During a 2½ hour surface exploration the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Extraction of Water from Lunar Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 5 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. Dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured. Microwave absorption and attenuation in lunar soil simulant has been correlated with measured dielectric properties. Future work will be discussed.

  11. Sulfur 'Concrete' for Lunar Applications - Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. For the purpose of this Technical Memorandum, it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. With this stipulation, it is then noted that the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. The work presented here evaluates two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant as an aggregate addition. One set was subjected to extended periods in high vacuum to evaluate sublimation issues, and the other was cycled between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate their subsequent mechanical integrity. Results are presented from both investigations, discussed, and put into the context of the lunar environment.

  12. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  13. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  14. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  15. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  16. Thermal Energy for Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization: Technical Challenges and Technology Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Pierce E. C.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Heller, Richard S.; Gustafson, Robert; Stern, Ted; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen production from lunar raw materials is critical for sustaining a manned lunar base but is very power intensive. Solar concentrators are a well-developed technology for harnessing the Sun s energy to heat regolith to high temperatures (over 1375 K). The high temperature and potential material incompatibilities present numerous technical challenges. This study compares and contrasts different solar concentrator designs that have been developed, such as Cassegrains, offset parabolas, compound parabolic concentrators, and secondary concentrators. Differences between concentrators made from lenses and mirrors, and between rigid and flexible concentrators are also discussed. Possible substrate elements for a rigid mirror concentrator are selected and then compared, using the following (target) criteria: (low) coefficient of thermal expansion, (high) modulus of elasticity, and (low) density. Several potential lunar locations for solar concentrators are compared; environmental and processing-related challenges related to dust and optical surfaces are addressed. This brief technology survey examines various sources of thermal energy that can be utilized for materials processing on the lunar surface. These include heat from nuclear or electric sources and solar concentrators. Options for collecting and transporting thermal energy to processing reactors for each source are examined. Overall system requirements for each thermal source are compared and system limitations, such as maximum achievable temperature are discussed.

  17. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laifr, J.; Auster, U.; Bale, S. D.; Delory, G. T.; Devoto, P.; Farrell, W. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Guicking, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hellinger, P.; Hercik, D.; Horanyi, M.; Kataria, D.; Kozacek, Z.; Mazelle, C. X.; Omura, Y.; Owen, C. J.; Pavelka, R.; Plaschke, F.; Rucker, H. O.; Saito, Y.; Sternovsky, Z.; Stverak, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Turin, P.; Vana, P.

    2012-12-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic and human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in-situ measurements. Here we present results from the concept and design phase A - a study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic Lunar Dust Analyser, LPM - Langmuir Probe and Magnetometer, LRU - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae and LEIA - Lunar Electron and Ion Analyser. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package CAD Model

  18. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  19. A Fractal Model for the Capacitance of Lunar Dust and Lunar Dust Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Keller, John W.; Farrell, William M.; Marshall, John; Richard, Denis Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Lunar dust grains and dust aggregates exhibit clumping, with an uneven mass distribution, as well as features that span many spatial scales. It has been observed that these aggregates display an almost fractal repetition of geometry with scale. Furthermore, lunar dust grains typically have sharp protrusions and jagged features that result from the lack of aeolian weathering (as opposed to space weathering) on the Moon. A perfectly spherical geometry, frequently used as a model for lunar dust grains, has none of these characteristics (although a sphere may be a reasonable proxy for the very smallest grains and some glasses). We present a fractal model for a lunar dust grain or aggregate of grains that reproduces (1) the irregular clumpy nature of lunar dust, (2) the presence of sharp points, and (3) dust features that span multiple scale lengths. We calculate the capacitance of the fractal lunar dust analytically assuming fixed dust mass (i.e. volume) for an arbitrary number of fractal levels and compare the capacitance to that of a non-fractal object with the same volume, surface area, and characteristic width. The fractal capacitance is larger than that of the equivalent non-fractal object suggesting that for a given potential, electrostatic forces on lunar dust grains and aggregates are greater than one might infer from assuming dust grains are sphericaL Consequently, electrostatic transport of lunar dust grains, for example lofting, appears more plausible than might be inferred by calculations based on less realistic assumptions about dust shape and associated capacitance.

  20. Swarming dynamics in bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hepeng; Be'Er, Avraham; Smith, Rachel; Florin, E.-L.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2009-11-01

    Swarming is a widespread phenomenon observed in both biological and non-biological systems. Large mammal herds, fish schools, and bird flocks are among the most spectacular examples. Many theoretical and numerical efforts have been made to unveil the general principles of the phenomenon, but systematic experimental studies have been very limited. We determine the characteristic velocity, length, and time scales for bacterial motion in swarming colonies of Paenibacillus dendritiformis growing on semi-solid agar substrates. The bacteria swim within a thin fluid layer, and they form long-lived jets and vortices. These coherent structures lead to anisotropy in velocity spatial correlations and to a two-step relaxation in velocity temporal correlations. The mean squared displacement of passive tracers exhibits a short-time regime with nearly ballistic transport and a diffusive long-time regime. We find that various definitions of the correlation length all lead to length scales that are, surprisingly, essentially independent of the mean bacterial speed, while the correlation time is linearly proportional to the ratio of the correlation length to the mean speed.

  1. Colony Foundation in an Oceanic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munilla, Ignacio; Genovart, Meritxell; Paiva, Vitor H.; Velando, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seabirds are colonial vertebrates that despite their great potential for long-range dispersal and colonization are reluctant to establish in novel locations, often recruiting close to their natal colony. The foundation of colonies is therefore a rare event in most seabird species and little is known about the colonization process in this group. The Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a pelagic seabird that has recently established three new colonies in Galicia (NE Atlantic) thus expanding its distribution range 500 km northwards. This study aimed to describe the establishment and early progress of the new Galician populations and to determine the genetic and morphometric characteristics of the individuals participating in these foundation events. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we tested the predictions supported by different seabird colonization models. Possibly three groups of non-breeders, adding up to around 200 birds, started visiting the Galician colonies in the mid 2000’s and some of them eventually laid eggs and reproduced, thus establishing new breeding colonies. The Galician populations showed a high genetic diversity and a frequency of private alleles similar to or even higher than some of the large historical populations. Most individuals were assigned to several Atlantic populations and a few (if any) to Mediterranean colonies. Our study suggests that a large and admixed population is settling in Galicia, in agreement with predictions from island metapopulation models of colonization. Multiple source colonies imply that some birds colonizing Galicia were dispersing from very distant colonies (> 1500 km). Long-distance colonizations undertaken by relatively large and admixed groups of colonizers can help to explain the low levels of genetic structure over vast areas that are characteristic of most oceanic seabird species. PMID:26909694

  2. Population Census of a Large Common Tern Colony with a Small Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Dominique; Craik, Shawn R.; Bird, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be useful for conducting high-precision, low-disturbance waterbird surveys, but limited data exist on their effectiveness. We evaluated the capacity of a small UAS to census a large (>6,000 nests) coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming. We compared aerial photographic tern counts to ground nest counts in 45 plots (5-m radius) throughout the colony at three intervals over a nine-day period in order to identify sources of variation and establish a coefficient to estimate nest numbers from UAS surveys. We also compared a full colony ground count to full counts from two UAS surveys conducted the following day. Finally, we compared colony disturbance levels over the course of UAS flights to matched control periods. Linear regressions between aerial and ground counts in plots had very strong correlations in all three comparison periods (R2 = 0.972–0.989, P < 0.001) and regression coefficients ranged from 0.928–0.977 terns/nest. Full colony aerial counts were 93.6% and 94.0%, respectively, of the ground count. Varying visibility of terns with ground cover, weather conditions and image quality, and changing nest attendance rates throughout incubation were likely sources of variation in aerial detection rates. Optimally timed UAS surveys of Common tern colonies following our method should yield population estimates in the 93–96% range of ground counts. Although the terns were initially disturbed by the UAS flying overhead, they rapidly habituated to it. Overall, we found no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS. We encourage colonial waterbird researchers and managers to consider taking advantage of this burgeoning technology. PMID:25874997

  3. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  4. Evolutional Ant Colony Method Using PSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Nobuto; Aiyoshi, Eitarou

    The ant colony method is one of heuristic methods capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), in which a good tour is generated by the artificial ant's probabilistic behavior. However, the generated tour length depends on the parameter describing the ant's behavior, and the best parameters corresponding to the problem to be solved is unknown. In this technical note, the evolutional strategy is presented to find the best parameter of the ant colony by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the parameter space. Numerical simulations for benchmarks demonstrate effectiveness of the evolutional ant colony method.

  5. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  6. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  7. Quantifying Elements of a Lunar Economy Based on Resource Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, J. B.

    2017-10-01

    We model a simplified lunar economy from human life support, Earth materials consumption, and energy and propulsion requirement estimates, constrained by lunar elemental abundances; estimate likely imports/exports and "gross interplanetary product."

  8. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("Lunar ATV") to assist extra-vehicular activities...

  9. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  10. Flywheel Energy Storage for Lunar Rovers & Other Small Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA continues to be interested in returning to the Lunar surface. The Lunar surface is a harsh and unforgiving environment. Perhaps most challenging is the drastic...

  11. Contaminant Robust System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The necessity of oxygen for consumption by human inhabitants on the lunar surface is readily apparent. NASA is pursuing several ways to generate oxygen from lunar...

  12. Leveraging Virtual Reality for the Benefit of Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, R. S.; Burke, E. D.; McGinley, V. T.

    2017-10-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and related technologies will assist scientists with lunar exploration and public engagement. We will present the future exponential impact of VR on lunar activities over the coming decades.

  13. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology for Non-Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several geologic concepts applicable to lunar geology with particular interest in creating lunar regolith simulant. Fundamental ways in which the Moon differs from the Earth. Concepts that are described in detail are: minerals, glass, and rocks.

  14. Manufacture of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Stoeser, D. B.; Weinstein, M. A.; Edmunson, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture of lunar regolith simulants can use many technologies unfamiliar to the aerospace industry. Many of these technologies are extensively used in the mining industry. Rock crushing, grinding, process control as a function of particle size, as well as other essential concepts are explained here. Notes are provided on special considerations necessary, given the unusual nature of the desired final product. For example, wet grinding, which is an industry norm, can alter the behavior of simulant materials. As the geologic materials used for simulants can contain minerals such as quartz and pyrite, guidance is provided regarding concepts, risks, measurement, and handling. Extractive metallurgy can be used to produce high-grade components for subsequent manufacture, reducing the compromises inherent in using just rock. Several of the components needed in simulants such as glasses, agglutinates, and breccias are simply not available or not reasonably matched by existing terrestrial resources. Therefore, techniques to produce these in useful quantities were developed and used. Included in this list is the synthesis of specific minerals. The manufacture of two simulants, NU-LHT-1M and NU-LHT-2M, is covered in detail.

  15. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  16. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  17. Glendale Colony and Harvey Farms NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031819, Glendale Colony, Inc., and Harvey Farms, Inc. are authorized to discharge and must operate their facilities in accordance with provisions set forth herein.Indian Country on the Blackfeet Reserva

  18. Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paradigm for lunar evolution is of crystallization of a global scale magma ocean, giving rise to the anorthositic crust and mafic cumulate interior. It is thought that all other lunar rocks have arisen from this differentiated interior. However, until recently this paradigm has remained untested experimentally. Presented here are the first experimental results of fractional crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) using the Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) bulk lunar composition [1].

