WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable levels weak

  1. Theory of weakly nonlinear self-sustained detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2015-11-03

    We propose a theory of weakly nonlinear multidimensional self-sustained detonations based on asymptotic analysis of the reactive compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We show that these equations can be reduced to a model consisting of a forced unsteady small-disturbance transonic equation and a rate equation for the heat release. In one spatial dimension, the model simplifies to a forced Burgers equation. Through analysis, numerical calculations and comparison with the reactive Euler equations, the model is demonstrated to capture such essential dynamical characteristics of detonations as the steady-state structure, the linear stability spectrum, the period-doubling sequence of bifurcations and chaos in one-dimensional detonations and cellular structures in multidimensional detonations.

  2. Strengths and weaknesses of common sustainability indices for multidimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Audrey L

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability is rapidly moving from an abstract concept to a measurable state of dynamic human-ecological systems. The large number of economic, social, and environmental indicators currently available provides an unwieldy view of system sustainability. To aid policy decisions, these indicators are therefore either presented in the context of a conceptual framework, or quantitatively aggregated into indices. Due to the quantitative nature of sustainability indices, their results may be given more weight by scientists and policy-makers. However, policy decisions can be ineffective or even counterproductive if they do not consider factors which influence index behavior: the scale of the available data and choice of system boundaries; the inclusion, transformation, and weighting of indicator data; and the aggregation method used. As previous reviews have demonstrated, sustainability indices do not rank countries consistently, even when using some of the same indicator data. Several improvements would increase the utility of sustainability indices for policy decisions, particularly the identification of biases introduced by the index methodology and data inclusion. The discrepancy of current sustainability indices due to theoretical or methodological differences supports the use of several complementary indices.

  3. Idaho Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Career Sustaining Level, Specialist Level, Supervisory Level, Entrepreneurial Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allbright, Bruce; Holup, John

    This guide lists the competencies expected to be developed in four levels of the marketing education curriculum in Idaho: the career sustaining level, the specialist level, the supervisory level, and the entrepreneurial level. For the career sustaining and specialist levels, 15 competencies are listed: define and apply the role of marketing in the…

  4. Evaluation of Practicing sustainable Industrial Solid Waste Minimization by Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia: Strengths and Weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Shadi Kafi; Bakri Ishak, Mohd; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2016-09-13

    Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (pstrengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. Accordingly, ten policies were recommended for improvement of practicing waste minimization by manufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries. The results contribute to the knowledge and the findings of this study provide a useful baseline information and data on industrial solid waste generation and waste minimization practice.

  5. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  6. Beyond the Conflict and Weak Civil Society; Stories from Ukraine: Cases of Grassroots Initiatives for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Udovyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the diversity of grassroots initiatives (GIs for sustainable development that are emerging in post-EuroMaidan Ukraine. It first focuses on an overview of different theories on civil society and trends in Ukrainian civil society development. Eight cases of GIs are selected to represent different pillars of sustainability work done by the initiatives (economic, social, environmental, and political-institutional. These cases question the arguments behind the weak and pseudo-plenipotentiary vision of civil society in Ukraine, and demonstrate mechanisms of sustainable development suggested by analyzed GIs. In general, this study challenges the myth of a weak civil society in Ukraine, opens up a broader discussion on the meaning and role of civil society, and provides new ideas for building a sustainable society.

  7. Josephson current and Andreev level dynamics in nanoscale superconducting weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Aldo

    2014-11-15

    In this thesis we focus on the interplay between proximity induced superconducting correlations and Coulomb interactions in a Josephson junction: i.e., in a system where two superconductors modeled as two s-wave superconductors at a phase difference φ are contacted by means of a weak link, in our case a quantum dot located in the contact. In the first part we study the Josephson current-phase relation for a multi-level quantum dot tunnel-contacted by two conventional s-waves superconductors. We determine in detail the conditions for observing a finite anomalous Josephson current, i.e. a supercurrent flowing at zero phase difference in a two-level dot with spin-orbit interactions, a weak magnetic (Zeeman) field, and in the presence of Coulomb interactions. This leads to an onset behavior I{sub a}∝sgn(B), interpreted as the sign of an incipient spontaneous breakdown of time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, we will provide conditions for realizing spatially separated - but topologically unprotected - Majorana bound states, whose signature in the system will be detectable via the current-phase relation. In the second part of the thesis, we address the Andreev bound state population dynamics in superconducting weak links (a superconducting 'atomic contact'), in which a poisoning mechanism due to the trapping of single quasiparticles can occur. Our motivation is that quantum coherent superconducting circuits are the most promising candidates for future large-scale quantum information processing devices. Moreover, quasiparticle poisoning has recently been observed in devices which contain a short superconducting weak link with few transport channels. We discuss a novel charge imbalance effect in the continuum quasiparticle population, which is due to phase fluctuations of the environment weakly coupled to the superconducting contact. This coupling enters the system as a transition rate connecting continuum quasiparticles and the Andreev bound state system. The

  8. Tourism and Sustainable Development. Implications at Local Community Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ioan Nechifor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents an economic activity with a special growth potential and rate that, managed in a proper way, can represent an important means for ensuring a sustainable development and to promote and sustain local communities. During the past period, the development of tourism raised awareness among policy makers, local governments, tourists, etc. about the effect of tourism on the environment, this way the development of a sustainable tourism being a necessity. The present paper aims to outline a series of implications at communities' level that the relationship between tourism and sustainable development may generate, focusing on one of the most representative and important components of sustainable tourism, respectively ecotourism and its particular forms of rural and agrotourism.

  9. Teaching Sustainability from a Scientific Standpoint at the Introductory Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Stone, E.; Myers, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    In recent decades, humankind has recognized that current levels of resource utilization are seriously impacting our planet's life support systems and threatening the ability of future generations to provide for themselves. The concept of sustainability has been promoted by a variety of national and international organizations as a method to devise ways to adjust humanity's habits and consumption to levels that can be maintained over the long term, i.e. sustained. Courses on sustainability are being offered at many universities and colleges, but most are taught outside of science departments; they are often designed around policy concerns or focus primarily on environmental impacts while neglecting the science of sustainability. Because the three foundations necessary to implement sustainability are sustainability governance, sustainability accounting, and sustainability science, it is imperative that science departments play an active role in preparing citizens and professionals for dealing with sustainability issues. The geosciences are one of the scientific disciplines that offer a logical foundation from which to teach sustainability science. Geoscientists can also offer a unique and relevant geologic perspective on sustainability issues. The authors have developed an introductory, interdisciplinary course entitled 'Global Sustainability: Managing Earth's Resources' that integrates scientific disciplines in the examination of real world sustainability issues. In-depth understanding of physical, Earth and biological science principles are necessary for students to identify the limits and constraints imposed on important issues facing modern society, e.g. water, energy, population growth, etc. This course exposes students to all the scientific principles that apply directly to sustainability. The subject allows the instructors to present open-ended, multifaceted and complex problems relevant to today's industrialized and globalized world, and it encourages

  10. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  11. Innovation Level of Sustainable Practices Adopted in Industrial Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Sehnem

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the level of innovation of sustainable practices by industrial companies. This is a descriptive study that made use of a questionnaire answered by 50 industrial companies. The results show that environmental practices at full level by 68% of businesses are monitoring the risks and opportunities for the organization's activities due to climate change; 56% of companies surveyed are waste separation; followed by the realization of related health and safety trainin...

