WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable levels weak

  1. Entropy, limits to growth, and the prospects for weak sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysiak, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the consequences of mass and energy conservation and the second law of thermodynamics for economic activity. In contrast to former studies, we deduce our results formally from a general model of production and consumption. We show that in a static setting for economies containing irreversible processes, a non-zero resource input as well as non-zero emissions are necessary to sustain a positive level of consumption. We generalize this result to a dynamic setting and apply it to the growth discussion and the sustainability discourse. Thereby we show that limits to growth of production and consumption are likely to exist and that the concept of weak sustainability is either morally unattractive or physically infeasible. (author)

  2. Theory of weakly nonlinear self-sustained detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz; Kasimov, Aslan R.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a theory of weakly nonlinear multidimensional self-sustained detonations based on asymptotic analysis of the reactive compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We show that these equations can be reduced to a model consisting of a forced

  3. The joint discourse 'reflexive sustainable development'. From weak towards strong sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Heidi Rapp

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute towards moving the predominant situation of weak sustainable development (WSD) in the direction of strong sustainable development (SSD). More people - academics, politicians, bureaucrats and laymen alike - need to recognize SSD as an alternative to WSD. A joint discourse of WSD and SSD is suggested, called reflexive sustainable development. Here, advocates of WSD and SSD must argue for each specific case why their solution is better. This will expose, amongst other things, the ethical foundations which form part of resulting policy advice. Reflexive sustainable development is to be framed in discourse ethics, thereby remedying the power imbalance and allowing for substantial discussion. Reflexive sustainable development builds on a common theoretical base but will not lead to consensus in all matters. A family metaphor is introduced to inspire a discourse of both consensus and compromise. (author)

  4. Theory of weakly nonlinear self-sustained detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2015-11-03

    We propose a theory of weakly nonlinear multidimensional self-sustained detonations based on asymptotic analysis of the reactive compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We show that these equations can be reduced to a model consisting of a forced unsteady small-disturbance transonic equation and a rate equation for the heat release. In one spatial dimension, the model simplifies to a forced Burgers equation. Through analysis, numerical calculations and comparison with the reactive Euler equations, the model is demonstrated to capture such essential dynamical characteristics of detonations as the steady-state structure, the linear stability spectrum, the period-doubling sequence of bifurcations and chaos in one-dimensional detonations and cellular structures in multidimensional detonations.

  5. ΔS=O weak interactions at the quark level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The calculation of short distance gluon exchange corrections to the ΔS=O weak interaction at the quark level is described. Results are given for the coefficients of the 36 independent 4 quark operators involving ud, d, and s quarks explicitly, and for the 16 independent operators which remain when s quarks are eliminated and only u and d quarks explicitly occur in the operators. There is considerable uncertainty in the interpretation of parity violating phenomena in nuclei at the moment, as will be clear from the proceedings of this workshop. There is of course a possibility that our nuclear structure calculations are incomplete, but what I want to emphasize here is the fact that the existing calculations of the weak coupling constants at the hadronic level have been based on an inadequate quark level description. Little of what I have to say is new. I refer you to various papers by Rober Miller and myself on ΔS=1 interactions and ΔS=O interactions at the quark level, and to our review. However the only attempt to calculate observable effects using a quark level Hamiltonian with all of the necessary structure is that of Goldman and Preston and their work was a high energy rather than a low energy application. This paper is a pedagogical discussion of the basic physics of this ΔS=O weak Hamiltonian at the quark level, and is designed to encourage its use in future calculations of the weak hadronic coupling constants. Some previously unpublished results on a simplified approximate form of the ΔS=O Hamiltonian are given here to facilitate use of this quark level Hamiltonian in future calculations. (author)

  6. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  7. Beyond the Conflict and Weak Civil Society; Stories from Ukraine: Cases of Grassroots Initiatives for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Udovyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the diversity of grassroots initiatives (GIs for sustainable development that are emerging in post-EuroMaidan Ukraine. It first focuses on an overview of different theories on civil society and trends in Ukrainian civil society development. Eight cases of GIs are selected to represent different pillars of sustainability work done by the initiatives (economic, social, environmental, and political-institutional. These cases question the arguments behind the weak and pseudo-plenipotentiary vision of civil society in Ukraine, and demonstrate mechanisms of sustainable development suggested by analyzed GIs. In general, this study challenges the myth of a weak civil society in Ukraine, opens up a broader discussion on the meaning and role of civil society, and provides new ideas for building a sustainable society.

  8. Exploring the Strengths and Limits of Strong and Weak Sustainability Indicators: A Case Study of the Assessment of China’s Megacities with EF and GPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective of strong/weak sustainability has a great impact on sustainability assessment. In this study, two most widely used indices, Ecological Footprint (EF and Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI for strong and weak sustainability assessment, were employed to evaluate the sustainability of China’s ten megacities between 1978 and 2015. The results showed that the ecological footprint had been enlarged in the past twenty years; while the genuine economic welfare started to increase since 2005. The cities of Xi’an, Chengdu, Chongqing, and Shanghai met the threshold of below 2.5 global hectares for EF/capita, and over 3000 dollars/capita (in 2010 US$ for GPI/capita. By analyzing and comparing the characteristics, the processes and results, and the complementary features of evaluation methods of EF and GPI, the research suggested that: (1 Strong and weak sustainability indicators, with their own pros/cons in sustainability assessment, should be used carefully; (2 Weak sustainability indicators could be analyzed from the perspective of strong sustainability; (3 Strong sustainability indicators need to be developed urgently. The results in this study could guide the selection of sustainability indicators, and help interpret the results of sustainability assessment.

  9. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from

  10. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from Canada, UK and

  11. Self-sustained firing activities of the cortical network with plastic rules in weak AC electrical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ying-Mei; Wang Jiang; Men Cong; Zhao Jia; Wei Xi-Le; Deng Bin

    2012-01-01

    Both external and endogenous electrical fields widely exist in the environment of cortical neurons. The effects of a weak alternating current (AC) field on a neural network model with synaptic plasticity are studied. It is found that self-sustained rhythmic firing patterns, which are closely correlated with the cognitive functions, are significantly modified due to the self-organizing of the network in the weak AC field. The activities of the neural networks are affected by the synaptic connection strength, the external stimuli, and so on. In the presence of learning rules, the synaptic connections can be modulated by the external stimuli, which will further enhance the sensitivity of the network to the external signal. The properties of the external AC stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating the evolution of the neural network. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Strengths and weaknesses of current energy chains in a sustainable development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Burgherr, P.; Schenler, W.; Bauer, C.

    2006-01-01

    The paper summarizes a framework for a systematic comparative evaluation of the sustainability of energy systems and includes a comprehensive application of this framework to major electricity generating technologies and the associated fuel cycles in Germany. Main efforts have focussed on the generation of quantitative, technology-specific, economic, environmental and social indicators. A number of methods have been employed, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Risk Assessment (RA), and the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). Two methods of indicator aggregation were used: namely, the estimation of total (internal and external) costs, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Use of MCDA is motivated principally by the acknowledgement of the role of value judgments in decision-making. (orig.)

  13. Maximal sustained levels of energy expenditure in humans during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jamie A; Nguyen, David D; Ruby, Brent C; Schoeller, Dale A

    2011-12-01

    Migrating birds have been able to sustain an energy expenditure (EE) that is five times their basal metabolic rate. Although humans can readily reach these levels, it is not yet clear what levels can be sustained for several days. The study's purposes were 1) to determine the upper limits of human EE and whether or not those levels can be sustained without inducing catabolism of body tissues and 2) to determine whether initial body weight is related to the levels that can be sustained. We compiled data on documented EE as measured by doubly labeled water during high levels of physical activity (minimum of five consecutive days). We calculated the physical activity level (PAL) of each individual studied (PAL = total EE / basal metabolic rate) from the published data. Correlations were run to examine the relationship between initial body weight and body weight lost with both total EE and PAL. The uppermost limit of EE was a peak PAL of 6.94 that was sustained for 10 consecutive days of a 95-d race. Only two studies reported PALs above 5.0; however, significant decreases in body mass were found in each study (0.45-1.39 kg·wk(-1) of weight loss). To test whether initial weight affects the ability to sustain high PALs, we found a significant positive correlation between TEE and initial body weight (r = 0.46, P body weight (r = 0.27, not statistically significant). Some elite humans are able to sustain PALs above 5.0 for a minimum of 10 d. Although significant decreases in body weight occur at this level, catabolism of body tissue may be preventable in situations with proper energy intake. Further, initial body weight does not seem to affect the sustainability of PALs.

  14. Practical appraisal of sustainable development-Methodologies for sustainability measurement at settlement level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, Richard; Foley, Walter; Morrissey, John; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between settlement size, functionality, geographic location and sustainable development. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 79 Irish settlements, located in three regional clusters. Two methods were selected to model the level of sustainability achieved in settlements, namely, Metabolism Accounting and Modelling of Material and Energy Flows (MA) and Sustainable Development Index Modelling. MA is a systematic assessment of the flows and stocks of material within a system defined in space and time. The metabolism of most settlements is essentially linear, with resources flowing through the urban system. The objective of this research on material and energy flows was to provide information that might aid in the development of a more circular pattern of urban metabolism, vital to sustainable development. In addition to MA, a set of forty indicators were identified and developed. These target important aspects of sustainable development: transport, environmental quality, equity and quality of life issues. Sustainability indices were derived through aggregation of indicators to measure dimensions of sustainable development. Similar relationships between settlement attributes and sustainability were found following both methods, and these were subsequently integrated to provide a single measure. Analysis identified those attributes of settlements preventing, impeding or promoting progress towards sustainability

  15. Josephson current and Andreev level dynamics in nanoscale superconducting weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Aldo

    2014-11-15

    In this thesis we focus on the interplay between proximity induced superconducting correlations and Coulomb interactions in a Josephson junction: i.e., in a system where two superconductors modeled as two s-wave superconductors at a phase difference φ are contacted by means of a weak link, in our case a quantum dot located in the contact. In the first part we study the Josephson current-phase relation for a multi-level quantum dot tunnel-contacted by two conventional s-waves superconductors. We determine in detail the conditions for observing a finite anomalous Josephson current, i.e. a supercurrent flowing at zero phase difference in a two-level dot with spin-orbit interactions, a weak magnetic (Zeeman) field, and in the presence of Coulomb interactions. This leads to an onset behavior I{sub a}∝sgn(B), interpreted as the sign of an incipient spontaneous breakdown of time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, we will provide conditions for realizing spatially separated - but topologically unprotected - Majorana bound states, whose signature in the system will be detectable via the current-phase relation. In the second part of the thesis, we address the Andreev bound state population dynamics in superconducting weak links (a superconducting 'atomic contact'), in which a poisoning mechanism due to the trapping of single quasiparticles can occur. Our motivation is that quantum coherent superconducting circuits are the most promising candidates for future large-scale quantum information processing devices. Moreover, quasiparticle poisoning has recently been observed in devices which contain a short superconducting weak link with few transport channels. We discuss a novel charge imbalance effect in the continuum quasiparticle population, which is due to phase fluctuations of the environment weakly coupled to the superconducting contact. This coupling enters the system as a transition rate connecting continuum quasiparticles and the Andreev bound state system. The

  16. Diaphragm Muscle Weakness Following Acute Sustained Hypoxic Stress in the Mouse Is Prevented by Pretreatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. O’Leary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen deficit (hypoxia is a major feature of cardiorespiratory diseases characterized by diaphragm dysfunction, yet the putative role of hypoxic stress as a driver of diaphragm dysfunction is understudied. We explored the cellular and functional consequences of sustained hypoxic stress in a mouse model. Adult male mice were exposed to 8 hours of normoxia, or hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.10 with or without antioxidant pretreatment (N-acetyl cysteine, 200 mg/kg i.p.. Ventilation and metabolism were measured. Diaphragm muscle contractile function, myofibre size and distribution, gene expression, protein signalling cascades, and oxidative stress (TBARS were determined. Hypoxia caused pronounced diaphragm muscle weakness, unrelated to increased respiratory muscle work. Hypoxia increased diaphragm HIF-1α protein content and activated MAPK, mTOR, Akt, and FoxO3a signalling pathways, largely favouring protein synthesis. Hypoxia increased diaphragm lipid peroxidation, indicative of oxidative stress. FoxO3 and MuRF-1 gene expression were increased. Diaphragm 20S proteasome activity and muscle fibre size and distribution were unaffected by acute hypoxia. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine substantially enhanced cell survival signalling, prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm oxidative stress, and prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Hypoxia is a potent driver of diaphragm weakness, causing myofibre dysfunction without attendant atrophy. N-acetyl cysteine protects the hypoxic diaphragm and may have application as a potential adjunctive therapy.

  17. Teaching Sustainability from a Scientific Standpoint at the Introductory Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Stone, E.; Myers, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    In recent decades, humankind has recognized that current levels of resource utilization are seriously impacting our planet's life support systems and threatening the ability of future generations to provide for themselves. The concept of sustainability has been promoted by a variety of national and international organizations as a method to devise ways to adjust humanity's habits and consumption to levels that can be maintained over the long term, i.e. sustained. Courses on sustainability are being offered at many universities and colleges, but most are taught outside of science departments; they are often designed around policy concerns or focus primarily on environmental impacts while neglecting the science of sustainability. Because the three foundations necessary to implement sustainability are sustainability governance, sustainability accounting, and sustainability science, it is imperative that science departments play an active role in preparing citizens and professionals for dealing with sustainability issues. The geosciences are one of the scientific disciplines that offer a logical foundation from which to teach sustainability science. Geoscientists can also offer a unique and relevant geologic perspective on sustainability issues. The authors have developed an introductory, interdisciplinary course entitled 'Global Sustainability: Managing Earth's Resources' that integrates scientific disciplines in the examination of real world sustainability issues. In-depth understanding of physical, Earth and biological science principles are necessary for students to identify the limits and constraints imposed on important issues facing modern society, e.g. water, energy, population growth, etc. This course exposes students to all the scientific principles that apply directly to sustainability. The subject allows the instructors to present open-ended, multifaceted and complex problems relevant to today's industrialized and globalized world, and it encourages

  18. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  19. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [tr

  20. Electricity intensity backstop level to meet sustainable backstop supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2006-01-01

    The concept of a backstop level of electricity intensity is introduced and illustrated for the highest income economies of the world. The backstop level corresponds with the intensity that would be triggered by applying end-use electricity prices equal to the cost price of a fully sustainable electricity supply. Section 1 of the paper discusses the issue of electricity (also energy) intensity of economies. It is argued that identifying a 'demand for electricity intensity' bridges the gap between the high willingness to pay for electricity services on the one hand and the disinterested attitude of consumers regarding the invisible and impalpable product electricity on the other hand. Assessment of the demand curve for electricity intensity in a cross section of high income OECD countries comes to a long-run price elasticity of almost -1. Section 2 revives Nordhaus' concept of backstop supply technologies for weighing three power sources (fossil, nuclear, and renewable sources) in meeting today's criteria of sustainable backstop technology. Only renewable sources meet the main sustainability criteria, but the economic cost of a fully sustainable electricity supply will be elevated. The closing question of Section 3, that is, whether the countries can afford the high cost of backstop electricity supplies, is answered by indicating what reductions in intensity are required to keep the electricity bills stable. The targeted intensity level is called the backstop level, and provides a fixed point for electricity efficiency policies. The analysis supports the call for comprehensive and enduring tax reform policies

  1. Multi level governance framework for sustainable urban mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Cities constitute the backbone of European historic development and provide the basis of its economic future. The near neglect of cities in existing European policies for sustainable growth and development such as the Europe 2020 strategy is untenable. The 2011 White Paper has sought to face...... seem essential to move cities beyond business as usual. Research-wise we need to understand in more detail the political and contextual background for successes - and failures - of European cities. This could help build an effective multi level governance framework for sustainable urban mobility...

  2. A new interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC of capacitive liquid level sensor in the rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Qin, Yao; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2017-11-01

    A new capacitive liquid level sensing interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC has been designed. This ASIC realized the detection of the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor, which converts the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor to voltage. The chip is fabricated in a standard 0.5μm CMOS process. The test results show that the linearity of capacitance detection of the ASIC is 0.05%, output noise is 3.7aF/Hz (when the capacitance which will be detected is 40 pF), the stability of capacitance detection is 7.4 × 10-5pF (1σ, 1h), the output zero position temperature coefficient is 4.5 uV/∘C. The test results prove that this interface ASIC can meet the requirement of high accuracy capacitance detection. Therefore, this interface ASIC can be applied in capacitive liquid level sensing and capacitive humidity sensing field.

  3. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organization-level predictors of sustained social movement participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric A; Speer, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Long-term sustained participation represents one of the most important resources available to community organizations and social movement organizations (SMOs). The participatory literature on community and SMOs has identified a host of individual-level factors that influence participation beyond initial engagement, and has more recently identified contextual factors that influence participation. This study builds upon current understandings of participation in SMOs by examining how sustained participation in movement activities is affected by two qualities of SMO settings: repertoire of organizational activity, and equality of staff contact with organization members to cultivate and facilitate individual participation. To this end, we employ multi-level regression techniques to examine longitudinal data on participation within 50 local chapters of a national congregation-based community organizing federation. We find that the conduct of organizational activities previously shown to increase levels of participation among individual persons does not necessarily lead to increases in aggregate or organization-level participation. Further, we find that conditions of unequal staff contact among organization members represent a notable drag on organization-level participation over time. Our findings suggest that organizers and organizational leaders may well see greater levels of participation in their organizations by simply re-distributing resources and opportunities more equitably within their organizations.

  5. Evaluating the level and nature of sustainable development for a geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides for an evaluation of the potential level and nature of sustainable development of the Sabalan geothermal power plant in NW Iran, to be operational in 2011. The paper achieves this by applying a mathematical model of sustainable development developed by the author (re: Phillips), in respect to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) conducted by Yousefi et al. using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) methodology (re: Pastakia; Pastakia and Jensen). Using a model application methodology developed for the RIAM, the results indicated that the nature of sustainable development for Sabalan was considered to be very weak (S = 0.063). This was due to the imbalance between negative environmental impacts and positive socio-economic impacts deriving from the project. Further, when placed into context with a similar set of results obtained from the EIA of the Tuzla geothermal power plant by Baba also using the RIAM methodology, then the similarities between the results obtained raises some legimate questions as to the sustainable development credentials of geothermal power production. (author)

  6. Noise level estimation in weakly nonlinear slowly time-varying systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, J R M; Dirckx, J J J; Lataire, J; Pintelon, R

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a method using multisine excitation was proposed for estimating the frequency response, the nonlinear distortions and the disturbing noise of weakly nonlinear time-invariant systems. This method has been demonstrated on the measurement of nonlinear distortions in the vibration of acoustically driven systems such as a latex membrane, which is a good example of a time-invariant system [1]. However, not all systems are perfectly time invariant, e.g. biomechanical systems. This time variation can be misinterpreted as an elevated noise floor, and the classical noise estimation method gives a wrong result. Two improved methods to retrieve the correct noise information from the measurements are presented. Both of them make use of multisine excitations. First, it is demonstrated that the improved methods give the same result as the classical noise estimation method when applied to a time-invariant system (high-quality microphone membrane). Next, it is demonstrated that the new methods clearly give an improved estimate of the noise level on time-varying systems. As an application example results for the vibration response of an eardrum are shown

  7. Sustainable integration of high levels of intermittent generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Cabral, P.

    2005-01-01

    The sustainable development of electric power systems rely on three main drivers: the security of supply, the competitiveness and the protection of the environment. For this purpose the promotion of endogenous energy sources, mainly the renewable ones, should be underlined. Still, most of renewable energy sources raise very sensitive issues concerning the security of supply, due to its randomness and unpredictability. The wind power, currently in its fast growing development, plays a relevant role on this matter. From the demand-side perspective, there is also a lot to do regarding the promotion of more efficient use of energy as well as mechanisms that contribute to security of supply. This paper aims to present guidelines for the selection of the most adequate solutions regarding: sustainable evolution of renewable generation technologies, based on the most meritorious resources under economic and security of supply assessments; complementary energy storage systems that allow the integration of intermittent generation ensuring adequate security of supply levels; and sustainable evolution of demand, based on DSM measures selected from different available alternatives. (author)

  8. Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albareda-Tiana, Silvia; Vidal-Raméntol, Salvador; Fernández-Morilla, Mónica

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to explore the principles and practices of sustainable development (SD) in the university curriculum. Design/methodology/approach: To explore the principles linked with the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the learning and teaching practices in sustainability at the International University of…

  9. Parametric transformation of weak gravitational wave into electromagnetic one in a three-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagirov, Eh.A.

    1985-01-01

    A model of resonance parametric transformation of a gravitational wave to electromagnetic one is considered. Two plane monochromatic waves: a strong electromagnetic and weak gravitational - interacting in a medium generate at difference and sum frequencies an electromagnetic wave in a direction determined with the condition of spatial wave synchronism. Rarefied cold gas or beam of elementary emitters (''molecules'') serve as a medium model. Coefficients of parametric transformation have been determined

  10. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  11. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  12. Optogalvanic spectroscopy of the hyperfine structure of weak La I lines: discovery of new even parity fine structure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Gamper, B; Windholz, L; Dembczyński, J

    2013-01-01

    The hyperfine structure of weak La I lines was experimentally investigated using laser optogalvanic spectroscopy in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. More than 100 La I lines were investigated and 40 new energy levels were discovered, most of them having even parity. The magnetic hyperfine interaction constants A and in some cases the electric quadrupole interaction constants B for these levels were determined. All the newly discovered levels were confirmed either by additional laser excitations (from other known levels) or by lines in a Fourier transform spectrum which could now be classified. (paper)

  13. Innovation Level of Sustainable Practices Adopted in Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the level of innovation of sustainable practices by industrial companies. This is a descriptive study that made use of a questionnaire answered by 50 industrial companies. The results show that environmental practices at full level by 68% of businesses are monitoring the risks and opportunities for the organization's activities due to climate change; 56% of companies surveyed are waste separation; followed by the realization of related health and safety training at work in 52% of cases surveyed; and 48% monitoring and recording of injuries, the injury rate, the rate of occupational diseases, lost days, absenteeism and number of work-related fatalities for all workers. Among the practices adopted not stand out incineration (burning mass (80% of companies surveyed; hiring indigenous and tribal employees (68%; composting (64% and use of surface water in the process. Therefore, the study contributed to the disclosure cleaner called production innovations and also pipe end technologies. Some social practices that signal a commitment of the organizations with human resources and the humanization and also economical focused on continuous improvement.

  14. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations......, a transition toward sustainable urban development is a matter of changing the composition of existing multisegmented land use and transportation regimes. Those well-experienced forms of built environment and transport infrastructure that are in line with sustainability objectives should be strengthened while...... those that are not should be actively constrained and reduced. Urban development in a Danish provincial city is used as a case to illustrate some of the points made in the theoretical part of the article. Due to the wide gap between present conditions and those required to realize a sustainable urban...

  15. Roadmap for Integrating Sustainable Design into Site-Level Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Keith L.; Dorsey, Judy A.

    2000-04-19

    Sustainable Design recognizes that products and processes are interdependent with the environmental, economic, and social systems surrounding them and implements measures to prevent an unsustainable compromise to these systems.

  16. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  17. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: tilman@santarius.de [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  18. The extraction of lifetimes of weakly-populated nuclear levels in recoil distance method experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.L.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two analytic techniques are described which extend the conventional analysis of recoil-distance method (RDM) data. The first technique utilizes the enhanced counting statistics of the composite spectrum formed by the addition of all γ-ray spectra recorded at the different target-to-stopper distances employed, in order to extract the lifetimes of levels whose observed depopulating γ-ray transitions have insufficient statistics to permit conventional analysis. The second technique analyses peak centroids rather than peak areas to account for contamination by flight distance dependent background. The results from a recent study of the low-lying excited states in 196 198 Pt for those levels whose lifetimes could be extracted by conventional RDM analysis are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained using the new methods of analysis

  19. When Does Corporate Sustainability Performance Pay off? The Impact of Country-Level Sustainability Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Chengyong; Wang, Qian; van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    There has been considerable debate on and research efforts into the question as to if, and if so when, improving corporate sustainability performance is not only beneficial for social and environmental wellbeing but also for the financial wellbeing of a firm. So far, the literature has reported

  20. Non-Hermitian wave packet approximation for coupled two-level systems in weak and intense fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Charron, Eric [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Sukharev, Maxim [Science and Mathematics Faculty, College of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    We introduce a non-Hermitian Schrödinger-type approximation of optical Bloch equations for two-level systems. This approximation provides a complete and accurate description of the coherence and decoherence dynamics in both weak and strong laser fields at the cost of losing accuracy in the description of populations. In this approach, it is sufficient to propagate the wave function of the quantum system instead of the density matrix, providing that relaxation and dephasing are taken into account via automatically adjusted time-dependent gain and decay rates. The developed formalism is applied to the problem of scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a thin layer comprised of interacting two-level emitters.

  1. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Xu; Shixin Wang; Yi Zhou; Litao Wang; Wenliang Liu

    2016-01-01

    On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020)” (NNUP). NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive sugg...

  2. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  3. Sustainability of High-Level Isolation Capabilities among US Ebola Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstein, Jocelyn J; Biddinger, Paul D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Le, Aurora B; Jelden, Katelyn C; Hewlett, Angela L; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    To identify barriers to maintaining and applying capabilities of US high-level isolation units (HLIUs) used during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, during 2016 we surveyed HLIUs. HLIUs identified sustainability challenges and reported the highly infectious diseases they would treat. HLIUs expended substantial resources in development but must strategize models of sustainability to maintain readiness.

  4. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  5. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih Ratna; Cahyantari Anggaina Elfandora; Ariyani Zulfaida; Susanty Aries; Arvianto Ary; Santoso Haryo

    2018-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME) of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS) method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1) Environment, (2) Socio-cultural and (3) Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sust...