  19. Seismometer reading from impact made by Lunar Module ascent stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Lunar Module ascent stage when it struck the lunar surface. The impact was registered by the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) which was deployed on the Moon by the Apollo 12 astronauts. The Lunar module's ascent stage was jettisoned and sent toward impact on the Moon after Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. and Alan L. Bean returned to lunar orbit and rejoined Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., in the Command/Service Modules.

  20. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2006-03-01

    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  1. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  2. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  3. Lunar surface exploration using mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2012-06-01

    A lunar exploration architecture study is being carried out by space agencies. JAXA is carrying out research and development of a mobile robot (rover) to be deployed on the lunar surface for exploration and outpost construction. The main target areas for outpost construction and lunar exploration are mountainous zones. The moon's surface is covered by regolith. Achieving a steady traversal of such irregular terrain constitutes the major technical problem for rovers. A newly developed lightweight crawler mechanism can effectively traverse such irregular terrain because of its low contact force with the ground. This fact was determined on the basis of the mass and expected payload of the rover. This paper describes a plan for Japanese lunar surface exploration using mobile robots, and presents the results of testing and analysis needed in their development. This paper also gives an overview of the lunar exploration robot to be deployed in the SELENE follow-on mission, and the composition of its mobility, navigation, and control systems.

  4. Reorientation of the early lunar pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Futoshi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2014-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic measurements suggest that an active core dynamo operated on the Moon from 4.2 to 3.56 billion years ago. Since the Apollo era, many magnetic anomalies have been observed on the Moon. The magnetization of the lunar crust in some of these regions could preserve the signature of an early dipolar magnetic field generated by a core dynamo. Thus, the magnetic anomalies may yield information about the position of the palaeomagnetic pole during the time that the dynamo operated. Here we present a comprehensive survey of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface using magnetometer data obtained by the Lunar Prospector and Kaguya lunar orbiters. We extract magnetization vectors from 24 magnetic anomalies using an iterative inversion method and derive the palaeomagnetic poles. We find that the north poles, as well as the antipodal south poles, cluster in two distinct locations: one near the present rotation axis and the other at mid-latitude. The clustering is consistent with a dipole-dominated magnetic field generated in the lunar core by a dynamo that was reversing, much like that of Earth. Furthermore, the two pole clusters imply that the Moon experienced a polar wander event during its ancient history due to the reorientation of the Moon with respect to its spin axis by 45°-60°.

  5. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  6. Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (LunaSOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natasha; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate the Sun and its interaction via the solar wind magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles with the geospace system including the Moon itself. The lunar surface and exosphere provide in part a record of solar coronal plasma material input and resultant space weathering over billions of years. The structure and dynamics of solar wind interactions with the Moon provide an accessible near-Earth laboratory environment for study of general solar wind interactions with the vast multitude of airless asteroidal bodies of the inner solar system. Spacecraft in lunar orbit have the often simultaneous opportunity, except when in the Earth's magnetosphere, to make in-situ compositional measurements of the solar wind plasma and to carry out remote observations from the Moon of the solar corona, potentially enabled by lunar limb occultation of the solar disk. The LunaSOX project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is addressing these heliophysical science objectives from and of the Moon with support from NASA's Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research (LASER) program: (1) specify history of solar wind parameters at and sunward of the Moon through enhanced access (http://lunasox.gsfc.nasa.gov/) to legacy and operational mission data products from the Apollo era to the present, (2) model field and plasma interactions with the lunar surface, exosphere, and wake, as constrained by the available data, through hybrid kinetic code simulations, and (3) advance mission concepts for heliophysics from and of the Moon.

  7. Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, R. Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees. PMID:22927991

  8. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Cornman

    Full Text Available Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  9. Institutional Development and Colonial Heritage within Brazil*

    OpenAIRE

    Naritomi, Joana; Soares, Rodrigo Reis; Assunção, Juliano J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of local institutions and distribution of political power within a constant 'macro-institutional' setting. We show that characteristics of Brazilian municipalities related to institutional quality and distribution of political power are partly inherited from the colonial histories experienced by different areas of the country. Municipalities with origins tracing back to the sugar-cane colonial cycle – characterized by a polarized and oligarchic socioeconom...

  10. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.

  11. ColonyArea: an ImageJ plugin to automatically quantify colony formation in clonogenic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán

    Full Text Available The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin "ColonyArea", which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS on human glioblastoma cells (T98G. The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists.

  12. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society

  13. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  14. Carbon as the dominant light element in the lunar core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, E.S.; Lin, Y.; Rai, N.; Jansen, M.; van Westrenen, W.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical observations point to the presence of a light element in the lunar core, but the exact abundance and type of light element are poorly constrained. Accurate constraints on lunar core composition are vital for models of lunar core dynamo onset and demise, core formation

  15. Immune Alterations in Rats Exposed to Airborne Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of lunar dust on human physiology. This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and systemic immune parameters.

  16. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  17. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  18. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  19. The Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP): An Introduction to the Goals, Approach, and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzin, James G.; Burt, Joseph; Tooley, Craig

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for undertaking lunar exploration activities to enable sustained human and robotic exploration of Mars and beyond, including more distant destinations in the solar system. In support of this vision, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP) is expected to execute a series of robotic missions to the Moon, starting in 2008, in order to pave the way for further human space exploration. This paper will give an introduction to the RLEP program office, its role and its goals, and the approach it is taking to executing the charter of the program. The paper will also discuss candidate architectures that are being studied as a framework for defining the RLEP missions and the context in which they will evolve.

  20. Magnetic field generation in the lunar core: The role of inner core growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, A.; Soderlund, K. M.; Schubert, G.

    2015-07-01

    The source of the magnetic field recorded in the lunar crust remains an unresolved problem. The field was most likely produced by a self-sustaining dynamo in the Moon's electrically conducting metal core, but heat flux across the core-mantle boundary was probably insufficient to power a dynamo for the field's currently known duration from 4.2 to 3.56 Ga. Since seismic measurements indicate the existence of a solid iron inner core in addition to a still-liquid iron alloy outer core, inner core solidification and its associated thermochemically driven convection in the outer core could have been responsible for extending the dynamo's lifetime even in the absence of superadiabatic heat flux. Here we present a coupled mantle-core thermal evolution model of the Moon and show that core solidification could explain the onset and shutoff of the lunar dynamo consistent with the global magnetic field inferred from the paleomagnetic record.

  1. Advances in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for the Production of Oxygen and Metals from Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Sibille, Laurent; Melendez, Orlando; Lueck, Dale; Curreri, Peter; Dominquez, Jesus; Whitlow, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    As part of an In-Situ Resource Utilization infrastructure to sustain long term-human presence on the lunar surface, the production of oxygen and metals by electrolysis of lunar regolith has been the subject of major scrutiny. There is a reasonably large body of literature characterizing the candidate solvent electrolytes, including ionic liquids, molten salts, fluxed oxides, and pure molten regolith itself. In the light of this information and in consideration of available electrolytic technologies, the authors have determined that direct molten oxide electrolysis at temperatures of approx 1600 C is the most promising avenue for further development. Results from ongoing studies as well as those of previous workers will be presented. Topics include materials selection and testing, electrode stability, gas capture and analysis, and cell operation during feeding and tapping.

  2. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  3. A synthesis of lunar highlands compositional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1980-01-01

    Based on compositions of lunar soils and endogeneous highland rocks and mineral phase relationships, a composition for the non-KREEP, mafic portion of the lunar highlands is determined through the use of a mixing model. It is found that the most common materials making up the surface highlands appear to be ferroan anorthosite (FAN) and a material of olivine norite composition (HON, highlands olivine norite) in roughly equal proportions. It is also found that the composition of HON is similar to that of the residual liquid from crystallization of FAN and that the proportion of FAN to HON at the lunar surface appears to be much higher than the phase relations allow for the extent of evolution of HON from a primitive plagioclase-saturated liquid. This is seen as implying an excess of FAN in the upper highlands.

  4. The Skylab lunar multispectral scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, C. R.; Potter, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner data, in 12 bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.3 microns, have been investigated to identify and classify geologic units of the lunar surface. Seventeen spectral cluster classes have been identified, seven in the highlands, seven in the maria, and three of which occur in both or in border regions. This finding may be roughly indicative of the relative heterogeneity of these regions. It implies that there is as much heterogeneity in the highlands as in the maria. This work extends the spectral and aerial coverage of similar studies of the lunar surface and provides useful data for comparison for most of the lunar near side.

  5. The lunar eclipse over Merritt Island, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Traveling west to east, the full moon, viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 10:35 p.m. EST, moves into the Earth's shadow during a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is 'full.' During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse.

  6. The Open Gateway: Lunar Exploration in 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S.; Neal, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Moon, with its fundamental science questions and abundant, potentially useful re-sources, is the most viable destination for near-term future human and robotic exploration. Given what we have learned since Apollo, the lunar frontier now presents an entirely new paradigm for planetary exploration. The Lunar Exploration Roadmap [1], which was jointly developed by engineers, planetary scientists, commercial entities, and policymakers, is the cohesive strategic plan for using the Moon and its resources to enable the exploration of all other destinations within the Solar system by leveraging incremental, affordable investments in cislunar infrastructure. Here, we summarize the Lunar Exploration Roadmap, and describe the immense benefits that will arise from its successful implementation.

  7. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  8. LROC Advances in Lunar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Since entering orbit in 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has acquired over 700,000 Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the Moon. This new image collection is fueling research into the origin and evolution of the Moon. NAC images revealed a volcanic complex 35 x 25 km (60N, 100E), between Compton and Belkovich craters (CB). The CB terrain sports volcanic domes and irregular depressed areas (caldera-like collapses). The volcanic complex corresponds to an area of high-silica content (Diviner) and high Th (Lunar Prospector). A low density of impact craters on the CB complex indicates a relatively young age. The LROC team mapped over 150 volcanic domes and 90 volcanic cones in the Marius Hills (MH), many of which were not previously identified. Morphology and compositional estimates (Diviner) indicate that MH domes are silica poor, and are products of low-effusion mare lavas. Impact melt deposits are observed with Copernican impact craters (>10 km) on exterior ejecta, the rim, inner wall, and crater floors. Preserved impact melt flow deposits are observed around small craters (25 km diam.), and estimated melt volumes exceed predictions. At these diameters the amount of melt predicted is small, and melt that is produced is expected to be ejected from the crater. However, we observe well-defined impact melt deposits on the floor of highland craters down to 200 m diameter. A globally distributed population of previously undetected contractional structures were discovered. Their crisp appearance and associated impact crater populations show that they are young landforms (<1 Ga). NAC images also revealed small extensional troughs. Crosscutting relations with small-diameter craters and depths as shallow as 1 m indicate ages <50 Ma. These features place bounds on the amount of global radial contraction and the level of compressional stress in the crust. WAC temporal coverage of the poles allowed quantification of highly

  9. MSFC Robotic Lunar Lander Testbed and Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Bassler, Julie; Harris, Danny; Morse, Brian; Reed, Cheryl; Kirby, Karen; Eng, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The lunar lander robotic exploration testbed at Marshall Spaceflight Center provides a test environment for robotic lander test articles, components and algorithms to reduce the risk on the airless body designs during lunar landing. Also included is a chart comparing the two different types of Anchor nodes for the International Lunar Network (ILN): Solar/Battery and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ARSG.)

  10. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

  11. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Moon's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Cohen, B. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Sellar, R. G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  12. Lunar magnetism and an early cold moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Models of lunar magnetism have involved dynamo action in a fluid core in an early hot moon; an early cold moon magnetized some time before 4 billion years ago, which has subsequently heated up; and local field sources which, in some models, are related to impact. The present work examines the second possibility and shows that, provided the moon contained a few percent of metallic iron and was exposed to an extra-lunar field of about 10 or 20 oersted while much of it was still below the Curie point of iron, a restricted class of thermal evolution models, which satisfy the known constraints, can be derived.