  12. A new interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC of capacitive liquid level sensor in the rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Qin, Yao; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2017-11-01

    A new capacitive liquid level sensing interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC has been designed. This ASIC realized the detection of the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor, which converts the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor to voltage. The chip is fabricated in a standard 0.5μm CMOS process. The test results show that the linearity of capacitance detection of the ASIC is 0.05%, output noise is 3.7aF/Hz (when the capacitance which will be detected is 40 pF), the stability of capacitance detection is 7.4 × 10‑5pF (1σ, 1h), the output zero position temperature coefficient is 4.5 uV/∘C. The test results prove that this interface ASIC can meet the requirement of high accuracy capacitance detection. Therefore, this interface ASIC can be applied in capacitive liquid level sensing and capacitive humidity sensing field.

  13. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organization-level predictors of sustained social movement participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric A; Speer, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Long-term sustained participation represents one of the most important resources available to community organizations and social movement organizations (SMOs). The participatory literature on community and SMOs has identified a host of individual-level factors that influence participation beyond initial engagement, and has more recently identified contextual factors that influence participation. This study builds upon current understandings of participation in SMOs by examining how sustained participation in movement activities is affected by two qualities of SMO settings: repertoire of organizational activity, and equality of staff contact with organization members to cultivate and facilitate individual participation. To this end, we employ multi-level regression techniques to examine longitudinal data on participation within 50 local chapters of a national congregation-based community organizing federation. We find that the conduct of organizational activities previously shown to increase levels of participation among individual persons does not necessarily lead to increases in aggregate or organization-level participation. Further, we find that conditions of unequal staff contact among organization members represent a notable drag on organization-level participation over time. Our findings suggest that organizers and organizational leaders may well see greater levels of participation in their organizations by simply re-distributing resources and opportunities more equitably within their organizations.

  15. Innovation Level of Sustainable Practices Adopted in Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the level of innovation of sustainable practices by industrial companies. This is a descriptive study that made use of a questionnaire answered by 50 industrial companies. The results show that environmental practices at full level by 68% of businesses are monitoring the risks and opportunities for the organization's activities due to climate change; 56% of companies surveyed are waste separation; followed by the realization of related health and safety training at work in 52% of cases surveyed; and 48% monitoring and recording of injuries, the injury rate, the rate of occupational diseases, lost days, absenteeism and number of work-related fatalities for all workers. Among the practices adopted not stand out incineration (burning mass (80% of companies surveyed; hiring indigenous and tribal employees (68%; composting (64% and use of surface water in the process. Therefore, the study contributed to the disclosure cleaner called production innovations and also pipe end technologies. Some social practices that signal a commitment of the organizations with human resources and the humanization and also economical focused on continuous improvement.

  16. Roadmap for Integrating Sustainable Design into Site-Level Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Keith L.; Dorsey, Judy A.

    2000-04-19

    Sustainable Design recognizes that products and processes are interdependent with the environmental, economic, and social systems surrounding them and implements measures to prevent an unsustainable compromise to these systems.

  17. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations......, a transition toward sustainable urban development is a matter of changing the composition of existing multisegmented land use and transportation regimes. Those well-experienced forms of built environment and transport infrastructure that are in line with sustainability objectives should be strengthened while...... those that are not should be actively constrained and reduced. Urban development in a Danish provincial city is used as a case to illustrate some of the points made in the theoretical part of the article. Due to the wide gap between present conditions and those required to realize a sustainable urban...

  18. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  19. Cord blood levels of thyroid hormones and IGF-1 weakly correlate with breast milk levels of PBDEs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Huang, Huei-Lin; Chao, How-Ran; Chang-Chien, Gou-Ping

    2012-04-01

    In vivo studies indicate that prenatal or neonatal exposure of rodents to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) disrupts thyroid hormone balance, but few studies have reported an association of PBDEs and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The goal was to examine whether PBDEs exposure affects the levels of thyroid hormones and IGF-1 in cord blood. Study participants were healthy pregnant women recruited from the general population in central Taiwan between 2000 and 2001 and in southern Taiwan from 2007 to 2009. One-hundred-forty-nine breast milk samples (n=149), which were collected within one month after delivery, were analyzed using a high resolution gas chromatograph equipped with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The average and median levels of breast milk Σ(14)PBDEs were 5.34 and 3.38 ng/g lipid in 2000-2001 and 5.22 and 3.13 ng/g lipid in 2007-2009, respectively. In general, levels of PBDE congeners were very low in this study population and not significantly different between the years 2000-2001 and 2007-2009. Breast milk Σ(14)PBDEs were not significantly correlated with thyroid hormones and IGF-1 in cord blood. After examining multiple stepwise linear regression models with adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, gestational age, and region (namely, central and southern Taiwan), we found that log of T4 in cord blood was significantly but slightly correlated with higher BDE-154 (B=0.113, p=0.017) in breast milk. The log of FT4 concentration was significantly related to a decrease in the log of BDE-99 level (B=-0.137, p=0.043) and an increase in the log of BDE-154 level (B=0.158, p=0.008). Meanwhile, the log of IGF-1 level was also significantly linked to an increase in the log of BDE-196 level (B=0.532, p=0.028) and decrease in the log of BDE-85 level (B=-0.235, p=0.018). Few epidemiological studies report an association between PBDEs exposure and IGF-1. Based on our findings, further in vivo and epidemiological

  20. Multi level governance framework for sustainable urban mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    outcomes for urban transport that cities and citizens can identify with, and which can easily be monitored. It must be hoped that the Commission’s upcoming Urban Mobility Package will not only provide a clearer definition of the existing urban transport goal but also help widen and balance the scope...... sustainable urban development will not occur by itself but will require regulations. The White Paper defined rather narrow urban goals - to reduce and eliminate the use of ‘conventionally fuelled vehicles’ and to obtain near- CO2 free city logistics. There is a need to formulate a broader set of desired...... to help cities implement comprehensive, ambitious Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. A crucial point is the need to pay more attention to the political aspects of urban mobility. Game changing results can hardly be obtained by better planning procedures alone. Courage and will on the side of policy makers...

  1. Cellular glutathione levels in HL-60 cells during respiratory burst are not correlated with ultra-weak photon emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Rosilene Cristina Rossetto; Zhang, Wei; van Wijk, Eduard P A; Hankemeier, Thomas; Ramautar, Rawi; van der Greef, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Recently, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was developed as a novel tool for measuring oxidative metabolic processes, as its generation is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both an imbalance in ROS or the uncontrolled production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, which is commonly associated with many diseases. In addition to playing several biological functions, the thiol amino acid glutathione has an important antioxidant function in the body's defense against ROS. Specifically, glutathione is an important endogenous antioxidant that helps maintain oxidant levels. At the cellular level, glutathione is present in its reduced form (GSH) at relatively high concentrations (in the millimolar range) and in its oxidized form (GSSG) at low concentrations (in the micromolar range). Thus, the GSH/GSSG ratio is often used as an indicator of cellular redox state. Here, we used the HL-60 cell line as a model system in order to determine whether UPE is correlated with intracellular GSH and GSSG levels. HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and then stimulated to undergo respiratory burst. We then recorded UPE in real time for 9000 seconds and used capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry to measure GSH and GSSG levels in cell extracts. We found that although respiratory burst significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio, this change was not significantly correlated with the UPE profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  3. Sustainability of High-Level Isolation Capabilities among US Ebola Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstein, Jocelyn J; Biddinger, Paul D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Le, Aurora B; Jelden, Katelyn C; Hewlett, Angela L; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    To identify barriers to maintaining and applying capabilities of US high-level isolation units (HLIUs) used during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, during 2016 we surveyed HLIUs. HLIUs identified sustainability challenges and reported the highly infectious diseases they would treat. HLIUs expended substantial resources in development but must strategize models of sustainability to maintain readiness.

  4. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  5. Integrative Approaches to Sustainable Development at University Level: Making the Links

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leal Filho, Walter; Brandli, Luciana; Kuznetsova, Olga; Paço, Arminda Maria Finisterra do

    2015-01-01

    ... researchers and practitioners. By showcasing how integrative approaches to sustainable development at the university level can be successfully employed to bridge the gaps between disciplines, the book provides a timely...