  6. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  7. Lower extremity weakness is associated with elevated blood and cerebrospinal fluid glucose levels following multibranched endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Jade S; Fernandez, Charlene; Gasper, Warren; Vartanian, Shant; Reilly, Linda; Chuter, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Hyperglycemia is associated with worsened clinical outcomes after central nervous system injury. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lower extremity weakness (LEW) and the glucose levels of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients undergoing multibranched endovascular aneurysm repair (MBEVAR) of thoracoabdominal and pararenal aortic aneurysms. Blood and CSF samples were collected preoperatively, immediately after aneurysm repair, and on postoperative day 1 in 21 patients undergoing MBEVAR. Data on demographics, operative repair, complications, and outcomes were collected prospectively. There were 21 patients who underwent successful MBEVAR. Two patients had pre-existing paraplegia from prior open aortic surgery and were excluded from the current analysis. The mean age was 73 ± 8 years, and 15 of 19 (79%) were men. In the postoperative period, 7 of 19 (37%) patients developed LEW. This was temporary in 5 of 19 (26%) patients and permanent in 2 of 19 (11%) patients. The LEW group was older than the non-LEW group (77 ± 6 vs 70 ± 9 years, respectively; P = .10), had a lower preoperative glomerular filtration rate (58.6 ± 18.5 vs 71.4 ± 23.5 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ; P = .24), and was more likely to be taking a statin (100% vs 67%, respectively; P = .13), but these did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, lung disease, or peripheral artery disease between the LEW and non-LEW groups. There was also no difference in operative time, blood loss, contrast material volume, or fluoroscopy times between the two groups. Preoperative blood and CSF glucose levels were similar in those with and without LEW. During the postoperative period, glucose values in the blood and CSF were significantly higher in those patients who developed LEW compared with those who did not develop LEW. In all patients with LEW, the elevation

  8. Classification of EU Countries in Terms of the Level of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stec Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has classified the EU countries in terms of the level of sustainable development. The study was based on main sustainability indicators developed by Eurostat. In empirical research, one of the methods used was Cluster Analysis - Ward's method. Grouping methods make it possible to distinguish countries with a similar level of sustainability which is particularly useful for monitoring the progress of individual EU countries in implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy. For specific groups of countries, appropriate control instruments and strategies can be proposed. The research period is 2016. As a result of the research, 6 clusters of countries were obtained. For specific groups of countries, their characteristics were defined.

  9. INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ON ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kokic Arsic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the article is an integration of quality management and sustainable development, with the basis of considerations of sustainable development and the structure of the key quality factors pointed to the possibility of achieving synergy of action on the most important variables, as well as the established model of integration of these two complex concepts. Areas of our study were 83 organizations in the region of Central Serbia. The study was based on questionnaires which contained 50 questions about the level of quality and sustainable development in the companies surveyed. Results of research highlights the most influenced variables in condition of constraints related to transition economy characteristics.

  10. Public services on a district level. The environment closer to the people. More sustainability or not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, J.; Van Drunen, M.A.; Lammers, P.E.M.; Olsthoorn, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    One way to stimulate households in the Netherlands socially, culturally and economically is to provide them with technological services and tools that are economically and ecologically sound and contribute to sustainability. Every technological service or tool has social, cultural and economical stimuli. However, those incentives are not used systematically in the present Dutch environmental policy. Therefore, an important question in this study is whether those incentives can be used such that they can contribute to sustainability more than the performance level of the technology. In this study special attention is paid to the level on which the services and tools for households in a specific district are organized and provided and how it can contribute to sustainability. In chapter 2 the incentives for sustainable behavior of households are described. In chapter 3 three scenarios are introduced in which the district level is explained by comparing them with two other levels: the micro-level (per households) and the macro-level (per province, national, international). In chapter 4 the expectations with respect to the services and tools and sustainability for the three scenarios are evaluated. Examples of experiments and case studies are spread over the report. 61 refs

  11. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020” (NNUP. NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive suggestions for the achievement of sustainable new urbanization. A three-level index system which is based on six fundamental elements in a city and a Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator evaluation method are adopted. The results show that China is undergoing a new urbanization process with a low level of sustainability and there are many problems remaining from traditional urbanization processes. There exists a polarized phenomenon in the urbanization of 20 urban agglomerations. Based on their own development patterns, the 20 urban agglomerations can be divided into seven categories. Every category has its own development characteristics. The analyses also show that waste of water resources, abuse of land resources, and air pollution are three big problems that are closely linked to traditional Chinese urbanization processes. To achieve sustainable new urbanization in China, four relevant suggestions and comments have been provided.

  12. Operationalising Ecologically Sustainable Development at the Micro Level Pareto Optimality and the Preservation of Biologically Crucial Levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bithas, K.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of Ecologically Sustainable Economic Development (ESED) has led to relentlessly heated debate. Yet, it still remains without a clear operational framework. At the micro level where a multitude of projects and programmes are designed, the absence of operational principles has serious

  13. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  14. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  15. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  16. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Community Vitality: The Role of Community-Level Resilience Adaptation and Innovation in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Community level action towards sustainable development has emerged as a key scale of intervention in the effort to address our many serious environmental issues. This is hindered by the large-scale destruction of both urban neighbourhoods and rural villages in the second half of the twentieth century. Communities, whether they are small or large, hubs of experimentation or loci of traditional techniques and methods, can be said to have a level of community vitality that acts as a site of resilience, adaptation and innovation in the face of environmental challenges. This paper outlines how community vitality acts as a cornerstone of sustainable development and suggests some courses for future research. A meta-case analysis of thirty-five Canadian communities reveals the characteristics of community vitality emerging from sustainable development experiments and its relationship to resilience, applied specifically to community development.

  18. Key characteristics for tool choice in indicator-based sustainability assessment at farm level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Marchand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the literature on sustainability assessment tools to support decision making in agriculture is rapidly growing, little attention has been paid to the actual tool choice. We focused on the choice of more complex integrated indicator-based tools at the farm level. The objective was to determine key characteristics as criteria for tool choice. This was done with an in-depth comparison of 2 cases: the Monitoring Tool for Integrated Farm Sustainability and the Public Goods Tool. They differ in characteristics that may influence tool choice: data, time, and budgetary requirements. With an enhanced framework, we derived 11 key characteristics to describe differences between the case tools. Based on the key characteristics, we defined 2 types of indicator-based tools: full sustainability assessment (FSA and rapid sustainability assessment (RSA. RSA tools are more oriented toward communicating and learning. They are therefore more suitable for use by a larger group of farmers, can help to raise awareness, trigger farmers to become interested in sustainable farming, and highlight areas of good or bad performance. If and when farmers increase their commitment to on-farm sustainability, they can gain additional insight by using an FSA tool. Based on complementary and modular use of the tools, practical recommendations for the different end users, i.e., researchers, farmers, advisers, and so forth, have been suggested.

  19. Adopting the EU sustainable performance scheme Level(s) in the Danish building sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanafani, Kai; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard; Zimmermann, Regitze Kjær

    2018-01-01

    to life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements within the Level(s) scheme. As a measure for the Danish building sector’s LCA practice, the specifications for LCAbyg, the official Danish building LCA tool, is used. In 2017, the European commission’s Joint Research Centre has launched Level(s) as a vo...

  20. Exploring biophysical potential and sustainability of wheat cultivation in Uruguay at the national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, S.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Molfino, J.H.; Resink, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented that explores soil survey information at the national level (1:1 M), generating sustainability indicators for wheat cultivation in Uruguay. Potential yields were calculated for simplified crop production situations under several constraints, such as limitation of water

  1. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  2. The analysis of the sustainable mobility level in selected European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaston-Ciulkin, A.

    2016-07-01

    Transport needs have to be met through efficient and integrated usage of existing transport infrastructure and urban space together with actions taken in order to reduce traffic congestion by reducing the number and length of travels by car and reducing the demand for the travelling. The expected effect of these actions is the less noise, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The article presents the proposal of the indicator for measuring the degree of sustainable mobility based on the example of European Union cities. The presented method for determining the level of sustainable mobility has been inspired by different researches and it is based on a study of different sub-indicators used for measuring the degree of sustainability of the modal split. (Author)

  3. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  4. Eco-efficiency guiding micro-level actions towards sustainability. Ten basic steps for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, Gjalt; Ishikawa, Masanobu

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the compatibility between technological improvements at the micro-level and sustainability at the macro-level. The two main approaches to prevent environmental degradation are technological improvement and economic degrowth. How do we establish the sustainability of technological options? LCA-type analysis of the technology system, combined with economic cost analysis, offers a first integrated eco-efficiency score. However, such a technology analysis focuses on micro-level technology relations only, is usually too optimistic and ignores other constraints implied in a choice. Fitting more comprehensive knowledge into the sustainability evaluation of options requires a unifying systematic framework, which is worked out in the present paper as a ten-step procedure. The integrative framework for empirical analysis is ultimately a comparative-static systems analysis at macro-level, not in a deterministic dynamic mode, which is impossible, but as a knowledge-fed scenario analysis. The analysis shows the change in society's overall eco-efficiency, combining total value creation with total environmental impacts. Possible domains of application include not only technology choices like those in eco-innovation, including changed consumption styles and volumes, but also changes in policies regarding technologies and markets, whether direct policy shifts or indirect changes through institutional adaptations. Ultimately, such a framework also allows culturally framed questions about the type of society we would like to live in, to be analysed in terms of their economic and environmental consequences. (author)

  5. Management of Sustainable Energy Efficient Development at the Local Level: Stakeholder-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horban Vasylyna B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There presented a theoretical rationale for the expediency of using the stakeholder-oriented approach to improve the process of management of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level. The evolution of theories by scientific schools that studied the concepts of «stakeholders» and «interested parties» is analyzed and generalized. A classification of types of stakeholders in the context of eighteen typological features is suggested, which allows to more effectively align their interests and contributes to establishing constructive forms of cooperation in order to achieve efficient final results. An algorithm of interaction with interested parties in achieving the goals of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level is elaborated. Typical motivational interests of stakeholders at the local level in the field of sustainable energy efficient development (on the example of Ukraine are identified. Instruments of prioritization of stakeholders depending on the life cycle stages of energy efficiency projects are proposed. The results obtained in the course of the research can be used to develop local energy efficient programs, business plans and feasibility studies for energy efficient projects.

  6. KPI-Driven Methodology for Urban Renovation at District Level. Sustainable Strategic Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Criado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban renovation is characterized by multiple factors (e.g., technical, socio-economic, environmental and ethical perspectives, different spatial scales and a number of administrative structures that should address the evaluation of alternative scenarios or solutions. This defines a complex decision problem that includes different stakeholders where several aspects need to be considered simultaneously. In spite of the knowledge and experiences during the recent years, there is a need of methods that lead the decision-making processes. In response, a methodology based on a KPI-driven approach for urban renovation at district level is proposed in the European Smart City project CITyFiED. The methodology is a procedure with the energy efficiency as main pillar and the local authorities as client. It is composed of seven phases that ensures an effective dialogue among all the stakeholders, aiming to understand the objectives and needs of the city to deliver a set of customized Strategies for Sustainable Urban Renovation. In order to provide guidance and quantitative criteria, three levels of indicators are integrated into the approach: City Level Indicators (L1 at city & district level, Project Level KPIs (L2, and Impact Assessment Indicators at city level (L3.

  7. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  8. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  9. Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate the Level of Community Forestry Sustainability in Babak Watershed, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryke Nandini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Babak watershed is one of the efforts to reduce critical land area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of community forestry sustainability in both of community forest (HKm and private forest in Babak watershed. Multidimensional scaling (MDS was used to analyse the level of community forest sustainability based on the five dimensions of ecology, economy, social, institutional, and technology as well as 29 attributes. Leverage analysis was used to know the sensitive attributes of sustainability, while Monte Carlo analysis and goodness of fit was used to find the accuracy of MDS analysis. The result shows that HKm was in moderate sustainability level (sustainability index 54.08% and private forest was in less sustainability level (sustainability index 48.53%. Furthermore, the ecology and technology in HKm were classified as less sustainable, while the institution and technology in private forest were considered less sustainable. There were 11 sensitive attributes of HKm and 19 sensitive attributes of private forest. The priorities of attribute improvement in HKm include land recovering (the dimension of ecology and cooperative development (the dimension of technology. In private forest, the priorities of attribute improvement include leadership capacity building (the institutional dimension and also the use of silviculture intensive and soil conservation (the dimension of technology.

  10. Branching Fractions and log(gf)s for Weak Lines of Co II connected to the Ground and Low Metastable Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James Edward; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2018-01-01

    New branching fraction (BF) measurements and log(gf)s of Highly Reliable Lines (HRLs) of Co II are reported. Our measurements test and confirm earlier work by Salih et al. [1985] and Mullman et al. [1998] and expand the earlier BF measurements to include more weak and very weak HRLs. HRLs are UV lines that connect to the population reservoir levels including the ground and low metastable levels of Co+. Such levels contain most of the cobalt in the photospheres of typical F, G, and K stars used in abundance studies. HRLs are essentially immune to departures from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) because they connect to the primary reservoir levels. Lightly-populated high-lying levels of the ion and essentially all levels of the neutral atom have some possibility of being pulled out of LTE through various reactions. Weak and very weak HRLs are needed to determine Co abundances in higher metallicity stars while dominant branches are useful in low metallicity stars of abundance surveys. A large set of HRLs with reliable log(gf)s is desired to avoid blending and saturation problems in photospheric studies. The relative abundance of Fe-peak elements changes as a function of metallicity [e.g. Henry et al. 2010, Sneden et al. 2016] but contributions to the trends from nuclear physics effects in early stars need to be cleanly separated from effect due to limitations of classic photospheric models based on One Dimensional (1D) and LTE approximations. The 1D/LTE approximations of classic photospheric models, which work in well in metal rich dwarf stars such as the Sun, are a source of some concern in Metal Poor (MP) giant stars due to much lower electron and atom pressures. Our new measurements on HRLS of Co II are applied to determine stellar abundances in MP stars.Henry, R. B. C., Cowan, J. J., & Sobeck, J, 2010, ApJ 709, 715Mullman, K. L., Cooper, J. C., & Lawler, J. E. 1998, ApJ, 495, 503Salih, S., Lawler, J. E., & Whaling, W. 1985, PhRvA, 31, 744Sneden et al. 2016

  11. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  12. Urban stormwater - greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Arora, Amarpreet

    2017-11-01

    Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water), urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage) and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water), and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment) both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  13. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  14. MHz-level self-sustained pulsation in polymer microspheres on a chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou-Chen Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We observe MHz-level periodic self-sustained pulsation (SSP in the transmission spectrum of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS spherical microcavity on a silicon chip, under a fixed-frequency continuous laser excitation. The SSP results from the strong competition between the thermo-optic and thermal expansion effects of PDMS within the cavity mode volume. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical prediction by considering the modification of the thermal expansion coefficient and the temperature distribution within the mode volume.

  15. Using the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART for the Systematic Analysis of Trade-Offs and Synergies between Sustainability Dimensions and Themes at Farm Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When trying to optimize the sustainability performance of farms and farming systems, a consideration of trade-offs and synergies between different themes and dimensions is required. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic analysis of trade-offs and synergies across all dimensions and themes. To achieve this aim we used the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART-Farm Tool which operationalizes the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA Guidelines by defining science-based indicator sets and assessment procedures. It identifies the degree of goal achievement with respect to the 58 themes defined in the SAFA Guidelines using an impact matrix that defines 327 indicators and 1769 relations between sustainability themes and indicators. We illustrate how the SMART-Farm Tool can be successfully applied to assess the sustainability performance of farms of different types and in different geographic regions. Our analysis revealed important synergies between themes within a sustainability dimension and across dimensions. We found major trade-offs within the environmental dimension and between the environmental and economic dimension. The trade-offs within the environmental dimension were even larger than the trade-offs with other dimensions. The study also underlines the importance of the governance dimension with regard to achieving a good level of performance in the other dimensions.

  16. Two centuries of heating our homes. An empirical - historical contribution to the problem of sustainability on a micro level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vooght, D.; Scholliers, P.; Spirinckx, C.; Geerken, T.

    2006-01-01

    Discussions about sustainability are often restricted to statements about energy. However, when the notion was first used, it had a broader meaning. It argued that every generation should strive for economic progress, yet this should affect all generations in a positive way. This interpretation was evolved by the Brundtland commission in 1987. Since the publication of its report 'Our common future', it is widely accepted that sustainable development involves a social, economic and environmental dimension. Since there is no unambiguous definition of 'sustainable development' on hand, a set of sustainability indicators was developed. However, these indicators are not very instructive about the micro level: can we label a particular commodity 'sustainable' or does this have only relatively limited value? To what extent is mankind capable of producing, distributing and consuming in a 'pure', efficient and cheap way? To create a long-term view on 'sustainable development', important lessons could be learned from the past. 'Sustainability' has little meaning without an understanding of long-term ecosystem trajectories and a knowledge of baseline conditions, if they ever existed. The interdisciplinary research project '(Un)sustainability developments of product systems, 1800 - 2000' investigates the (un)sustainability development of four basic needs (potable water, bread, transportation of people over land, and heated living space) in Belgium over the last two centuries, to gain insight into sustainable development on a micro level. This paper focuses on the case study of the heated living space. It explores the boundaries of the research subject, before examining sources and methodology. The project employs Life Cycle Assessment techniques on historical data, which is a first in historical research in Belgium. After studying the social, economic and environmental indicators, the results are combined. This leads to several (cautious) conclusions about sustainability on a

  17. Energy efficiency and sustainability of complex biogas systems: A 3-level emergetic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The metabolism of complex biogas system increased from 2000 to 2008. • System renewability has been increased due to biogas utilization. • Electricity, diesels and infrastructure were the most efficient supplies. • All processes were challenged by high transformity and low sustainability. - Abstract: Biogas engineering and the biogas-linked agricultural industries as a whole has been used as both a developmental strategy for rural new emergy and an important part of renewable agriculture revolution in China. In this paper, we proposed a 3-level emergetic evaluation framework to investigate the energy efficiency and sustainability of a complex biogas system (CBS) in South China, comprising agro-industries such as planting, aquaculture, breeding and biogas. The framework is capable of tracking dynamical behaviors of the whole complex system (Level I), transformation processes (Level II) and resource components (Level III) simultaneously. Two new indicators, emergy contribution rate (ECR) and emergy supply efficiency (ESE) were developed to address the contribution and efficiency of resource components within each agro-industrial process. Our findings suggested the metabolism of the CBS were increased from 2000 to 2008, in which planting production was the biggest process in terms of total emergy input, while breeding was the most productive one with its highest total emergy yield. The CBS was under an industry transaction process stimulated by biogas construction, while the traditional agricultural activities still play an important role. For economic input, a trend towards a more renewable regime was found behind the total increase over time. With different preferences for renewable or non-renewable resources, planting and aquaculture production were proved natural donation-reliant, while breeding and biogas were economic input-dependent. Among all the economic inputs, electricity, diesels and infrastructure were the most efficient components

  18. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason, E-mail: jp1@tiscali.co.uk

    2016-01-15

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  19. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  20. Why Organization May Be the Primary Limitation to Implementing Sustainability at the Local Level: Examples from Swedish Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the effort to address environmental issues at the local level has focused on defining principles and aims rather than addressing the operational difficulties of implementation. Drawing upon insights from sustainability scholarship, this study reviews two cases: the development of a Swedish standard for implementing sustainable development at municipality, county council, and regional levels, and attempts by a small rural municipality to establish a process towards implementing the Aalborg Commitments. The research illustrates the specific organizational and managerial complexity of these case study experiences. It concludes that an organizational focus on integration and mainstreaming deserves particular attention to achieve broader sustainability, or related environmental or adaptation goals. The results, in particular, highlight the role that integrated management systems can play for sustainability work at the local level.

  1. Identification of Appropriate Biodiversity Indicators for Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management at National Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolunay, A.; Akyol, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management (SFM) practices have started in 1999 in Turkey. A set of criteria and indicators, composed by the General Directorate of Forestry (GDF) on the basis of the criteria and indicators defined in the Pan-European and Near Eastern Processes, was enquired via a survey to serve this purpose. GDF tested the sustainability under the following titles: Situation of forest resources, biodiversity, health and vitality, production capacity and functions, protective functions and environmental and socio-economic functions. There were problems in identification and definition of SFM criteria and indicators. Biological diversity indicators has been selected, described and developed in this study. At this phase, the survey was completed upon receiving the views of the scientists interested in different dimensions of this topic as well as the views of other interest groups affiliated with forestry. As a result, there were 13 indicators that may be used as the basis of a regional or forest management unit level for the purpose of protecting, developing and maintaining biodiversity. Furthermore, these indicators are instruments, which may easily be used by relevant decision-makers in the management of forest resources in a more effective and productive manner. (author)

  2. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  3. PEG 3350 Administration Is Not Associated with Sustained Elevation of Glycol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kent C; Rogers, Lynette K; Hill, Ivor; Barnard, John; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether trace amounts of ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), or triethylene glycol (TEG) in PEG 3350 are associated with increased blood levels of EG, DEG, or TEG in children receiving daily PEG 3350 therapy. Blood samples were drawn from 9 children who were being treated for constipation with PEG 3350 (6-12 years old) before and every 30 minutes for 3 hours after receiving 17 g of PEG 3350. PEG 3350, tap water, and blood samples from 18 age- and sex-matched controls also were analyzed. Baseline blood levels of EG and TEG did not differ between control and treated groups. DEG levels (median [IQR]) were lower in the PEG 3350 group (40.13 ng/mL [36.69, 63.94] vs 92.83 ng/mL [51.06, 128.93], P = .008). After PEG 3350 dose, levels of EG (390.51 ng/mL [326.06, 624.55]) and TEG (2.21 ng/mL [0, 4.5]) peaked at 90 minutes at 1032.81 ng/mL (826.84, 1486.13) (P = .009) and 35.17 ng/mL (15.81, 45.13) (P = .0005), respectively. DEG levels did not significantly change. Standard 17-g doses of PEG 3350 in 8 oz (237 mL) of water resulted in concentrations (mean ± SD) of EG, DEG, and TEG of 1.32 ± 0.23 µg/mL, 0.18 ± 0.03 µg/mL, and 0.12 ± 0.01 µg/mL, respectively. EG, DEG, and TEG levels in public water supply were 0.07 µg/mL, 0.21 µg/mL, and 0.02 µg/mL, respectively. Daily PEG 3350 therapy in children was not associated with sustained elevation of EG, DEG, or TEG blood levels over levels in matched controls. Although EG and TEG levels increased after a standard dose of PEG 3350, their peak values remained well below toxic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Increased Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Levels Are Independent Predictors of Dyslipidemia in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenekli, Kudret; Oztas, Efser; Kuscu, Elif; Keskin, Uğur; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Tas, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Nafiye

    2017-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) irrespective of age. Our aim was to investigate soluble tumor necrosis factor like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK), a cardiovascular risk marker in PCOS, and to determine if it is associated with dyslipidemia in youth. A prospective-observational study was carried out including 35 PCOS patients and 35 healthy controls. Serum sTWEAK levels were measured using commercially available kits. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then performed to verify the statistically significant differences in the possible predictors of dyslipidemia. Serum sTWEAK levels and the percentage of women with dyslipidemia were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p = 0.024 and p dyslipidemia. The percentage of women with PCOS was significantly higher in the dyslipidemic group when compared with controls; 70.7 vs. 20.7%, respectively (p 693 pg/ml; OR 3.810, 95% CI 1.075-13.501, p = 0.038) were independently associated with dyslipidemia. Increased levels of both sTWEAK and PCOS were found to be independently associated with dyslipidemia in youth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A Systems-Level Approach to Building Sustainable Assessment Cultures: Moderation, Quality Task Design and Dependability of Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Peta; Wyatt-Smith, Claire; Klenowski, Val

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conditions that are necessary at system and local levels for teacher assessment to be valid, reliable and rigorous. With sustainable assessment cultures as a goal, the article examines how education systems can support local-level efforts for quality learning and dependable teacher assessment. This is achieved through…

  6. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  7. Applicability of the Sustainable Structural Design (SSD) method at urban/regional/national level

    OpenAIRE

    CARUSO MARIA CHIARA; LAMPERTI TORNAGHI MARCO; NEGRO PAOLO

    2017-01-01

    The alarming data on world climatic change, resources impoverishment and increasing human diseases caused by environmental pollution has encouraged the modern society to feel committed in reducing the environmental issues and to adopt a sustainable approach to every human activity. Sustainability is an ambitious challenge for Europe development and European policy is addressed in investing massive resources for achieving sustainable goals. Construction is one of the most impactful industr...

  8. The need for an established allocation method when assessing absolute sustainability on a product level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of absolute sustainability within life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is operational on the country scale. However, it is difficult to apply the existing approaches to products, which are typically the scope of LCAs. How should we assess whether a chair is (absolutely) sustainable? I...... allocation keys specific to each product group, e.g. mass for furniture, or economic revenue for IT. The proposed method facilitates assessment of absolute sustainability of products within the LCA framework....

  9. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2016-11-15

    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term. Copyright © 2016

  10. The Bidirectional Causality between Country-Level Governance, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development: A Cross-Country Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Boţa-Avram

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of contemporary society, characterized by the information users’ growing and differentiated needs, the way country-level governance and social responsibility contribute to the ensuring of sustainable economic development is a concern for all the actors of the economic sphere. The aim of this paper is to test the causal linkages between the quality of country-level governance, economic growth and a well-known indicator of economic sustainable development, for a large panel of world-wide countries for a period of 10 years (2006–2015. While there are some prior studies that have argued the bidirectional causality between good public governance and economic development, this study intends to provide a new focus on the relationship between country-level governance and economic growth, on one hand, and between country-level governance and adjusted net savings, as a selected indicator of economic sustainable development, on the other hand. Four hypotheses on the causal relationship between good governance, economic growth and sustainable development were tested by using Granger non-causality tests. Our findings resulting from Granger non-causality tests provide reasonable evidence of Granger causality from country-level governance to economic growth, but from economic growth to country-level governance, the causality is not confirmed. In what regards the relationship between country-level governance and adjusted net savings, the bidirectional Granger causality is not confirmed. The main implication of our study is that improving economic growth and sustainable development is a very challenging issue, and the impact of macro-level factors such as country-level governance should not be neglected.