  13. Analysis of lunar samples for carbon compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of one approach to the analysis for carbon compounds in lunar materials from the Apollo 11 mission. The sequential scheme followed generally accepted organic geochemical practices, but was unusual in its application to a single sample. The procedures of the scheme were designed to minimize handling of the solids and extracts or hydrolysates. The solid lunar sample was retained in all steps of the sequential analysis in the vessel in which it was originally placed. Centrifugation was used to separate solid and liquid phases after extraction or refluxing. Liquids were recovered from solids by decantation.

  14. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  15. Conquest, Colonial Education and Cultural Uprootedness in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is disagreement between colonial and post-colonial Africanist historiography over the impact of colonial education on ... However, the latter are not quite agreeable to this position as they argue that colonial education had more negative effects than positive effects. Notwithstanding the benefits of Western education to ...

  16. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10...

  17. Mars Colony in situ resource utilization: An integrated architecture and economics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, René; Do, Sydney; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on our effort to develop an ensemble of specialized models to explore the commercial potential of mining water/ice on Mars in support of a Mars Colony. This ensemble starts with a formal systems architecting framework to describe a Mars Colony and capture its artifacts' parameters and technical attributes. The resulting database is then linked to a variety of ;downstream; analytic models. In particular, we integrated an extraction process (i.e., ;mining;) model, a simulation of the colony's environmental control and life support infrastructure known as HabNet, and a risk-based economics model. The mining model focuses on the technologies associated with in situ resource extraction, processing, storage and handling, and delivery. This model computes the production rate as a function of the systems' technical parameters and the local Mars environment. HabNet simulates the fundamental sustainability relationships associated with establishing and maintaining the colony's population. The economics model brings together market information, investment and operating costs, along with measures of market uncertainty and Monte Carlo techniques, with the objective of determining the profitability of commercial water/ice in situ mining operations. All told, over 50 market and technical parameters can be varied in order to address ;what-if; questions, including colony location.

  18. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  19. Scientific investigations at a lunar base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M B; Mendell, W W

    1988-07-01

    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  20. Scientific investigations at a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.; Mendell, Wendell W.

    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  1. Scientific investigations at a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific investigations to be carried out at a lunar base can have significant impact on the location, extent, and complexity of lunar surface facilities. Among the potential research activities to be carried out are: (1) Lunar Science: Studies of the origin and history of the Moon and early solar system, based on lunar field investigations, operation of networks of seismic and other instruments, and collection and analysis of materials; (2) Space Plasma Physics: Studies of the time variation of the charged particles of the solar wind, solar flares and cosmic rays that impact the Moon as it moves in and out of the magnetotail of the Earth; (3) Astronomy: Utilizing the lunar environment and stability of the surface to emplace arrays of astronomical instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum to improve spectral and spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude beyond the Hubble Space Telescope and other space observatories; (4) Fundamental physics and chemistry: Research that takes advantage of the lunar environment, such as high vacuum, low magnetic field, and thermal properties to carry out new investigations in chemistry and physics. This includes material sciences and applications; (5) Life Sciences: Experiments, such as those that require extreme isolation, highly sterile conditions, or very low natural background of organic materials may be possible; and (6) Lunar environmental science: Because many of the experiments proposed for the lunar surface depend on the special environment of the Moon, it will be necessary to understand the mechanisms that are active and which determine the major aspects of that environment, particularly the maintenance of high-vacuum conditions. From a large range of experiments, investigations and facilities that have been suggested, three specific classes of investigations are described in greater detail to show how site selection and base complexity may be affected: (1) Extended geological investigation of a complex

  2. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm proposes to design and develop a fully autonomous Lunar Navigator based on our MicroMak miniature star sensor and a gravity gradiometer similar to one on a...

  3. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm will use existing hardware and software from related programs to create a prototype Lunar Navigation Sensor (LNS) early in Phase II, such that most of the...

  4. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  5. Grazing impacts of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) on single-celled, colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazulha, V; Mansur, M C D; Cybis, L F; Azevedo, S M F O

    2012-02-01

    Feeding behavior of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the presence of single-celled, colonial, and filamentous cyanobacteria was tested in laboratory experiments to evaluate the effects of size and shape on mussel feeding. The first hypothesis holds that golden mussel filters more efficiently smaller particles, such as single cells of Microcystis, which could be more easily assimilated by its filtering apparatus. The second hypothesis sustains that L. fortunei filters more efficiently rounded colonies, such as Microcystis, which would be more easily ingested than lengthy filamentous, such as Planktothrix. Filtration rates of golden mussel in the presence of single-celled, colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria were similar. Nevertheless, there was a great difference in the ingestion and pseudofeces production rates. Single cells were widely accepted as food, while filamentous and colonial cyanobacteria were massively expelled as pseudofeces. The results confirmed the first hypothesis that golden mussel prefers to ingest smaller particles. The second hypothesis was rejected since filamentous were preferentially ingested than colonial cyanobacteria. Golden mussel has the potential to remove toxic cells (Microcystis), however this potential would be reduced in cyanobacteria blooms, where colonial forms which are preferentially rejected by L. fortunei, are predominant. In this case, the presence of this invasive bivalve could also enhance the occurrence of blooms by rejecting colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria in pseudofeces.

  6. Grazing impacts of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 on single-celled, colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Gazulha

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the presence of single-celled, colonial, and filamentous cyanobacteria was tested in laboratory experiments to evaluate the effects of size and shape on mussel feeding. The first hypothesis holds that golden mussel filters more efficiently smaller particles, such as single cells of Microcystis, which could be more easily assimilated by its filtering apparatus. The second hypothesis sustains that L. fortunei filters more efficiently rounded colonies, such as Microcystis, which would be more easily ingested than lengthy filamentous, such as Planktothrix. Filtration rates of golden mussel in the presence of single-celled, colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria were similar. Nevertheless, there was a great difference in the ingestion and pseudofeces production rates. Single cells were widely accepted as food, while filamentous and colonial cyanobacteria were massively expelled as pseudofeces. The results confirmed the first hypothesis that golden mussel prefers to ingest smaller particles. The second hypothesis was rejected since filamentous were preferentially ingested than colonial cyanobacteria. Golden mussel has the potential to remove toxic cells (Microcystis, however this potential would be reduced in cyanobacteria blooms, where colonial forms which are preferentially rejected by L. fortunei, are predominant. In this case, the presence of this invasive bivalve could also enhance the occurrence of blooms by rejecting colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria in pseudofeces.

  7. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  8. Colonial Army Formats in Africa and Post-Colonial Military Coups:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSOS USER

    military forces in colonial and early post-colonial Nigeria establish a legacy of coups in the armed forces in the post-independence era?10 The units of analysis are the coup events.11. In each case, inferences were drawn from the nationality and religious affiliation of coup plotters and participants, their motives, and the.

  9. Colonialism, customary law and the post-colonial state in Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonialism became a fact of life in many African countries. An effect of colonialism especially in the former British colonized countries was the transplantation of the British legal system, which led to recognition of both systems and the gradual relegation of the indigenous system otherwise called customary law. The use and ...

  10. Grazer-induced colony formation in Scenedesmus: are there costs to being colonial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Van Donk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Grazer-induced colony formation in the common green alga Scenedesmus acutus may be interpreted as an anti-grazer defense. Costs are to be expected because otherwise the protected colonial morph would be the norm. Analysis of growth rates, light harvesting in terms of photosystem II (PSII) efficiency

  11. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, T.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  12. The International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; McDougal, J. M.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L.; Hammond, M. S.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.; Kirby, K. W.; Morgan, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) established the Lunar Quest Program (LQP) to accomplish lunar science objectives embodied in the National Academies report The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) and the NASA Advisory Council-sponsored Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture (2007). A major element of LQP's lunar flight projects is the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of small geophysical nodes on the lunar surface. NASA plans to provide the first two stations around 2014 and a second pair in the 2016-2017 timeframe. International involvement to provide additional stations will build up the network so that 8-10 nodes could be simultaneously operating. This flight project complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the moon.

  13. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Ballard, Benjamin; Chavers, Greg; Eng, Doug S.; Hammond, Monica S.; Hill, Larry A.; Harris, Danny W.; Hollaway, Todd A.; Kubota, Sanae; hide

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA's robotic lunar lander flight projects. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science and exploration community and extensive risk reduction design and testing has been performed to advance the design of the lander system and reduce development risk for flight projects.

  15. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

  16. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  17. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  18. Lunar Station: The Next Logical Step in Space Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Robert Bruce; Harper, Lynn; Newfield, Mark; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the product of the efforts of sixteen nations over the course of several decades. It is now complete, operational, and has been continuously occupied since November of 20001. Since then the ISS has been carrying out a wide variety of research and technology development experiments, and starting to produce some pleasantly startling results. The ISS has a mass of 420 metric tons, supports a crew of six with a yearly resupply requirement of around 30 metric tons, within a pressurized volume of 916 cubic meters, and a habitable volume of 388 cubic meters. Its solar arrays produce up to 84 kilowatts of power. In the course of developing the ISS, many lessons were learned and much valuable expertise was gained. Where do we go from here? The ISS offers an existence proof of the feasibility of sustained human occupation and operations in space over decades. It also demonstrates the ability of many countries to work collaboratively on a very complex and expensive project in space over an extended period of time to achieve a common goal. By harvesting best practices and lessons learned, the ISS can also serve as a useful model for exploring architectures for beyond low-­- earth-­-orbit (LEO) space development. This paper will explore the concept and feasibility for a Lunar Station. The Station concept can be implemented by either putting the equivalent capability of the ISS down on the surface of the Moon, or by developing the required capabilities through a combination of delivered materials and equipment and in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Scenarios that leverage existing technologies and capabilities as well as capabilities that are under development and are expected to be available within the next 3-­5 years, will be examined. This paper will explore how best practices and expertise gained from developing and operating the ISS and other relevant programs can be applied to effectively developing Lunar Station.

  19. Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains based on position distribution model of ant colony foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao; Gao, Jinyu

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  1. Lunar regolith stratigraphy analysis based on the simulation of lunar penetrating radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2017-11-01

    The thickness of lunar regolith is an important index of evaluating the quantity of lunar resources such as 3He and relative geologic ages. Lunar penetrating radar (LPR) experiment of Chang'E-3 mission provided an opportunity of in situ lunar subsurface structure measurement in the northern mare imbrium area. However, prior work on analyzing LPR data obtained quite different conclusions of lunar regolith structure mainly because of the missing of clear interface reflectors in radar image. In this paper, we utilized finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and three models of regolith structures with different rock density, number of layers, shapes of interfaces, and etc. to simulate the LPR signals for the interpretation of radar image. The simulation results demonstrate that the scattering signals caused by numerous buried rocks in the regolith can mask the horizontal reflectors, and the die-out of radar echo does not indicate the bottom of lunar regolith layer and data processing such as migration method could recover some of the subsurface information but also result in fake signals. Based on analysis of simulation results, we conclude that LPR results uncover the subsurface layered structure containing the rework zone with multiple ejecta blankets of small crater, the ejecta blanket of Chang'E-3 crater, and the transition zone and estimate the thickness of the detected layer is about 3.25 m.