  6. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  7. Description of Weak Halogen Bonding Using Various Levels of Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory Combined with Effective Core Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Matczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work starts with providing a description of the halogen bonding (XB interaction between the halogen atom of MH3X (where M = C–Pb and X = I, At and the N atom of HCN. This interaction leads to the formation of stable yet very weakly bound MH3X⋯NCH complexes for which the interaction energy (Eint between MH3X and HCN is calculated using various symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT methods combined with the def2-QZVPP basis set and midbond functions. This basis set assigns effective core potentials (ECPs not only to the I or At atom directly participating in the XB interaction with HCN but also to the M atom when substituted with Sn or Pb. Twelve SAPT methods (or levels are taken into consideration. According to the SAPT analysis of Eint, the XB interaction in the complexes shows mixed electrostatic-dispersion nature. Next, the accuracy of SAPT Eint is evaluated by comparing with CCSD(T reference data. This comparison reveals that high-order SAPT2+(3 method and the much less computationally demanding SAPT(DFT method perform very well in describing Eint of the complexes. However, the accuracy of these methods decreases dramatically if they are combined with the so-called Hartree-Fock correction.

  8. Men Sustain Higher Dysregulation Levels Than Women Without Becoming Frail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Legault, Véronique; Li, Qing; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-07-23

    The aging process differs in important ways between the sexes, with women living longer but at higher risk for frailty (the male-female health-survival paradox). The underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood, but may relate to sex differences in physiological dysregulation patterns. Here, using biomarkers from two longitudinal cohort studies (InCHIANTI and BLSA) and one cross-sectional survey (NHANES), we assess sex differences in trajectories of dysregulation globally and for five physiological systems: oxygen transport, electrolytes, hematopoiesis, lipids, and liver/kidney function. We found higher dysregulation levels in men, both globally and in the oxygen transport and hematopoietic systems (p change in dysregulation with age. Although risk of frailty and mortality increase with dysregulation, there was no evidence for differences in these effects between sexes. These findings imply that the greater susceptibility of women to frailty is not simply due to a tolerance for higher dysregulation; rather, it may actually be men that have a greater tolerance for dysregulation, creating a male-female dysregulation-frailty paradox. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying the sex differences appear to be diffuse and hard to pin down. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Classification of EU Countries in Terms of the Level of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stec Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has classified the EU countries in terms of the level of sustainable development. The study was based on main sustainability indicators developed by Eurostat. In empirical research, one of the methods used was Cluster Analysis - Ward's method. Grouping methods make it possible to distinguish countries with a similar level of sustainability which is particularly useful for monitoring the progress of individual EU countries in implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy. For specific groups of countries, appropriate control instruments and strategies can be proposed. The research period is 2016. As a result of the research, 6 clusters of countries were obtained. For specific groups of countries, their characteristics were defined.

  10. INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ON ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kokic Arsic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the article is an integration of quality management and sustainable development, with the basis of considerations of sustainable development and the structure of the key quality factors pointed to the possibility of achieving synergy of action on the most important variables, as well as the established model of integration of these two complex concepts. Areas of our study were 83 organizations in the region of Central Serbia. The study was based on questionnaires which contained 50 questions about the level of quality and sustainable development in the companies surveyed. Results of research highlights the most influenced variables in condition of constraints related to transition economy characteristics.

  11. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020” (NNUP. NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive suggestions for the achievement of sustainable new urbanization. A three-level index system which is based on six fundamental elements in a city and a Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator evaluation method are adopted. The results show that China is undergoing a new urbanization process with a low level of sustainability and there are many problems remaining from traditional urbanization processes. There exists a polarized phenomenon in the urbanization of 20 urban agglomerations. Based on their own development patterns, the 20 urban agglomerations can be divided into seven categories. Every category has its own development characteristics. The analyses also show that waste of water resources, abuse of land resources, and air pollution are three big problems that are closely linked to traditional Chinese urbanization processes. To achieve sustainable new urbanization in China, four relevant suggestions and comments have been provided.

  12. Program (Re)design Model: A Sustainable, System-Level Approach to Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Debra; Macik, Maria L.; Sandoval, Carolyn L.; Bakenhus, Chelsea; MacWillie, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Traditional professional development related to teaching is offered on a short-term basis and at the individual level. Recent experiences and research studies have led to an organizational level model in which the educational developer forms a sustained partnership with administrators, faculty, staff, and students in a department, offering…

  13. Empirical testing of Genuine Savings as an indicator of weak sustainability : a three-country analysis of long-run trends

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Nick; Oxley, Les; Greasley, David; MCLAUGHLIN, Eoin; Blum, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The authors thank The Leverhulme Trust for funding this work under the project “History and the Future: the Predictive Power of Sustainable Development Indicators” (Grant Number F00241). Genuine Savings has emerged as a widely-used indicator of sustainable development. This approach to conceptualising sustainability has strong links to work published by Anil Markandya and colleagues over 20 years ago. In this paper, we use long-term data stretching back to 1870 to undertake empirical tests...

  14. Community Vitality: The Role of Community-Level Resilience Adaptation and Innovation in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Community level action towards sustainable development has emerged as a key scale of intervention in the effort to address our many serious environmental issues. This is hindered by the large-scale destruction of both urban neighbourhoods and rural villages in the second half of the twentieth century. Communities, whether they are small or large, hubs of experimentation or loci of traditional techniques and methods, can be said to have a level of community vitality that acts as a site of resilience, adaptation and innovation in the face of environmental challenges. This paper outlines how community vitality acts as a cornerstone of sustainable development and suggests some courses for future research. A meta-case analysis of thirty-five Canadian communities reveals the characteristics of community vitality emerging from sustainable development experiments and its relationship to resilience, applied specifically to community development.

  15. What Is a Sustainable Level of Timber Consumption in the EU: Toward Global and EU Benchmarks for Sustainable Forest Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meghan O’Brien; Stefan Bringezu

    2017-01-01

    .... The question is, how much timber is available for the EU to sustainably harvest and import, in particular considering sustainable forest management practices, a safe operating space for land-system...

  16. Exploring biophysical potential and sustainability of wheat cultivation in Uruguay at the national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, S.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Molfino, J.H.; Resink, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented that explores soil survey information at the national level (1:1 M), generating sustainability indicators for wheat cultivation in Uruguay. Potential yields were calculated for simplified crop production situations under several constraints, such as limitation of water

  17. Genuine savings and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Nicholas David; Dupuy, Louis Paul; MCLAUGHLIN, Eoin

    2015-01-01

    Genuine Savings has emerged as the leading economic indicator of sustainable economic development at the country level. It derives from the literatures on weak sustainability, wealth accounting and national income accounting. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of GS, focusing on the relationship between changes in a nation's extended capital stock and the future path of consumption. The indicator has entered widespread use propelled by the World Bank's publications, despite its varying ...

  18. The Potentials of Normative Sustainability. An Analysis of Sustainable Development Strategies on Global, Supranational and National Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Uršič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the degree of normative sustainability achieved by selected regimes according to their sustainable development strategies. Focussing on Agenda 21, the Mediterranean Strategy of Sustainable Development, the European Union’s renewed Sustainable Development Strategy and Slovenia’s Development Strategy, the paper draws on Becker et al.’s cross-disciplinary concept of sustainability and the operationalization of normative sustainability. On the basis of the analysis of objectives and rationales behind the investigated strategies as well as examination of the general context, the paper puts forward the differences between the examined regimes and explores the possible factors inducing them. The paper concludes with a general observation that the analysed regimes reflect a fair degree of normative sustainability.