  11. Reconstructing weak values without weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars M.

    2007-01-01

    I propose a scheme for reconstructing the weak value of an observable without the need for weak measurements. The post-selection in weak measurements is replaced by an initial projector measurement. The observable can be measured using any form of interaction, including projective measurements. The reconstruction is effected by measuring the change in the expectation value of the observable due to the projector measurement. The weak value may take nonclassical values if the projector measurement disturbs the expectation value of the observable

  12. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition but it must

  13. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from

  14. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  15. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harvey-Girard, Erik; Cheer, Joseph F; Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory-motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner.

  16. Mapping Research Activities and Technologies for Sustainability and Environmental Studies--A Case Study at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kurimoto, Shuji; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Umeda, Yasushi; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Systemic understanding of potential research activities and available technology seeds at university level is an essential condition to promote interdisciplinary and vision-driven collaboration in an attempt to cope with complex sustainability and environmental problems. Nonetheless, any such practices have been hardly conducted at universities…

  17. Development of web-based GIS services for sustainable soil resource management at farm level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kolovos, Chronis; Troyanos, Yerasimos; Doula, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Modern farms situated in urban or suburban areas, include various and in most cases diverse land covers. Land uses in such farms may serve residential, structured, aesthetic and agricultural purposes, usually delimited inside the boundaries of a single property. The environmental conditions across a farm, especially if it is situated on an irregular terrain, can be highly differentiated. Managing soil resources in a small scale diverse farm environment in a holistic and sustainable way should have spatial and temporal reference and take advantage of cut-edge geospatial technologies. In present study, an 8 hectare farm with various land uses in the southern suburbs of Attica Prefecture, Greece was systematically monitored regarding its soil, water and plant resources. Almost 80% of the farm's area is covered with trees, shrubs and low vegetation planted in a mosaic of parterres. Farm data collected concerned soil and water physicochemical characteristics, plant species, topographical features, irrigation network, valves and infrastructure. All data were imported and developed in a GIS geodatabase. Furthermore, web GIS services and a mobile GIS app were developed in order to monitor, update and synchronize present status and future changes performed in the farm. Through the web services and using the mobile GIS app, the user has access to all data stored in the geodatabase and according to access rights he can view or edit the spatial entities. The user can easily make query to specific features, combine their properties with other overlaying spatial data and reach accurate decisions. The app can be downloaded and implemented in mobile devices like smartphones and tablets for extending its functionality. As proven in this study, web GIS services and mobile GIS apps constitute an attractive suite of methodologies for effective and user friendly management of natural resources at farm level.

  18. Research on Sustainable Development Level Evaluation of Resource-based Cities Based on Shapely Entropy and Chouqet Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Qu, Weilu; Qiu, Weiting

    2018-03-01

    In order to evaluate sustainable development level of resource-based cities, an evaluation method with Shapely entropy and Choquet integral is proposed. First of all, a systematic index system is constructed, the importance of each attribute is calculated based on the maximum Shapely entropy principle, and then the Choquet integral is introduced to calculate the comprehensive evaluation value of each city from the bottom up, finally apply this method to 10 typical resource-based cities in China. The empirical results show that the evaluation method is scientific and reasonable, which provides theoretical support for the sustainable development path and reform direction of resource-based cities.

  19. Sustained transmission of high-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in England: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifer, Helen; Cole, Michelle; Hughes, Gwenda; Padfield, Simon; Smolarchuk, Christa; Woodford, Neil; Wensley, Adrian; Mustafa, Nazim; Schaefer, Ulf; Myers, Richard; Templeton, Kate; Shepherd, Jill; Underwood, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Between Nov 3, 2014, and Feb 24, 2017, 70 cases of high-level azithromycin-resistant (HL-AziR; minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥256 mg/L) Neisseria gonorrhoeae were reported from across England. Whole-genome sequencing was done to investigate this outbreak to determine whether the ongoing outbreak represented clonal spread of an HL-AziR N gonorrhoeae strain identified in Leeds. We also wanted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of azithromycin resistance in N gonorrhoeae in the UK. In this observational study, whole-genome sequencing was done on the HL-AziR N gonorrhoeae isolates from England. As comparators, 110 isolates from the UK and Ireland with a range of azithromycin MICs were also sequenced, including eight isolates from Scotland with azithromycin MICs ranging from 0·12 mg/L to 1·00 mg/L that were N gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence type 9768 (ST9768), which was the sequence type initially responsible for the outbreak. The presence of mutations or genes associated with azithromycin resistance was also investigated. 37 of the 60 HL-AziR isolates from England belonged to ST9768, and were genetically similar (mean 4·3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms). A 2059A→G mutation was detected in three or all four alleles of the 23S rRNA gene. Five susceptible ST9768 isolates had one mutated 23S rRNA allele and one low-level resistant ST9768 isolate had two mutated alleles. Sustained transmission of a successful HL-AziR clone was seen across England. Mutation 2059A→G was found in isolates with lower azithromycin MICs. Azithromycin exposure might have provided the selection pressure for one or two mutated copies of the 23S rRNA gene to recombine with wild-type copies, leading to three or four mutated copies and the HL-AziR phenotype. HL-AziR could emerge in isolates with low azithromycin MICs and eliminate the effectiveness of azithromycin as part of dual therapy for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Public Health England. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. No difference in the level of physical activity between children who have or have never sustained a fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsborg, P-H; Røtterud, J H

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates whether children with an acute fracture have a different level of physical activity compared to children who have never sustained a fracture, as measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C). The PAQ-C scores of 683 children (295 girls) aged 6-12 years (mean age 9.4 years) who presented to our institution with an acute fracture were compared to the PAQ-C scores of 151 random children (81 girls) aged 6-12 years (mean 9.1 years) in the same area who had never sustained a fracture. Multivariate regression analysis was employed, controlling for age and gender. The mean PAQ-C score of the children who presented to the institution with an acute fracture was 2.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.80-2.91). For the children who had never sustained a fracture, the mean PAQ-C score was 2.78 (95% CI, 2.69-2.87). If there is a true difference in the level of physical activity between children who have or have never sustained a fracture, the PAQ-C questionnaire is not sensitive enough to identify it. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  2. Shared responsibility at the regional level: the building of sustainable industrial estates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Ellis; de Bruijn, Theo

    1999-01-01

    The long felt contrast between economic growth and environmental protection is dissipating in environmental and industrial policy in Europe. Sustainable development has become the leading motive in environmental policy in this regard. In trying to give meaning to this abstract concept, current

  3. Key Concepts of Environmental Sustainability: Knowledge and Confidence Levels of FCS Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Amy J.; Friesen, Carol A.; Thompson, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) is a logical discipline to promote environmental sustainability within the family because it is recognized as helping people make informed decisions about the well-being of individuals and their relationships and resources to achieve optimal quality of life.The objective of this article was to measure the…

  4. Toward a Unified Knowledge-based Society for Sustainability -- Developing a Synthesis on the Methodological Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alec A. Schaerer

    2006-01-01

    The debates on development manifest an increasing concern for sustainability, but as yet little awareness of the hierarchy in the ideas through which humans contribute to the problem. This gap is widened by a widespread but nevertheless unnecessary acceptance of unreasonable elements such as paradoxes, or the general fragmentation in knowledge, or allegedly general...

  5. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  6. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  7. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  8. Application of Environmental Change Efficiency to the Sustainability of Urban Development at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Fu Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new assessment model framework, termed the driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP model, for environmental change efficiency in urban land development, based on urban sustainable development and the theory of economic efficiency evaluation. A spatial and measurable efficiency value is defined for environmental changes in urban land development, which provides a comprehensive evaluation index for the efficiency of urban development and its environmental impact. This type of urban interior sustainability is considered new within the context of global environmental changes. We identify nine important indicators to evaluate the relative efficiency of 233 neighborhoods in Tainan, Taiwan. The results indicate that the average environmental change efficiency is 89.44%, which shows clear spatial differentiation. The key indicators affecting the efficiency score are area, population density, location, mixed land uses, the floor area ratio, and the impervious ratio. In the future, urban design can reduce environmental impacts and enhance efficiency values.

  9. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  10. Identifying and engineering promoters for high level and sustainable therapeutic recombinant protein production in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-08-01

    Promoters are essential on plasmid vectors to initiate transcription of the transgenes when generating therapeutic recombinant proteins expressing mammalian cell lines. High and sustained levels of gene expression are desired during therapeutic protein production while gene expression is useful for cell engineering. As many finely controlled promoters exhibit cell and product specificity, new promoters need to be identified, optimized and carefully evaluated before use. Suitable promoters can be identified using techniques ranging from simple molecular biology methods to modern high-throughput omics screenings. Promoter engineering is often required after identification to either obtain high and sustained expression or to provide a wider range of gene expression. This review discusses some of the available methods to identify and engineer promoters for therapeutic recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

  11. Weakly clopen functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Jung; Park, Jin Han; Lim, Ki Moon

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functions called weakly clopen function which includes the class of almost clopen functions due to Ekici [Ekici E. Generalization of perfectly continuous, regular set-connected and clopen functions. Acta Math Hungar 2005;107:193-206] and is included in the class of weakly continuous functions due to Levine [Levine N. A decomposition of continuity in topological spaces. Am Math Mon 1961;68:44-6]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning weakly clopenness are obtained. Furthermore, relationships among weak clopenness, almost clopenness, clopenness and weak continuity are investigated

  12. Weak value controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  13. BDNF and cortisol levels in children with or without post-traumatic stress disorder after sustaining sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Seref; Uysal, Cem; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Yuksel, Tugba; Aktas, Huseyin

    2015-06-01

    There are studies reporting that cortisol and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) play a role in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, up-to-date no study evaluated the relationship between PTSD and the levels of cortisol and BDNF in children and adolescents who have sustained trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF, cortisol and adrenocorticotropine (ACTH) levels differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. The study included 55 children aged between 6 and 17 years who sustained sexual assault (M/F: 13/42). The patients were divided into two groups, with or without PTSD based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA). Of the participants, 49% (n=27) were diagnosed with PTSD. Cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels were evaluated using the ELISA method. There were no significant differences between patients with or without PTSD in terms of cortisol, ACTH, BDNF levels. There were no correlations between CAPS-CA scores and cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels in patients with or without PTSD. In patients with PTSD, decreased cortisol levels were found with increasing time after trauma, and no significant correlation was found with the cortisol levels in patients without PTSD. Although no significant association was found between biochemical parameters and the presence or severity of PTSD; decreasing cortisol levels with increasing time after trauma in patients with PTSD suggest that cortisol might have played a role in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustaining anti-littering behavior within coastal and marine environments: Through the macro-micro level lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeharry, Yashna Devi; Bekaroo, Girish; Bokhoree, Chandradeo; Phillips, Michael Robert; Jory, Neelakshi

    2017-06-30

    Being regarded as a problem of global dimensions, marine litter has been a growing concern that affects human beings, wildlife and the economic health of coastal communities to varying degrees. Due to its involvement with human behavior, marine littering has been regarded as a cultural matter encompassing macro and micro level aspects. At the micro or individual level, behavior and behavioral motivation of an individual are driven by perception of that person while at the macro or societal level, aspects including policies and legislations influence behavior. This paper investigates marine littering through the macro-micro level lenses in order to analyze and recommend how anti-littering behavior can be improved and sustained. Using Coleman's model of micro-macro relations, research questions are formulated and investigated through a social survey. Results showed important differences in perceptions among participating groups and to address key issues, potential actions are proposed along with a framework to sustain anti-littering behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Memorandum on sustainable reinforcement of prevention and health promotion: challenges at the federal, state and local level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Pawils, S; Robra, B-P; Trojan, A; Franz, M; Grossmann, B; Schmidt, T-A; Lehmann, H; Bauer, U; Göpel, E; Janz, A; Kuhn, J; Naegele, G; Müller-Kohlenberg, H; Plaumann, M; Stender, K-P; Stolzenberg, R; Süß, W; Trenker, M; Wanek, V; Wildner, M

    2015-05-01

    Research-based evidence and practice-based experience are core requirements for the effective implementation of preventive interventions. The knowledge gained in the Prevention Research Funding Initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (2004-2013) was therefore amalgamated, reflected and consolidated in the Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research (KNP) meta-project. In annual strategy meetings, researchers and practitioners from the field and other experts developed 3 memoranda providing recommendations for the further development of research and practice in the field of prevention and health promotion. Memorandum III is primarily aimed at decision-makers in politics and administration at the federal, state and local level, in civil society and in the workplace. Its recommendations show that structuring efforts are urgently needed to achieve sustainable policy, particularly in the fields of health, education, employment and social affairs. Memorandum III brings together the knowledge extracted and problems identified in research projects. More so than its 2 predecessors, Memorandum III abstracts knowledge from the individual projects and attempts to derive guidance for action and decision-making, as shown by the 7 recommendations that appear to useful for consensus-building in practice and research. Value judgments are inevitable. Prevention and health promotion are an investment in the future: of social health, social capital and social peace. Improvement of the framework conditions is needed to achieve the harmonized awareness and the sustained effectiveness of these structure-building efforts in different policy areas, spheres of life, fields of action, and groups of actors. This includes the implementation of an overall national strategy as well as the expansion of sources of funding, extension of the legal framework, overarching coordination, and the establishment of a National Center of Excellence to develop and safeguard

  16. Stress-restress evokes sustained iNOS activity and altered GABA levels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Brand, Linda

    2004-01-01

    . The NOS isoform involved, and the role of stress-mediated corticosterone release in NOS activation, was verified with the administration of selective iNOS and nNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg/day i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (12.5 mg/kg/day i.p.), and the steroid synthesis inhibitor, ketoconazole...... (24 mg/kg/day i.p.), administered for 21 days prior to and during the stress procedure. RESULTS: Stress evoked a sustained increase in NOS activity, but reduced NMDA receptor density and total GABA levels. Aminoguanidine or ketoconazole, but not 7-nitroindazole or saline, blocked stress-induced NOS...

  17. Modeling Performance in C4ISR Sustained Operations: A Multi-Level Approach (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Christopher; Miller, James C; Elliott, Linda; Coovert, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This briefing discusses methodology and preliminary findings focused on the application of multi-level modeling techniques to distinguish effects of sleep loss and task demands on individual and team...

  18. Modeling Performance in C4ISR Sustained Operations: A Mulit-level Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Linda R; Coovert, Michael D; VBarnes, Christopher; Miller, James C

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report methodology and preliminary findings focused on the application of multi-level modeling techniques to distinguish effects of sleep loss and task demands on individual and team...

  19. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: a focus on sustainability and green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, G Christopher; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    This research has met the following four objectives within the broader research topic of characterizing and quantifying success in brownfield revitalization: (1) to define 40 total indicators that define and determine the success of brownfield redevelopments in four categories: environment-health, finance, livability, and social-economic; (2) to use these indicators to develop a partially automated tool that stakeholders in brownfield redevelopment may use to more easily assess and communicate success (or failures) in these projects; (3) to integrate "green" building as an important aspect of successful brownfield redevelopments; and (4) to develop this tool within the framework of a specific multi-attribute decision method (MADM), the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Future research should include the operationalization and application of this tool to specific sites. Currently, no such indicator framework or automated tool is known to exist or be in use. Indicators were chosen because of their ability to reduce data into comprehensible measurements and to systematically measure success in a standardized fashion. Appropriate indicators were selected based on (1) interviews with prominent private developers and national leaders in brownfield redevelopment, (2) a review of the relevant literature, (3) objective hierarchies created in this project, and (4) the ability for each indicator to serve goals in more than one of the four categories described above. These were combined to form the Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment (SBR) Tool. A survey was conducted to serve as a preliminary assessment and proposed methodology for judging the validity of the SBR Tool. Professionals in the academic, private, and public sector were asked to provide an evaluation of the management tool and a weighting of the relative importance of each indicator and each of the four categories listed previously. Experts rated the tool at 7.68 out of 10 suggesting that this framework will

  20. Weak transitions in 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Marques, A.

    1972-01-01

    Energy levels and gamma radiation transitions of Ca 44 are experimentally determined, mainly the weak transition at 564 KeV and 728 KeV. The decay scheme and the method used (coincidence with Ge-Li detector) are also presented [pt

  1. Sustainability in coastal tourism development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Marie Visbech; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Liburd, Janne J.

    2018-01-01

    explicitly requested nominations for sustainable tourism projects. A comparison between academic sustainability discourse and the approved projects suggests that tourism actors do not address sustainable tourism development as a holistic concept. Long-term perspectives are largely absent, whereas economic...... benefits are emphasized. Key findings also indicate weak political leadership in the envisaged transfer towards sustainable tourism development....

  2. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara T; Throop, Meryia D; Raju, Dheeraj; Murphy, Deborah A; Loan, Lori A; Patrician, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of a dynamic educational and mentoring program, facilitated by unit-level mentors, to introduce, promote, and sustain an evidence-based practice (EBP) culture among nurses in a military healthcare setting. The need to identify gaps in practice, apply principles of EBP, and advance scientific applications in the pursuit of quality nursing care is as important to military healthcare as it is in the civilian sector. The Advancing Research through Close Collaboration Model guided the intervention and study. Three instruments were used: the Organizational Readiness for System-wide Integration of Evidence-Based Practice, EBP Beliefs, and EBP Implementation scales. The study took place in 3 military hospitals simultaneously undergoing facility and staff integration. Data were collected from staff nurses in the inpatient nursing units before and after a facilitated education and mentoring intervention. Three hundred sixty nurses (38%) completed baseline, and 325 (31%) completed follow-up surveys. Scores improved on all 3 measures following implementation of the program; however, the differences were statistically significant only for the Organizational Readiness for System-wide Integration of Evidence-Based Practice scale (70.96 vs 77.63, t = -3.95, P culture may diffuse among individuals in an organization, even while experiencing significant change. It also demonstrates that a unit-level mentored EBP program is sustainable despite changes in organizational structure and workforce composition.

  3. The role of social message using norm abstraction level and ecological value orientation to achieve sustainable consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekasari, A.

    2018-01-01

    Pro-environmental behavior is one of human activities to achieve sustainability. In order to encourage people to do so, it needs contribution from marketing discipline using social message. The research aims to investigate the effect of social message framed by norm abstraction level and ecological value orientation on attitude and intention to act pro-environmental behavior in the context of littering. This study implemented a 3 (message framing: biospheric/altruistic/egoistic) × 2 (norm abstraction level : abstract/concrete) between subject experimental design to collect the data. An independent sample t test was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that a social message using concrete norm combined with the three ecological value orientation gains more positive response than the use of abstract norm with the same ecological value orientations. Findings of the research are expected to help government or other institutions to create an appropriate social message in anti littering campaign and motivates people to change their behavior in practicing sustainable consumption.

  4. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  5. Activity Sets in Multi-Organizational Ecologies : A Project-Level Perspective on Sustainable Energy Innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrit Willem Ziggers; Kristina Manser; Bas Hillebrand; Paul Driessen; Josée Bloemer

    2014-01-01

    Complex innovations involve multi-organizational ecologies consisting of a myriad of different actors. This study investigates how innovation activities can be interpreted in the context of multi-organizational ecologies. Taking a project-level perspective, this study proposes a typology of four

  6. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  7. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  8. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  9. A mixed-methods study of system-level sustainability of evidence-based practices in 12 large-scale implementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Ashley T; Taber-Thomas, Sarah M; Schaffner, Kristen; Pemberton, Joy R; Hunter, Leah; Herschell, Amy D

    2017-12-07

    In recent decades, evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been broadly promoted in community behavioural health systems in the United States of America, yet reported EBP penetration rates remain low. Determining how to systematically sustain EBPs in complex, multi-level service systems has important implications for public health. This study examined factors impacting the sustainability of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in large-scale initiatives in order to identify potential predictors of sustainment. A mixed-methods approach to data collection was used. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys examining sustainability processes and outcomes were completed by participants from 12 large-scale initiatives. Sustainment strategies fell into nine categories, including infrastructure, training, marketing, integration and building partnerships. Strategies involving integration of PCIT into existing practices and quality monitoring predicted sustainment, while financing also emerged as a key factor. The reported factors and strategies impacting sustainability varied across initiatives; however, integration into existing practices, monitoring quality and financing appear central to high levels of sustainability of PCIT in community-based systems. More detailed examination of the progression of specific activities related to these strategies may aide in identifying priorities to include in strategic planning of future large-scale initiatives. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02543359 ; Protocol number PRO12060529.

  10. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  11. Sustained levels of FGF2 maintain undifferentiated stem cell cultures with biweekly feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lotz

    Full Text Available An essential aspect of stem cell culture is the successful maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Many types of stem cells are FGF2 dependent, and pluripotent stem cells are maintained by replacing FGF2-containing media daily, while tissue-specific stem cells are typically fed every 3rd day. Frequent feeding, however, results in significant variation in growth factor levels due to FGF2 instability, which limits effective maintenance due to spontaneous differentiation. We report that stabilization of FGF2 levels using controlled release PLGA microspheres improves expression of stem cell markers, increases stem cell numbers and decreases spontaneous differentiation. The controlled release FGF2 additive reduces the frequency of media changes needed to maintain stem cell cultures, so that human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be maintained successfully with biweekly feedings.

  12. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-12-16

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100.

  13. Essential levels of health information in Europe: an action plan for a coherent and sustainable infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    The European Union needs a common health information infrastructure to support policy and governance on a routine basis. A stream of initiatives conducted in Europe during the last decade resulted into several success stories, but did not specify a unified framework that could be broadly implemented on a continental level. The recent debate raised a potential controversy on the different roles and responsibilities of policy makers vs the public health community in the construction of such a pan-European health information system. While institutional bodies shall clarify the statutory conditions under which such an endeavour is to be carried out, researchers should define a common framework for optimal cross-border information exchange. This paper conceptualizes a general solution emerging from past experiences, introducing a governance structure and overarching framework that can be realized through four main action lines, underpinned by the key principle of "Essential Levels of Health Information" for Europe. The proposed information model is amenable to be applied in a consistent manner at both national and EU level. If realized, the four action lines outlined here will allow developing a EU health information infrastructure that would effectively integrate best practices emerging from EU public health initiatives, including projects and joint actions carried out during the last ten years. The proposed approach adds new content to the ongoing debate on the future activity of the European Commission in the area of health information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of opinion about nuclear energy and sustainability in a graduate level population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza L, C.D.; Arredondo S, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Mexican society has a modest knowledge of the nuclear energy, even at the participant students of superior education level in this survey is finds a scarce compression with regard to their obtaining, use and manage. As a result of the lack of interest of the same society and at the problems that know each other like they are: the pollutants that it produces those nuclear waste and the possible use or warlike end, a fear is believed about this energy type. In the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics there is the possibility to make studies so much at master degree level in the one fear of the nuclear energy and the applications of the same one in peaceful uses. However, particularly the studies at master level seem to be immersed in a crisis that requires of different supports to be resolved. For all it previous was thought in carrying out a survey inside a student population with superior level to know the opinion and the knowledge on the nuclear energy in Mexico. In this work the results of the survey are analyzed with the purpose of to determine which is the knowledge of the community mentioned regarding the other energy types, the impact that they have these in the environment, the sustenance of the same ones and in particular on knowledge about the nuclear energy considering the aspects before mentioned. With base had said analysis settles down that the interviewed community knows very little about the nuclear energy but they show interest to study and to obtain bigger information about the same one, for what is very important to diffuse but and better information on the nuclear energy to the population's strata, because it is of supposing that the rest of the population has erroneous information on the nuclear energy. In particular for the community of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics the diffusion of all the benefits of the peaceful applications of the nuclear energy, including the capacity to generate enormous quantities and energy

  15. Changes in decibel scale wavelength properties of EEG with alertness levels while performing sustained attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Loss of alertness can have dire consequences for people controlling motorized equipment or for people in professions such as defense. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is known to be related to alertness of the person, but due to high level of noise and low signal strength, the use of EEG for such applications has been considered to be unreliable. This study reports the fractal analysis of EEG and identifies the use of maximum fractal length (MFL) as a feature that is inversely correlated with the alertness of the subject. The results show that MFL (of only single channel of EEG) indicates the loss of alertness of the individual with mean (inverse) correlation coefficient = 0.82.

  16. A unit-level perspective on the long-term sustainability of a nursing best practice guidelines program: An embedded multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiszer, Andrea R; Semenic, Sonia E; Ritchie, Judith A; Richer, Marie-Claire; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Best practice guidelines are a tool for narrowing research-to-practice gaps and improving care outcomes. There is some empirical understanding of guideline implementation in nursing settings, yet there has been almost no consideration of the longer-term sustainability of guideline-based practice improvements. Many healthcare innovations are not sustained, underscoring the need for knowledge about how to promote their survival. To understand how a nursing best practice guidelines program was sustained on acute healthcare center nursing units. We undertook a qualitative descriptive case study of an organization-wide nursing best practice guidelines program with four embedded nursing unit subcases. The setting was a large, tertiary/quaternary urban health center in Canada. The nursing department initiated a program to enhance patient safety through the implementation of three guidelines: falls prevention, pressure ulcer prevention, and pain management. We selected four inpatient unit subcases that had differing levels of program sustainability at an average of almost seven years post initial program implementation. Data sources included 39 key informant interviews with nursing leaders/administrators and frontline nurses; site visits; and program-related documents. Data collection and content analysis were guided by a framework for the sustainability of healthcare innovations. Program sustainability was characterized by three elements: benefits, routinization, and development. Seven key factors most accounted for the differences in the level of program sustainability between subcases. These factors were: perceptions of advantages, collaboration, accountability, staffing, linked levels of leadership, attributes of formal unit leadership, and leaders' use of sustainability activities. Some prominent relationships between characteristics and factors explained long-term program sustainability. Of primary importance was the extent to which unit leaders used sustainability

  17. Institutions for sustainable forest governance: Robustness, equity, and cross-level interactions in Mawlyngbna, Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Oberlack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts Ostrom’s Social-Ecological Systems (SES framework in empirical fieldwork to explain how local forestry institutions affect forest ecosystems and social equity in the community of Mawlyngbna in North-East India. Data was collected through 26 semi-structured interviews, participatory timeline development, policy documents, direct observation, periodicals, transect walks, and a concurrent forest-ecological study in the village. Results show that Mawlyngbna's forests provide important sources of livelihood benefits for the villagers. However, ecological disturbance and diversity varies among the different forest ownership types and forest-based livelihood benefits are inequitably distributed. Based on a bounded rationality approach, our analysis proposes a set of causal mechanisms that trace these observed social-ecological outcomes to the attributes of the resource system, resource units, actors and governance system. We analyse opportunities and constraints of interactions between the village, regional, and state levels. We discuss how Ostrom’s design principles for community-based resource governance inform the explanation of robustness but have a blind spot in explaining social equity. We report experiences made using the SES framework in empirical fieldwork. We conclude that mapping cross-level interactions in the SES framework needs conceptual refinement and that explaining social equity of forest governance needs theoretical advances.