  2. Physical properties of lunar craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Maitri P.; Bhatt, Kushal P.; Jain, Rajmal

    2017-02-01

    The surface of the Moon is highly cratered due to impacts of meteorites, asteroids, comets and other celestial objects. The origin, size, structure, age and composition vary among craters. We study a total of 339 craters observed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). Out of these 339 craters, 214 craters are known (named craters included in the IAU Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature) and 125 craters are unknown (craters that are not named and objects that are absent in the IAU Gazetteer). We employ images taken by LROC at the North and South Poles and near side of the Moon. We report for the first time the study of unknown craters, while we also review the study of known craters conducted earlier by previous researchers. Our study is focused on measurements of diameter, depth, latitude and longitude of each crater for both known and unknown craters. The diameter measurements are based on considering the Moon to be a spherical body. The LROC website also provides a plot which enables us to measure the depth and diameter. We found that out of 214 known craters, 161 craters follow a linear relationship between depth (d) and diameter (D), but 53 craters do not follow this linear relationship. We study physical dimensions of these 53 craters and found that either the depth does not change significantly with diameter or the depths are extremely high relative to diameter (conical). Similarly, out of 125 unknown craters, 78 craters follow the linear relationship between depth (d) and diameter (D) but 47 craters do not follow the linear relationship. We propose that the craters following the scaling law of depth and diameter, also popularly known as the linear relationship between d and D, are formed by the impact of meteorites having heavy metals with larger dimension, while those with larger diameter but less depth are formed by meteorites/celestial objects having low density material but larger diameter. The craters with very high depth and with very small

  3. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  4. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  5. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lunar polar environments have many advantages from the standpoint of energy supply to robotic and human surface bases.Sunlight is nearly continuous and always horizontal at peaks of perpetual light,while waste heat rejection is aided by the existence of cold,permanently shadowed regions nearby.In this paper a ...

  6. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    micrometeorites continue to pound and pulverize its surface and modify its regolith. The average grain size of the surficial material of the moon is about 50µm. The dust produced by the impacts is extremely fine and the grain-size distribution of the submillimeter fraction of the lunar regolith is skewed towards the finest end.

  7. Modeling PPP Economic Benefits for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B.

    2017-10-01

    A new tool is needed for selecting the PPP strategy that could maximize the rate of lunar commercialization by attracting private capital into the development of critical infrastructure and robust capability. A PPP model under development for NASA-ESO will be described.

  8. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    growing capabilities at a polar base site. One essential requirement will be exca- vation and moving of regolith, for example to pile lunar material on top of a habitat for radia- tion shielding and thermal control. Bringing solar- derived energy into ...

  9. Moonstruck how lunar cycles affect life

    CERN Document Server

    Naylor, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, the influence of the full Moon on humans and animals has featured in folklore and myths. Yet it has become increasingly apparent that many organisms really are influenced indirectly, and in some cases directly, by the lunar cycle. Breeding behaviour among some marine animals has been demonstrated to be controlled by internal circalunar biological clocks, to the point where lunar-daily and lunar-monthly patterns of Moon-generated tides are embedded in their genes. Yet, intriguingly, Moon-related behaviours are also found in dry land and fresh water species living far beyond the influence of any tides. In Moonstruck, Ernest Naylor dismisses the myths concerning the influence of the Moon, but shows through a range of fascinating examples the remarkable real effects that we are now finding through science. He suggests that since the advent of evolution on Earth, which occurred shortly after the formation of the Moon, animals evolved adaptations to the lunar cycle, and considers whether, if Moo...

  10. Association between lunar phase and sleep characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turányi, Csilla Zita; Rónai, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Zoller, Rezső; Véber, Orsolya; Czira, Mária Eszter; Újszászi, Ákos; László, Gergely; Szentkirályi, András; Dunai, Andrea; Lindner, Anett; Szőcs, Julianna Luca; Becze, Ádám; Kelemen, Andrea; Lendvai, Zsófia; Molnar, Miklos Z; Mucsi, István; Novák, Márta

    2014-11-01

    Popular belief holds that the lunar cycle affects human physiology, behavior, and health, including sleep. To date, only a few and conflicting analyses have been published about the association between lunar phases and sleep. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between lunar phases and sleep characteristics. In this retrospective, cross-sectional analysis, data from 319 patients who had been referred for sleep study were included. Individuals with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15/h were excluded. Socio-demographic parameters were recorded. All participants underwent one-night standard polysomnography. Associations between lunar cycle (new moon, full moon and alternate moon) and sleep parameters were examined in unadjusted and adjusted models. Fifty-seven percent of patients were males. Mean age for men was 45 ± 14 years and 51 ± 12 years for women. In total, 224 persons had their sleep study done during alternate moon, 47 during full moon, and 48 during new moon. Full moon was associated with lower sleep efficiency [median (%) (IQR): new moon 82 (18), full moon 74 (19), alternate moon 82 (15); P moon 9 (9), full moon 6 (4), alternate moon 11 (9); P moon 98 (74), full moon 137 (152), alternate moon 97 (76); P moon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. "International regime for advancing lunar development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ

    2017-09-01

    A specific concern regarding the Moon Treaty is the provision for sharing the wealth gained from space with developing countries that have not invested and taken risks in making possible space materials utilization. Article 11, par. 7 states "The main purposes of the international regime to be established shall include: (a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the moon; (b) The rational management of those resources; (c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources; (d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which have contributed either directly or indirectly to the exploration of the moon, shall be given special consideration." Whether the Moon Treaty in its present form or modified to be acceptable to more parties or the Moon Treaty is ignored, the language of Article 11, paragraph 7 can be used to construct an international regime for lunar development that can meet the requirements of commercial business as well as of states that provide support for lunar development as well as developing countries that may have played a modest role in making lunar development possible. This paper will consider options for constructing an international regime for lunar development.

  12. Lunar tide contribution to thermosphere weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.T.; Forbes, J.M.; Zhang, C.H.; Doornbos, E.N.; Bruinsma, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    As the utilization of low-Earth orbit increases, so does the need for improved ephemeris predictions and thus more accurate density models. In this paper we quantify the density variability of the thermosphere attributable to the lunar gravitational tide, a potentially predictable component of

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  14. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  15. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  16. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  17. Sustainable Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  18. Production scheduling with ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Kapulin, D. V.; Noskova, E. E.; Yamskikh, T. N.; Tsarev, R. Yu

    2017-10-01

    The optimum solution of the production scheduling problem for manufacturing processes at an enterprise is crucial as it allows one to obtain the required amount of production within a specified time frame. Optimum production schedule can be found using a variety of optimization algorithms or scheduling algorithms. Ant colony optimization is one of well-known techniques to solve the global multi-objective optimization problem. In the article, the authors present a solution of the production scheduling problem by means of an ant colony optimization algorithm. A case study of the algorithm efficiency estimated against some others production scheduling algorithms is presented. Advantages of the ant colony optimization algorithm and its beneficial effect on the manufacturing process are provided.

  19. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  20. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    With fossil fuels running out and global energy demand increasing, the need for alternative energy sources is apparent. Nuclear fusion using Helium-3 may be a solution. Helium-3 is a rare isotope on Earth, but it is abundant on the Moon. Throughout the space community lunar Helium-3 is often cited as a major reason to return to the Moon. Despite the potential of lunar Helium-3 mining, little research has been conducted on a full end-to-end mission. This abstract presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by students from Delft University of Technology. The goal of the study was to assess whether a continuous end-to-end mission to mine Helium-3 on the Moon and return it to Earth is a viable option for the future energy market. The set requirements for the representative end-to-end mission were to provide 10% of the global energy demand in the year 2040. The mission elements have been selected with multiple trade-offs among both conservative and novel concepts. A mission architecture with multiple decoupled elements for each transportation segment (LEO, transfer, lunar surface) was found to be the best option. It was found that the most critical element is the lunar mining operation itself. To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. The required heating power, if mining both day and night, would add up to 39 GW. The resulting power system mass for the lunar operations would be in the order of 60,000 to 200,000 tons. A fleet of three lunar ascent/descent vehicles and 22 continuous-thrust vehicles for orbit transfer would be required. The costs of the mission elements have been spread out over expected lifetimes. The resulting profits from Helium

  1. The science of the lunar poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  2. Global silicate mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner lunar radiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Lucey, Paul G; Wyatt, Michael B; Glotch, Timothy D; Allen, Carlton C; Arnold, Jessica A; Bandfield, Joshua L; Bowles, Neil E; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri L; Hayne, Paul O; Song, Eugenie; Thomas, Ian R; Paige, David A

    2010-09-17

    We obtained direct global measurements of the lunar surface using multispectral thermal emission mapping with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment. Most lunar terrains have spectral signatures that are consistent with known lunar anorthosite and basalt compositions. However, the data have also revealed the presence of highly evolved, silica-rich lunar soils in kilometer-scale and larger exposures, expanded the compositional range of the anorthosites that dominate the lunar crust, and shown that pristine lunar mantle is not exposed at the lunar surface at the kilometer scale. Together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the Moon is a complex body that has experienced a diverse set of igneous processes.

  3. A Dynamic Fountain Model for Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Vondrak, R. R.; Farrell, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Apollo era of exploration it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to horizon glow and streamers above the lunar surface. This was observed from the dark side of the Moon during sunset and sunrise by both surface landers and astronauts in orbit. These observations were quite unexpected, as the Moon was thought to be a pristine environment with a negligible atmosphere or exosphere. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. It has since been demonstrated that this dust population could have serious implications for astronomical observations from the lunar surface. The lunar surface is electrostatically charged by the Moon s large-scale interaction with the local plasma environment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar ultra-violet (UV) light and X-rays. The like-charged surface and dust grains then act to repel each other, such that under certain conditions the dust grains are lifted above the surface. We present a dynamic fountain model which can explain how sub-micron dust is able to reach altitudes of up to approximately 100 km above the lunar surface. Previous static dust levitation models are most applicable to the heavier micron-sized grains in close proximity proximity to the surface, but they cannot explain the presence of extremely light grains at high altitudes. If we relax the static constraint applied to previous models, and instead assume that the grains are in constant motion (under the action of dynamic forces), a new picture emerges for the behavior of sub-micron lunar dust.

  4. Modeling Insights into the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, D.; Feldman, P. D.; Retherford, K. D.; Cook, J.; Stern, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to Apollo data from the 1970s and ground-based observations, recent data from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) are revealing the structure and variability of the lunar exosphere. LAMP has detected helium in the lunar exosphere having many sources of variability. We use a Monte Carlo model to interpret variability in the observations of helium in the lunar exosphere from LAMP. Some of the variability stems from a time-varying source rate. Because the helium in the lunar exosphere predominately derives from the solar wind, we investigate the timescale of transport from release on the dayside to the nightside where it is observed. The model computes transport times for various assumptions about the energy distribution during the initial release and the effects of subsequent surface interactions on the ballistic transport. Owing to the changing geometry of the LRO orbit, spatial gradients also factor into the variability of the observations. We study the expected column density of helium as a function of latitude and longitude using surface temperatures measured by Diviner. The spatial distribution resulting from model runs is strongly influenced by the surface temperature and the assumed thermalization parameter. These dependencies can be used to extract information about the surface interactions. We compare model latitude and longitude dependences to LAMP and Apollo data. Finally, using upstream solar wind measurements and the position of LRO, we calculate the model time-varying helium exosphere of the Moon for comparison with LAMP data obtained in January, June, and July of 2012, including three passages of the Moon through Earth's magnetotail.