  19. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  20. 3-fold initiative for energy planning and sustainable development at local level (3-NITY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mydske, Hans Jacob [New Energy Performance AS - NEPAS (Norway); Aamodt Espegren, Kari [Inst. for Energy Technology - IFE (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    The project demonstrates how the concept of 'Sustainable Energy Communities' can become a reality without much additional efforts in terms of costs and human resources. 3-NITY includes 28 communities in nine European countries.The 3-fold initiative engages local stakeholders such as politicians, planners, citizens and local energy actors to take part in local energy planning and implementation of sustainable energy measures, as well as adopting a working methodology for continuous improvement. This is achieved through the development, testing and demonstration of a comprehensive set of tools, quality systems and sustainable best practices that cover the following three main areas: Sustainable Planning; Sustainable Measures and Activities; Sustainable Excellence. 'Sustainable Planning' aims to develop a modern planning and investment decision tool for local energy planning which is prepared to engage several levels in the local community i.e. politicians, planners, energy market actors as well as the citizens. The new model is based on the existing KRAM model. The KRAM model is a simulation tool suited for sustainable energy planning in a municipality, a part of a city or in a region. Both energy for heating purposes and electricity for light and equipment can be analysed with the KRAM model. In addition, the model can be used to analyse the implementation of energy efficiency measures.'Sustainable Measures and Activities' aims to engage local politicians, planners and energy actors as well as the citizens to actively participate in local energy planning and implementation of sustainable energy measures. 'Sustainable Excellence' will make use of the existing tool for monitoring and measuring qualitative results achieved by an organisation, i.e. the EFQM-excellence model for local governments and municipalities. The Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) is based on the premise that excellent

  1. Evaluation of multi-level social learning for sustainable landscapes: perspective of a development initiative in Bergslagen, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per; Myhrman, Lennart; Sädbom, Stefan; Ivarsson, Milis; Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kenneth; Cupa, Petr; Diry, Christian; Doyon, Frederic; Drotz, Marcus K; Hjorth, Arne; Hermansson, Jan Olof; Kullberg, Thomas; Lickers, F Henry; McTaggart, Johanna; Olsson, Anders; Pautov, Yurij; Svensson, Lennart; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the network about social learning. While activities resulted in exchange of experiences and some local solutions, a major challenge was to secure systematic social learning and make new knowledge explicit at multiple levels. None of the development initiatives used a systematic approach to secure social learning, and sustainability assessments were not made systematically. We discuss how social learning can be improved, and how a learning network of development initiatives could be realized.

  2. Analysis of levels disclosure of sustainability reports of brazilian companies A + the Global Reporting Initiative GRI 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geraldo Alemandro Leite Filho; Lorene Alexandre Prates; Thiago Neiva Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    ... without compromising resources for future generations. Thus, this study aims to analyze the level of disclosure of information of social and environmental sustainability reports in 2007 of the companies concerned with application level...

  3. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  4. Significance of weak interactions in imidazolium picrate ionic liquids: spectroscopic and theoretical studies for molecular level understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Sumit Kumar; Dwivedi, Nidhi; Noothalapati, Hemanth; Shigeto, Shinsuke; Sikder, A K; Saha, Abhijit; Sunkari, Sailaja S; Saha, Satyen

    2015-07-21

    The effects of interionic hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions on the physical properties of a new series of picrate anion based ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The existence of aromatic (C2-HO) and aliphatic (C7-HO-N22 and C6-HO-N20) hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions in these ILs has been observed using various spectroscopic techniques. The aromatic and aliphatic C-HO hydrogen bonding interactions are found to have a crucial role in binding the imidazolium cation and picrate anion together. However, the π-π stacking interactions between two successive layers are found to play a decisive role in tight packing in ILs leading to differences in physical properties. The drastic difference in the melting points of the methyl and propyl derivatives (mmimPic and pmimPic respectively) have been found to be primarily due to the difference in the strength and varieties of π-π stacking interactions. While in mmimPic, several different types of π-π stacking interactions between the aromatic rings (such as picrate-picrate, picrate-imidazole and imidazolium-imidazolium cation rings) are observed, only one type of π-π stacking interaction (picrate-picrate rings) is found to exist in the pmimPic IL. NMR spectroscopic studies reveal that the interaction of these ILs with solvent molecules is different and depends on the dielectric constant of the solvent. While an ion solvation model explains the solvation in high dielectric solvents, an ion-pair solvation model is found to be more appropriate for low dielectric constant solvents. The enhanced stability of these investigated picrate ILs compared with that of inorganic picrate salts under high doses of γ radiation clearly indicates the importance of weak interionic interactions in ILs, and also opens up the possibility of the application of picrate ILs as prospective diluents in nuclear separation for advanced fuel cycling process.

  5. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  6. Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate the Level of Community Forestry Sustainability in Babak Watershed, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryke Nandini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Babak watershed is one of the efforts to reduce critical land area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of community forestry sustainability in both of community forest (HKm and private forest in Babak watershed. Multidimensional scaling (MDS was used to analyse the level of community forest sustainability based on the five dimensions of ecology, economy, social, institutional, and technology as well as 29 attributes. Leverage analysis was used to know the sensitive attributes of sustainability, while Monte Carlo analysis and goodness of fit was used to find the accuracy of MDS analysis. The result shows that HKm was in moderate sustainability level (sustainability index 54.08% and private forest was in less sustainability level (sustainability index 48.53%. Furthermore, the ecology and technology in HKm were classified as less sustainable, while the institution and technology in private forest were considered less sustainable. There were 11 sensitive attributes of HKm and 19 sensitive attributes of private forest. The priorities of attribute improvement in HKm include land recovering (the dimension of ecology and cooperative development (the dimension of technology. In private forest, the priorities of attribute improvement include leadership capacity building (the institutional dimension and also the use of silviculture intensive and soil conservation (the dimension of technology.

  7. Branching Fractions and log(gf)s for Weak Lines of Co II connected to the Ground and Low Metastable Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James Edward; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2018-01-01

    New branching fraction (BF) measurements and log(gf)s of Highly Reliable Lines (HRLs) of Co II are reported. Our measurements test and confirm earlier work by Salih et al. [1985] and Mullman et al. [1998] and expand the earlier BF measurements to include more weak and very weak HRLs. HRLs are UV lines that connect to the population reservoir levels including the ground and low metastable levels of Co+. Such levels contain most of the cobalt in the photospheres of typical F, G, and K stars used in abundance studies. HRLs are essentially immune to departures from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) because they connect to the primary reservoir levels. Lightly-populated high-lying levels of the ion and essentially all levels of the neutral atom have some possibility of being pulled out of LTE through various reactions. Weak and very weak HRLs are needed to determine Co abundances in higher metallicity stars while dominant branches are useful in low metallicity stars of abundance surveys. A large set of HRLs with reliable log(gf)s is desired to avoid blending and saturation problems in photospheric studies. The relative abundance of Fe-peak elements changes as a function of metallicity [e.g. Henry et al. 2010, Sneden et al. 2016] but contributions to the trends from nuclear physics effects in early stars need to be cleanly separated from effect due to limitations of classic photospheric models based on One Dimensional (1D) and LTE approximations. The 1D/LTE approximations of classic photospheric models, which work in well in metal rich dwarf stars such as the Sun, are a source of some concern in Metal Poor (MP) giant stars due to much lower electron and atom pressures. Our new measurements on HRLS of Co II are applied to determine stellar abundances in MP stars.Henry, R. B. C., Cowan, J. J., & Sobeck, J, 2010, ApJ 709, 715Mullman, K. L., Cooper, J. C., & Lawler, J. E. 1998, ApJ, 495, 503Salih, S., Lawler, J. E., & Whaling, W. 1985, PhRvA, 31, 744Sneden et al. 2016

  8. Urban stormwater – greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Amarpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water, urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water, and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  9. Urban stormwater - greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Arora, Amarpreet

    2017-11-01

    Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water), urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage) and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water), and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment) both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  10. Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: an application to conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected

  11. MHz-level self-sustained pulsation in polymer microspheres on a chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou-Chen Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We observe MHz-level periodic self-sustained pulsation (SSP in the transmission spectrum of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS spherical microcavity on a silicon chip, under a fixed-frequency continuous laser excitation. The SSP results from the strong competition between the thermo-optic and thermal expansion effects of PDMS within the cavity mode volume. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical prediction by considering the modification of the thermal expansion coefficient and the temperature distribution within the mode volume.