  18. Vitamin D levels appear to be normal in Danish patients attending secondary care for low back pain and a weak positive correlation between serum level Vitamin D and Modic changes was demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jannick Vaaben; Manniche, Claus; Kjær, Per

    2013-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D has previously been reported in both the general population, in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain, and in people with low back pain (LBP). Myopathy-related symptoms such as diffuse bone and muscle pain, weakness and paresthesia in the legs, have also been observed in people...

  19. Electro-weak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    By electro-weak theory is meant the unified field theory that describes both weak and electro-magnetic interactions. The development of a unified electro-weak theory is certainly the most dramatic achievement in theoretical physics to occur in the second half of this century. It puts weak interactions on the same sound theoretical footing as quantum elecrodynamics. Many theorists have contributed to this development, which culminated in the works of Glashow, Weinberg and Salam, who were jointly awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Some of the important ideas that contributed to this development are the theory of beta decay formulated by Fermi, Parity violation suggested by Lee and Yang, and incorporated into immensely successful V-A theory of weak interactions by Sudarshan and Marshak. At the same time ideas of gauge invariance were applied to weak interaction by Schwinger, Bludman and Glashow. Weinberg and Salam then went one step further and wrote a theory that is renormalizable, i.e., all higher order corrections are finite, no mean feat for a quantum field theory. The theory had to await the development of the quark model of hadrons for its completion. A description of the electro-weak theory is given

  20. Maintenance Free and Sustainable High-Level Control in Cement and Mining Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Fink

    2009-01-01

    High-level control systems have been utilized in the process industry for decades, and also in cement production their use is well established. In comparison to manual control their ability to increase production and quality of end product, while reducing energy consumption and emission, is well...... but nevertheless still require maintenance. For the 10% of the algorithm that is control related, the maintenance issue is to some extent addressed by research topics such as adaptive control, which aim at retuning the parameters of the algorithm to match the changing process. In this project however, it has been...... chosen to focus on the remaining 90% of the algorithm which still require manual modifications to cope with a changed process. Although this issue has gained limited attention from academia so far it is well recognized by the industry. In the process of maintaining an algorithm it has turned out...

  1. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  2. An impact assessment of sustainable technologies for the Chinese urban residential sector at provincial level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Yuko; Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Recently, energy use in the urban residential sector of China has drastically increased due to higher incomes and urbanization. The fossil fuels dominant energy supply has since worsened the air quality, especially in urban areas. In this study we estimate the future energy service demands in Chinese urban residential areas, and then use an AIM/Enduse model to evaluate the emission reduction potential of CO2, SO2, NOx and PM. Considering the climate diversity and its impact on household energy service demands, our analysis is down-scaled to the provincial-level. The results show that in most of the regions, penetration of efficient technologies will bring CO2 emission reductions of over 20% compared to the baseline by the year 2030. Deployment of energy efficient technologies also co-benefits GHG emission reduction. However, efficient technology selection appears to differ across provinces due to climatic variation and economic disparity. For instance, geothermal heating technology is effective for the cold Northern areas while biomass technology contributes to emission reduction the most in the warm Southern areas.

  3. Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Simone; Ciobanu, Marcel; Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; Vogel, Anja; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-07-01

    The magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events are predicted to increase in the future due to ongoing climate change. In particular, floods and droughts resulting from climate change are thought to alter the ecosystem functions and stability. However, knowledge of the effects of these weather events on soil fauna is scarce, although they are key towards functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Plant species richness has been shown to affect the stability of ecosystem functions and food webs. Here, we used the occurrence of a natural flood in a biodiversity grassland experiment that was followed by a simulated summer drought experiment, to investigate the interactive effects of plant species richness, a natural flood, and a subsequent summer drought on nematode communities. Three and five months after the natural flooding, effects of flooding severity were still detectable in the belowground system. We found that flooding severity decreased soil nematode food-web structure (loss of K-strategists) and the abundance of plant feeding nematodes. However, high plant species richness maintained higher diversity and abundance of higher trophic levels compared to monocultures throughout the flood. The subsequent summer drought seemed to be of lower importance but reversed negative flooding effects in some cases. This probably occurred because the studied grassland system is well adapted to drought, or because drought conditions alleviated the negative impact of long-term soil waterlogging. Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.

  4. Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Jutfelt

    Full Text Available As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

  5. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  6. Hunting the weak bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).

  7. Seagrass Herbivory Levels Sustain Site-Fidelity in a Remnant Dugong Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrika D'Souza

    Full Text Available Herds of dugong, a largely tropical marine megaherbivore, are known to undertake long-distance movements, sequentially overgrazing seagrass meadows in their path. Given their drastic declines in many regions, it is unclear whether at lower densities, their grazing is less intense, reducing their need to travel between meadows. We studied the effect of the feeding behaviour of a small dugong population in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India to understand how small isolated populations graze seagrasses. In the seven years of our observation, all recorded dugongs travelled either solitarily or in pairs, and their use of seagrasses was limited to 8 meadows, some of which were persistently grazed. These meadows were relatively large, contiguous and dominated by short-lived seagrasses species. Dugongs consumed approximately 15% of meadow primary production, but there was a large variation (3-40% of total meadow production in consumption patterns between meadows. The impact of herbivory was relatively high, with shoot densities c. 50% higher inside herbivore exclosures than in areas exposed to repeated grazing. Our results indicate that dugongs in the study area repeatedly graze the same meadows probably because the proportion of primary production consumed reduces shoot density to levels that are still above values that can trigger meadow abandonment. This ability of seagrasses to cope perhaps explains the long-term site fidelity shown by individual dugongs in these meadows. The fact that seagrass meadows in the archipelago are able to support dugong foraging requirements allows us to clearly identify locations where this remnant population persists, and where urgent management efforts can be directed.

  8. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  9. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  10. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-02-22

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids.

  12. But you should be the specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners.Reduced performance level in aviation security with no gender effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Kathinka Krüger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.

  13. You Should Be the Specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners - Reduced Performance Level in Aviation Security with No Gender Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jenny K; Suchan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.

  14. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  15. Sustained Submicromolar H2O2 Levels Induce Hepcidin via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millonig, Gunda; Ganzleben, Ingo; Peccerella, Teresa; Casanovas, Guillem; Brodziak-Jarosz, Lidia; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Dick, Tobias P.; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mueller, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin regulates mammalian iron homeostasis by blocking ferroportin-mediated iron export from macrophages and the duodenum. During inflammation, hepcidin is strongly induced by interleukin 6, eventually leading to the anemia of chronic disease. Here we show that hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes strongly up-regulate hepcidin when exposed to low concentrations of H2O2 (0.3–6 μm), concentrations that are comparable with levels of H2O2 released by inflammatory cells. In contrast, bolus treatment of H2O2 has no effect at low concentrations and even suppresses hepcidin at concentrations of >50 μm. H2O2 treatment synergistically stimulates hepcidin promoter activity in combination with recombinant interleukin-6 or bone morphogenetic protein-6 and in a manner that requires a functional STAT3-responsive element. The H2O2-mediated hepcidin induction requires STAT3 phosphorylation and is effectively blocked by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing, overexpression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3), and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is required for H2O2 responsiveness, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for adequate basal signaling, whereas Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is dispensable upstream of STAT3. Importantly, hepcidin levels are also increased by intracellular H2O2 released from the respiratory chain in the presence of rotenone or antimycin A. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of hepcidin regulation by nanomolar levels of sustained H2O2. Thus, similar to cytokines, H2O2 provides an important regulatory link between inflammation and iron metabolism. PMID:22932892

  16. Deliverable No. D4.7: Database on farm-level production and sutainability indices assessing sustainable diets

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, A.; Götz, Christian; Leip, A.; Zanten, van, H.H.E.; Hornborg, Sara; Ziegler, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that SUSFANS metrics for assessing the environmental sustainability of the European food system can be effectively produced and applied to assess policy measures and potential innovations that aim at achieving sustainable food and nutrition security in the European Union. The analysis points at important issues that need to be taken into account for the further development and application of metrics.

  17. Deliverable No. D4.7: Database on farm-level production and sutainability indices assessing sustainable diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, A.; Götz, Christian; Leip, A.; Zanten, van H.H.E.; Hornborg, Sara; Ziegler, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that SUSFANS metrics for assessing the environmental sustainability of the European food system can be effectively produced and applied to assess policy measures and potential innovations that aim at achieving sustainable food and nutrition security in the European Union. The

  18. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  19. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  20. Cardiovascular Diseases on the Global Agenda: The United Nations High Level Meeting, Sustainable Development Goals, and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Johanna; Reddy, K Srinath; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the United Nations (UN) organized the first ever meeting for heads of state to discuss the problem of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus. Recognizing that these had emerged as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, including in many low- and middle-income countries, advocates from government and civil society had called for increased attention and a UN response. Earlier, NCD including CVD were absent from the global health agenda in part because of their omission from the Millennium Development Goals. The UN meeting and the global advocacy response offered a game-changing opportunity to redress this omission. The World Heart Federation (WHF) played an instrumental role in the UN meeting and follow up, including inclusion of CVD in the Sustainable Development Goals. The next phase of the global CVD movement is expected through national action, including CVD roadmaps and partnering with the World Health Organization. The WHF is heavily committed to these goals and the other nongovernmental organizations invested in the mission must help take this historical mandate forward. Instrumental to this will be the engagement of people affected by or at risk of developing CVD, to draw more attention and resources to NCD and to ensure that successes to date in global policy translate into action at the national level. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Challenges and dreams: physics of weak interactions essential to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Peter; Gierasch, Lila M

    2014-11-05

    Biological systems display stunning capacities to self-organize. Moreover, their subcellular architectures are dynamic and responsive to changing needs and conditions. Key to these properties are manifold weak "quinary" interactions that have evolved to create specific spatial networks of macromolecules. These specific arrangements of molecules enable signals to be propagated over distances much greater than molecular dimensions, create phase separations that define functional regions in cells, and amplify cellular responses to changes in their environments. A major challenge is to develop biochemical tools and physical models to describe the panoply of weak interactions operating in cells. We also need better approaches to measure the biases in the spatial distributions of cellular macromolecules that result from the integrated action of multiple weak interactions. Partnerships between cell biologists, biochemists, and physicists are required to deploy these methods. Together these approaches will help us realize the dream of understanding the biological "glue" that sustains life at a molecular and cellular level. © 2014 Chien and Gierasch. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Introduction to weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    An account is first given of the electromagnetic interactions of complex, scalar, vector and spinor fields. It is shown that the electromagnetic field may be considered as a gauge field. Yang-Mills fields and the field theory invariant with respect to the non-Abelian gauge transformation group are then described. The construction, owing to this invariance principle, of conserved isospin currents associated with gauge fields is also demonstrated. This is followed by a historical survey of the development of the weak interaction theory, established at first to describe beta disintegration processes by analogy with electrodynamics. The various stages are mentioned from the discovery of principles and rules and violation of principles, such as those of invariance with respect to spatial reflection and charge conjugation to the formulation of the effective current-current Lagrangian and research on the structure of weak currents [fr

  3. The Problem of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries--Direct and Indirect Causes and Recommendations for Reducing It to a Sustainable Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, Cathy H.; Goode, Pamela M.

    1992-01-01

    Presents direct and indirect causes of erosion in developing countries. Identifies soil conservation developments ranging from major international policy reforms to small-scale, local farming programs. Suggests that strategies at all levels, and the political will to implement them, are needed if erosion is to be reduced to a sustainable rate. (23…

  4. The EU's agenda 2000 reformand the sustainability of organic farming in Tuscany: ecological-econmic modelling at field and farm level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Omodei-Zorini, L.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability has become a central issue in the agricultural sector, both for researchers, producers and policy-makers. The two main objectives of this paper are: (1) to present an holistically designed ecological-economic model to evaluate farm and field-level environmental-economic tradeoffs with

  5. Weak states and security

    OpenAIRE

    Rakipi, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Although the weak 1 failing states have often been deseribed as the single most important problem for the international order s ince the en d of Cold W ar (F .Fukuyaına 2004:92) several dimensions of this phenomenon still remain unexplored. While this phenomenon has been present in the international politics even earlier, only the post Cold W ar period accentuated its relationship with security issues. Following the Cold W ar' s "peacef...

  6. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  7. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  8. Weak Disposability in Nonparametric Production Analysis with Undesirable Outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group at Wageningen University in The Netherlands Weak disposability of outputs means that firms can abate harmful emissions by decreasing the activity level. Modeling weak disposability in nonparametric production analysis has caused some confusion.

  9. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2005-07-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

  10. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level of market...... managers' mindsets, a framework addressing sustainability from four organisational learning schools was designed and followed......How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...

  11. Food Safety and Sustainability ‒ An Exploratory Approach at the Level of the Romanian Wine Production Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Epuran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying and analyzing opinions referring to the necessity, opportunity and efficiency of the implementation of the strategies and sustainable development practices in the wine industry as food safety is considered a component of sustainability. The main objective of the paper is to create a clear picture of the existing willingness of companies to adopt marketing strategies that should contribute to increasing food security by increasing the quality of wine and which should be based on the principles of sustainability. In this sense, the authors conducted some qualitative marketing research in which 15 managers from wine producing companies from Romania's wine-growing areas were interviewed. The research highlights the relationship between responsible consumption, food safety and sustainability, and the authors believe that such an association is relevant to the economic and social context of the European Union and other parts of the world. The novelty of this research refers to the analysis of the relationship between the responsible wine consumption and sustainability, to the identification of the opinions of the wine companies managers regarding the benefits and the limits of M2M and IoT technologies, to the emphasis of the marketing strategies and techniques considered innovative in the field of viticulture, as well as to the association of the concept of food safety by wine consumption to the aspects related to education and culture.

  12. Hypernuclear weak decay puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, C.; Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Krmpotic, F.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Tadic, D.

    2002-01-01

    A general shell model formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay of the hypernuclei has been developed. It involves a partial wave expansion of the emitted nucleon waves, preserves naturally the antisymmetrization between the escaping particles and the residual core, and contains as a particular case the weak Λ-core coupling formalism. The extreme particle-hole model and the quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff approximation are explicitly worked out. It is shown that the nuclear structure manifests itself basically through the Pauli principle, and a very simple expression is derived for the neutron- and proton-induced decays rates Γ n and Γ p , which does not involve the spectroscopic factors. We use the standard strangeness-changing weak ΛN→NN transition potential which comprises the exchange of the complete pseudoscalar and vector meson octets (π,η,K,ρ,ω,K * ), taking into account some important parity-violating transition operators that are systematically omitted in the literature. The interplay between different mesons in the decay of Λ 12 C is carefully analyzed. With the commonly used parametrization in the one-meson-exchange model (OMEM), the calculated rate Γ NM =Γ n +Γ p is of the order of the free Λ decay rate Γ 0 (Γ NM th congruent with Γ 0 ) and is consistent with experiments. Yet the measurements of Γ n/p =Γ n /Γ p and of Γ p are not well accounted for by the theory (Γ n/p th p th > or approx. 0.60Γ 0 ). It is suggested that, unless additional degrees of freedom are incorporated, the OMEM parameters should be radically modified

  13. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  14. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  15. Weak interaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarbaker, E.

    1995-01-01

    I review available techniques for extraction of weak interaction rates in nuclei. The case for using hadron charge exchange reactions to estimate such rates is presented and contrasted with alternate methods. Limitations of the (p,n) reaction as a probe of Gamow-Teller strength are considered. Review of recent comparisons between beta-decay studies and (p,n) is made, leading to cautious optimism regarding the final usefulness of (p,n)- derived GT strengths to the field of astrophysics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  17. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  18. Different levels of stakeholder participation for sustainability Impact Assessment Tools - A comparative requirement analysis of four research approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieber, S.; Konig, H.; Bezlepkina, I.; Reidsma, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a wide range of new modeling approaches has been developed for sustainability impact assessment. They are often based on theoretical concepts on how to cope, process and apply pre-assessments on policy and project instrument-implementation. Experiences show that few models

  19. Analyzing the Environmental Impacts of Laptop Enclosures Using Screening-Level Life Cycle Assessment to Support Sustainable Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing amount of consumer electronics in service, it is essential industries and policy-makers work together to develop ways to manufacture more environmentally sustainable IT products which meet the needs of society. The objective of this study was to better un...

  20. The Impact of a Values-Based Supply Chain (VBSC on Farm-Level Viability, Sustainability and Resilience: Case Study Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Hooks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Agriculture of the Middle’ (AotM development paradigm emphasises that in order to survive, family farms must transition from a supply chain approach to a values-based supply chain (VBSC approach, involving amendments to both product type and actor dynamics within the chain. This paper presents a qualitative case study of a beef co-operative integrated to a VBSC. We use an analytical framework of viability, sustainability and resilience to analyse impacts at farm-level. Our analysis highlights a number of positive effects on farm-level viability, sustainability and resilience. These benefits stemmed largely from improvements to market orientation, price stability, and members’ capacities in responding to problems. However, the autonomy of the co-operative was challenged by VBSC chain members, which impacted negatively on the stability of the co-operative.

  1. Weak interactions at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    Prospects for the study of standard model weak interactions at the SSC are reviewed, with emphasis on the unique capability of the SSC to study the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking whether the associated new quanta are at the TeV scale or higher. Symmetry breaking by the minimal Higgs mechanism and by related strong interaction dynamical variants is summarized. A set of measurements is outlined that would calibrate the proton structure functions and the backgrounds to new physics. The ability to measure the three weak gauge boson vertex is found to complement LEP II, with measurements extending to larger Q 2 at a comparable statistical level in detectable decays. B factory physics is briefly reviewed as one example of a possible broad program of high statistics studies of sub-TeV scale phenomena. The largest section of the talk is devoted to the possible manifestations of symmetry breaking in the WW and ZZ production cross sections. Some new results are presented bearing on the ability to detect high mass WW and ZZ pairs. The principal conclusion is that although nonstandard model scenarios are typically more forgiving, the capability to study symmetry breaking in the standard model (and in related strong interaction dynamical variants) requires achieving the SSC design goals of √ s,L = 40Tev, 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 . 28 refs., 5 figs

  2. The Level of Cotribeta’s Corporate Sustainability Between 2006 and 2010: A Comparative StudyHttp://Dx.Doi.Org/10.5585/Riae.V9i2.1667

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ricardo Rossetto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the level of corporate sustainability at Cooperativa Tritícola Gaúcha Cotribeta between 2006 and 2010 by means of using the Strategic Planning Model for Business Sustainability (PEPSE, developed by Coral (2002. This period was chosen because the studied company has undergone several marketing changes, thus we sought to understand whether these changes have impacted on the sustainability index. Based on a qualitative research, and drawing from a case study, information was collected through semi-structured interviews with twenty-five employees in 2006 as a master's thesis core. In 2010 the interview process was retaken with five employees, due to the organization’s reshuffling since 2006. The company posted a decline in its environmental and social reference scale. In 2006 Cotribeta’s level of corporate sustainability had been classified as potentially ordinary sustainable, and in 2010 as potentially critical sustainable.

  3. Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

    2010-11-30

    This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60

  4. Standard and Null Weak Values

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Weak value (WV) is a quantum mechanical measurement protocol, proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. It consists of a weak measurement, which is weighed in, conditional on the outcome of a later, strong measurement. Here we define another two-step measurement protocol, null weak value (NVW), and point out its advantages as compared to WV. We present two alternative derivations of NWVs and compare them to the corresponding derivations of WVs.

  5. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  6. Weak measurements and quantum weak values for NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; Reid, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum weak values arise when the mean outcome of a weak measurement made on certain preselected and postselected quantum systems goes beyond the eigenvalue range for a quantum observable. Here, we propose how to determine quantum weak values for superpositions of states with a macroscopically or mesoscopically distinct mode number, that might be realized as two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate or photonic NOON states. Specifically, we give a model for a weak measurement of the Schwinger spin of a two-mode NOON state, for arbitrary N . The weak measurement arises from a nondestructive measurement of the two-mode occupation number difference, which for atomic NOON states might be realized via phase contrast imaging and the ac Stark effect using an optical meter prepared in a coherent state. The meter-system coupling results in an entangled cat-state. By subsequently evolving the system under the action of a nonlinear Josephson Hamiltonian, we show how postselection leads to quantum weak values, for arbitrary N . Since the weak measurement can be shown to be minimally invasive, the weak values provide a useful strategy for a Leggett-Garg test of N -scopic realism.

  7. Clinical Characteristics and Correlation Analysis of Subjects with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection and Sustained Low Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Dai, Yuzhu; Yan, Li; Zhou, Huajun; Xu, Xujian

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with persistent low levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and to undertake a correlation analysis of the clinical characteristics. Material/Methods The study included 1,204 subjects with chronic HBV infection. Serum HBsAg, HBV envelope antigen (HBeAg), and HBV core antigen (HBcAg) levels were measured using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) and the neutralization test. HBV DNA was measured using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ-PCR). Results There were 1,023 subjects in the high-level HBsAg group (HBsAg level ≥10 IU/mL) and 181 subjects in the low-level HBsAg group (HBsAg level HBV-M2), and the asymptomatic carrier (ASC) status was 98.34%. The low-level HBsAg group had a lower HBV DNA-positive rate compared with the high-level HBsAg group (40.33% vs. 75.07%), with a normal distribution across all age groups (P>0.05). The low-level HBsAg group included an older age group. A low-level of HBsAg was positively correlated with a low level of replication of HBV DNA (r=0.452). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that individuals with chronic HBV infection and sustained low-levels of HBsAg were an older population and had a lower level of replicating HBV DNA when compared with individuals with high levels of HBsAg, and the majority (93.7%) were also HBsAg and HBeAg and HBcAg-positive. PMID:29593208

  8. Categorization of States Beyond Strong and Weak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tikuisis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discourse on poor state performers has suffered from widely varying definitions on what distinguishes certain weak states from others. Indices that rank states from strong to weak conceal important distinctions that can adversely affect intervention policy. This deficiency is addressed by grouping states according to their performance on three dimensions of statehood: authority, legitimacy, and capacity. The resultant categorization identifies brittle states that are susceptible to regime change, impoverished states often considered as aid darlings, and fragile states that experience disproportionately high levels of violent internal conflict. It also provides a quantifiable means to analyze transitions from one state type to another for more insightful intervention policy.

  9. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2010-09-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (P(o), P(o)/mg and P(o)/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased P(o) and an inability to sustain P(o) for the 300-ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Weak decays of stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1988-09-01

    In this article we review recent advances in the field of weak decays and consider their implications for quantum chromodynamics (the theory of strong interactions) and electroweak theory (the combined theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions), which together form the ''Standard Model'' of elementary particles. (author)

  11. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  12. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  13. Weak values in collision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leonardo Andreta; Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus

    2018-05-01

    Weak measurements have an increasing number of applications in contemporary quantum mechanics. They were originally described as a weak interaction that slightly entangled the translational degrees of freedom of a particle to its spin, yielding surprising results after post-selection. That description often ignores the kinetic energy of the particle and its movement in three dimensions. Here, we include these elements and re-obtain the weak values within the context of collision theory by two different approaches, and prove that the results are compatible with each other and with the results from the traditional approach. To provide a more complete description, we generalize weak values into weak tensors and use them to provide a more realistic description of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  14. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  15. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  16. Weak-link capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.; Wheeler, David R.; Bogart, Gregory R.

    2013-04-23

    A process for making a dielectric material where a precursor polymer selected from poly(phenylene vinylene)polyacetylene, poly(p-phenylene), poly(thienylene vinylene), poly(1,4-naphthylene vinylene), and poly(p-pyridine vinylene) is energized said by exposure by radiation or increase in temperature to a level sufficient to eliminate said leaving groups contained within the precursor polymer, thereby transforming the dielectric material into a conductive polymer. The leaving group in the precursor polymer can be a chloride, a bromide, an iodide, a fluoride, an ester, an xanthate, a nitrile, an amine, a nitro group, a carbonate, a dithiocarbamate, a sulfonium group, an oxonium group, an iodonium group, a pyridinium group, an ammonium group, a borate group, a borane group, a sulphinyl group, or a sulfonyl group.

  17. Weapon of the Weak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amber, Van der Graaf; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    able to reinvigorate democratic processes by changing inequalities in the landscape of political representation among interest groups. The level of resources held by the interest groups acts as the single most consistent predictor of both the range and volume of their social media use. Interest groups......Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand...... on the sparse existing literature on interest groups and social media in a quantitative, structural analysis of both the range and volume of social media use examining a data set of groups active in European Union lobbying. Despite the positive expectations, we find limited evidence that social media have been...