  5. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as Rove First.'' A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  6. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as ``Rove First.`` A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  7. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  8. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Valerie E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind’s limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Methods Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm, reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles Results In vitro testing indicated minimal irritancy potential based on the time required to reduce cell viability by 50% (ET50. Follow-up testing using the Draize standard protocol confirmed that the lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Conclusions Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  9. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  10. Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.

  11. Arte da Performance e Guerra Colonial Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    UID/FIL/00183/2013 Este artigo propõe-se refletir sobre as relações entre a arte da performance portuguesa e a guerra colonial portuguesa. A simultaneidade no tempo histórico, entre os anos de 1960-1970, levaria a crer que, tal como aconteceu com as temáticas da Ditadura/Revolução, a guerra colonial pudesse ter sido abordada pela performance desenvolvida em Portugal. Contudo, paradoxalmente, se até recentemente não havia registos de nenhuma obra de arte da performance portuguesa desse perí...

  12. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  13. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

  14. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using NTR LANTR Propulsion and Lunar-Derived Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been identified as a key space asset required for the human exploration of Mars. This proven technology can also provide the affordable access through cislunar space necessary for commercial development and sustained human presence on the Moon. In his post-Apollo Integrated Space Program Plan (1970-1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable nuclear thermal propulsion stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base before undertaking human missions to Mars. The NTR option was selected by von Braun because it was a demonstrated technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp 900 s) twice that of todays best chemical rockets. In NASAs Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the crewed Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf Pewee engines the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program along with graphite composite fuel. Smaller, lunar transfer vehicles consisting of a NTPS using three approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engines (SNREs), an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload can enable a variety of reusable lunar missions. These include cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. Even weeklong tourism missions carrying passengers into lunar orbit for a day of sightseeing and picture taking are possible. The NTR can play an important role in the next phase of lunar exploration and development by providing an affordable in-space lunar transportation system (LTS) that can allow initial outposts to evolve into settlements supported by a variety of commercial activities such as in-situ propellant production used to supply strategically located propellant depots and transportation nodes. The utilization of iron-rich volcanic glass or lunar polar ice (LPI) deposits (each estimated at billions of metric tons) for propellant production can significantly reduce the launch mass requirements from Earth and can

  15. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Figueiró Santos

    Full Text Available Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB. Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  16. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  17. Developing a new controllable lunar dust simulant: BHLD20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2017-07-01

    Identifying and eliminating the negative effects of lunar dust are of great importance for future lunar exploration. Since the available lunar samples are limited, developing terrestrial lunar dust simulant becomes critical for the study of lunar dust problem. In this work, beyond the three existing lunar dust simulants: JSC-1Avf, NU-LHT-1D, and CLDS-i, we developed a new high-fidelity lunar dust simulant named as BHLD20. And we concluded a methodology that soil and dust simulants can be produced by variations in portions of the overall procedure, whereby the properties of the products can be controlled by adjusting the feedstock preparation and heating process. The key ingredients of our innovative preparation route include: (1) plagioclase, used as a major material in preparing all kinds of lunar dust simulants; (2) a muffle furnace, applied to expediently enrich the glass phase in feedstock, with the production of some composite particles; (3) a one-step sand-milling technique, employed for mass pulverization without wasting feedstock; and (4) a particle dispersant, utilized to prevent the agglomeration in lunar dust simulant and retain the real particle size. Research activities in the development of BHLD20 can help solve the lunar dust problem.

  18. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA s Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA s and NLSI s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE s High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 168 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research in person.

  19. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  20. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  1. High-Efficiency Extraction and Utilization of Lunar Solar Wind Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, David E.; Gardner, Tracy Q.; Nieczkoski, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    A method of processing Lunar regolith for the extraction of solar wind volatiles has been developed to enable sustainable exploration of the Moon. The process incorporates efficient heat and mass transfer processes to provide thermal extraction and subsequent recovery of atoms implanted on the upper surface of Lunar regolith. End-to-end system modeling and component design establish a level feasibility and efficiency not previously achieved. Extracted molecular species are purified and stored on a mobile platform which delivers the resources to a central storage facility. The design concept results in several hundred times the mass of the facility produced in liquid product resources for life support and propulsion over the life of the system. Key developments include recuperative heating and cooling systems, rapid heating of regolith, and separation membranes capable of high selectivity due to thermal management. The ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium from the Lunar surface will dramatically reduce the cost and complexity of performing ISRU with earth-based resources.

  2. In the post-colonial waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...

  3. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...

  4. 128 COLONIALISM: NEXUS FOR MYRIAD RELIGIOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this regard, Mercado writers that,. The missionary version of Christianity accepted by Africans (under colonial rule) can be described as hypocritical because many African Christians still patronizes ATR, especially, in times of emergency. This means that the influence of ATR is still strong especially in moment of crisis.

  5. Creole Jews: Negotiating Community in Colonial Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Vink (Wieke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study explores the ways in which a colonial domain affected identification processes among the Jews who had forged a Jewish community in Suriname since the mid seventeenth century. The history of the Surinamese Jews involves conflict, struggle and exclusion, but also cultural

  6. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  7. 178 MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN WESTERN SAHARA Macharia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the French did when they claimed that Algeria was a province of France. Morocco exploited the prevailing international climate to advance its colonialistic proclivities at a time when territorial colonialism had become anathema internationally. That climate made the big powers, whether communistic or capitalistic, appear to ...

  8. Asexual propagation and regeneration in colonial ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürn, Ulrich; Rendulic, Snjezana; Tiozzo, Stefano; Lauzon, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    Regeneration is widely distributed among the metazoans. However, clear differences exist as to the degree of regenerative capacity: some phyla can only replace missing body parts, whereas others can generate entirely new individuals. Ascidians are animals that possess a remarkable regenerative plasticity and exhibit a great diversity of mechanisms for asexual propagation and survival. They are marine invertebrate members of the subphylum Tunicata and represent modern-day descendants of the chordate ancestor; in their tadpole stage they exhibit a chordate body plan that is resorbed during metamorphosis. Solitary species grow into an adult that can reach several centimeters in length, whereas colonial species grow by asexual propagation, creating a colony of genetically identical individuals. In this review, we present an overview of the biology of colonial ascidians as a paradigm for study in stem cell and regenerative biology. Focusing on botryllid ascidians, we introduce the potential roles played by multipotent epithelia and multipotent/pluripotent stem cells as source of asexual propagation and regenerative plasticity in the different budding mechanisms, and consider the putative mechanism of body repatterning in a non-embryonic scenario. We also discuss the involvement of intra-colony homeostatic processes in regulating budding potential, and the functional link between allorecognition, chimerism, and regenerative potential.

  9. German Colonialism and the Cameroonian Chieftaincy Institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Colonialism and the Cameroonian Chieftaincy Institution, 1884-1916: The Politics of Convenience, Tyranny and Hegemony. ... Lagos Historical Review ... It demonstrates that notwithstanding the treatment meted out to chiefs by the German colonialists, African traditional rulers exploited their positions within the ...

  10. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  11. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  12. A Bicentennial Without a Puerto Rican Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Piri

    1975-01-01

    The United States revolution of 1776 is said to lose validity in light of Puerto Rico's colonial situation under American rule. The plight of the Puerto Rican people is compared to that of the Euro-American settlers under the thumb-screw of British imperialism. (Author/AM)

  13. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  14. Characterization and Glass Formation of JSC-1 Lunar and Martian Soil Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Reis, Signo T.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    The space exploration mission of NASA requires human and robotic presence for long duration beyond the low earth orbit (LEO), especially on Moon and Mars. Developing a human habitat or colony on these planets would require a diverse range of materials, whose applications would range from structural foundations, (human) life support, (electric) power generation to components for scientific instrumentations. A reasonable and cost-effective approach for fabricating the materials needed for establishing a self-sufficient human outpost would be to primarily use local (in situ) resources on these planets. Since ancient times, glass and ceramics have been playing a vital role on human civilization. A long term project on studying the feasibility of developing glass and ceramic materials has been undertaken using Lunar and Martian soil simulants (JSC-1) as developed by Johnson Space Center. The first step in this on-going project requires developing a data base on results that fully characterize the simulants to be used for further investigations. The present paper reports characterization data of both JSC-1 Lunar and JSC Mars-1 simulants obtained up to this time via x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis (DTA, TGA) and chemical analysis. The critical cooling rate for glass formation for the melts of the simulants was also measured in order to quantitatively assess the glass forming tendency of these melts. The importance of the glasses and ceramics developed using in-situ resources for constructing human habitats on Moon or Mars is discussed.

  15. Automation of a Versatile Crane (the LSMS) for Lunar Outpost Construction, Maintenance and Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Shen, Haijun; Seywald, Hans; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Devices for lifting, translating and precisely placing payloads are critical for efficient Earth-based construction operations. Both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. Although several designs have been developed for Earth based applications, these devices lack unique design characteristics necessary for transport to and use on the harsh lunar surface. These design characteristics include: a) lightweight components, b) compact packaging for launch, c) automated deployment, d) simple in-field reconfiguration and repair, and e) support for tele-operated or automated operations. Also, because the cost to transport mass to the lunar surface is very high, the number of devices that can be dedicated to surface operations will be limited. Thus, in contrast to Earth-based construction, where many single-purpose devices dominate a construction site, a lunar outpost will require a limited number of versatile devices that provide operational benefit from initial construction through sustained operations. The first generation test-bed of a new high performance device, the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS) has been designed, built and field tested. The LSMS has many unique features resulting in a mass efficient solution to payload handling on the lunar surface. Typically, the LSMS device mass is estimated at approximately 3% of the mass of the heaviest payload lifted at the tip, or 1.8 % of the mass of the heaviest mass lifted at the elbow or mid-span of the boom for a high performance variant incorporating advanced structural components. Initial operational capabilities of the LSMS were successfully demonstrated during field tests at Moses Lake, Washington using a tele-operated approach. Joint angle sensors have been developed for the LSMS to improve operator situational awareness. These same sensors provide the necessary information to support fully automated operations

  16. Volatiles in High-K Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Messenger, Scott R.; Nguyen, Ann; Boyce, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Chlorine is an unusual isotopic system, being essentially unfractionated ((delta)Cl-37 approximately 0 per mille ) between bulk terrestrial samples and chondritic meteorites and yet showing large variations in lunar (approximately -4 to +81 per mille), martian, and vestan (HED) samples. Among lunar samples, the volatile-bearing mineral apatite (Ca5(PO4)3[F,Cl,OH]) has been studied for volatiles in K-, REE-, and P (KREEP), very high potassium (VHK), low-Ti and high-Ti basalts, as well as samples from the lunar highlands. These studies revealed a positive correlation between in-situ (delta)Cl-37 measurements and bulk incompatible trace elements (ITEs) and ratios. Such trends were interpreted to originate from Cl isotopic fractionation during the degassing of metal chlorides during or shortly after the differentiation of the Moon via a magma ocean. In this study, we investigate the volatile inventories of a group of samples for which new-era volatile data have yet to be reported - the high-K (greater than 2000 ppm bulk K2O), high-Ti, trace element-rich mare basalts. We used isotope imaging on the Cameca NanoSIMS 50L at JSC to obtain the Cl isotopic composition [((Cl-37/(35)Clsample/C-37l/(35)Clstandard)-1)×1000, to get a value in per thousand (per mille)] which ranges from approximately -2.7 +/- 2 per mille to +16.1 +/- 2 per mille (2sigma), as well as volatile abundances (F & Cl) of apatite in samples 10017, 10024 & 10049. Simply following prior models, as lunar rocks with high bulk-rock abundances of ITEs we might expect the high-K, high-Ti basalts to contain apatite characterized by heavily fractionated (delta)Cl-37 values, i.e., Cl obtained from mixing between unfractionated mantle Cl (approximately 0 per mille) and the urKREEP reservoir (possibly fractionated to greater than +25 per mille.). However, the data obtained for the studied samples do not conform to either the early degassing or mixing models. Existing petrogentic models for the origin of the high