  12. Muscle Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi MD, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome. And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations.

  13. Using the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART for the Systematic Analysis of Trade-Offs and Synergies between Sustainability Dimensions and Themes at Farm Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When trying to optimize the sustainability performance of farms and farming systems, a consideration of trade-offs and synergies between different themes and dimensions is required. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic analysis of trade-offs and synergies across all dimensions and themes. To achieve this aim we used the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART-Farm Tool which operationalizes the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA Guidelines by defining science-based indicator sets and assessment procedures. It identifies the degree of goal achievement with respect to the 58 themes defined in the SAFA Guidelines using an impact matrix that defines 327 indicators and 1769 relations between sustainability themes and indicators. We illustrate how the SMART-Farm Tool can be successfully applied to assess the sustainability performance of farms of different types and in different geographic regions. Our analysis revealed important synergies between themes within a sustainability dimension and across dimensions. We found major trade-offs within the environmental dimension and between the environmental and economic dimension. The trade-offs within the environmental dimension were even larger than the trade-offs with other dimensions. The study also underlines the importance of the governance dimension with regard to achieving a good level of performance in the other dimensions.

  14. Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate the Level of Community Forestry Sustainability in Babak Watershed, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Ryke Nandini; Ambar Kusumandari; Totok Gunawan; Ronggo Sadono

    2017-01-01

    Community forestry in Babak watershed is one of the efforts to reduce critical land area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of community forestry sustainability in both of community forest (HKm) and private forest in Babak watershed. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to analyse the level of community forest sustainability based on the five dimensions of ecology, economy, social, institutional, and technology as well as 29 attributes. Leverage analysis was used to know t...

  15. Information provided for ecological quality management of production on microeconomic level under conditions of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamula I.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, economic development is characterized by increasing of contradictions between ecological and economic systems. As a result, the necessity of unity achievement is growing in the existence of ecological and economic values as one of the main conditions of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose it is important to implement and create an ecological and economic management system at the enterprise to ensure ecological and economic efficiency. There is a need to improve accounting as a system of measuring economic phenomena and processes for a high level of ecological and economic management. The research is aimed at the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to accounting management for ecological quality of products based on the definition of the essence of the concept as an object of management under conditions of sustainable development, identification and systematization of factors of increasing the ecological quality of products and their management features, accounting identification of costs for ecological quality of products. According to the results of the research, it is established that the ecological quality of products is a combination of properties, which ensure excellent performance of assigned functions and the presence in products of those properties and characteristics that promote the maximum satisfaction of consumer needs and inquiries. The existing order of organization of accounting in Ukraine does not provide the provision of necessary information for the management of the ecological quality of products. The proposed directions of development of elements of the expense accounting method for the ecological quality of products will promote the expansion of information support for the adoption of substantiated and effective management decisions regarding the activities of business entities in accordance with the provisions of the concept of sustainable development.

  16. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason, E-mail: jp1@tiscali.co.uk

    2016-01-15

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  17. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  18. Sustainable development of agriculture: contribution of farm-level assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, de Evelien

    2017-01-01

    Current environmental, economic and social challenges urge agriculture to change to more sustainable modes of production. Insight in the impact of a system or a potential innovation on sustainability could support decision makers in identifying actions towards sustainable development. Over the past

  19. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  20. Levels of sirolimus in saliva and blood following oral topical sustained-release varnish delivery system application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, Zakhar; Findler, Mordechai; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Pikovsky, Anna; Kirmayer, David; Basheer, Maamoun; Gutkind, J Silvio; Friedman, Michael; Czerninski, Rakefet

    2015-05-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is a mammalian target of rapamycin pathway blocker. The efficacy of sirolimus is currently studied for its antiproliferative properties in various malignancies and particularly in squamous cell carcinoma and other oral disorders. Topical application at the oral cavity can augment sirolimus availability at the site of action by increasing sirolimus levels in saliva and hence efficacy, along with improved safety (low levels in the blood to avoid side effects) and compliance. Our purpose was to evaluate the release profile and safety of a topical sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system. Sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system containing a total of 0.5 mg of the drug was applied to nine healthy male volunteers. Saliva and blood levels were determined utilizing mass spectrometry and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, respectively. The prolonged release profile and safety were evaluated for the oral topical delivery system. After the application of the drug delivery system, a sustained-release profile was observed in the oral cavity. We have measured moderate sirolimus levels for up to 12 h. The safety was confirmed, and systemic sirolimus blood levels were negligible. After an application of sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system, prolonged drug levels can be achieved in the saliva. The oral topical sirolimus concentrations were potentially therapeutic along with minimal systemic exposure. These results broaden the potential clinical use of sustained-release oral topical rapalogs.

  1. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  2. Groundwater Level Changes Due to Extreme Weather—An Evaluation Tool for Sustainable Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, extreme and exceptional droughts have significantly impacted many economic sectors in the US, especially in California, Oklahoma, and Texas. The record drought of 2011–2014 affected almost 90% of Texas areas and 95% of Oklahoma state areas. In 2011 alone, around $1.6 billion in agricultural production were lost as a result of drought in Oklahoma, and $7.6 billion in Texas. The agricultural sectors in Oklahoma and Texas rely mainly on groundwater resources from the non-replenishable Ogallala Aquifer in Panhandle and other aquifers around the states. The exceptional droughts of 2011–2014 not only caused meteorologically induced water scarcity (due to low precipitation, but also prompted farmers to overuse groundwater to maintain the imperiled production. Comprehensive studies on groundwater levels, and thus the actual water availability/scarcity across all aquifers in Oklahoma and Texas are still limited. Existing studies are mainly focused on a small number of selected sites or aquifers over a short time span of well monitoring, which does not allow for a holistic geospatial and temporal evaluation of groundwater level variations. This paper aims at addressing those issues with the proposed geospatial groundwater visualization model to assess availability of groundwater resources for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses both in Oklahoma and Texas in the time frame of 2003–2014. The model is an evaluation tool that can be used by decision-makers for designing sustainable water management practices and by teachers and researchers for educational purposes.

  3. From Rio to Rio via Johannesburg: integrating institutions across governance levels in sustainable development deliberations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of international deliberations on sustainable development reaches another peak in 2012 during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20. However, with every review of the implementation of the ambitious Agenda 21, it becomes more difficult to reignite the “spirit

  4. System-Level Influences on the Sustainability of a Cognitive Therapy Program in a Community Behavioral Health Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Matza, Alexis; Gamarra, Jennifer; Toder, Katherine; Xhezo, Regina; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew; Beck, Aaron T; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Creed, Torrey

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine influences on the sustainability of a program to implement an evidence-based psychotherapy in a mental health system. Interviews with program administrators, training consultants, agency administrators, and supervisors (N=24), along with summaries of program evaluation data and program documentation, were analyzed with a directed content-analytic approach. Findings suggested a number of interconnected and interacting influences on sustainability, including alignment with emerging sociopolitical influences and system and organizational priorities; program-level adaptation and evolution; intervention flexibility; strong communication, collaboration, planning, and support; and perceived benefit. These individual factors appeared to mutually influence one another and contribute to the degree of program sustainability achieved at the system level. Although most influences were positive, financial planning and support emerged as potentially both facilitator and barrier, and evaluation of benefits at the patient level remained a challenge. Several factors appeared to contribute to the sustainability of a psychosocial intervention in a large urban mental health system and warrant further investigation. Understanding interconnections between multiple individual facilitators and barriers appears critical to advancing understanding of sustainability in dynamic systems and adds to emerging recommendations for other implementation efforts. In particular, implications of the findings include the importance of implementation strategies, such as long-term planning, coalition building, clarifying roles and expectations, planned adaptation, evaluation, diversification of financing strategies, and incentivizing implementation.