  18. Towards Sustaining Levels of Reflective Learning: How Do Transformational Leadership, Task Interdependence, and Self-Efficacy Shape Teacher Learning in Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoud Oude Groote Beverborg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas cross-sectional research has shown that transformational leadership, task interdependence, and self-efficacy are positively related to teachers’ engagement in reflective learning activities, the causal direction of these relations needs further inquiry. At the same time, individual teacher learning might play a mutual role in strengthening school-level capacity for sustained improvement. Building on previous research, this longitudinal study therefore examines how transformational leadership, task interdependence, self-efficacy, and teachers’ engagement in self-reflection mutually affect each other over time. Questionnaire data gathered on three measurement occasions from 655 Dutch Vocational Education and Training teachers was analyzed using a multivariate Latent Difference Score model. Results indicate that self-reflection and task interdependence reciprocally influence each other’s change. A considerate and stimulating transformational leader was found to contribute to this process. Change in self-efficacy was influenced by self-reflection, indicating that learning leads to competency beliefs. Together, the findings point to the important role transformational leadership practices play in facilitating teamwork, and sustaining teachers’ levels of learning in schools.

  19. Hartman effect and weak measurements that are not really weak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that in wave packet tunneling, localization of the transmitted particle amounts to a quantum measurement of the delay it experiences in the barrier. With no external degree of freedom involved, the envelope of the wave packet plays the role of the initial pointer state. Under tunneling conditions such ''self-measurement'' is necessarily weak, and the Hartman effect just reflects the general tendency of weak values to diverge, as postselection in the final state becomes improbable. We also demonstrate that it is a good precision, or a 'not really weak' quantum measurement: no matter how wide the barrier d, it is possible to transmit a wave packet with a width σ small compared to the observed advancement. As is the case with all weak measurements, the probability of transmission rapidly decreases with the ratio σ/d.

  20. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Swainson, I.P.

    2000-02-01

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  1. DYNAMICS OF UKRAINIAN POPULATION LEVEL IN THE CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE MODERN MARKET RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kovalchuk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The system of indexes characterizing the standard of living is considered and analyzed: average monthly and minimum wages, living wage, indexes of consumption, housing and property position of population, amount of free social services given by the state. The trends of progress, features of the state and forming of living level of population of Ukraine are exposed.

  2. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Melnyk and Eileen Fineout-Overholt, who graciously and consistently support military nursing science. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program...Rosenberg W, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ. 1996;312(7023):71-72.doi: http

  3. Growth, Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Virginia Dragulanescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Describing the relationship of interdependence through the materials balance, will be argued how the economy is a subset of the environment and the environment the natural limit to any economic initiative, or the limits imposed by the laws of thermodynamics. The theoretical debate moves, then, from the concept of growth to that of development, understood this in its three dimensions: economic, social, environmental. Bring the different environmental positions in four versions of sustainability, with the gained awareness that it’s “a spectrum of overlapping sustainability positions from very weak to very strong”.

  4. Market solutions for sustainable cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, Thomas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a globally accepted policy objective. It is however, increasingly recognized that the implementation of sustainability strategies has to take place at a decentralized level. This has also provoked the idea of urban sustainability. The notion of sustainable city is

  5. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and their implementation: A national global framework for health, development and equity needs a systems approach at every level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephen; Pencheon, David; Squires, Neil

    2017-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of global goals for fair and sustainable health at every level: from planetary biosphere to local community. The aim is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity, now and in the future. The UN has established web-sites to inform the implementation of the SDGs and an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on an Indicator Framework. We have searched for independent commentaries and analysis. The goals represent a framework that is scientifically robust, and widely intuitive intended to build upon the progress established by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is a need for system wide strategic planning to integrate the economic, social and environmental dimensions into policy and actions. Many countries have yet to understand the difference between the MDGs and the SDGs, particularly their universality, the huge potential of new data methods to help with their implementation, and the systems thinking that is needed to deliver the vision. The danger is that individual goals may be prioritized without an understanding of the potential positive interactions between goals. There is an increasing understanding that sustainable development needs a paradigm shift in our understanding of the interaction between the real economy and quality of life. There would be many social, environmental and economic benefits in changing our current model. We need to develop systems wide understanding of what supports a healthy environment and the art and science of making change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. The Potential of Non-Formal Laboratory Environments for Innovating the Chemistry Curriculum and Promoting Secondary School Level Students Education for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Garner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing skills and attitudes among students in terms of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD requires that educators address issues of sustainability in both formal and non-formal education. However, up to now, ESD seems to have been insufficiently implemented in secondary science education in many countries in general, and in high school chemistry learning in particular. A lack of suitable experiments, coupled with missing teaching and learning materials and insufficient teacher professional development have been identified as the reasons for this gap. This paper describes a project of innovation and research in the field of ESD for secondary school chemistry education. Within the project, both half- and full-day learning environments have been developed for non-formal, laboratory-based learning of secondary level students at the university. The research-based development focuses on teaching-learning modules which link formal and non-formal learning. The pedagogy employed is both learner-centered and inquiry-based. All the modules focus on sustainability issues in chemistry-related contexts. Data was collected by questionnaires from teachers and students both prior to and after the visit of the non-formal learning environment. Likert-items were analyzed statistically and the evaluation of the open-ended questions was done by Qualitative Content Analysis. An overview of the project, a case from the non-formal laboratory setting, and findings from accompanying research and evaluation are discussed in this paper. Potential impacts on teacher professional development and curriculum innovation are also outlined.

  7. Electrophysiological indices of anterior cingulate cortex function reveal changing levels of cognitive effort and reward valuation that sustain task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Inzlicht, Michael; Holroyd, Clay B

    2018-06-14

    Successful execution of goal-directed behaviors often requires the deployment of cognitive control, which is thought to require cognitive effort. Recent theories have proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regulates control levels by weighing the reward-related benefits of control against its effort-related costs. However, given that the sensations of cognitive effort and reward valuation are available only to introspection, this hypothesis is difficult to investigate empirically. We have proposed that two electrophysiological indices of ACC function, frontal midline theta and the reward positivity (RewP), provide objective measures of these functions. To explore this issue, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) from participants engaged in an extended, cognitively-demanding task. Participants performed a time estimation task for 2hours in which they received reward and error feedback according to their task performance. We observed that the amplitude of the RewP, a feedback-locked component of the event related brain potential associated with reward processing, decreased with time-on-task. Conversely, frontal midline theta power, which consists of 4-8Hz EEG oscillations associated with cognitive effort, increased with time-on-task. We also explored how these phenomena changed over time by conducting within-participant multi-level modeling analyses. Our results suggest that extended execution of a cognitively-demanding task is characterized by an early phase in which high control levels foster rapid improvements in task performance, and a later phase in which high control levels were necessary to maintain stable task performance, perhaps counteracting waning reward valuation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    Entanglement: Two quantum systems can be in a strongly correlated state even if .... These are resources which can be used to design quantum computer, quantum ...... Weak measurements have found numerous applications starting from the ...

  9. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  10. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufderheide, M.B.; State Univ. of New York

    1991-01-01

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and β - decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  11. High USP6NL levels in breast cancer sustain chronic AKT phosphorylation and GLUT1 stability fueling aerobic glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzato, Daniele; Pupo, Emanuela; Ducano, Nadia; Isella, Claudio; Bertalot, Giovanni; Luise, Chiara; Pece, Salvatore; Bruna, Alejandra; Rueda, Oscar M; Caldas, Carlos; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Sapino, Anna; Lanzetti, Letizia

    2018-04-24

    USP6NL, also named RN-tre, is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) involved in control of endocytosis and signal transduction. Here we report that USP6NL is overexpressed in breast cancer (BC), mainly of the basal-like/integrative cluster 10 subtype. Increased USP6NL levels were accompanied by gene amplification and were associated with worse prognosis in the METABRIC dataset, retaining prognostic value in multivariable analysis. High levels of USP6NL in BC cells delayed endocytosis and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), causing chronic AKT activation. In turn, AKT stabilized the glucose transporter GLUT1 at the plasma membrane, increasing aerobic glycolysis. In agreement, elevated USP6NL sensitized BC cells to glucose deprivation, indicating that their glycolytic capacity relies on this protein. Depletion of USP6NL accelerated EGFR/AKT downregulation and GLUT1 degradation, impairing cell proliferation exclusively in BC cells that harbored increased levels of USP6NL. Overall, these findings argue that USP6NL overexpression generates a metabolic rewiring that is essential to foster the glycolytic demand of BC cells and promote their proliferation. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  13. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  14. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  15. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  16. Armenia's Economic Growth Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Tatsuji

    2015-01-01

    Armenia enjoyed 15 years of uninterrupted high economic growth prior to the global financial crisis in 2009. Investment, particularly in the mining and metallurgy sectors, played a key role as a driver of economic growth. Remittances,mostly from Russia, had an effect in sustaining consumption and boosting construction. Armenia has shown some weaknesses in the external sector, due to demands for natural gas, mineral products, machinery, and equipment. Armenia's exports and FDI suffer from the ...

  17. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  18. A two-dimensional three-level sustainability framework for achieving short- and long-term gains: empirical evidence from the Chinese automotive sector

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    A topic of academic research and business practice which has grown in importance recently is sustainability. Its main objective is to ensure the development of the current generation and protect the right of future generations to prosper. In the business context, sustainability should be reflected in firms’ efforts to simultaneously ensure short- and long-term gains. A time dimension is thus an important feature in the concept of sustainability. In the past two decades, sustainability res...

  19. Levels of Governance in Policy Innovation Cycles in Community Education: The Cases of Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolleck

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that social networks are essential for processes of implementing social innovations in community education such as Climate Change Education (CCE or Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, scholars have neglected to analyze these processes in the multilevel governance system using Social Network Analysis. In this article, we contribute to closing this research gap by exploring the implementation of CCE and ESD in education at the regional and global levels. We compare the way CCE is negotiated and implemented within and through the global conferences of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC with the way the UN Decade of ESD is put into practice through networks in five different German municipalities. We argue that the role of social networks is particularly strong in policy areas like CCE and ESD, which are best characterized as multi-level and multi-actor governance. Based on data derived from standardized surveys and from Twitter we analyze the complex interactions of public and private actors at different levels of governance in the two selected policy areas. We find, amongst others, that the implementation of CCE and ESD in community education depends in part on actors that had not been assumed to be influential at the outset. Furthermore, our analyses suggest the different levels of governance are not well integrated throughout the phases of the policy innovation cycle.

  20. Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a slipped disk in the spine) Stroke MUSCLE DISEASES Becker muscular dystrophy Dermatomyositis Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) ...

  1. CSR LEVEL OF NGO’S FINANCIAL TARGET GROUPS AND ITS IMPACT ON NGO’S SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – RESEARCH STUDY FROM NGO IBEC CENTER, SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Dimitrijević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims of Non Government Organizations (NGO’s in developedcountries are sometimes similar or the same with NGO’s in undevelopedcountries, but financial resources, possibilities for strategic development, publicacceptance of new-democratic approaches, public knowledge and awarenessregarding NGO’s purpose is quite different. Financial target groups (FTG’s ofNGO’s are organizations whose role and purpose regarding Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR is to grant funds for realization of different goals which theysupport over NGO’s with high expertise in requiredfield. The aim of this paper isto present the CSR level of NGO’s FTG’s by measuring their response ondifferent actions initiated by NGO and how that frequency of responses, positiveand negative, influence on NGO’s sustainable development (SD in highlyturbulent economical and political environment.

  2. Prognostic value of sustained elevated C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Kim, Kitae; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Tani, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate management of aortic intramural hematoma is still controversial, because a variety of aortic events can arise during follow-up in some patients. However, simplified identification of these patients remains challenging. The present study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of serial C-reactive protein measurements for the prediction of adverse events in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma. A total of 180 patients with aortic intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. The C-reactive protein data were obtained at admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, and the maximum value was obtained during the acute phase. Adverse aorta-related events were defined by a composite of aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, and surgical or endovascular aortic repair. The C-reactive protein value was 3.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 5.9, 9.0 ± 5.5, and 5.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL on admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, respectively. The maximal value of C-reactive protein was 12.4 ± 6.3 mg/dL at a mean of 4 days from the onset. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels (≥7.2 mg/dL) at 2 weeks had significantly greater rates of aorta-related events (P analysis, an elevated C-reactive protein level at 2 weeks (hazard ratio, 3.16; P value compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection (chi-square, 16.94 for ulcer-like projection only vs 34.32 with the addition of C-reactive protein at 2 weeks, P < .001). C-reactive protein was a simple and useful marker providing incremental prognostic information compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection in patients with aortic intramural hematoma. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  4. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  5. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  6. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Uttam; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength

  7. Quantitative sensory response of the SCM muscle on sustained low level activation simulating co-contractions during bruxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Lydia; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans-Jürgen; Schmitter, Marc; Pfau, Doreen

    2018-02-01

    Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise. QST comprised thermal and mechanical stimuli. A submaximal activation of the SCM (15% MVC) was kept for 10min in sitting position. In separate test sessions one month apart, one sham and one verum experiment were conducted in randomized order. During the muscle loading, the parameters cold detection threshold (CDT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) and pressure pain treshold (PPT) were tested and experimental pain recorded by visual analogoue scales (VAS). All test sessions were performed during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 5), to avoid effects on pain perception. Data were analyzed with Repeated Measures ANOVA (SPSS 22.0) RESULTS: No significant changes were found during or after (sham) loading except for stimulus-response-function (SR, P=0.01) and PPT (P=0.02) in the sham test. No effect was observed in the verum experiment (P=0.12 up to 1.0). Prolonged low level contraction of the SCM does not evoke painful sensitization. In contrast, submaximal muscle activation seems to have a protective effect corresponding to a training effect preventing sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Importance of Institutional Design for Distributed Local-Level Governance of Groundwater: The Case of California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiparsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of the world, groundwater resources are increasingly stressed, and unsustainable use has become common. Where existing mechanisms for governing groundwater are ineffective or nonexistent, new ones need to be developed. Local level groundwater governance provides an intriguing alternative to top-down models, with the promise of enabling management to better match the diversity of physical and social conditions in groundwater basins. One such example is emerging in California, USA, where new state law requires new local agencies to self-organize and act to achieve sustainable groundwater management. In this article, we draw on insights from research on common pool resource management and natural resources governance to develop guidelines for institutional design for local groundwater governance, grounded in California’s developing experience. We offer nine criteria that can be used as principles or standards in the evaluation of institutional design for local level groundwater governance: scale, human capacity, funding, authority, independence, representation, participation, accountability, and transparency. We assert that local governance holds promise as an alternative to centralized governance in some settings but that its success will depend heavily on the details of its implementation. Further, for local implementation to achieve its promise, there remain important complementary roles for centralized governance. California’s developing experience with local level groundwater management in dozens of basins across the state provides a unique opportunity to test and assess the importance and influence of these criteria.

  9. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  10. Weak-interacting holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)

  11. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  12. Nuclear and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Balle, St.; Barandas, Ch.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Bellefontaine, E.; Bernard, H.; Bouhand, M.H.; Bourg, D.; Bourgoignon, F.; Bourlat, Y.; Brunet, F.; Buclet, N.; Buquet, N.; Caron, P.; Cartier, M.; Chagneau, E.; Charles, D.; Chateau, G.; Collette, P.; Collignon, A.; Comtesse, Ch.; Crammer, B.; Dasnias, J.; Decroix, G.; Defoy, B.; Delafontaine, E.; Delcroix, V.; Delerue, X.; Demet, M.; Dimmers, G.; Dodivers, S.; Dubigeon, O.; Eimer, M.; Fadin, H.; Foos, J.; Ganiage, D.; Garraud, J.; Girod, J.P.; Gourod, A.; Goussot, D.; Guignard, C.; Heloury, J.; Hondermarck, B.; Hurel, S.; Jeandron, C.; Josse, A.; Lagon, Ch.; Lalleron, Ch.; Laurent, M.; Legrand, H.; Leveau, E.

    2006-01-01

    On September 15. and 16., 2004, at Rene Delcourt invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Paluel and Penly, took place the 4. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I.. Jean Dasnias, new President of the C.L.I., welcomed the colloquium. Hundred of persons participated. The place of the nuclear power in the energy perspectives of tomorrow, its assets and its weaknesses in front of the other energies and within the framework of a sustainable development, are so many subjects which were discussed. The different tackled subjects are: the stakes in the sustainable development; energy perspectives; the reactors of the fourth generation; nuclear power and transparency; sustainable development and I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  13. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  16. Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-05-19

    We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)

  17. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  18. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  19. At Home with Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green...

  20. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  1. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  2. Any impact of blips and low-level viraemia episodes among HIV-infected patients with sustained virological suppression on ART?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, Berta; Grandal, Marta; Pertega, Sonia; Cañizares, Angelina; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Mena, Álvaro; Rodriguez-Osorio, Iria; Tabernilla, Andrés; Pedreira, José D; Poveda, Eva

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of blips and risk of virological failure (VF) among HIV-infected patients with sustained virological suppression (HIV-RNA ART. Newly diagnosed (2004-13) HIV-infected patients with sustained virological suppression on ART (minimum follow-up of 3 months) were identified. Risk of VF was evaluated according to different plasma HIV-RNA quantification values based on the limits of quantification/detection of current commercial assays (20 copies/mL). Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the cumulative incidence of VF. A total of 565 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients were identified: 453 started ART and 354 achieved virological suppression. Prevalence of blips (isolated HIV-RNA ranging from 50 to 200 copies/mL) and VF (HIV-RNA ≥50 copies/mL) was 22.7% and 8.8%, respectively (mean follow-up of 42 months). Multivariate analysis identified differences between HIV-RNA values as an independent predictor of VF (P = 0.008); risk of VF was higher for patients with blips [HR 2.500 (95% CI 0.524-11.926)] and for those with at least three consecutive detected, but not quantified, HIV-RNA determinations (HIV-RNA 200 copies/mL [33.7% at 24 and 60 months versus ART. HIV patients with blips and at least three consecutive detected, but not quantified, HIV-RNA determinations (<20 copies/mL) had a higher risk of VF. These findings highlight the relevance of maintaining HIV-RNA levels below the limits of quantification of current assays (<20 copies/mL). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Multi-Scale Governance of Sustainable Natural Resource Use—Challenges and Opportunities for Monitoring and Institutional Development at the National and Global Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bringezu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized economy, the use of natural resources is determined by the demand of modern production and consumption systems, and by infrastructure development. Sustainable natural resource use will require good governance and management based on sound scientific information, data and indicators. There is a rich literature on natural resource management, yet the national and global scale and macro-economic policy making has been underrepresented. We provide an overview of the scholarly literature on multi-scale governance of natural resources, focusing on the information required by relevant actors from local to global scale. Global natural resource use is largely determined by national, regional, and local policies. We observe that in recent decades, the development of public policies of natural resource use has been fostered by an “inspiration cycle” between the research, policy and statistics community, fostering social learning. Effective natural resource policies require adequate monitoring tools, in particular indicators for the use of materials, energy, land, and water as well as waste and GHG emissions of national economies. We summarize the state-of-the-art of the application of accounting methods and data sources for national material flow accounts and indicators, including territorial and product-life-cycle based approaches. We show how accounts on natural resource use can inform the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and argue that information on natural resource use, and in particular footprint indicators, will be indispensable for a consistent implementation of the SDGs. We recognize that improving the knowledge base for global natural resource use will require further institutional development including at national and international levels, for which we outline options.

  4. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  5. Weak localization of seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Tiggelen, B.A. van; Campillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity

  6. On Weak-BCC-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983

  7. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  8. The structure of weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of introducing righthanded currents on the structure of weak interaction is discussed. The ΔI=1/2 rule is in the spotlight. The discussion provides an interesting example in which the so-called Iizuka-Okubo-Zweing rule is not only evaded, but completely negated

  9. Coverings, Networks and Weak Topologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dow, A.; Junnila, H.; Pelant, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 287-320 ISSN 0025-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/97/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Banach spaces * weak topologies * networks topologies Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Weak differentiability of product measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidergott, B.F.; Leahu, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study cost functions over a finite collection of random variables. For these types of models, a calculus of differentiation is developed that allows us to obtain a closed-form expression for derivatives where "differentiation" has to be understood in the weak sense. The technique

  11. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  12. Weak pion production from nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and renormalization of weak ∆ properties ... Furthermore, the angular distribution and the energy distribution of ... Here ψα(p ) and u(p) are the Rarita Schwinger and Dirac spinors for ∆ and nucleon.

  13. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  14. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  15. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  16. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...

  17. Genetic manipulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in rice: overexpression of truncated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD2) and knockdown of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) lead to sustained and high levels of GABA accumulation in rice kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Yasuka; Oonishi, Takayuki; Ozaki, Kae; Kainou, Kumiko; Akama, Kazuhito

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid commonly present in all organisms. Because cellular levels of GABA in plants are mainly regulated by synthesis (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD) and catabolism (GABA-transaminase, GABA-T), we attempted seed-specific manipulation of the GABA shunt to achieve stable GABA accumulation in rice. A truncated GAD2 sequence, one of five GAD genes, controlled by the glutelin (GluB-1) or rice embryo globulin promoters (REG) and GABA-T-based trigger sequences in RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes controlled by one of these promoters as well, was introduced into rice (cv. Koshihikari) to establish stable transgenic lines under herbicide selection using pyriminobac. T₁ and T₂ generations of rice lines displayed high GABA concentrations (2-100 mg/100 g grain). In analyses of two selected lines from the T₃ generation, there was a strong correlation between GABA level and the expression of truncated GAD2, whereas the inhibitory effect of GABA-T expression was relatively weak. In these two lines both with two T-DNA copies, their starch, amylose, and protein levels were slightly lower than non-transformed cv. Koshihikari. Free amino acid analysis of mature kernels of these lines demonstrated elevated levels of GABA (75-350 mg/100 g polished rice) and also high levels of several amino acids, such as Ala, Ser, and Val. Because these lines of seeds could sustain their GABA content after harvest (up to 6 months), the strategy in this study could lead to the accumulation GABA and for these to be sustained in the edible parts. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  19. Profiling Sustainability Curriculum in AACSB Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the landscape of Sustainability Curriculum being used across the Association of Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB–accredited schools in the United States on the basis of a non-probabilistic sample (n = 119. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, four clusters were obtained based on sustainability-related courses in management, marketing, entrepreneurship, finance, accounting, information systems/information technology, strategy, globalization, communication, and miscellaneous. Cluster 1 had uniform dispersion on sustainability courses in all business courses except marketing. Clusters 2 and 4 were the largest ones with most sustainability courses in the management area, whereas, Cluster 3 had weak, but uniform, dispersion of sustainability courses in most business disciplines. Based on their characteristics and strength of dispersion among 10 business subject areas, these were labeled as Sustainability Prominent, Sustainability Moderate, Sustainability Meek, and Sustainability Quiescent.

  20. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators too. The research presented in this paper validates…

  1. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  2. Light weakly interacting massive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2017-08-01

    Light weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are dark matter particle candidates with weak scale interaction with the known particles, and mass in the GeV to tens of GeV range. Hints of light WIMPs have appeared in several dark matter searches in the last decade. The unprecedented possible coincidence into tantalizingly close regions of mass and cross section of four separate direct detection experimental hints and a potential indirect detection signal in gamma rays from the galactic center, aroused considerable interest in our field. Even if these hints did not so far result in a discovery, they have had a significant impact in our field. Here we review the evidence for and against light WIMPs as dark matter candidates and discuss future relevant experiments and observations.

  3. (Weakly) three-dimensional caseology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)

  4. A statistical study on consumer's perception of sustainable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Izvercian, Monica; Ivaşcu, Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability and sustainable concepts are quite often but not always used correctly. The statistical research on consumer's perception of sustainable products has tried to identify the level of knowledge regarding the concept of sustainability and sustainable products, the selected criteria concerning the buying decision, the intention of purchasing a sustainable product, main sustainable products preferred by consumers.

  5. History of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    At the 'Jackfest' marking the 65th birthday of Jack Steinberger (see July/August 1986 issue, page 29), T.D. Lee gave an account of the history of the weak interactions. This edited version omits some of Lee's tributes to Steinberger, but retains the impressive insight into the subtleties of a key area of modern physics by one who played a vital role in its development. (orig./HSI).

  6. Weak neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z 0 boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references

  7. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, ..... by means of trees (connected graphs without cycles) and forests (disjoint unions of trees, see [6]) given in [3], by extending it to weak ... CR-submanifold. In this case, every tree is a K2. Finally, Theorem 3.8 of [3] can ...

  8. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  9. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  10. A reconsideration on deep sea bed disposal of high level radiological wastes. A post-Fukushima reflection on sustainable nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is a common issue among all nuclear developing countries. However, this becomes especially a hard issue for sustainable nuclear energy in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi accident. In this paper, the difficulty of realizing underground HLW disposal in Japanese islands is first discussed from socio-political aspects. Then, revival of old idea of deep seabed disposal of HLW in Pacific Ocean is proposed as an alternative way of HLW disposal. Although this old idea had been abandoned in the past for the reason that it would violate London Convention which prohibits dumping radioactive wastes in public sea, the author will stress the merit of seabed disposal of HLW deep in Pacific Ocean not only from the view point of more safe and ultimate way of disposing HLWs (both vitrified and spent fuel) than by underground disposal, but also the emergence of new marine project by synergetic collaboration of rare-earth resource exploration from the deep sea floor in Pacific Ocean. (author)

  11. On certain development aspects of an ipsas-based system-target approach to evaluation of net asset sustainability level projects in high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazaryan Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of accounting and reporting of net assets and the procedure of their formation taking into account the specifics of the economic and legal status of property of a non-commercial autonomous institution are some of the most controversial in the accounting for entities of the public sector. The study focuses on justification of accounting rules for net assets of public sector entities. The methods used in the study are as follows: comparison, synthesis, analysis, logical approach, and system approach. The article examines legal aspects and specifics of recognition of assets of public sector entities in accordance with IPSAS standards (International Public Sector Accounting Standards are a set of accounting standards issued by IPSASB (Council for International Financial Reporting Standards for Public Sector Organizations used by state-owned enterprises worldwide in preparation of financial statements as of the 31st of August, 2015. The most crucial factor in the modeling of key performance indicators of the system-target approach to estimation of the sustainability level of net assets on the basis of IPSAS is a multicriterial evaluation of the basic management strategy for quality system elements used in operational and strategic planning projects operations in high-rise construction. We offer an alternative evaluation of assets due to be returned to the right holder (the state controller in the event of liquidation of a public sector entity.