  17. Flexible control techniques for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental elements found in every terrestrial control system can be employed in all lunar applications. These elements include sensors which measure physical properties, controllers which acquire sensor data and calculate a control response, and actuators which apply the control output to the process. The unique characteristics of the lunar environment will certainly require the development of new control system technology. However, weightlessness, harsh atmospheric conditions, temperature extremes, and radiation hazards will most significantly impact the design of sensors and actuators. The controller and associated control algorithms, which are the most complex element of any control system, can be derived in their entirety from existing technology. Lunar process control applications -- ranging from small-scale research projects to full-scale processing plants -- will benefit greatly from the controller advances being developed today. In particular, new software technology aimed at commercial process monitoring and control applications will almost completely eliminate the need for custom programs and the lengthy development and testing cycle they require. The applicability of existing industrial software to lunar applications has other significant advantages in addition to cost and quality. This software is designed to run on standard hardware platforms and takes advantage of existing LAN and telecommunications technology. Further, in order to exploit the existing commercial market, the software is being designed to be implemented by users of all skill levels -- typically users who are familiar with their process, but not necessarily with software or control theory. This means that specialized technical support personnel will not need to be on-hand, and the associated costs are eliminated. Finally, the latest industrial software designed for the commercial market is extremely flexible, in order to fit the requirements of many types of processing

  18. Lunar surface reflectance by LALT aboard KAGUYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Tazawa, S.; Sasaki, S.; Kawano, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Laser Altimeter (LALT) aboard Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) is a ranging instrument which measures the distance between the satellite and the lunar surface with accuracy of 1 m by detecting the timing delay of the reflected laser light. The main science goal of the LALT is to obtain the lunar global topographic data including polar regions for the study of the origin and the evolution of the Moon [1]. Besides, the LALT is equipped with an intensity monitor of the returned pulses. The intensity of the returned pulses contains information concerning surface roughness and reflectance of the footprints, which will contribute to the study of the lunar surface maturity and age. The reflectance at LALT wavelength (1064nm) is sensitive to the surface maturity and composition. The data should be particularly important at lunar polar regions where camera instruments should suffer from phase angle effects in the surface reflectance and moreover cannot obtain reflectance data at the permanently shadowed area. The normal operation of the LALT began on 30th, December 2007 after two months’ commissioning phase. Before the end of the normal operation phase in October 2008, the LALT measured more than 10 million range data. Unfortunately, due to the laser power decrease and also possible smaller surface reflectance than the expected value before launch (15 % at 1 micro meter), the return pulse intensity during the nominal mission phase is so small that they are not reliable enough to discuss the surface property. During the extended mission phase, which started November 2008, the satellite altitude decreased to 50 km. Due to the malfunction of the reaction wheel and high-voltage instruments were shutdown, the observation was suspended until 11th of February, 2009. LALT successfully resumed observation on 12th February and continued observation until the controlled crash of KAGUYA onto the Moon on 10th of June, 2009. Thanks to the lower orbit during this phase, the

  19. Walking Wheel Design for Lunar Rove-Rand and Its Application Simulation Based on Virtual Lunar Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lunar rover design is the key problem of planet exploration. It is extraordinarily important for researchers to fully understand the lunar terrain and propose the reasonable lunar rover. In this paper, one new type of walking wheel modeled on impeller is presented based on vehicle terramechanics. The passive earth pressure of soil mechanics put forward by C. A. Coulomb is employed to obtain the wheel traction force. Some kinematics simulations are conducted for lunar rover model. Besides, this paper presents how to model lunar landing terrain containing typical statistic characteristic including craters and boulders; then, the second step is to construct basal lunar surface by using Brown Fractal Motion and the next is to add craters and boulders by means of known diameter algorithm and Random-create Diameter Algorithm. By means of importing 2D plain of lunar surface into UG, 3D parasolid is modeled and finally imported to ADAMS, which is available for lunar rover kinematics and dynamics simulation. Lastly, based on power spectrum curve of lunar terrain, the spectral characteristic of three different lunar terrain roughness is educed by using reverse engineering algorithm. Simulation results demonstrated the frequency of vibration mechanics properties of different roughness surfaces.

  20. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  1. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  2. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  3. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  4. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  5. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  6. Assessment of potential benefits from lunar/Mars propellant production for support of human exploration of the moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mark K.; Collins, John T.; Stancati, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of potential benefits offered through use of lunar/Mars in situ propellant production to support manned missions to the moon and Mars. Resources available at each location and processing options for their extraction are discussed. Key infrastructure and support systems needed to sustain the propellant production operation and to deliver the propellants from their point of origin to the point of application are defined. The analysis focuses on reductions of earth launched mass over the course of multiple missions to assess the potential savings offered. Initial results show the impact of requirements for sustaining in situ propellant production systems on benefits offered during steady-state operation.

  7. Planting of neonicotinoid-coated corn raises honey bee mortality and sets back colony development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Samson-Robert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Performance development simulations performed on hive populations’ show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  8. Sustainable finance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  9. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  10. Preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility (Complex 39L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. Dennis; Jenson, Eric B.; Linsley, Jerald N.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility has been formulated. A permanently manned lunar base and a baseline lunar module are assumed. The major features of the facility are specified and major design areas are described.

  11. The International Lunar Network (ILN) and the US Anchor Nodes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bessler, J. A.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L.; Hammond, M. S.; McDougal, J. M.; Morse, B. J.; Red, C. L. B.; Kirby, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation reviews the International Lunar Network (ILN) mission, a cooperative effort designed to coordinate individual lunar landers in a geophysical network on the lunar surface. The presentation also includes information on the geophysical network, mission operations, and recent accomplishments.

  12. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) -- A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bonamente, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Jenke, P.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Orr, M. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new γ-ray astrophysics mission concept expected to have unprecedented sensitivity in the nuclear regime. Operating in lunar orbit, LOCO will utilize lunar occultation imaging to survey and probe the cosmos.

  13. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A.S.; Wallace, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 m in diameter) was found to produce several problems with astronaut s suits and helmets, mechanical seals and equipment, and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent of the lunar module from the lunar surface to rendezvous with the command module, much of the major portions of the contaminating soil and dust began to float, irritating the astronaut s eyes and being inhaled into their lungs. Our goal has been to understand some of the properties of lunar dust that could lead to possible hazards for humans. Due to the lack of an atmosphere, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. In order to understand the possible toxic effects of the reactive dust, it is necessary to reactivate the dust, as samples returned during the Apollo missions were exposed to the atmosphere of the Earth. We have used grinding and UV exposure to mimic some of the processes occurring on the Moon. The level of activation has been monitored using two methods: fluorescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). These techniques allow the monitoring of hydroxyl radical production in solution. We have found that grinding of lunar dust produces 2-3 times the concentration of hydroxyl radicals as lunar simulant and 10 times that of quartz. Exposure

  14. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, E.; Ozawa, S.; Miyahara, M.; Ito, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Arai, T.; Sato, K.; Hiraga, K.

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO2 in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8–30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the 39Ar/40Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  15. Observations of Sodium in the Lunar Atmosphere during International Lunar Atmosphere Week, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, A. L.; Hunten, D. M.; Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Grosse, F. A.; Hill, R. E.; Morris, R. L.

    1998-02-01

    We report results of a part of an organized effort of five observing groups to simultaneously observe sodium in the lunar atmosphere. International Lunar Atmosphere Week spanned the week of September 15-22, 1995. Of the seven nights, we experienced four nights with good viewing conditions. We used the Mt. Lemmon Lunar Coronagraph (MLLC) and DARRK spectrograph. Both are especially designed for lunar atmospheric measurements from the surface extending to an altitude of approximately 1 lunar radius or ∼1700 km (860 km geopotential height). Emission rates for Na were compatible with those previously reported for relatively large phase angles (96° to 129°) with the average total of D2 and D1 emission rate ∼6.9 kRayleigh. A thermal component was observed only on the night of September 17, when the solar zenith angle at the limb was only 6°. We observed a factor of ∼2 greater column abundances over the north pole than over the sunlit equatorial limb on September 18 while on September 19, the equatorial bright limb column abundance was a factor of ∼5 higher than the north polar. Apparent geopotential scale heights varied from 279 to 435 km, indicating an extended atmosphere. If the scale heights are represented by a temperature, values are 985 to 1470 K. The data set appears to support the idea that the dominant source during this period was meteoritic impact volatilization.

  16. Detection of the lunar body tide by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Barker, Michael K; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2014-04-16

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft collected more than 5 billion measurements in the nominal 50 km orbit over ∼10,000 orbits. The data precision, geodetic accuracy, and spatial distribution enable two-dimensional crossovers to be used to infer relative radial position corrections between tracks to better than ∼1 m. We use nearly 500,000 altimetric crossovers to separate remaining high-frequency spacecraft trajectory errors from the periodic radial surface tidal deformation. The unusual sampling of the lunar body tide from polar lunar orbit limits the size of the typical differential signal expected at ground track intersections to ∼10 cm. Nevertheless, we reliably detect the topographic tidal signal and estimate the associated Love number h2 to be 0.0371 ± 0.0033, which is consistent with but lower than recent results from lunar laser ranging. Altimetric data are used to create radial constraints on the tidal deformationThe body tide amplitude is estimated from the crossover dataThe estimated Love number is consistent with previous estimates but more precise.

  17. Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the apollo program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, J O; Bender, P L; Faller, J E; Newhall, X X; Ricklefs, R L; Ries, J G; Shelus, P J; Veillet, C; Whipple, A L; Wiant, J R; Williams, J G; Yoder, C F

    1994-07-22

    On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate measurements of the Earthmoon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earthmoon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics. Contributions from LLR include the three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in accuracy in the lunar ephemeris, a several-orders-of-magnitude improvement in the measurement of the variations in the moon's rotation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy. Lunar laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation. These scientific results, current technological developments, and prospects for the future are discussed here.

  18. The Apollo Expericence Lessons Learned for Constellation Lunar Dust Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sandra

    2006-09-01

    Lunar dust will present significant challenges to NASA's Lunar Exploration Missions. The challenges can be overcome by using best practices in system engineering design. For successful lunar surface missions, all systems that come into contact with lunar dust must consider the effects throughout the entire design process. Interfaces between all these systems with other systems also must be considered. Incorporating dust management into Concept of Operations and Requirements development are the best place to begin to mitigate the risks presented by lunar dust. However, that is only the beginning. To be successful, every person who works on NASA's Constellation lunar missions must be mindful of this problem. Success will also require fiscal responsibility. NASA must learn from Apollo the root cause of problems caused by dust, and then find the most cost-effective solutions to address each challenge. This will require a combination of common sense existing technologies and promising, innovative technical solutions

  19. Lunar magnetic permeability, magnetic fields, and electrical conductivity temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    In the time period 1969-1972 a total of five magnetometers were deployed on the lunar surface during four Apollo missions. Data from these instruments, along with simultaneous measurements from other experiments on the moon and in lunar orbit, were used to study properties of the lunar interior and the lunar environment. The principal scientific results from analyses of the magnetic field data are discussed. The results are presented in the following main categories: (1) lunar electrical conductivity, temperature, and structure; (2) lunar magnetic permeability, iron abundance, and core size limits; (3) the local remnant magnetic fields, their interaction with the solar wind, and a thermoelectric generator model for their origin. Relevant publications and presented papers are listed.