  5. Remote Sensing Techniques for Urban Heating Analysis: A Case Study of Sustainable Construction at District Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bonafoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many new districts in urban centres have been planned and constructed to reshape the structure and functions of specific areas. Urban regeneration strategies, planning and design principles have to take into account both socioeconomic perspectives and environmental sustainability. A district located in the historical city centre of Terni (Italy, Corso del Popolo, was analysed to assess the construction effects in terms of surface urban heat island (SUHI mitigation. This district is an example of urban texture modification planned in the framework of the regeneration of the ancient part of the town. The changes were realised starting from 2006; the new area was completed on June 2014. The analysis was carried out by processing Landsat 7 ETM+ images before and after the interventions, retrieving land surface temperature (LST and albedo maps. The map analysis proved the SUHI reduction of the new area after the interventions: as confirmed by the literature, such SUHI mitigation can be ascribed to the presence of green areas, the underground parking, the partial covering of the local roadway and the shadow effect of new multi-storey buildings. Moreover, an analysis of other parameters linked to the impervious surfaces (albedo, heat transfer and air circulation driving LST variations is provided to better understand SUHI behaviour at the district level. The district regeneration shows that wisely planned and developed projects in the construction sector can improve urban areas not only economically and socially, but can also enhance the environmental impact.

  6. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  7. The need for an established allocation method when assessing absolute sustainability on a product level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    ? If we assess the life cycle and relate the impact scores to the remaining capacity available for impacts, there is a risk that all products are seen absolutely sustainable. In addition, how should we decide on who can use the remaining capacity? To address these issues an allocation method is proposed......Assessment of absolute sustainability within life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is operational on the country scale. However, it is difficult to apply the existing approaches to products, which are typically the scope of LCAs. How should we assess whether a chair is (absolutely) sustainable...... allocation keys specific to each product group, e.g. mass for furniture, or economic revenue for IT. The proposed method facilitates assessment of absolute sustainability of products within the LCA framework....

  8. Sustaining Turnaround at the School and District Levels: The High Reliability Schools Project at Sandfields Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Eugene; Reynolds, David; Stringfield, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Beginning from 1 high-poverty, historically low-achieving secondary school's successful turnaround work, this article provides data relative to a successful school turnaround, the importance of external and system-level supports, and the importance of building for sustainable institutionalization of improvements. The evidence suggests the…

  9. Mapping Research Activities and Technologies for Sustainability and Environmental Studies--A Case Study at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kurimoto, Shuji; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Umeda, Yasushi; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Systemic understanding of potential research activities and available technology seeds at university level is an essential condition to promote interdisciplinary and vision-driven collaboration in an attempt to cope with complex sustainability and environmental problems. Nonetheless, any such practices have been hardly conducted at universities…

  10. Development of web-based GIS services for sustainable soil resource management at farm level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kolovos, Chronis; Troyanos, Yerasimos; Doula, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Modern farms situated in urban or suburban areas, include various and in most cases diverse land covers. Land uses in such farms may serve residential, structured, aesthetic and agricultural purposes, usually delimited inside the boundaries of a single property. The environmental conditions across a farm, especially if it is situated on an irregular terrain, can be highly differentiated. Managing soil resources in a small scale diverse farm environment in a holistic and sustainable way should have spatial and temporal reference and take advantage of cut-edge geospatial technologies. In present study, an 8 hectare farm with various land uses in the southern suburbs of Attica Prefecture, Greece was systematically monitored regarding its soil, water and plant resources. Almost 80% of the farm's area is covered with trees, shrubs and low vegetation planted in a mosaic of parterres. Farm data collected concerned soil and water physicochemical characteristics, plant species, topographical features, irrigation network, valves and infrastructure. All data were imported and developed in a GIS geodatabase. Furthermore, web GIS services and a mobile GIS app were developed in order to monitor, update and synchronize present status and future changes performed in the farm. Through the web services and using the mobile GIS app, the user has access to all data stored in the geodatabase and according to access rights he can view or edit the spatial entities. The user can easily make query to specific features, combine their properties with other overlaying spatial data and reach accurate decisions. The app can be downloaded and implemented in mobile devices like smartphones and tablets for extending its functionality. As proven in this study, web GIS services and mobile GIS apps constitute an attractive suite of methodologies for effective and user friendly management of natural resources at farm level.

  11. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  12. Toward a Unified Knowledge-based Society for Sustainability -- Developing a Synthesis on the Methodological Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alec A. Schaerer

    2006-01-01

    The debates on development manifest an increasing concern for sustainability, but as yet little awareness of the hierarchy in the ideas through which humans contribute to the problem. This gap is widened by a widespread but nevertheless unnecessary acceptance of unreasonable elements such as paradoxes, or the general fragmentation in knowledge, or allegedly general...

  13. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  14. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  15. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  16. Futures Thinking to Achieve Sustainable Development at Local Level in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Sirr, Lorcan; Kelly, Ruth; Ratcliffe, John

    2004-01-01

    We are living in times of unprecedented global change and upheaval and over the next ten to 20 years governments, organisations and individuals will face increasing difficulties in an environment of growing complexity, heightened uncertainty and a quickening pace of change. The concept of sustainable development implies the reconciliation of long-term socio-economic development, environmental protection and quality of life; essentially it is concerned with the future. Unfortunately, the poten...

  17. Using the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART) for the Systematic Analysis of Trade-Offs and Synergies between Sustainability Dimensions and Themes at Farm Level

    OpenAIRE

    Schader, Christian; Baumgart, Lukas; Landert, Jan; Muller, Adrian; Ssebunya, Brian; Blockeel, Johan; Weisshaidinger, Rainer; Petrasek, Richard; Mészáros, Dóra; Padel, Susanne; Gerrard, Catherine L; Smith, Laurence; Lindenthal, Thomas; Niggli, Urs; Stolze, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    When trying to optimize the sustainability performance of farms and farming systems, a consideration of trade-offs and synergies between different themes and dimensions is required. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic analysis of trade-offs and synergies across all dimensions and themes. To achieve this aim we used the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART)-Farm Tool which operationalizes the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA) Guide...

  18. Impact of layover length on sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and sustained attention of long-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study

  19. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess......The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake....... Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...