  12. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  13. On certain development aspects of an ipsas-based system-target approach to evaluation of net asset sustainability level projects in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Ruben

    2018-03-01

    Problems of accounting and reporting of net assets and the procedure of their formation taking into account the specifics of the economic and legal status of property of a non-commercial autonomous institution are some of the most controversial in the accounting for entities of the public sector. The study focuses on justification of accounting rules for net assets of public sector entities. The methods used in the study are as follows: comparison, synthesis, analysis, logical approach, and system approach. The article examines legal aspects and specifics of recognition of assets of public sector entities in accordance with IPSAS standards (International Public Sector Accounting Standards are a set of accounting standards issued by IPSASB (Council for International Financial Reporting Standards for Public Sector Organizations) used by state-owned enterprises worldwide in preparation of financial statements as of the 31st of August, 2015. The most crucial factor in the modeling of key performance indicators of the system-target approach to estimation of the sustainability level of net assets on the basis of IPSAS is a multicriterial evaluation of the basic management strategy for quality system elements used in operational and strategic planning projects operations in high-rise construction. We offer an alternative evaluation of assets due to be returned to the right holder (the state controller) in the event of liquidation of a public sector entity.

  14. Evaluating tidal marsh sustainability in the face of sea-level rise: a hybrid modeling approach applied to San Francisco Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stralberg

    Full Text Available Tidal marshes will be threatened by increasing rates of sea-level rise (SLR over the next century. Managers seek guidance on whether existing and restored marshes will be resilient under a range of potential future conditions, and on prioritizing marsh restoration and conservation activities.Building upon established models, we developed a hybrid approach that involves a mechanistic treatment of marsh accretion dynamics and incorporates spatial variation at a scale relevant for conservation and restoration decision-making. We applied this model to San Francisco Bay, using best-available elevation data and estimates of sediment supply and organic matter accumulation developed for 15 Bay subregions. Accretion models were run over 100 years for 70 combinations of starting elevation, mineral sediment, organic matter, and SLR assumptions. Results were applied spatially to evaluate eight Bay-wide climate change scenarios.Model results indicated that under a high rate of SLR (1.65 m/century, short-term restoration of diked subtidal baylands to mid marsh elevations (-0.2 m MHHW could be achieved over the next century with sediment concentrations greater than 200 mg/L. However, suspended sediment concentrations greater than 300 mg/L would be required for 100-year mid marsh sustainability (i.e., no elevation loss. Organic matter accumulation had minimal impacts on this threshold. Bay-wide projections of marsh habitat area varied substantially, depending primarily on SLR and sediment assumptions. Across all scenarios, however, the model projected a shift in the mix of intertidal habitats, with a loss of high marsh and gains in low marsh and mudflats.Results suggest a bleak prognosis for long-term natural tidal marsh sustainability under a high-SLR scenario. To minimize marsh loss, we recommend conserving adjacent uplands for marsh migration, redistributing dredged sediment to raise elevations, and concentrating restoration efforts in sediment-rich areas

  15. Chronic free-choice drinking in crossed high alcohol preferring mice leads to sustained blood ethanol levels and metabolic tolerance without evidence of liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David; Buckingham, Amy; Ross, Ruth Ann; Halcomb, Meredith; Grahame, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines, and we demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking that are reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. Therefore, this line may provide an unprecedented opportunity to learn about the consequences of excessive voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption, including metabolic tolerance and liver pathology. Cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction plays a prominent role in driving both metabolic tolerance and EtOH-induced liver injury. In this report, we sought to characterize cHAP drinking by assessing whether pharmacologically relevant BEC levels are sustained throughout the active portion of the light-dark cycle. Given that cHAP intakes and BECs are similar to those observed in mice given an EtOH liquid diet, we assessed whether free-choice exposure results in metabolic tolerance, hepatic enzyme induction, and hepatic steatosis. In experiment 1, blood samples were taken across the dark portion of a 12:12 light-dark cycle to examine the pattern of EtOH accumulation in these mice. In experiments 1 and 2, mice were injected with EtOH following 3 to 4 weeks of access to water or 10% EtOH and water, and blood samples were taken to assess metabolic tolerance. In experiment 3, 24 mice had 4 weeks of access to 10% EtOH and water or water alone, followed by necropsy and hepatological assessment. In experiment 1, cHAP mice mean BEC values exceeded 80 mg/dl at all sampling points and approached 200 mg/dl during the middle of the dark cycle. In experiments 1 and 2, EtOH-exposed mice metabolized EtOH faster than EtOH-naïve mice, demonstrating metabolic tolerance (p alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These results demonstrate that excessive intake by cHAP mice results in sustained BECs throughout the active period, leading to the development of metabolic tolerance and evidence of CYP2E1 induction

  16. Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro

    2016-02-26

    We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.

  17. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  18. Organizational citizenship behavior towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dhiman Deb

    2013-01-01

    This article extends literature of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the context of corporate sustainability. The author presents the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior towards Sustainability (OCBS) as a variant, contending it's appropriateness for today's much needed behavioral competence to implement sustainability measure at organizational level. The formulation of OCBS espouses Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) with a twist. The viewpoint defended that a for...

  19. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  20. Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

  1. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  2. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  3. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  4. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  5. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...

  6. Why is gravity so weak?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goradia, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Why is gravity weak? Gravity is plagued with this and many other questions. After decades of exhausting work we do not have a clear answer. In view of this fact it will be shown in the following pages that there are reasons for thinking that gravity is just a composite force consisting of the long-range manifestations of short range nuclear forces that are too tiny to be measured at illuminated or long ranges by particle colliders. This is consistent with Einstein's proposal in 1919

  7. Weak decays of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1978-08-01

    The properties that may help to identify the two additional quark flavors that are expected to be discovered. These properties are lifetime, branching ratios, selection rules, and lepton decay spectra. It is also noted that CP violation may manifest itself more strongly in heavy particle decays than elsewhere providing a new probe of its origin. The theoretical progress in the understanding of nonleptonic transitions among lighter quarks, nonleptonic K and hyperon decay amplitudes, omega minus and charmed particle decay predictions, and lastly the Kobayashi--Maskawa model for the weak coupling of heavy quarks together with the details of its implications for topology and bottomology are treated. 48 references

  8. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  9. Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.

  10. Taking democracy to the next level? Global civil society participation in the shaping of the Sustainable Development Goals from Rio to New York (2012-2015).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senit, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    During the negotiations of the Sustainable Development Goals, the United Nations consulted worldwide nearly 10 million people for their views. Such proliferating megaconsultations are often uncritically accepted as a remedy for an assumed democratic deficit of intergovernmental policymaking. The

  11. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-11-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and elicit cognitive improvements in healthy, overnight-fasted volunteers. The specific mechanisms responsible for these effects are not known. However, cognitive improvements may be related to the glycaemic properties of Panax ginseng. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-crossover design, 27 healthy young adults completed a 10 minute "cognitive demand" test battery at baseline. They then consumed capsules containing either ginseng (extract G115) or a placebo and 30 minutes later a drink containing glucose or placebo. A further 30 minutes later (i.e. 60 minutes post-baseline/capsules) they completed the "cognitive demand" battery six times in immediate succession. Depending on the condition to which the participant was allocated on that particular day, the combination of capsules/drink treatments corresponded to a dose of: 0mg G115/0 mg glucose (placebo); 200mg G115/0 mg glucose (ginseng); 0 mg G115/25 g glucose (glucose) or 200 mg G115/25 g glucose (ginseng/glucose combination). The 10 minute "cognitive demand" battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens subtraction task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); and a "mental fatigue" visual analogue scale. Blood glucose levels were measured prior to the day's treatment, and before and after the post-dose completions of the battery. The results showed that both Panax ginseng and glucose enhanced performance of a mental arithmetic task and ameliorated the increase in subjective feelings of mental fatigue experienced by participants during the later stages of the sustained, cognitively demanding task performance. Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion

  12. Critical potentials, leptons, and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; Lewin, J.D.

    1977-12-01

    A theoretical study is made of the interaction of very strong localised electromagnetic potentials with charged leptons, and with the vacuum state. The principal objective is to investigate the phenomena which occur when the potential reaches or exceeds the critical value at which bound levels are drawn into the lower continuum. The behaviour of bound and continuum solutions of the Dirac equation for the specific model of a short range potential well in an arbitrarily large bounded volume is examined in detail. Vacuum polarisation effects are computed by summation over the infinite set of single particle levels, and special attention is given to the behaviour of the overall charge distribution as the potential strength increases through the critical value. The most significant features of the results are (a) the formation of highly localised electron or muon bound states, (b) similar critical potential strengths for electrons and muons, and (c) redefinition of the vacuum by one charge unit at the critical potential. These features are analogous to some properties of leptonic and hadronic weak currents, and the hypothesis is proposed that strong short range potentials may provide a possible mediating mechanism for the weak interaction and also a lepton confinement mechanism within the structure of hadrons. (author)

  13. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  14. Probing supervoids with weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yuichi; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2018-05-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has non-Gaussian features in the temperature fluctuations. An anomalous cold spot surrounded with a hot ring, called the Cold Spot, is one of such features. If a large underdense region (supervoid) resides towards the Cold Spot, we would be able to detect a systematic shape distortion in the images of background source galaxies via weak lensing effect. In order to estimate the detectability of such signals, we used the data of N-body simulations to simulate full-sky ray-tracing of source galaxies. We searched for a most prominent underdense region using the simulated convergence maps smoothed at a scale of 20° and obtained tangential shears around it. The lensing signal expected in a concordant Λ cold dark matter model can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N ˜ 3. If a supervoid with a radius of ˜200 h-1 Mpc and a density contrast δ0 ˜ -0.3 at the centre resides at a redshift z ˜ 0.2, on-going and near-future weak gravitational lensing surveys would detect a lensing signal with S/N ≳ 4 without resorting to stacking. From the tangential shear profile, we can obtain a constraint on the projected mass distribution of the supervoid.

  15. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  16. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  17. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  18. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  19. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    . A framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages......Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  20. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  1. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  2. Weak interaction contribution to the energy spectrum of two-lepton system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of neutral currents to the weak interaction quasi-potential of two leptons is investigated. The exact expression for the weak interaction operator of the system for arbitrary biding energies in one-boson approximation is obtained. The weak interaction contribution to the S-levels displacement of hydrogen-like atom. 14 refs

  3. Weak KAM for commuting Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavidovique, M

    2010-01-01

    For two commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians, we recover the commutation of the Lax–Oleinik semi-groups, a result of Barles and Tourin (2001 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 50 1523–44), using a direct geometrical method (Stoke's theorem). We also obtain a 'generalization' of a theorem of Maderna (2002 Bull. Soc. Math. France 130 493–506). More precisely, we prove that if the phase space is the cotangent of a compact manifold then the weak KAM solutions (or viscosity solutions of the critical stationary Hamilton–Jacobi equation) for G and for H are the same. As a corollary we obtain the equality of the Aubry sets and of the Peierls barrier. This is also related to works of Sorrentino (2009 On the Integrability of Tonelli Hamiltonians Preprint) and Bernard (2007 Duke Math. J. 136 401–20)

  4. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Quantum Field Theory created by Dirac and used by Fermi to describe weak ... of classical electrodynamics (from which the electric field and magnetic field can be obtained .... Universe. However, thanks to weak interactions, this can be done.

  5. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  6. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  7. BUSINESS VALUATION IN TERMS OF INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The indexes regarding the sustainable development have an important role in the decision-making process and that is why several bodies and institutions are concerned about their development. This fact happens not only at macro-level, but also at micro-level, the entities being encouraged to take into account the sustainable development principles and to relate its individual performances to the environment in which they operate (local, regional, global. The usage of the indexes regarding the sustainable development offers information regarding the evolution in time helps at identifying the possibilities of improving the activity and the weaknesses; they can be used in order to establish and achieve the objectives, the values being easily communicated both within and outside the company. A main disadvantage is the aggregation level, which hinders comparisons. This paper analyzes the information regarding the sustainable development published by the companies ranked at the Stock Exchange of Bucharest in the 1st category and the subsidiaries of 30 national companies.

  8. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  9. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  10. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fm... of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the mortar joints......, which is the most unfavourable stress distribution with respect to tensile stresses in bricks. The expression is compared with the results of compression tests of masonry made with weak mortars. It can take into account bricks with arbitrary dimensions as well as perforated bricks. For a stronger mortar...

  11. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  12. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  14. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  15. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  16. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  17. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  18. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  19. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  20. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  1. Sustainable development benefits of clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Fenhann, Jorgen

    2008-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is part of the global carbon market developing rapidly in response to global warming. It has the twin objective to achieve sustainable development (SD) in host countries and assist Annex-1 countries in achieving their emission reduction targets in a cost-efficient manner. However, research has shown that trade-offs between the two objectives exist in favour of cost-efficient emission reductions and that left to the market forces, the CDM does not significantly contribute to sustainable development. The main argument of the paper is the need for an international standard for sustainability assessment-additional to national definitions-to counter weaknesses in the existing system of sustainability approval by designated national authorities in host countries. The article develops a new methodology, i.e. a taxonomy for sustainability assessment based on text analysis of the 744 project design documents (PDDs) submitted for validation by 3 May 2006. Through analysis of the SD benefits of all CDM projects at aggregated levels, the strengths and limitations of the taxonomy are explored. The main policy implication of the research is to propose the taxonomy as the basis of an international verification protocol for designated operational entities (DOEs) for reporting, monitoring and verifying that potential SD benefits described in the PDDs are actually realized

  2. Testing weak form efficiency on the capital markets in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kršikapa-Rašajski Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak-form efficient market hypothesis assumes that participants on the financial markets are not able to achieve above-average returns based on historical prices. In order to establish the presence of a weak-form market efficiency in the Serbian market, the analysis incorporates daily data of the two most prominent indices on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, BELEX 15 and BELEX LINE, since their inception until 31 December 2014. Results obtained by the analysis and testing indicate that the capital market in Serbia can not be considered sufficiently efficient, more precisely it indicates that postulates assumed by the weak-form market efficiency are not fully met. Taking into account that the capital market in Serbia is still underdeveloped, primarily because of the small volumes, turnover and types of securities which are traded on the market, as well as the fact that it is not sufficiently regulated and transparent, lack of investors is noticeable. Consequently, analysis presented in this paper indicates a weak sustainability of the efficient market hypothesis in Serbia.

  3. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  4. MAJOR ISSUES IN BRINGING ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainability is now fast approaching half a century of dedicated work. Although there have been significant breakthroughs, sustainability and its corollary, sustainable development, have proven a tough nut to crack. In our paper, we have started from some fundamental questions, which have yet to be answered and analyzed the implications that stem from these questions. Going past the problem of weakly quantifiable concepts in the definition, a very important issue is that of individual and community preferences. Specifically, these are all short to mid-term lived, while some sustainability problems, particularly those relating to the environment require a significantly longer time period. Another implication is that, given our limited resources, sustainable development would require a careful balance between investments among the three pillars of sustainability, and not follow a maximization policy. Lastly, we conclude that basing our sustainability policies on premises of linear evolution is a dangerous undertaking.

  5. Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Ott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.

  6. Sustained influence of metformin therapy on circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Dawed, Adem; Welsh, Paul

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate, in the Carotid Atherosclerosis: Metformin for Insulin Resistance (CAMERA) trial (NCT00723307), whether the influence of metformin on the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 axis in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is sustained and related to changes in glycaemia...

  7. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  8. Mental fatigue after very severe closed head injury: Sustained performance, mental effort, and distress at two levels of workload in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Brouwer, W.H.; Mulder, L.J.M.; Cremer, R.; Veldman, J.B.P.

    1999-01-01

    In patients with very severe closed head injury (CHI), returning to work is often problematic. The present study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, viz. mental fatigue. To study this, the effect of sustained workload is assessed in a continuous dynamic divided attention task. Three

  9. Mental fatigue after very severe closed head injury : Sustained performance, mental effort, and distress at two levels of workload in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Hoedemaeker, M; Brouwer, WH; Mulder, LJM; Veldman, JBP

    In patients with very severe closed head injury (CHI), returning to work is often problematic. The present study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, viz. mental fatigue. To study this, the effect of sustained workload is assessed in a continuous dynamic divided attention task. Three

  10. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  11. The State of Sustainability Reporting in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and assess the state of sustainability reporting in universities. Design/methodology/approach: Analysis of the performance level of 12 universities sustainability reports using the Graphical Assessment of Sustainability in Universities tool. Findings: The results show that sustainability reporting in…

  12. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  13. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  14. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  15. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, R

    2006-01-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe

  16. A universe without weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-01-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''weakless universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting standard model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the weakless universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multiparameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe

  17. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  18. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  19. Transition from weak wave turbulence regime to solitonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Roumaissa; Mordant, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The Weak Turbulence Theory (WTT) is a statistical theory describing the interaction of a large ensemble of random waves characterized by very different length scales. For both weak non-linearity and weak dispersion a different regime is predicted where solitons propagate while keeping their shape unchanged. The question under investigation here is which regime between weak turbulence or soliton gas does the system choose ? We report an experimental investigation of wave turbulence at the surface of finite depth water in the gravity-capillary range. We tune the wave dispersion and the level of nonlinearity by modifying the depth of water and the forcing respectively. We use space-time resolved profilometry to reconstruct the deformed surface of water. When decreasing the water depth, we observe a drastic transition between weak turbulence at the weakest forcing and a solitonic regime at stronger forcing. We characterize the transition between both states by studying their Fourier Spectra. We also study the efficiency of energy transfer in the weak turbulence regime. We report a loss of efficiency of angular transfer as the dispersion of the wave is reduced until the system bifurcates into the solitonic regime. This project has recieved funding from the European Research Council (ERC, Grant Agreement No. 647018-WATU).

  20. Homological properties of modules with finite weak injective and weak flat dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tiwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define a class of relative derived functors in terms of left or right weak flat resolutions to compute the weak flat dimension of modules. Moreover, we investigate two classes of modules larger than that of weak injective and weak flat modules, study the existence of covers and preenvelopes, and give some applications.

  1. Weak boson emission in hadron collider processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, U.

    2007-01-01

    The O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections to many hadron collider processes are known to become large and negative at high energies, due to the appearance of Sudakov-like logarithms. At the same order in perturbation theory, weak boson emission diagrams contribute. Since the W and Z bosons are massive, the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections and the contributions from weak boson emission are separately finite. Thus, unlike in QED or QCD calculations, there is no technical reason for including gauge boson emission diagrams in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In most calculations of the O(α) electroweak radiative corrections, weak boson emission diagrams are therefore not taken into account. Another reason for not including these diagrams is that they lead to final states which differ from that of the original process. However, in experiment, one usually considers partially inclusive final states. Weak boson emission diagrams thus should be included in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In this paper, I examine the role of weak boson emission in those processes at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC for which the one-loop electroweak radiative corrections are known to become large at high energies (inclusive jet, isolated photon, Z+1 jet, Drell-Yan, di-boson, tt, and single top production). In general, I find that the cross section for weak boson emission is substantial at high energies and that weak boson emission and the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections partially cancel

  2. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  3. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  4. 1. Dimensions of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: the concept of sustainable development; envisioning sustainable development (economic dimensions, human dimensions, environmental dimensions, technological dimensions); policy implications (economic policies, people-oriented policies, environmental policies, creating sustainable systems); and global issues (effect of war on development and the environment and the debt burden). This chapter also introduces the case studies by discussing the levels of economic development and comparing key trends (economic growth, human development, population growth, and energy use)

  5. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  6. Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements

  7. Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1), 181-190 (2011)] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011)]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract....

  8. Robust weak measurements on finite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A new weak measurement procedure is introduced for finite samples which yields accurate weak values that are outside the range of eigenvalues and which do not require an exponentially rare ensemble. This procedure provides a unique advantage in the amplification of small nonrandom signals by minimizing uncertainties in determining the weak value and by minimizing sample size. This procedure can also extend the strength of the coupling between the system and measuring device to a new regime

  9. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, S.J.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon

  10. Weak strange particle production: advantages and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Tatiana; Baker, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic strange particle production developed at Jefferson Laboratory was an important source of information on strange particle electromagnetic formfactors and induced and transferred polarization. The high quality of the beam and the detection techniques involved could be an argument for detecting strange particles in weak interactions and answer questions about cross sections, weak formfactors, neutrino properties, which have not been investigated yet. The paper analyses some aspects related to the weak lambda production and detection with the Hall C facilities at Jefferson Laboratory and the limitations in measuring the weak interaction quantities. (authors)

  11. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  12. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  13. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  14. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  15. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  16. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  17. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  18. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  19. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  20. Dematerialization and capital maintenance. Two sides of the sustainability coin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelmus, Peter [Wuppertal Institute, Doppersberg 19, D-42103 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    The reductionist trend of equating sustainable development with sustained economic growth needs to be reversed. New accounts and balances help to operationalize the elusive notion of sustainability: they provide a coherent picture of the interaction between environment and economy. 'Greened' national accounts measure economic sustainability in terms of (produced and natural) capital maintenance; balances of material flows assess ecological sustainability as the dematerialization of production and consumption. Both concepts aim to preserve environmental assets, but differ in scope, strength and evaluation of sustainability. First results for Germany indicate weak sustainability of the economy; strong sustainability is not in sight because of insufficient reduction of material throughput. Attaining sustainability through integrated policies needs the support of share- and stakeholders of sustainable development.

  1. Dematerialization and capital maintenance. Two sides of the sustainability coin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelmus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The reductionist trend of equating sustainable development with sustained economic growth needs to be reversed. New accounts and balances help to operationalize the elusive notion of sustainability: they provide a coherent picture of the interaction between environment and economy. 'Greened' national accounts measure economic sustainability in terms of (produced and natural) capital maintenance; balances of material flows assess ecological sustainability as the dematerialization of production and consumption. Both concepts aim to preserve environmental assets, but differ in scope, strength and evaluation of sustainability. First results for Germany indicate weak sustainability of the economy; strong sustainability is not in sight because of insufficient reduction of material throughput. Attaining sustainability through integrated policies needs the support of share- and stakeholders of sustainable development

  2. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  3. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  4. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 8. Report on general competency trainings (basic level) by TEDC for SMK teachers from the five CASINDO regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-03-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report presents an overview of the training activities on general renewable energy technologies competencies conducted by TEDC Bandung (Technical Education Development Centre), for the teachers of the 11 SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) involved in the CASINDO project. The report also contains a description of the Training of Trainers activities conducted by the CASINDO consortium for TEDC staff in the renewable energy technologies micro hydro power, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass , biogas and energy efficiency.

  5. Sustainable flood risk management – What is sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Brudler, Sarah; Lerer, Sara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable flood risk management has to be achieved since flood protection is a fundamental societal service that we must deliver. Based on the discourse within the fields of risk management and sustainable urban water management, we discuss the necessity of assessing the sustainability of flood...... risk management, and propose an evaluation framework for doing so. We argue that it is necessary to include quantitative sustainability measures in flood risk management in order to exclude unsustainable solutions. Furthermore, we use the concept of absolute sustainability to discuss the prospects...... of maintaining current service levels without compromising future generation’s entitlement of services. Discussions on the sustainability of different overall flood risk schemes must take place. Fundamental changes in the approaches will require fundamental changes in the mind-sets of practitioners as well...

  6. Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment: Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sustainable development in the context of Rwanda as the level of socio- political and ... envisaged by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) includes the .... sustainable agriculture and agri-business development in Rwanda is.

  7. Indicator based controlling of cantonal guiding planning in Switzerland: A model for more efficient sustainable planning instruments at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiner Marco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the actual Swiss cantonal planning practice every 10 years in general, there is a review of the guiding plan. The plan’s evaluation typically takes place shortly before the revision process. In the interstitial time, the guiding plan’s effectiveness can only be anticipated. In the review, a survey of both, the desired and unwanted spatial effects are often absent. As a result, a thorough analysis of the effects and the direction of the spatial development cannot be accomplished. A spatial plan that is geared to the principle of sustainability needs the outputs of such an analysis. Development assessments are required to verify the plans’ effects, well-defined goals to assist in rectifying deviations, key indicators to identify efficiency potentials, and precautionary measures to allow for an adaptable and responsive planning methodology. The instruments, which might assist in the cantonal guiding plan objectives implementation, do exist. Such instruments are monitoring, controlling and benchmarking (with the support of indicators. These tools can assist in ensuring the plan’s overall value and the effectiveness and appropriateness of the ensuing development. By using these tools and a sound planning methodology, unsustainable spatial development can be tracked early and rectified with appropriated measures. The control as this system’s central instrument is presented here and its application opportunities in the cantonal guiding planning are discussed. In order to achieve a sustainable spatial development and a more dynamic guiding planning, the application of control and benchmarking is crucial.

  8. Management of the four waters at micro level by considering the social and economic backwardness for sustainable development using remote sensing & gis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    As we enter the third millennium, we are witnessing a gale of bewildering change and transformation. Communication is well on its way to becoming instant. Knowledge based processes and an electronic network blankets the globe. And yet, there are certain things that never change, like for instance, the basic needs, of which water is most important. While in the past wars were fought over territory, markets and access to resources, future wars in the new millennium are likely to be fought over access to water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Water that most abundant of natural resources, is also very scarce in its usable form in most places on earth. The critical challenge facing arid and semi-arid areas will be to provide enough water for domestic and sustainable agricultural purposes. Already 22 countries have renewable water resources of less than one thousand cubic meters per capita, dangerously little in years of rain scarcity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. This dangerous situation can still be reversed through efficient rainwater harvesting and judicious utilization by the local community. And the best socio-physical unit for such resource management is the watershed. The present study deals with the application of Remote sensing and Geographical Information systems techniques for the generation of an alternative land use/land cover practice with due consideration to the social and economic backwardness of the different ethnic groups besides protecting the long term carrying capacity of the eco-system through the integrated micro-level management of the four waters concept. The Remote sensing data used is IRS-IC-LISS-III imagery and ERDAS / IMAGINE 8.3 GIS software. Landuse/Landcover, Hydro-geomorphology, Soil map etc are generated by interpreting the satellite data and with necessary ground check. The slope map and drainage maps are generated with the help of 1:50,000 scale

  9. The Two Faces of Sustainability : Fuzzy Evaluation of Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, T.

    2003-01-01

    An evaluative framework of sustainable development operates at both the production system level and the society level: objective information gathered at the production system level is given subjective meaning at the society level. The evaluative framework constitutes a complete cycle to monitor

  10. S-parameters for weakly excited slots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels Christian

    1999-01-01

    A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed......A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed...