  20. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  1. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  2. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2012-12-01

    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  3. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  4. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  5. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  6. Structure and Evolution of the Lunar Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Weber, R. C.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Keane, J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Matsuyama, I.; Siegler, M.; Warren, P.

    2017-01-01

    Early in its evolution, the Moon underwent a magma ocean phase leading to its differentiation into a feldspathic crust, cumulate mantle, and iron core. However, far from the simplest view of a uniform plagioclase flotation crust, the present-day crust of the Moon varies greatly in thickness, composition, and physical properties. Recent significant improvements in both data and analysis techniques have yielded fundamental advances in our understanding of the structure and evolution of the lunar interior. The structure of the crust is revealed by gravity, topography, magnetics, seismic, radar, electromagnetic, and VNIR remote sensing data. The mantle structure of the Moon is revealed primarily by seismic and laser ranging data. Together, this data paints a picture of a Moon that is heterogeneous in all directions and across all scales, whose structure is a result of its unique formation, differentiation, and subsequent evolution. This brief review highlights a small number of recent advances in our understanding of lunar structure.

  7. Dissolution chemistry of Minnesota Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, James P.; Lindsay, Willard L.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1993-07-01

    Dissolution studies of Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS), a prepared finely ground basalt, were conducted to measure solution species, to assess the levels of plant nutrients and toxic elements, and to identify minerals controlling these levels. Many of the plant nutrients in the MLS solution (Mg, S, K, Ca, Cl, Mo, P, B, Ni, and Cu) are found to be in concentrations acceptable for plant growth. Nitrogen and manganese, however, are found to be deficient, and extractable iron and zinc are marginal after 150 d. The solution concentrations of metals are several orders of magnitude below levels that are toxic to plants. Aluminum hydroxide, calcite, and clinoenstatite are found to be the most likely mineral controls for aluminum, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Many of the methods employed can be used to study actual lunar regolith.

  8. Interior design of the lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing study on the interior design of a lunar outpost habitat facility. The concept presented represents the work done up to and including August 1989. This concept is part of NASA's ongoing effort to explore alternative options for planet surface systems habitation. Results of a volume analog study to determine the required pressurized volume are presented along with an internal layout of the habitat facility. The concept presented in this paper is a constructible lunar habitat that provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is a 16-m diameter spherical pneumatic structure which contains 2145 cubic meters of volume. Five levels of living and working areas make up the 742 sq m of floor space. A 2-m vertical circulation shaft at the center allows for transfer of crew and equipment.

  9. Cytological studies of lunar treated tissue cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An electron microscopic study was made of botanical materials, particularly pine tissues, treated with lunar materials collected by Apollo 12 quarantine mission. Results show unusual structural changes within several of the treated tissues. The bodies, as yet unidentified, resemble virus particles observed within infected plant cells. Although the size and shape of the structures are comparable to rod shaped virus particles such as Tobacco mosaic, the numerical distribution, affinity for stains, and intercellular location are different.

  10. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Eubanks, T.M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing th...

  11. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreas...

  12. Lunar Surface Properties from Diviner Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Paul; Paige, David; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Bandfield, Joshua; Siegler, Matthew; Lucey, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The thermal behavior of planetary bodies can reveal information about fundamental processes shaping their surfaces and interiors. Diviner [1] has been mapping the Moon's diurnal temperatures since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) arrived in 2009, yielding new insights into regolith formation [2, 3], the distribution of volatiles [4, 5], lunar volcanism [6, 7, 8], and impact processes [9]. The Moon's cooling during eclipse provides complementary information on the physical properties of the uppermost surface layer, which can be used to further investigate these and other processes. We used data from Diviner's seven thermal infrared spectral channels to measure surface temperatures before, during and after the 8 Oct., 2014 eclipse. In its standard nadir-pushbroom mode, Diviner maps surface temperatures in a ~6-km swath with a spatial resolution of ~250 m. Using Diviner's independent scanning capability [11], we also targeted two regions of interest on sequential orbits to create a time series of thermal observations: 1) Kepler crater (-38°E, 8°N) and 2) an unnamed nighttime "cold spot" (-33.3°E, 3°N). Pre-eclipse surface temperatures in these regions were ~380 K. As a relatively young Copernican-aged impact crater, Kepler was selected to investigate the abundance and size distribution of rocks in the ejecta and interior. Lunar nighttime "cold spots" are anomalous features around very young impact craters, extending for up to hundreds of crater radii, notable for their low temperatures in the Diviner nighttime data [9]. Although their origins are not fully explained, they are likely the result of in-situ disruption and decompression of regolith during the impact process. The selected cold spot (one of hundreds or even thousands on the lunar surface) was located with good viewing ge- ometry from LRO, and had a diameter of ~10 km surrounding a crater contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  14. Lunar Regolith Excavation Student Competition Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nething, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Systems team is working to learn about lunar regolith and how we can use it as a source of air, water, and fuel for spacecrafts. However, excavation of this valuable regolith is difficult because the robot has to conform to many specifications (mass limit, efficiency level, etc.). NASA has therefore decided to include college students and companies in the search to create the best robot by making it into a competition.

  15. Lunar Expandable Mobile Modular Base (LEMMB)

    OpenAIRE

    MICHELI, DAVIDE

    2007-01-01

    This work speaks about the possibility to build a Lunar Base Habitat. Some of the technologies proposed are not completely yet available they are in developing state. Many aspects have been covered, from the type of launcher which mainly dictates the masses, dimensions constraints; to the use of inflatable structures which could be adopted to increase the habitat volume while contemporary decreasing the total habitat mass. Others important aspects analyzed are a new appro...

  16. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  17. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  18. Linear Covariance Analysis for a Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bhatt, Sagar; Fritz, Matthew; Woffinden, David; May, Darryl; Braden, Ellen; Hannan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A next-generation lunar lander Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system, which includes a state-of-the-art optical sensor suite, is proposed in a concept design cycle. The design goal is to allow the lander to softly land within the prescribed landing precision. The achievement of this precision landing requirement depends on proper selection of the sensor suite. In this paper, a robust sensor selection procedure is demonstrated using a Linear Covariance (LinCov) analysis tool developed by Draper.

  19. Synchronized Lunar Pole Impact Plume Sample Return Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Foster, Cyrus; Colaprete, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design enables two maneuverable spacecraft launched onto the same trans-lunar injection trajectory to coordinate a steep impact of a lunar pole and subsequent sample return of the ejecta plume to Earth. To demonstrate this concept, the impactor is assumed to use the LCROSS missions trajectory and spacecraft architecture, thus the permanently-shadowed Cabeus crater on the lunar south pole is assumed as the impact site. The sample-return spacecraft is assumed to be a CubeSat that requires a complimentary trajectory design that avoids lunar impact after passing through the ejecta plume to enable sample-return to Earth via atmospheric entry.

  20. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to Low Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Peterson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A simple strategy is identified to generate ballistic transfers between the Earth and Moon, i.e., transfers that perform two maneuvers: a trans-lunar injection maneuver to depart the Earth and a Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver to insert into orbit at the Moon. This strategy is used to survey the performance of numerous transfers between varying Earth parking orbits and varying low lunar target orbits. The transfers surveyed include short 3-6 day direct transfers, longer 3-4 month low energy transfers, and variants that include Earth phasing orbits and/or lunar flybys.

  1. Remote detection of widespread indigenous water in lunar pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Ralph E.; Li, Shuai

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory analyses of lunar samples provide a direct means to identify indigenous volatiles and have been used to argue for the presence of Earth-like water content in the lunar interior. Some volatile elements, however, have been interpreted as evidence for a bulk lunar mantle that is dry. Here we demonstrate that, for a number of lunar pyroclastic deposits, near-infrared reflectance spectra acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument onboard the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter exhibit absorptions consistent with enhanced OH- and/or H2O-bearing materials. These enhancements suggest a widespread occurrence of water in pyroclastic materials sourced from the deep lunar interior, and thus an indigenous origin. Water abundances of up to 150 ppm are estimated for large pyroclastic deposits, with localized values of about 300 to 400 ppm at potential vent areas. Enhanced water content associated with lunar pyroclastic deposits and the large areal extent, widespread distribution and variable chemistry of these deposits on the lunar surface are consistent with significant water in the bulk lunar mantle. We therefore suggest that water-bearing volcanic glasses from Apollo landing sites are not anomalous, and volatile loss during pyroclastic eruptions may represent a significant pathway for the transport of water to the lunar surface.

  2. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms are proposed for both lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Firstly, an overlaying...

  3. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  4. LUNAR TERRAIN AND ALBEDO RECONSTRUCTION FROM APOLLO IMAGERY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LUNAR TERRAIN AND ALBEDO RECONSTRUCTION FROM APOLLO IMAGERY ARA V NEFIAN*, TAEMIN KIM, MICHAEL BROXTON, AND ZACH MORATTO Abstract. Generating accurate three...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Rocket Exhaust Interaction with Lunar Soil Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket plume impingement may cause significant damage and contaminate co-landed spacecraft and surrounding habitat structures during Lunar landing operations. Under...

  6. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Rocket Exhaust Interaction with Lunar Soil Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket plume impingement can cause significant damage and contaminate co-landing spacecraft and surrounding habitat structures during lunar landing operations. CFDRC...

  8. Lunar cartography with the Apollo 17 ALSE radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, M.; Roth, L.; Thompson, T. W.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar position differences between thirteen craters in Mare Serenitatis were computed from VHF radar-imagery obtained by the Lunar Sounder instrument flown on the Apollo 17 command module. The radar-derived position differences agree with those obtained by conventional photogrammetric reductions of Apollo metric photography. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the Apollo Lunar Sounder data to determine the positions of lunar features along the Apollo 17 orbital tracks. This will be particularly useful for western limb and farside areas, where no Apollo metric camera pictures are available.

  9. Lunar eclipses: Probing the atmosphere of an inhabited planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz A. García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moon's brightness during a lunar eclipse is indicative of the composition, cloudiness and aerosol loading of the Earth's atmosphere. The idea of using lunar eclipse observations to characterize the Earth's atmosphere is not new, but the interest raised by the prospects of discovering Earth-like exoplanets transiting their host stars has brought renewed attention to the method. We review some recent efforts made in the prediction and interpretation of lunar eclipses. We also comment on the contribution of the lunar eclipse theory to the refractive theory of planetary transits.

  10. Experimental reduction of lunar mare soil and volcanic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    We have reduced high-titanium lunar mare soil and iron-rich lunar volcanic glass with hydrogen at temperatures of 900-1100 C. Ilmenite is the most reactive phase in the soil, exhibiting rapid and complete reduction at all temperatures. Ferrous iron in the glass is extensively reduced concurrent with partial crystallization. In both samples pyroxene and olivine undergo partial reduction along with chemical and mineralogical modifications. High-temperature reduction provides insight into the optical and chemical effects of lunar soil maturation, and places constraints on models of that process. Mare soil and volcanic glass are attractive feedstocks for lunar oxygen production, with achievable yields of 2-5 wt%.

  11. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  12. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  13. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  14. Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical Prognosis of the British Colonial Factor in the Nawuri-Gonja and Mamprusi-Kusasi Conflicts. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  15. Inflatable habitation for the lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M.