  20. How an Entry-Level, Interdisciplinary Sustainability Course Revealed the Benefits and Challenges of a University-Wide Initiative for Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C.; Marcus, Jean; Construt, Ileana; Frank, Erica; Kellett, Ron; Mazzi, Eric; Munro, Alison; Nesbit, Susan; Riseman, Andrew; Robinson, John; Schultz, Anneliese; Sipos, Yona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Delivery of sustainability-related curriculum to undergraduate students can be problematic due to the traditional "siloing" of curriculum by faculties along disciplinary lines. In addition, while there is often a ready availability of courses focused on sustainability issues in the later years of students' programs, few early…

  1. [Memorandum on sustainable reinforcement of prevention and health promotion: challenges at the federal, state and local level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Pawils, S; Robra, B-P; Trojan, A; Franz, M; Grossmann, B; Schmidt, T-A; Lehmann, H; Bauer, U; Göpel, E; Janz, A; Kuhn, J; Naegele, G; Müller-Kohlenberg, H; Plaumann, M; Stender, K-P; Stolzenberg, R; Süß, W; Trenker, M; Wanek, V; Wildner, M

    2015-05-01

    Research-based evidence and practice-based experience are core requirements for the effective implementation of preventive interventions. The knowledge gained in the Prevention Research Funding Initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (2004-2013) was therefore amalgamated, reflected and consolidated in the Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research (KNP) meta-project. In annual strategy meetings, researchers and practitioners from the field and other experts developed 3 memoranda providing recommendations for the further development of research and practice in the field of prevention and health promotion. Memorandum III is primarily aimed at decision-makers in politics and administration at the federal, state and local level, in civil society and in the workplace. Its recommendations show that structuring efforts are urgently needed to achieve sustainable policy, particularly in the fields of health, education, employment and social affairs. Memorandum III brings together the knowledge extracted and problems identified in research projects. More so than its 2 predecessors, Memorandum III abstracts knowledge from the individual projects and attempts to derive guidance for action and decision-making, as shown by the 7 recommendations that appear to useful for consensus-building in practice and research. Value judgments are inevitable. Prevention and health promotion are an investment in the future: of social health, social capital and social peace. Improvement of the framework conditions is needed to achieve the harmonized awareness and the sustained effectiveness of these structure-building efforts in different policy areas, spheres of life, fields of action, and groups of actors. This includes the implementation of an overall national strategy as well as the expansion of sources of funding, extension of the legal framework, overarching coordination, and the establishment of a National Center of Excellence to develop and safeguard

  2. Identifying regulatory roadblocks to sustainable development strategies on the local government level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, E. [Greenhorne and O`Mara, Inc., Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Local governments often find themselves in the awkward position of attempting to promote economic growth and development while charged with the responsibility of providing protection to natural resources. All too often, these two goals are viewed as being in opposition. The Department of Environmental Resources (DER) of the Prince George`s County government in suburban Washington, DC believes that economic development and environmental protection are not mutually exclusive, and set out to identify the barriers within their own regulatory system which hinder low-impact and sustainable development strategies. The existing regulations of Prince George`s County generally support the protection of the natural environment, and it is the intent of the DER to work within the existing regulatory framework. Rather than creating more regulations, their goals are to reform and simplify existing regulations. The DER recognizes that flexibility is key to the adoption of innovative, low-impact development techniques. Unfortunately, standardization of the development approval process has left the County with a rigid and fragmented system. This inflexibility neither facilitates nor encourages the use of innovative strategies, even those that prove to be environmentally beneficial.

  3. Strategic factors for the sustainability of a health intervention at municipal level of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sydia Rosana de Araujo; Medina, Maria Guadalupe; Figueiró, Ana Cláudia; Potvin, Louise

    2017-07-27

    The present study aims to describe the evolution of an intervention, using a methodology that adopts the critical event as the unit of analysis, and to identify strategic factors that facilitate the continuation of the interventions. Six critical events were identified: dispute care models for health; area of advice: dispute field; change policy; break of interorganizational relations; lack of physical structure and turnover of staff; difficulty in organizing practices in the work process. these are developed into strategic factors: enabling network of allies; meetings and educational activities/building capacity; benefits perceived by community members; mobilization of key actors; intervention's compatibility with the government's vision; restoration of interrelationship; and stability of the workforce. These strategic factors form a group of interrelated conditions that provide the strengthened linkages between elements in the intervention, supporting the hypothesis that they collaborate for the sustainability of the interventions in health. Tracking down the transformations of an intervention set by the critical events, it was verified that these factors performed a protective role at times of changes in the intervention process.

  4. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: a focus on sustainability and green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, G Christopher; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    This research has met the following four objectives within the broader research topic of characterizing and quantifying success in brownfield revitalization: (1) to define 40 total indicators that define and determine the success of brownfield redevelopments in four categories: environment-health, finance, livability, and social-economic; (2) to use these indicators to develop a partially automated tool that stakeholders in brownfield redevelopment may use to more easily assess and communicate success (or failures) in these projects; (3) to integrate "green" building as an important aspect of successful brownfield redevelopments; and (4) to develop this tool within the framework of a specific multi-attribute decision method (MADM), the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Future research should include the operationalization and application of this tool to specific sites. Currently, no such indicator framework or automated tool is known to exist or be in use. Indicators were chosen because of their ability to reduce data into comprehensible measurements and to systematically measure success in a standardized fashion. Appropriate indicators were selected based on (1) interviews with prominent private developers and national leaders in brownfield redevelopment, (2) a review of the relevant literature, (3) objective hierarchies created in this project, and (4) the ability for each indicator to serve goals in more than one of the four categories described above. These were combined to form the Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment (SBR) Tool. A survey was conducted to serve as a preliminary assessment and proposed methodology for judging the validity of the SBR Tool. Professionals in the academic, private, and public sector were asked to provide an evaluation of the management tool and a weighting of the relative importance of each indicator and each of the four categories listed previously. Experts rated the tool at 7.68 out of 10 suggesting that this framework will

  5. The role of social message using norm abstraction level and ecological value orientation to achieve sustainable consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekasari, A.

    2018-01-01

    Pro-environmental behavior is one of human activities to achieve sustainability. In order to encourage people to do so, it needs contribution from marketing discipline using social message. The research aims to investigate the effect of social message framed by norm abstraction level and ecological value orientation on attitude and intention to act pro-environmental behavior in the context of littering. This study implemented a 3 (message framing: biospheric/altruistic/egoistic) × 2 (norm abstraction level : abstract/concrete) between subject experimental design to collect the data. An independent sample t test was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that a social message using concrete norm combined with the three ecological value orientation gains more positive response than the use of abstract norm with the same ecological value orientations. Findings of the research are expected to help government or other institutions to create an appropriate social message in anti littering campaign and motivates people to change their behavior in practicing sustainable consumption.

  6. Molecular Orbital Rule for Quantum Interference in Weakly Coupled Dimers: Low-Energy Giant Conductivity Switching Induced by Orbital Level Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Daijiro; Lücke, Andreas; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2017-02-16

    Destructive quantum interference (QI) in molecular junctions has attracted much attention in recent years. It can tune the conductance of molecular devices dramatically, which implies numerous potential applications in thermoelectric and switching applications. There are several schemes that address and rationalize QI in single molecular devices. Dimers play a particular role in this respect because the QI signal may disappear, depending on the dislocation of monomers. We derive a simple rule that governs the occurrence of QI in weakly coupled dimer stacks of both alternant and nonalternant polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and extends the Tada-Yoshizawa scheme. Starting from the Green's function formalism combined with the molecular orbital expansion approach, it is shown that QI-induced antiresonances and their energies can be predicted from the amplitudes of the respective monomer terminal molecular orbitals. The condition is illustrated for a toy model consisting of two hydrogen molecules and applied within density functional calculations to alternant dimers of oligo(phenylene-ethynylene) and nonalternant PAHs. Minimal dimer structure modifications that require only a few millielectronvolts and lead to an energy crossing of the essentially preserved monomer orbitals are shown to result in giant conductance switching ratios.

  7. Activity Sets in Multi-Organizational Ecologies : A Project-Level Perspective on Sustainable Energy Innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristina Manser; Gerrit Willem Ziggers; Bas Hillebrand; Paul Driessen; Josée Bloemer

    2014-01-01

    Complex innovations involve multi-organizational ecologies consisting of a myriad of different actors. This study investigates how innovation activities can be interpreted in the context of multi-organizational ecologies. Taking a project-level perspective, this study proposes a typology of four

  8. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    ). We aimed to study the postprandial levels of LDL-C in T2DM patients. Material and methods. After an overnight fast, 74 T2DM patients, mean age approximately 60 years, were served a standard fat-rich meal of 3,515 kJ containing 54 % fat, 13 % protein and 33 % carbohydrates. Only drinking water...