  11. Low-energy Electro-weak Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, Doron

    2012-01-01

    Chiral effective field theory (EFT) provides a systematic and controlled approach to low-energy nuclear physics. Here, we use chiral EFT to calculate low-energy weak Gamow-Teller transitions. We put special emphasis on the role of two-body (2b) weak currents within the nucleus and discuss their applications in predicting physical observables.

  12. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references

  13. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  15. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  16. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suneil A; Swift, Charles R; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2017-01-01

    Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient's right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient's symptoms. Intrigued by our patient's case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  17. Structure and dynamics of weakly bound complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouteris, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of weakly bound complexes involving a methane molecule. Studies of these Van der Waals complexes can give valuable information on the relevant intermolecular dynamics and promote the understanding of the interactions between molecules (which can ultimately lead to chemical reactions). Especially interesting are complexes involving molecules of high symmetry (e.g. tetrahedral, such as methane) because of the unusual effects arising from it (selection rules, nuclear Spin statistical weights etc.). The infrared spectrum of the Van der Waals complex between a CH 4 and a N 2 O molecule has been recorded and most of it has been assigned in the region of the N - O stretch (approximately 2225.0 cm -1 ). Despite the fact that this is really a weakly bound complex, it is nevertheless rigid enough so that the standard model for asymmetric top spectra can be applied to it with the usual quantum numbers. From the value of the inertial defect, it turns out that the methane unit is locked in a rigid configuration within the complex rather than freely rotating. The intermolecular distance as well as the tilting angle of the N 2 O linear unit are determined from the rotational constants. The complex itself turns out to have a T - shaped configuration. The infrared spectrum of the Ar - CH 4 complex at the ν 4 (bending) band of methane is also assigned. This is different from the previous one in that the methane unit rotates almost freely Within the complex. As a result, the quantum numbers used to classify rovibrational energy levels include these of the free unit. The concept of 'overall symmetry' is made use of to rationalise selection rules in various sub-bands of the spectrum. Moreover, new terms in the potential anisotropy Hamiltonian are calculated through the use of the overall symmetry concept. These are termed 'mixed anisotropy' terms since they involve both rotational and vibrational degrees of

  18. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ eff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  19. From Sustainability-as-usual to Sustainability Excellence in Local Bioenergy Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Kasurinen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy business operators can significantly contribute to the sustainability of bioenergy systems. While research has addressed the maturity of corporate responsibility for sustainability, the maturity levels of bioenergy business have not been determined. The objectives of this research were to characterise the maturity levels of bioenergy corporate responsibility for sustainability and outline an approach by which companies can operate at the most mature sustainability excellence level. Literature, three workshops attended by bioenergy experts and a case study on biobutanol production in Brazil were used to develop the maturity model and approach. The results characterise the profitability, acceptability, and sustainability orientation maturity levels through sustainability questions and methods, and list the components of a systemic, holistic approach. Although the shift of business mindset from sustainability-as-usual to sustainability excellence is challenging, a systemic approach is necessary to broadly identify sustainability questions and a multitude of methods by which they can be answered.

  20. System of Strategic Priorities and Indicators of Ecologically Sustainable Subsoil Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of strategic priorities and indicators of ecologically sustainable subsoil use is based on a fundamental basis - biotic regulation and it has a systematic character defined by conceptual, ideological, political and economic levels of management. It also possesses strict priorities and is based on interrelated ecological, economic and social factors, it reflects space-time dynamics of development and subsoil use. The indicators of ecologically sustainable subsoil use are indicators that characterize the change of natural, social and economic environment at different times; they provide qualitative and quantitative characteristic of subsoil use problem. The majority of existing sets of indicators of sustainable subsoil use doesn’t give a complete picture, is weakly connected with each other and no priorities are distinguished among them.

  1. Towards our Common Future: Comparative Assessment of the Sustainable Development Strategies of the European Union, the Mediterranean and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz DEŽELAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses three sustainable de- velopment strategies – the European Union’s Sustainable Development Strategy in its revised version, the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustain- able Development and Slovenia’s Development Strategy – according to the level of sustainability these strategies provide. Deriving from three di- verse sustainable development regimes, select- ed strategies are scrutinised for the presence of the five general principles of effective sustainable development strategies promoted by the United Nations and the Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development. Building on George and Kirkpatrick’s (2006 framework for analysis, we concentrate on principles of strategic planning and sustainable development, and a coordinated set of measures to ensure their implementation. The results reveal that the major differences be- tween the assessed strategies are present in the sophistication of the theoretical bases and the integration of three main pillars of sustainable development (i.e. environmental, economic and social. In general, the assessed strategies re- flect a high degree of inclusiveness of a variety of interests. However, there is a common weak- ness among them in terms of implementation, be it in the provision of adequate resources, the guarantee of adequate implementing capacity of the institutions designated for implementation or the precise definition of the institutional frame- work responsible for the implementation of the strategy.

  2. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  3. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Holtbruegge, Johannes; Lutze, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process synthesis and process intensification together. This approach first defines a design target through a sustainability analysis and then finds design alternatives that match the target through process intensification. A systematic......, multi-stage framework for process synthesis- intensification that identifies more sustainable process designs has been developed. At stages 1-2, the working scale is at the level of unit operations, where a base case design is identified and analyzed with respect to sustainability metrics. At stages 3......, a phenomena-based process synthesis method is applied, where the phenomena involved in each tasks are identified, manipulated and recombined to generate new and/or existing unit operations configured into flowsheets that are more sustainable from those found in the previous levels. An overview of the key...

  4. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Elizabeth C.; Sattler, Meredith; Friedland, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs

  5. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Elizabeth C., E-mail: echiso1@lsu.edu [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Sattler, Meredith, E-mail: msattler@lsu.edu [School of Architecture, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Friedland, Carol J., E-mail: friedland@lsu.edu [Bert S. Turner Department of Construction Management, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs.

  6. Diagnosis of functional (psychogenic paresis and weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savkov V.S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional (conversion neurological symptoms represent one of the most common situations faced by neurologists in their everyday practice. Among them, acute or subacute functional weakness may mimic very prevalent conditions such as stroke or traumatic injury. In the diagnosis of functional weakness, although elements of the history are helpful, physical signs are often of crucial importance in the diagnosis and positive signs are as important as absence of signs of disease. Hence, accurate and reliable positive signs of functional weakness are valuable for obtaining timely diagnosis and treatment, making it possible to avoid unnecessary or invasive tests and procedures up to thrombolysis. Functional weakness commonly presents as weakness of an entire limb, paraparesis, or hemiparesis, with observable or demonstrable inconsistencies and non-anatomic accompaniments. Documentation of limb movements during sleep, the arm drop test, the Babinski’s trunk-thigh test, Hoover tests, the Sonoo abductor test, and various dynamometer tests can provide useful bedside diagnostic information on functional weakness. We therefore present here a brief overview of the positive neurological signs of functional weakness available, both in the lower and in the upper limbs; but none should be used in isolation and must be interpreted in the overall context of the presentation. It should be borne in mind that a patient may have both a functional and an organic disorder.

  7. Weak lensing in generalized gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    We extend the theory of weak gravitational lensing to cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a nonminimal coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge-invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing equation gets modified by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a nonminimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. Starting from the geodesic deviation, we derive the generalized expressions for the shear tensor and projected lensing potential, encoding the spacetime variation of the effective gravitational constant and isolating the contribution of the anisotropic stress, which introduces a correction due to the spatial correlation between the gravitational potentials. Finally, we work out the expressions of the lensing convergence power spectrum as well as the correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect affecting cosmic microwave background total intensity and polarization anisotropies. To illustrate phenomenologically the effects, we work out approximate expressions for the quantities above in extended quintessence scenarios where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy

  8. NOT CARELESS BUT WEAK: LANGUAGE MIXING OF MALAYSIAN CHINESE IN A BUSINESS TRANSACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Ching Hei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is an inevitable tool for business transactions and regardless of nationality, ethnicity, gender, religion, age and social class, interlocutors depend on it to conduct their daily dealings. In multilingual and multicultural Malaysia, it is not uncommon to hear a business transaction being conducted in various languages depending on who the participants are and what the context involves. This study focussed on the phenomenon of language (code mixing within a business transaction that involved four Malaysians of Chinese descent. The study aimed to detect at what level language mixing occurred and what their functions would be. Data were video recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Mandarin utterances were documented in Chinese and Han Yu Pin Yin and provided with translations. Utterances containing a mixture of languages were then extracted for analysis. Findings suggest that language mixing occurred at the word, phrase, sentential and tag level. Language mixing was applied as a strategy to sustain the conversation mainly because of the interlocutors’ weak proficiency in specific languages. It was also employed for various functions such as for distancing or narrowing the social status, making emphasis and projecting a higher personal identity. A follow up interview is required in order to verify the extent of the participants’ low or high proficiency level in the various languages used in this context.

  9. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  10. Embracing the sacred: an indigenous framework for tomorrow's sustainability science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Christian P. Giardina

    2016-01-01

    Mahalo (thank you) for reading our paper. What you will find is an attempt to synthesize and compare the strengths and weaknesses of Indigenous and Western perspectives on sustainability and a proposed path leading to the integration of these two perspectives into a sustainability framework that considers resources as much more than commodities. We enter into this...

  11. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  12. Current problems in the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references

  13. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i

  14. Subsidy Competition for FDI: Fierce or Weak?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Havránek

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories, using both cross-sectional and panel data. Three crucial scenarios (including coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition) are tested employing OLS, iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and Blundell-Bond estimator. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported—although there is some weak sup...

  15. About some distinguishing features of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that, in contrast to strong and electromagnetic theories, additive conserved numbers (such as lepton, aromatic and another numbers) and γ 5 anomaly do not appear in the standard weak interaction theory. It means that in this interaction the additive numbers cannot be conserved. These results are the consequence of specific character of the weak interaction: the right components of spinors do not participate in this interaction. The schemes of violation of the aromatic and lepton numbers were considered

  16. Weak limits for quantum random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, Geoffrey; Janson, Svante; Scudo, Petra F.

    2004-01-01

    We formulate and prove a general weak limit theorem for quantum random walks in one and more dimensions. With X n denoting position at time n, we show that X n /n converges weakly as n→∞ to a certain distribution which is absolutely continuous and of bounded support. The proof is rigorous and makes use of Fourier transform methods. This approach simplifies and extends certain preceding derivations valid in one dimension that make use of combinatorial and path integral methods

  17. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  18. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with the occurrence of concomitant upper limb fractures in older women who sustain a fall-related fracture of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Vallero, Fulvia; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the occurrence of simultaneous fractures of the upper limb in older women who sustain a fall-related fracture of the hip. Cross-sectional study. We investigated 472 of 480 white women consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital because of a fall-related hip fracture. Twenty-seven (5.7%) of the 472 women sustained a concomitant upper-limb fracture of either distal radius (20 women) or proximal humerus (seven women). We assessed serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 14.2 ± 4.1 (mean ± SD) days after surgical repair of the hip fracture in the 472 women by an immunoenzymatic assay. Twenty-five-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in the 27 women with concomitant fractures of both hip and upper limb than in the remaining 445 hip-fracture women: mean ± SD values were 6.5 ± 5.0 ng/ml and 11.7 ± 10.4 ng/ml respectively in the two groups (mean difference between groups 5.2 ng/ml: 95% CI 1.2-9.2; p=0.011). Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly associated with concomitant fractures of the upper limb (p=0.017), after adjustment for eight potential confounders including age, height, weight, hip-fracture type, cognitive impairment, neurologic impairment, previous hip fracture, and previous upper-limb fracture. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly associated with concomitant upper-limb fractures in our sample of older women with a fall-related fracture of the hip. Preventing vitamin D deficiency may lower the incidence of simultaneous fractures due to a singe fall in elderly women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attending to weak signals: the leader's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-12-01

    Halverson and Isham (2003) quote sources that report the accidental death rate of simply being in a hospital is " ... four hundred times more likely than your risk of death from traveling by train, forty times higher than driving a car, and twenty times higher than flying in a commercial aircraft" (p. 13). High-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants and aircraft carriers have been pioneers in the business of recognizing weak signals. Weike and Sutcliffe (2001) note that high-reliability organizations distinguish themselves from others because of their mindfulness which enables them to see the significance of weak signals and to give strong interventions to weak signals. To act mindfully, these organizations have an underlying mental model of continually updating, anticipating, and focusing the possibility of failure using the intelligence that weak signals provides. Much of what happens is unexpected in health care. However, with a culture that is continually looking for weak signals, and intervenes and rescues when these signals are detected, the unexpected happens less often. This is the epitome of how leaders can build a culture of safety that focuses on recognizing the weak signals to manage the unforeseen.

  1. Annual Sustainability Report FY 2014. Incorporates NREL Site Sustainability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukavina, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-01

    NREL's Sustainability Program is responsible for upholding all executive orders, federal regulations, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and goals related to sustainable and resilient facility operations. But NREL continues to expand sustainable practices above and beyond the laboratory's regulations and requirements to ensure that the laboratory fulfills its mission into the future, leaves the smallest possible legacy footprint, and models sustainable operations and behaviors on national, regional, and local levels. The report, per the GRI reporting format, elaborates on multi-year goals relative to executive orders, achievements, and challenges; and success stories provide specific examples. A section called 'Sustaining NREL's Future Through Integration' provides insight into how NREL is successfully expanding the adoption of renewable energy technologies through integration.

  2. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fais

    Full Text Available Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0 = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418 within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  3. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  4. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P.; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120–418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands. PMID:26999791

  5. Regional Radiological Security Partnership in Southeast Asia - Increasing the Sustainability of Security Systems at the Site-Level by Using a Model Facility Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis L.; Dickerson, Sarah; Ravenhill, Scott D.; Murray, Allan; Morris, Frederic A.; Herdes, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP is to cooperate with countries in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need and developing national programs to protect and control such materials, improve the security of such materials, and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. The RRSP has utilized many tools to meet those objectives including: provision of physical protection upgrades, awareness training, physical protection training, regulatory development, locating and recovering orphan sources, and most recently - development of model security procedures at a model facility. This paper discusses the benefits of establishing a model facility, the methods employed by the RRSP, and three of the expected outcomes of the Model Facility approach. The first expected outcome is to increase compliance with source security guidance materials and national regulations by adding context to those materials, and illustrating their impact on a facility. Second, the effectiveness of each of the tools above is increased by making them part of an integrated system. Third, the methods used to develop the model procedures establishes a sustainable process that can ultimately be transferred to all facilities beyond the model. Overall, the RRSP has utilized the Model Facility approach as an important tool to increase the security of radioactive sources, and to position facilities and countries for the long term secure management of those sources.

  6. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  7. Fiscal sustainability in Malaysia: a re-examination

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Hon Chung

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I deploy a broad array of econometric tests to thoroughly examine fiscal sustainability in Malaysia. Results of the multicointegration test suggest the absence of cointegration between the cumulated cointegration errors, real government expenditure and real government revenue. Meanwhile, standard cointegration analyses indicate that the fiscal process fulfills only the weak-form sustainability. Most importantly, results from a fiscal sustainability model which incorporates reve...

  8. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving

  9. Emulating weak localization using a solid-state quantum circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Neill, C; Lucero, Erik; Mariantoni, Matteo; Barends, R; Chiaro, B; Kelly, J; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; O'Malley, P J J; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Yin, Yi; Cleland, A N; Martinis, John M

    2014-10-14

    Quantum interference is one of the most fundamental physical effects found in nature. Recent advances in quantum computing now employ interference as a fundamental resource for computation and control. Quantum interference also lies at the heart of sophisticated condensed matter phenomena such as Anderson localization, phenomena that are difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations. Here, employing a multiple-element superconducting quantum circuit, with which we manipulate a single microwave photon, we demonstrate that we can emulate the basic effects of weak localization. By engineering the control sequence, we are able to reproduce the well-known negative magnetoresistance of weak localization as well as its temperature dependence. Furthermore, we can use our circuit to continuously tune the level of disorder, a parameter that is not readily accessible in mesoscopic systems. Demonstrating a high level of control, our experiment shows the potential for employing superconducting quantum circuits as emulators for complex quantum phenomena.

  10. Pre- and post-selection, weak values and contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    By analysing the concept of contextuality (Bell-Kochen-Specker) in terms of pre- and post-selection, it is possible to assign definite values to observables in a new and surprising way. Physical reasons are presented for restrictions on these assignments. When measurements are performed which do not disturb the pre- and post-selection (i.e. weak measurements), then novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated. We also prove that every PPS-paradox with definite predictions directly implies 'quantum contextuality' which is introduced as the analogue of contextuality at the level of quantum mechanics rather than at the level of hidden variable theories. Finally, we argue that certain results of these measurements (e.g. eccentric weak values outside the eigenvalue spectrum) cannot be explained by a 'classical-like' hidden variable theory

  11. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  12. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  13. Sustainability Assessment and Reporting in Agriculture Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Kassem; Oldřich Trenz; Jiří Hřebíček; Oldřich Faldík

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is a mainstream business activity that demonstrates the link between the organization’s strategy and commitment to a sustainable global economy. Sustainability indicators describe the environmental, social, economic and governance performance of Small and Medium‑sized Businesses/Enterprises (SMB/SME). Unfortunately, their implementations in the Czech Republic show a low level of engagement in sustainability assessment. The paper presents the results of the authors’ r...

  14. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  15. Factors Influencing Museum Sustainability and Indicators for Museum Sustainability Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Luiza Pop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the factors upon which museum sustainability depends and the way in which this can be measured. Methodologically, we applied a qualitative research approach, using semi-structured interviews with experts from the Romanian museum sector, complemented by an in-depth study of the literature in this field. Results indicated that any objective measuring of sustainability must take into account the size of a museum’s collections and its organizational structure. It was also found that museum type can affect sustainability via its competitive advantage. However, the sustainability of a museum is not strictly determined by these factors, but also by the management and marketing strategies applied. Based on analysis of literature- and respondent-based factors influencing sustainability, this article proposes a set of 33 indicators that can be used by museums to measure their sustainability, as well as a model that enables evaluation of the sustainability levels of various museums comparatively, regardless of their type, size or importance (e.g., national, regional and local. The results obtained are useful both from a theoretical point of view, given that there are few writings on this topic, and from a practical point of view, as they provide a basis for a clear, objective model of museum sustainability measurement.

  16. FUNCTIONING OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN UKRAINE: STRONG AND WEAK SIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postgraduate, assistant Sergii Ivanovich TODORIUK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the organizational forms of the agricultural management which is gaining popularity in the world is agricultural holdings. The essence of agricultural holdings is considered in the article. Also the peculiarities of their functioning in Ukraine and determination of the strengths and weaknesses of their activities is defined, as well as perspectives of their further functioning. Agrarian holding, as a relatively new organizational legal form of managing in Ukraine has its advantages and disadvantages. As the experience shows the advantages of agrarian holdings over the subjects of management are revealed mainly in the economic sphere. While their disadvantages over the subjects of management are revealed in social and ecological spheres. This is a negative moment considering the implementation in Ukraine of the concept of the sustainable development, which means the combination of these main components (economic component, environmental component, social component.

  17. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  18. Enhancing QKD security with weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinholt, Jacob M.; Troupe, James E.

    2016-10-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/24/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 11/8/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. In the late 1980s, Aharonov and colleagues developed the notion of a weak measurement of a quantum observable that does not appreciably disturb the system.1, 2 The measurement results are conditioned on both the pre-selected and post-selected state of the quantum system. While any one measurement reveals very little information, by making the same measurement on a large ensemble of identically prepared pre- and post-selected (PPS) states and averaging the results, one may obtain what is known as the weak value of the observable with respect to that PPS ensemble. Recently, weak measurements have been proposed as a method of assessing the security of QKD in the well-known BB84 protocol.3 This weak value augmented QKD protocol (WV-QKD) works by additionally requiring the receiver, Bob, to make a weak measurement of a particular observable prior to his strong measurement. For the subset of measurement results in which Alice and Bob's measurement bases do not agree, the weak measurement results can be used to detect any attempt by an eavesdropper, Eve, to correlate her measurement results with Bob's. Furthermore, the well-known detector blinding attacks, which are known to perfectly correlate Eve's results with Bob's without being caught by conventional BB84 implementations, actually make the eavesdropper more visible in the new WV-QKD protocol. In this paper, we will introduce the WV-QKD protocol and discuss its generalization to the 6-state single qubit protocol. We will discuss the types of weak measurements that are optimal for this protocol, and compare the predicted performance of the 6- and 4-state WV-QKD protocols.

  19. Weak interactions in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    There ar many problems in astrophysics and cosmology in which the form of the weak interactions, their strength or the number of weakly interacting particles, is very important. It is possible that astronomical observations may give some information about the weak interactions. In the conventional hot big bang cosmological theory the number of leptons with associated neutrinos influences the speed of expansion of the Universe and the chemical composition of pre-galactic matter. The strength of the weak interaction, as exemplified by the half-life of the neutron, has a similar effect. In addition, the form of the weak interactions will determine how effectively neutrino viscosity can smooth out irregularities in the early Universe. Because neutrinos have a very long mean free path, they can escape from the central region of stars whereas photons can only escape from the surface. In late stages of stellar evolution, neutrino luminosity is often believed to be much greater than photon luminosity. This can both accelerate the cooling of dying stars and influence the stages of stellar evolution leading to the onset of supernova explosions. In pre-super-novae it is even possible that very dense stellar cores can be opaque to neutrinos and that the absorption or scattering of neutrinos can cause the explosion. These results depend crucially on the form of the weak interactions, with the discovery of neutral currents being very important. Until the solar neutrino experiment has been reconciled with theory, the possible role of uncertainties in the weak interactions cannot be ignored. (author)

  20. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  1. Cosmological information in Gaussianized weak lensing signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, B.; Taylor, A. N.; Kiessling, A.

    2011-11-01

    Gaussianizing the one-point distribution of the weak gravitational lensing convergence has recently been shown to increase the signal-to-noise ratio contained in two-point statistics. We investigate the information on cosmology that can be extracted from the transformed convergence fields. Employing Box-Cox transformations to determine optimal transformations to Gaussianity, we develop analytical models for the transformed power spectrum, including effects of noise and smoothing. We find that optimized Box-Cox transformations perform substantially better than an offset logarithmic transformation in Gaussianizing the convergence, but both yield very similar results for the signal-to-noise ratio. None of the transformations is capable of eliminating correlations of the power spectra between different angular frequencies, which we demonstrate to have a significant impact on the errors in cosmology. Analytic models of the Gaussianized power spectrum yield good fits to the simulations and produce unbiased parameter estimates in the majority of cases, where the exceptions can be traced back to the limitations in modelling the higher order correlations of the original convergence. In the ideal case, without galaxy shape noise, we find an increase in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.6 for angular frequencies up to ℓ= 1500, and a decrease in the area of the confidence region in the Ωm-σ8 plane, measured in terms of q-values, by a factor of 4.4 for the best performing transformation. When adding a realistic level of shape noise, all transformations perform poorly with little decorrelation of angular frequencies, a maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 34 per cent, and even slightly degraded errors on cosmological parameters. We argue that to find Gaussianizing transformations of practical use, it will be necessary to go beyond transformations of the one-point distribution of the convergence, extend the analysis deeper into the non

  2. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  3. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion s...

  4. Nível de disclosure nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o Global Reporting Initiative (GRI = Level of disclosure in sustainability reports in compliance with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Di Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar o nível de disclosure nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o Global Reporting Initiative (GRI nas empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa. Nesse sentido, realizou-se pesquisa descritiva com procedimentos de coleta documental e abordagem quantitativa. A amostra analisada ficou composta por 93 empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa, que divulgaram o relatório de sustentabilidade no ano de 2014 em conformidade com o modelo GRI. Os resultados mostram que à medida em que há maior complexidade nas informações, que compreendem os grupos de indicadores apresentados nos relatórios de sustentabilidade, reduz o nível de evidenciação pelas empresas. Com relação ao nível de evidenciação, percebe-se que o maior grupo de empresas se concentra com baixa evidenciação. Representa cerca de 30% das empresas analisadas, atendendo até 50 itens dos 150 que o relatório propõe. Quanto ao setor econômico, utilidade pública apresentou maior nível de evidenciação nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o modelo GRI. Conclui-se que, embora tenha havido aumento na divulgação dos relatórios de sustentabilidade, as empresas ainda carecem de adaptação para atender aos indicadores do GRI, melhorando a qualidade dos relatórios divulgados e elevando a transparência aos diversos públicos de interesse. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of disclosure in the sustainability reports in compliance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI in the companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. In this sense, a descriptive research was carried out with procedures of documentary collection and quantitative approach. The sample analyzed was composed of 93 companies listed on the BM&FBovespa, which published the sustainability report in 2014 in compliance with the GRI model. The results show that to the extent that there is more complexity in the information that comprises the groups of indicators

  5. The Problem of Weak Governments and Weak Societies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Grdešić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that, for Eastern Europe, the simultaneous presence of weak governments and weak societies is a crucial obstacle which must be faced by analysts and reformers. The understanding of other normatively significant processes will be deficient without a consciousness-raising deliberation on this problem and its implications. This paper seeks to articulate the “relational” approach to state and society. In addition, the paper lays out a typology of possible patterns of relationship between state and society, dependent on whether the state is weak or strong and whether society is weak or strong. Comparative data are presented in order to provide an empirical support for the theses. Finally, the paper outlines two reform approaches which could enable breaking the vicious circle emerging in the context of weak governments and weak societies.