    1992-01-01

    Inflatable structures have a number of advantages over rigid modules in providing habitation at a lunar base. Some of these advantages are packaging efficiency, convenience of expansion, flexibility, and psychological benefit to the inhabitants. The relatively small, rigid cylinders fitted to the payload compartment of a launch vehicle are not as efficient volumetrically as a collapsible structure that fits into the same space when packaged, but when deployed is much larger. Pressurized volume is a valuable resource. By providing that resource efficiently, in large units, labor intensive external expansion (such as adding additional modules to the existing base) can be minimized. The expansive interior in an inflatable would facilitate rearrangement of the interior to suite the evolving needs of the base. This large, continuous volume would also relieve claustrophobia, enhancing habitability and improving morale. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the aspects of inflatable habitat design, including structural, architectural, and environmental considerations. As a specific case, the conceptual design of an inflatable lunar habitat, developed for the Lunar Base Systems Study at the Johnson Space Center, is described.

  16. A Selenological History of Lunar Poetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Chamier-Waite, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon. Centuries of human inquiry have engaged this mysterious object. The Moon embodies history, philosophy, cosmology, and passions; the nature of love, persecution, and our capacity for the sublime. This review considers a body of research on lunar poetics done for a series of artworks by the author. It will look at a few select writings that have profoundly influenced our epistemological, ontological, and poetic knowledge of the universe with the Moon as a central theme. Centered in the early seventeenth century at the time of Kepler and Galileo, this query follows the tendrils of lunar influences in both the sciences and literature that emanate from these two figures, forwards and backwards in time. Science, politics, theology, and the arts intertwine in this investigation. The works reviewed link the philosophy of Aristotle and the poetry of Lucian of Samosata to findings by Leonardo Da Vinci, Copernicus, Jules Verne, and others. The chosen philosophers have been selected because of their significant contributions to selenology and lunar poetics, and each of the figures reviewed have the honor of a namesake crater upon the Moon.

  17. Extracting Quantitative Data from Lunar Soil Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) developed by Sunshine et al. [1] we compared the spectral properties of the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) suite of lunar soils [2,3] with their petrologic and chemical compositions to obtain quantitative data. Our initial work on Apollo 17 soils [4] suggested that useful compositional data could be elicited from high quality soil spectra. We are now able to expand upon those results with the full suite of LSCC soils that allows us to explore a much wider range of compositions and maturity states. The model is shown to be sensitive to pyroxene abundance and can evaluate the relative portion of high-Ca and low-Ca pyroxenes in the soils. In addition, the dataset has provided unexpected insights into the nature and causes of absorption bands in lunar soils. For example, it was found that two distinct absorption bands are required in the 1.2 m region of the spectrum. Neither of these bands can be attributed to plagioclase or agglutinates, but both appear to be largely due to pyroxene.

  18. Lunar and Mars Exploration: The Autonomy Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Cynthia M.; Schuh, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Long duration space flight crews have relied heavily on almost constant communication with ground control mission support. Ground control teams provide vehicle status and system monitoring, while offering near real time support for specific tasks, emergencies, and ensuring crew health and well being. With extended exploration goals to lunar and Mars outposts, real time communication with ground control teams and the ground s ability to conduct mission monitoring will be very limited compared to the resources provided to current International Space Station (ISS) crews. An operational shift toward more autonomy and a heavier reliance on the crew to monitor their vehicle and operations will be required for these future missions. NASA s future exploration endeavors and the subsequent increased autonomy will require a shift in crew skill composition, i.e. engineer, doctor, mission specialist etc. and lead to new training challenges and mission scenarios. Specifically, operational and design changes will be necessary in many areas including: Habitat Infrastructure and Support Systems, Crew Composition, Training, Procedures and Mission Planning. This paper will specifically address how to apply ISS lessons learned to further use ISS as a test bed to address decreased amounts of ground support to achieve full autonomous operations for lunar and Mars missions. Understanding these lessons learned and applying them to current operations will help to address the future impacts of increased crew autonomy for the lunar and Mars outposts and pave the way for success in increasingly longer mission durations.

  19. Concept of the lunar power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criswell, D.R.; Waldron, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    It is asserted that the development of efficient solar power systems is dependent on their placement in GEO (SPS) or on the moon (LPS). Conventional large scale power sources (fission, coal, hydrocarbons) will eventually be depleted and pose unacceptably high environmental risks. Fusion power plants will need an infrastructure that cannot yet be envisioned. Terrestrial solar, biomass and wind energy plants require large land areas and massive quantities of materials to achieve significant outputs. Orbiting SPS stations offer greater energy output/mass ratios than available on earth. The receiving rectenna would be of nearly the same mass of a large coal-burning power plant. Lunar materials could be used to build the SPS, or power plants on the moon. Lunar and terrestrial rotations would require relays in space to maintain a continuous power stream. The lunar soil, a good dielectric, could be made into a glass or ceramic to support solar cells in arrays covering 10,000 sq km. Finally, actual system features, as well as the necessity of planning for long payoff times in financing, are discussed. 36 references.

  20. Bioaugmentation in growing plants for lunar bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Burlak, O.; Rogutskyy, I.; Vasilenko, A.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Lukashov, D.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    2011-03-01

    Microorganisms may be a key element in a precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for extraterrestrial exploration. They can be used for plant inoculation to leach nutritional elements from regolith, to alleviate lunar stressors, as well as to decompose both lunar rocks and the plant straw in order to form a protosoil. Bioleaching capacities of both French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and the associated bacteria in contact with a lunar rock simulant (terrestrial anorthosite) were examined using the model plant-bacteria microcosms under controlled conditions. Marigold accumulated K, Na, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr at higher concentrations in anorthosite compared to the podzol soil. Plants inoculated with the consortium of well-defined species of bacteria accumulated higher levels of K, Mg, and Mn, but lower levels of Ni, Cr, Zn, Na, Ca, Fe, which exist at higher levels in anorthosite. Bacteria also affected the Са/Mg and Fe/Mn ratios in the biomass of marigold grown on anorthosite. Despite their growth retardation, the inoculated plants had 15% higher weight on anorthosite than noninoculated plants. The data suggest that the bacteria supplied basic macro-and microelements to the model plant.

  1. Relativistic tests with lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Müller, J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the recent version of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) analysis model at the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover and highlights a few tests of Einstein’s theory of gravitation using LLR data. Investigations related to a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant, the equivalence principle, the PPN parameters β and γ as well as the geodetic precession were carried out. The LLR analysis model was updated by gravitational effects of the Sun and planets with the Moon as extended body. The higher-order gravitational interaction between Earth and Moon as well as effects of the solid Earth tides on the lunar motion were refined. The basis for the modeled lunar rotation is now a 2-layer core/mantle model according to the DE430 ephemeris. The validity of Einstein’s theory was studied using this updated analysis model and an LLR data set from 1970 to January 2015. Within the estimated accuracies, no deviations from Einstein’s theory are detected. A relative temporal variation of the gravitational constant is estimated as \\dot{G}/G_0=(7.1+/-7.6)×10-14~yr-1 , the test of the equivalence principle gives Δ(m_g/m_i)EM=(-3+/-5)×10-14 and the Nordtvedt parameter \

  2. LRO LUNAR EXPLORATION NEUTRON DETECTOR 2 EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Raw, uncalibrated housekeeping and scientific data collected from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  3. LRO LUNAR EXPLORATION NEUTRON DETECTOR 4/5 RDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Calibrated or converted housekeeping and scientific data collected from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  4. The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE): Enabling technology for an early lunar surface payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nein, M. E.; Hilchey, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture, fixed declination, optical telescope to be operated on the surface of the Moon. This autonomous science payload will provide an unprecedented ultraviolet stellar survey even before manned lunar missions are resumed. This paper very briefly summarizes the LUTE concept analyzed by the LUTE Task Team of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Scientific capabilities and the Reference Design Concept are identified, and the expected system characteristics are summarized. Technologies which will be required to enable the early development, deployment, and operation of the LUTE are identified, and the principle goals and approaches for their advancement are described.

  5. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  6. Free space laser communication experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in lunar orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R; Hoffman, Evan D; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S; Davidson, Frederic M; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2013-01-28

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  7. Does genetic diversity hinder parasite evolution in social insect colonies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Polyandry is often difficult to explain because benefits of the behaviour have proved elusive. In social insects, polyandry increases the genetic diversity of workers within a colony and this has been suggested to improve the resistance of the colony to disease. Here we examine the possible impact...... hinder the ability of parasites to adapt while cycling within social insect colonies....

  8. Juvenile colonies of the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1974-01-01

    Four remarkable dome-shaped, apparently juvenile colonies, belonging to the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929, are described from the Bermuda area. Comparison with juvenile colonies of P.agassizi (Ritter & Byxbee, 1905), and with larger colonies, fragments and loose zooids of P.agassizi and

  9. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I postulate that forced migration in modern Africa is largely explained by factors deeply rooted in colonial legacies and the globalization process. For example, among the colonial historical factors someone may identify land alienation that still fuels conflicts in Zimbabwe, the colonial military doctrine based on ...

  10. Kif Tebbi, the colonial archive, between sedimentation and connective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Kif Tebbi, a colonial novel by Luciano Zuccoli, in theoretical and interpretative perspective of the colonial archive. The aim is to problematize and deconstruct the colonial discourse of this writing from the cultural memories' point of view. In particular, the article will discuss two different forms of memory: the sedimentation and connective memory.

  11. A Post-Colonial Reading of Affirmative Action in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puamau, Priscilla Qolisaya

    2001-01-01

    Presents a post-colonial reading of affirmative action (AA) policies in Fiji, arguing that AA was a deliberate response by various predominantly indigenous Fijian post-colonial governments to counter the effects of a discriminatory colonial history that produced significant educational and employment inequality. Analyzes the mixed outcomes of AA…

  12. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  13. Colonial and Post-Independence Agricultural Policies in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to colonial administration, agriculture was very highly regarded because it assured the people of supply of food; stimulated a degree of urbanization and ... paper assesses the various colonial and post-colonial agricultural policies in Eastern Nigeria up to 1980, with a view to showing their impact on rural development.

  14. Colonial land policies in Lagos | Davies | Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land policies in colonial Lagos were variegated. They alternated between freehold at inception of colonialism in 1861, and customary tenure at the beginning of the twentieth century and later coalesced into a combination of both. The variegated nature of the colonial government's land policies created a lot of confusion in ...

  15. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  16. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites

  17. Regulaciones de la vida urbana colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Núñez Sánchez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza ciertas normas dictadas por la Corona con el propósito de regular la vida urbana a lo largo del período colonial. El artículo centra su estudio en algunas disposiciones que buscaban refrenar el desorden público y mantener el orden y las normas del "buen vivir". Bajo esta perspectiva, se analizan algunas prácticas culturales que se apartaban de estas regulaciones, entre las que se incluyeron los albazos y carnavales. Muchas de estas manifestaciones fueron percibidas por el poder colonial como muestras de primitivismo latente. No obstante, el juego de carnaval, entre otras prácticas, se mantuvo reacio a acatar estas regulaciones.

  18. In the post-colonial waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates this puzzle of choosing non-sovereignty in a postcolonial setting. Historically, the question of freedom from imperial hegemony has been linked to how Western colonialism involved keeping the colonized in ‘the waiting room of history’ by insisting that they were not yet...... ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...... acknowledge. A number of overseas territories take alternative routes to agency; not by resisting the norm of sovereignty - but by creatively articulating it beyond its claim to represent an 'either/or' distinction. The chapter demonstrates that territories not formally decolonized may very well perform...

  19. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  20. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a