  6. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1-64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η - χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  7. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio; Gomes, Diogo A.; Marcon, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio

    2016-06-23

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Managing Sustainability of Fennoscandian Forests and Their Use by Law and/or Agreement: For Whom and Which Purpose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tuomasjukka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and sustainable behaviour is of crucial importance in the management of Fennoscandian forests and forest-related industries. This paper reviews a number of voluntary instruments, which aim at promoting or assessing sustainability impacts at different levels. The multitude of available instruments brings confusion in practice, where companies, consumers and investors meet legal and different voluntary regulatory and non-regulatory instruments. The practical suitability and covered sustainability dimension for each instrument is reviewed with an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, actors and purposes for assessing different aspects of sustainability. Each of them is compared against the other in an overview about which sustainability dimensions they cover (workplace, human rights, community, market place, environment, economy. Results highlight covered, overlapping and missing aspects for each approach and how they can support or reinforce each other. Special attention is given to current approaches in impact assessment, particularly on their areas of application (companies, NGOs, products, operations, production practices, etc., and recommendations for supplementing it with sustainability impact assessment.

  10. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.

    2007-05-01

    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  11. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong; Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  12. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong [Physics Department, Stanford University,Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  13. Efficient quantum computing with weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, A P

    2011-01-01

    Projective measurements with high quantum efficiency are often assumed to be required for efficient circuit-based quantum computing. We argue that this is not the case and show that the fact that they are not required was actually known previously but was not deeply explored. We examine this issue by giving an example of how to perform the quantum-ordering-finding algorithm efficiently using non-local weak measurements considering that the measurements used are of bounded weakness and some fixed but arbitrary probability of success less than unity is required. We also show that it is possible to perform the same computation with only local weak measurements, but this must necessarily introduce an exponential overhead.

  14. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  15. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  16. Weak self-adjoint differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarias, M L

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations were introduced by Ibragimov (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 318 742-57; 2007 Arch. ALGA 4 55-60). In Ibragimov (2007 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 311-28), a general theorem on conservation laws was proved. In this paper, we generalize the concept of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations by introducing the definition of weak self-adjoint equations. We find a class of weak self-adjoint quasi-linear parabolic equations. The property of a differential equation to be weak self-adjoint is important for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation. (fast track communication)

  17. On weakly D-differentiable operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Let DD be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space HH and aa a bounded operator on HH. We say that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, if for any pair of vectors ξ,ηξ,η from HH the function 〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉 is differentiable. We give an elementary example of a bounded operator aa......, such that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, but the function eitDae−itDeitDae−itD is not uniformly differentiable. We show that weak  DD-differentiability   may be characterized by several other properties, some of which are related to the commutator (Da−aD)...

  18. Strong effects in weak nonleptonic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.B.

    1980-04-01

    In this report the weak nonleptonic decays of kaons and hyperons are examined with the hope of gaining insight into a recently proposed mechanism for the ΔI = 1/2 rule. The effective Hamiltonian for ΔS = 1 weak nonleptonic decays and that for K 0 -anti K 0 mixing are calculated in the six-quark model using the leading logarithmic approximation. These are used to examine the CP violation parameters of the kaon system. It is found that if Penguin-type diagrams make important contributions to K → ππ decay amplitudes then upcoming experiments may be able to distinguish the six-quark model for CP violation from the superweak model. The weak radiative decays of hyperons are discussed with an emphasis on what they can teach us about hyperon nonleptonic decays and the ΔI = 1/2 rule

  19. The Sustainable Leadership Simulator (SLS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Edgeman, Rick; Grewatsch, Sylvia

    This conceptualization of the UN PRME-endorsed (Haertle, 2013) Sustainable Leadership Simulator (SLS) will at a minimum level of operationalization be an impactful online training simulator leveraging more sustainable behavior by individuals and organizations. Fully operationalized the SLS has...... & Ferraro, 2010). The UNGC Advanced Level has a more explicit management orientation than the GRI and integrates Best Practices in a framework for assessment of Sustainability Performance, in a manner analogous to quality management frameworks such as the EFQM Business Excellence Model that supports...... and the lack of process transparency among the most critical shortcomings. Future application of the Sustainable Leadership Simulator (SLS) offers potential for addressing these shortcomings by continuously validating the organizational impact of Best Practices and, conversely, generate data that allows...

  20. Sustainable building design in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability certification schemes experience growing popularity. Denmark got its own sustainability certification scheme based on the German DGNB certification scheme. Previous work based on four case studies – DGNB certified healthcare centres, suggests further research on how to improve...... and support the iterative design process in the initial design phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the design process on a more common level experienced by Danish DGNB consultants when designing sustainable buildings using the Danish DGNB certification scheme and thereby possibly...

  1. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesgaard, Kristine S; Albert, Kristian R; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Michelsen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Schmidt, Niels M

    2012-08-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion study in high arctic Greenland. During the growing season, the gas exchange (H₂O and CO₂) and chlorophyll-a fluorescence were measured in Vaccinium uliginosum. The leaf dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, stable carbon isotope ratio, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were determined from a late season harvest. The net photosynthesis per leaf area was on average 22% higher in 61% reduced UV-B treatment across the season, but per ground area photosynthesis was unchanged. The leaf level increase in photosynthesis was accompanied by increased leaf nitrogen, higher stomatal conductance and F(v)/F(m). There was no change in total leaf biomass, but reduction in total leaf area caused a pronounced reduction of specific leaf area and leaf area index in reduced UV-B. This demonstrates the structural changes to counterbalance the reduced plant carbon uptake seen per leaf area in ambient UV-B as the resulting plant carbon uptake per ground area was not affected. Thus, our understanding of long-term responses to UV-B reduction must take into account both leaf level processes as well as structural changes to understand the apparent robustness of plant carbon uptake per ground area. In this perspective, V. uliginosum seems able to adjust plant carbon uptake to the present amount of solar UV-B radiation in the High Arctic. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  2. Analysis of opinion about nuclear energy and sustainability in a graduate level population; Analisis de opinion sobre la energia nuclear y sustentabilidad en una poblacion de nivel superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza L, C.D.; Arredondo S, C. [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: angie2esa@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Mexican society has a modest knowledge of the nuclear energy, even at the participant students of superior education level in this survey is finds a scarce compression with regard to their obtaining, use and manage. As a result of the lack of interest of the same society and at the problems that know each other like they are: the pollutants that it produces those nuclear waste and the possible use or warlike end, a fear is believed about this energy type. In the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics there is the possibility to make studies so much at master degree level in the one fear of the nuclear energy and the applications of the same one in peaceful uses. However, particularly the studies at master level seem to be immersed in a crisis that requires of different supports to be resolved. For all it previous was thought in carrying out a survey inside a student population with superior level to know the opinion and the knowledge on the nuclear energy in Mexico. In this work the results of the survey are analyzed with the purpose of to determine which is the knowledge of the community mentioned regarding the other energy types, the impact that they have these in the environment, the sustenance of the same ones and in particular on knowledge about the nuclear energy considering the aspects before mentioned. With base had said analysis settles down that the interviewed community knows very little about the nuclear energy but they show interest to study and to obtain bigger information about the same one, for what is very important to diffuse but and better information on the nuclear energy to the population's strata, because it is of supposing that the rest of the population has erroneous information on the nuclear energy. In particular for the community of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics the diffusion of all the benefits of the peaceful applications of the nuclear energy, including the capacity to generate enormous quantities and

  3. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 9. Report on specific competency trainings (basic level) by TEDC for SMK teachers from the five CASINDO regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-03-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report describes the trainings conducted by TEDC Bandung (Technical Education Development Centre) on specific competencies for the teachers of the 11 SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) involved in CASINDO in the renewable energy technologies micro hydropower , solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass, biogas and energy efficiency. The report also contains a description of the Training of Trainers activities conducted by the CASINDO consortium for TEDC staff in the renewable energy technologies micro hydro power, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass , biogas and energy efficiency. Additionally, the report describes training activities that are closely linked to and highly relevant for CASINDO.

  4. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  5. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  6. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  7. Weak hadronic currents in compensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Working within the framework of a compensation theory of strong and weak interactions, it is shown that: (1) an axial vector baryon number current can be included in the weak current algebra if certain restrictions on the K-meson strong couplings are relaxed; (2) the theory does not permit the introduction of strange currents of the chiral form V + A; and (3) the assumption that the superweak currents of the theory cannot contain certain CP conserving terms can be justified on the basis of compensation requirements

  8. Weak interactions of the b quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    In weak-interaction models with two charged W bosons of comparable mass, there exists a novel possibility for the weak interactions of the b quark, in which the (u-barb)/sub R/ current occurs with maximal strength. It is noted that multimuon production in e + e - annihilation at above Q 2 > or approx. = (12 GeV) 2 will distinguish this scheme from the conventional one. We also present a Higgs system that leads naturally to this type of coupling, in a class of gauge models

  9. Fast measure proceeding of weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, J.

    1953-01-01

    The process of fast measure of the weak currents that we are going to describe briefly apply worthy of the provided currents by the sources to elevated value internal resistance, as it is the case for the ionization chamber, the photocells, mass spectroscopic tubes. The problem to measure weak currents is essentially a problem of amplifier and of input circuit. We intended to achieve a whole amplifier and input circuit with advanced performances, meaning that for a measured celerity we wanted to have an signal/noise ratio the most important as in the classic systems and for a same report signal/noise a more quickly done measure. (M.B.) [fr

  10. A Continuation Method for Weakly Kannan Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza-Ruiz David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first continuation method for contractive maps in the setting of a metric space was given by Granas. Later, Frigon extended Granas theorem to the class of weakly contractive maps, and recently Agarwal and O'Regan have given the corresponding result for a certain type of quasicontractions which includes maps of Kannan type. In this note we introduce the concept of weakly Kannan maps and give a fixed point theorem, and then a continuation method, for this class of maps.

  11. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Weak form factors of beauty baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Full analysis of semileptonic decays of beauty baryons with J p =1/2 2 and J p =3/2 2 into charmed ones within the Quark Confinement Model is reported. Weak form factors and decay rates are calculated. Also the heavy quark limit m Q →∞ (Isgur-Wise symmetry) is examined. The weak heavy-baryon form factors in the Isgur-Wise limit and 1/m Q -corrections to them are computered. The Ademollo-Gatto theorem is spin-flavour symmetry of heavy quarks is checked. 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  13. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  14. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  15. Theoretical status of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, L. K.

    1980-07-01

    An extended simple version of the Weinberg gauge model is proposed to bring together weak and electromagnetic interactions under one theory. The essential features of the standard SU/sub 2/ (operating on)U/sub 1/ gauge scheme with four leptons and four quark flavours is recalled. Charged-current and neutral current interactions are described. Non-leptonic decays of strange particles are studied. The treatment is extended to 6-leptons and 6-quark flavours. The short comings of this model are discussed. Speculations on the unification of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are made.

  16. CPT non-invariance and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.

    1973-01-01

    In this talk, I will describe a possible violation of CPT invariance in the domain of weak interactions. One can construct a model of weak interactions which, in order to be consistent with all experimental data, must violate CPT maximally. The model predicts many specific results for decay processes which could be tested in the planned neutral hyperon beam or neutrino beam at NAL. The motivations and the physical idea in the model are explained and the implications of the model are discussed. (U.S.)

  17. From public to private and back again: sustaining a high service-delivery level during transition of management authority: a Cambodia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bart; Thomé, Jean-Marc; Overtoom, Rob; Sam, Sam Oeun; Indermühle, Lorenz; Price, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Contracting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has been shown to increase health service delivery output considerably over relatively short time frames in low-income countries, especially when applying performance-related pay as a stimulus. A key concern is how to manage the transition back to government-operated systems while maintaining health service delivery output levels. In this paper we describe and analyse the transition from NGO-managed to government-managed health services over a 3-year period in a health district in Cambodia with a focus on the level of health service delivery. Data are derived from four sources, including cross-sectional surveys and health management and financial information systems. The transition was achieved by focusing on all the building blocks of the health care system and ensuring an acceptable financial remuneration for the staff members of contracted health facilities. The latter was attained through performance subsidies derived from financial commitment by the central government, and revenue from user fees. Performance management had a crucial role in the gradual handover of responsibilities. Not all responsibilities were handed back to government over the case study period-notably the development of performance indicators and targets and the performance monitoring.

  18. Managing sustainability in management education

    OpenAIRE

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues are increasingly becoming a key business concern at local, national, international and global levels. Consequently, environmental issues and sustainability have found their way into management education in terms of business ethics, corporate social or sustainability responsibilities (CSR), etc.. Dominant conceptions of CSR identify a series of different types of corporate responsibilities, fx. economic, legal, social, environmental, etc. (e.g. Crane & Matten, 2010). A...

  19. Donor-funded project's sustainability assessment: a qualitative case study of a results-based financing pilot in Koulikoro region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppey, Mathieu; Ridde, Valéry; Touré, Laurence; Coulibaly, Abdourahmane

    2017-12-08

    Results-based financing (RBF) is emerging as a new alternative to finance health systems in many African countries. In Mali, a pilot project was conducted to improve demand and supply of health services through financing performance in targeted services. No study has explored the sustainability process of such a project in Africa. This study's objectives were to understand the project's sustainability process and to assess its level of sustainability. Sustainability was examined through its different determinants, phases, levels and contexts. These were explored using qualitative interviews to discern, via critical events, stakeholders' ideas regarding the project's sustainability. Data collection sites were chosen with the participation of different stakeholders, based on a variety of criteria (rural/urban settings, level of participation, RBF participants still present, etc.). Forty-nine stakeholders were then interviewed in six community health centres and two referral health centres (from 11/12/15 to 08/03/16), including health practitioners, administrators, and those involved in implementing and conceptualizing the program (government and NGOs). A theme analysis was done with the software © QDA Miner according to the study's conceptual framework. The results of this project show a weak level of sustainability due to many factors. While some gains could be sustained (ex.: investments in long-term resources, high compatibility of values and codes, adapted design to the implementations contexts, etc.) other intended benefits could not (ex.: end of investments, lack of shared cultural artefacts around RBF, loss of different tasks and procedures, need of more ownership of the project by the local stakeholders). A lack of sustainability planning was observed, and few critical events were associated to phases of sustainability. While this RBF project aimed at increasing health agents' motivation through different mechanisms (supervision, investments, incentives, etc

  20. 36 CFR 223.219 - Sustainable harvest of special forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sustainable harvest of....219 Sustainable harvest of special forest products. (a) Sustainable harvest levels. Prior to offering... product's sustainable harvest level. A special forest product's sustainable harvest level is the total...

  1. Sustained Increase of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Healthy Young Women during Wintertime after Three Suberythemal UV Irradiations-The MUVY Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gudrun Biersack

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (VitD deficiency is a health problem prevalent not only in the elderly but also in young adults. The primary objective of our observational pilot study "MUVY" (Mood, UVR, Vitamin D in Young women was to test both the short-term and long-term effects of a series of three suberythemal UV radiation (UVR exposures on the VitD status and well-being of young healthy women during winter in a repeat measure design.20 healthy young women (Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, aged 21-25 years received three full body broad band UVR exposures with an escalating erythemally weighted dose schedule during one week in winter, and completed self-report questionnaires monitoring symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI and affective state/well-being (Profile of Mood States, POMS at baseline and three days after the last UVR exposure. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D were measured in serum at baseline, and at study days 8, 36 and 50.Mean baseline 25(OHD level was 54.3 nmol/L (standard deviation (s.d. = 24.1, with seven women having VitD deficient status. Relevant symptoms of depression, as indicated by low BDI total scores (0-8, were absent. After the three UVR exposures the increment of 25(OHD was an average of 13.9 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI = 9.4-18.4 and 26.2 pmol/L (95%CI = 7.2-45.1 for 1,25(OH2D. Δ25(OHD, and corresponding baseline levels were significantly and inversely associated (rho = -0.493, p = 0.027. Only 25(OHD remained significantly increased above baseline for at least six weeks after the last UVR exposure. A strong inverse correlation of the POMS subscale "Vigor/Activity" and the increment in 1,25(OH2D was found (rho = -0.739, p<0.001 at day 8.Three suberythemal whole body UVR exposures during one week are a simple and suitable method for improving 25(OHD levels during winter, for at least six weeks, and especially in young women with VitD deficient status.German Clinical Trials

  2. Weak ionization of the global ionosphere in solar cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Hao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following prolonged and extremely quiet solar activity from 2008 to 2009, the 24th solar cycle started slowly. It has been almost 5 years since then. The measurement of ionospheric critical frequency (foF2 shows the fact that solar activity has been significantly lower in the first half of cycle 24, compared to the average levels of cycles 19 to 23; the data of global average total electron content (TEC confirm that the global ionosphere around the cycle 24 peak is much more weakly ionized, in contrast to cycle 23. The weak ionization has been more notable since the year 2012, when both the ionosphere and solar activity were expected to be approaching their maximum level. The undersupply of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV irradiance somewhat continues after the 2008–2009 minimum, and is considered to be the main cause of the weak ionization. It further implies that the thermosphere and ionosphere in the first solar cycle of this millennium would probably differ from what we have learned from the previous cycles of the space age.

  3. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  4. Axial weak currents in the Wess-Zumino term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1985-03-01

    The conventional axial gauging of the Wess-Zumino term leads to the results which do not necessarily agree with the expectations on the basis of quark level Ward-Takahashi identities. This discrepancy arises from the fact that the quark level anomalous identities reflect the short distance structure of QCD, whereas the gauging of the Wess-Zumino term reflects the axial symmetry in the spontaneously broken chiral phase. The low energy theorem for axial weak fields is not sharply defined, in contrast to the case of vector fields where no such complications arise. (author)

  5. A weak balance: the contribution of muscle weakness to postural instability and falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, G.C.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Allum, J.H.J.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle strength is a potentially important factor contributing to postural control. In this article, we consider the influence of muscle weakness on postural instability and falling. We searched the literature for research evaluating muscle weakness as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling

  6. Sustainability and Risk Disclosure: An Exploratory Study on Sustainability Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Truant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB, the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB, and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial and social-environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure calls for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of large Italian organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between their level of risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only a few of them seem to adopt a managerial perspective linking strategy, risk metrics, and disclosure.

  7. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  8. Weakly nonlocal symplectic structures, Whitham method and weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltsev, A Ya

    2005-01-01

    We consider the special type of field-theoretical symplectic structures called weakly nonlocal. The structures of this type are, in particular, very common for integrable systems such as KdV or NLS. We introduce here the special class of weakly nonlocal symplectic structures which we call weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type. We investigate then the connection of such structures with the Whitham averaging method and propose the procedure of 'averaging' the weakly nonlocal symplectic structures. The averaging procedure gives the weakly nonlocal symplectic structure of hydrodynamic type for the corresponding Whitham system. The procedure also gives 'action variables' corresponding to the wave numbers of m-phase solutions of the initial system which give the additional conservation laws for the Whitham system

  9. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  10. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  11. Weak MSO: automata and expressiveness modulo bisimilarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreiro, F.; Facchini, A.; Venema, Y.; Zanasi, F.

    2014-01-01

    We prove that the bisimulation-invariant fragment of weak monadic second-order logic (WMSO) is equivalent to the fragment of the modal μ-calculus where the application of the least fixpoint operator μp.φ is restricted to formulas φ that are continuous in p. Our proof is automata-theoretic in nature;

  12. Weak lensing probes of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of modifications to general relativity on large-scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and tensor-vector-scalar theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective dark energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of dark energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, measured via the galaxy-cosmic microwave background cross-correlation.

  13. Weak contractions via $\\lambda$-sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we discuss common fixed point for a family of self mapping defined on a metric type space and satisfying a weakly contractive condition. In our development, we make use of the $\\lambda$-sequence approach and also of a certain class of real valued maps. We derive some implications for self-mappings on quasi-pseudometric type spaces.

  14. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  15. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-01-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B→B 1 B 2 -barγ are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b→sγ electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived

  16. Weak NNM couplings and nuclear parity violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    After many years of careful theoretical and experimental study of nuclear parity violation, rough empirical values for weak parity violation nucleon-nucleon-meson vertices have been deduced. We address some of the physics which has been learned from this effort and show that it has implications for work going on outside this field. (author)

  17. Weak universality in inhomogeneous Ising quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karevski, Dragi

    2006-01-01

    The Ising quantum chain with arbitrary coupling distribution {λ i } leading to an anisotropic scaling is considered. The smallest gap of the chain is connected to the surface magnetization by the relation Λ 1 = m s ({λ i })m s ({λ -1 i }). For some aperiodic distribution {λ i }, a weak universality of the critical behaviour is found. (letter to the editor)

  18. Broken color symmetry and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Broken colour symmetry predicts a very rich spectrum of new particles. If broken colour is relevant at all, charged psi-particles should be found in particular at the 4 GeV region. For the weak hadronic currents no completely satisfactory suggestion exists. Broken colour symmetry describes qualitatively several of the new effects observed recently. (BJ) [de

  19. Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...

  20. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  1. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Gauge theories of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    1978-08-01

    Two lectures are presented on the Weinberg--Salam--Glashow--Iliopoulos--Maiani gauge theory for weak interactions. An attempt is made to give some impressions of the generality of this model, how it was developed, variations found in the literature, and the status of the standard model. 21 references

  3. Electric properties of weakly nonideal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K; Radtke, R

    1984-01-01

    The progress in theory as well as in diagnostics and measurement during the last fifteen years is reviewed. Starting from the transport theory of ideal plasmas physically justified corrections are introduced which allow the quantitative calculation of the transport properties of weakly nonideal plasmas. Essential coefficients and numerical data of the electrical conductivity for plasmas of technical importance are given in tables and diagrams.

  4. Localization on weakly disordered Cayley tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezini, A.; Olivier, G.

    1980-08-01

    The localization model of Kumar et al. is critically re-examined for the approximation γ → 0, which describes weak disorder. By using an improved method of approximation, we have studied the displacement of the band and the mobility edges and compared the result of Kumar et al. and Abou-Chacra et al. in the light of the present approximation. (author)

  5. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  6. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  7. Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating

  8. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced

  9. Weak-interaction rates in stellar conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriguren, Pedro

    2018-05-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including β-decay and electron captures, are studied in several mass regions at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. In particular, we study odd-A nuclei in the pf-shell region, which are involved in presupernova formations. Weak rates are relevant to understand the late stages of the stellar evolution, as well as the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle proton-neutron random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. First, the energy distributions of the Gamow-Teller strength are discussed and compared with the available experimental information, measured under terrestrial conditions from charge-exchange reactions. Then, the sensitivity of the weak-interaction rates to both astrophysical densities and temperatures is studied. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus and to the electron captures from the degenerate electron plasma.

  10. Black holes and the weak cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    A theory of black holes is developed under the assumption of the weak cosmic censorship. It includes Hawking's theory of black holes in the future asymptotically predictable space-times as a special case but it also applies to the cosmological situations including models with nonzero cosmological constant of both signs. (author)

  11. How weak is the subduction zone interface?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that subduction zones are weak and that the unique availability of water on Earth is a critical factor in the weakening process. We have evaluated the strength of subduction zone interfaces using two approaches: (i) from empirical relationships between shear stress

  12. Mobile devices and weak ties: a study of vision impairments and workplace access in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Joyojeet; Lakshmanan, Meera

    2015-07-01

    To explore ways in which social and economic interactions are changed by access to mobile telephony. This is a mixed-methods study of mobile phone use among 52 urban professionals with vision impairments in Bangalore, India. Interviews and survey results indicated that mobile devices, specifically those with adaptive technology software, play a vital role as multi-purpose devices that enable people with disabilities to navigate economically and socially in an environment where accessibility remains a significant challenge. We found that mobile devices play a central role in enabling and sustaining weak ties, but also that these weak ties have important gender-specific implications. We found that women have less access to weak ties than men, which impacts women's access to assistive technology (AT). This has potential implications for women's sense of safety and independence, both of which are strongly related to AT access. Implications for Rehabilitation Adaptive technologies increase individuals' ability to keep in contact with casual connections or weak ties through phone calls or social media. Men tend to have stronger access to weak ties than women in India due to cultural impediments to independent access to public spaces. Weak ties are an important source of assistive technology (AT) due to the high rate of resale of used AT, typically through informal networks.

  13. Sustaining elevated levels of nitrite in the oral cavity through consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot juice in young healthy adults reduces salivary pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Barbara; Haselgrübler, Renate; Müller, Ulrike; Stadlbauer, Verena; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Lirk, Gerald; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2016-11-30

    Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO 3 - ) and its reduced forms nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively, are of critical importance for host defense in the oral cavity. High concentrations of salivary nitrate are linked to a lower prevalence of caries due to growth inhibition of cariogenic bacteria. In-vitro studies suggest that the formation of antimicrobial NO results in an increase of the pH preventing erosion of tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to prove this effect in-vivo. In a randomized clinical study with 46 subjects we investigated whether NO 3 - rich beetroot juice exhibits a protective effect against caries by an increase of salivary pH. Our results show that, in comparison to a placebo group, consumption of beetroot juice that contains 4000 mg/L NO 3 - results in elevated levels of salivary NO 2 - , nitrite NO 3 - , and NO. Furthermore, we determined an increase of the mean pH of saliva from 7.0 to 7.5, confirming the anti-cariogenic effect of the used NO 3 - -rich beetroot juice. Taken together, we have found that NO 3 - -rich beetroot juice holds potential effects against dental caries by preventing acidification of human saliva. C-87-15 (Ethics Commissions of Upper Austria). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventions to encourage sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is hampered by a discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual behaviour in the market place. Psychological construal level theory provides an explanation for the attitude to behaviour gap as a motivational conflict between high and low level of mental construal.

  15. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  16. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  17. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  18. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  19. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Mazza, Fabio; Steiner, Michael; Watts, Gerald F.; De Nève, Joel; Pasqualetti, Daniela; Paal, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI) (LA) on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55 ± 9.3 years (mean ± SD), were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p < 0.001). The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R 2 = 0.99; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins. PMID:26903710

  20. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.