  9. A mixed-methods study of system-level sustainability of evidence-based practices in 12 large-scale implementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Ashley T; Taber-Thomas, Sarah M; Schaffner, Kristen; Pemberton, Joy R; Hunter, Leah; Herschell, Amy D

    2017-12-07

    In recent decades, evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been broadly promoted in community behavioural health systems in the United States of America, yet reported EBP penetration rates remain low. Determining how to systematically sustain EBPs in complex, multi-level service systems has important implications for public health. This study examined factors impacting the sustainability of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in large-scale initiatives in order to identify potential predictors of sustainment. A mixed-methods approach to data collection was used. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys examining sustainability processes and outcomes were completed by participants from 12 large-scale initiatives. Sustainment strategies fell into nine categories, including infrastructure, training, marketing, integration and building partnerships. Strategies involving integration of PCIT into existing practices and quality monitoring predicted sustainment, while financing also emerged as a key factor. The reported factors and strategies impacting sustainability varied across initiatives; however, integration into existing practices, monitoring quality and financing appear central to high levels of sustainability of PCIT in community-based systems. More detailed examination of the progression of specific activities related to these strategies may aide in identifying priorities to include in strategic planning of future large-scale initiatives. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02543359 ; Protocol number PRO12060529.

  10. Sustained levels of FGF2 maintain undifferentiated stem cell cultures with biweekly feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lotz

    Full Text Available An essential aspect of stem cell culture is the successful maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Many types of stem cells are FGF2 dependent, and pluripotent stem cells are maintained by replacing FGF2-containing media daily, while tissue-specific stem cells are typically fed every 3rd day. Frequent feeding, however, results in significant variation in growth factor levels due to FGF2 instability, which limits effective maintenance due to spontaneous differentiation. We report that stabilization of FGF2 levels using controlled release PLGA microspheres improves expression of stem cell markers, increases stem cell numbers and decreases spontaneous differentiation. The controlled release FGF2 additive reduces the frequency of media changes needed to maintain stem cell cultures, so that human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be maintained successfully with biweekly feedings.

  11. Ontologies, socio-technical transitions (to sustainability), and the multi-level perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Frank W. Geels

    2010-01-01

    Using recent criticisms and suggestions regarding the multi-level perspective as stepping stones, the article aims to enhance the reflexivity in transition debates regarding social theories. To that end, the article discusses seven social science ontologies (rational choice, evolution theory, structuralism, interpretivism, functionalism, conflict and power struggle, relationism), their assumptions on agency and causal mechanisms, and their views on socio-technical transitions and environmenta...

  12. Essential levels of health information in Europe: an action plan for a coherent and sustainable infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    The European Union needs a common health information infrastructure to support policy and governance on a routine basis. A stream of initiatives conducted in Europe during the last decade resulted into several success stories, but did not specify a unified framework that could be broadly implemented on a continental level. The recent debate raised a potential controversy on the different roles and responsibilities of policy makers vs the public health community in the construction of such a pan-European health information system. While institutional bodies shall clarify the statutory conditions under which such an endeavour is to be carried out, researchers should define a common framework for optimal cross-border information exchange. This paper conceptualizes a general solution emerging from past experiences, introducing a governance structure and overarching framework that can be realized through four main action lines, underpinned by the key principle of "Essential Levels of Health Information" for Europe. The proposed information model is amenable to be applied in a consistent manner at both national and EU level. If realized, the four action lines outlined here will allow developing a EU health information infrastructure that would effectively integrate best practices emerging from EU public health initiatives, including projects and joint actions carried out during the last ten years. The proposed approach adds new content to the ongoing debate on the future activity of the European Commission in the area of health information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor sustain the innate immune responses of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Le Roy, Didier; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to infection of newborns is associated with a limited ability to mount efficient immune responses. High concentrations of adenosine and prostaglandins in the fetal and neonatal circulation hamper the antimicrobial responses of newborn immune cells. However, the existence of mechanisms counterbalancing neonatal immunosuppression has not been investigated. Remarkably, circulating levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory immunoregulatory cytokine expressed constitutively, were 10-fold higher in newborns than in children and adults. Newborn monocytes expressed high levels of MIF and released MIF upon stimulation with Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the leading pathogens of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Inhibition of MIF activity or MIF expression reduced microbial product-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases and secretion of cytokines. Recombinant MIF used at newborn, but not adult, concentrations counterregulated adenosine and prostaglandin E2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2 activation and TNF production in newborn monocytes exposed to E. coli. In agreement with the concept that once infection is established high levels of MIF are detrimental to the host, treatment with a small molecule inhibitor of MIF reduced systemic inflammatory response, bacterial proliferation, and mortality of septic newborn mice. Altogether, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for how newborns may cope with an immunosuppressive environment to maintain a certain threshold of innate defenses. However, the same defense mechanisms may be at the expense of the host in conditions of severe infection, suggesting that MIF could represent a potential attractive target for immune-modulating adjunctive therapies for neonatal sepsis. PMID:26858459

  14. Maintenance Free and Sustainable High-Level Control in Cement and Mining Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Fink

    2009-01-01

    recognized. Therefore, the payback time may be less than one year. It is common however, that the systems are disabled only a few months after commissioning because the process has changed in such a way that it does no longer matching the systems’ tuning. The cause of this can be raw materials changing, wear...... or eliminate the amount of resources needed to keep a high performance. Current high-level control algorithms are sophisticated and complex software. An analysis of such algorithms shows that only 10% of the source code can be considered implementation of control theory. The remaining 90% handles other tasks...

  15. A unit-level perspective on the long-term sustainability of a nursing best practice guidelines program: An embedded multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiszer, Andrea R; Semenic, Sonia E; Ritchie, Judith A; Richer, Marie-Claire; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Best practice guidelines are a tool for narrowing research-to-practice gaps and improving care outcomes. There is some empirical understanding of guideline implementation in nursing settings, yet there has been almost no consideration of the longer-term sustainability of guideline-based practice improvements. Many healthcare innovations are not sustained, underscoring the need for knowledge about how to promote their survival. To understand how a nursing best practice guidelines program was sustained on acute healthcare center nursing units. We undertook a qualitative descriptive case study of an organization-wide nursing best practice guidelines program with four embedded nursing unit subcases. The setting was a large, tertiary/quaternary urban health center in Canada. The nursing department initiated a program to enhance patient safety through the implementation of three guidelines: falls prevention, pressure ulcer prevention, and pain management. We selected four inpatient unit subcases that had differing levels of program sustainability at an average of almost seven years post initial program implementation. Data sources included 39 key informant interviews with nursing leaders/administrators and frontline nurses; site visits; and program-related documents. Data collection and content analysis were guided by a framework for the sustainability of healthcare innovations. Program sustainability was characterized by three elements: benefits, routinization, and development. Seven key factors most accounted for the differences in the level of program sustainability between subcases. These factors were: perceptions of advantages, collaboration, accountability, staffing, linked levels of leadership, attributes of formal unit leadership, and leaders' use of sustainability activities. Some prominent relationships between characteristics and factors explained long-term program sustainability. Of primary importance was the extent to which unit leaders used sustainability

  16. Institutions for sustainable forest governance: Robustness, equity, and cross-level interactions in Mawlyngbna, Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Oberlack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts Ostrom’s Social-Ecological Systems (SES framework in empirical fieldwork to explain how local forestry institutions affect forest ecosystems and social equity in the community of Mawlyngbna in North-East India. Data was collected through 26 semi-structured interviews, participatory timeline development, policy documents, direct observation, periodicals, transect walks, and a concurrent forest-ecological study in the village. Results show that Mawlyngbna's forests provide important sources of livelihood benefits for the villagers. However, ecological disturbance and diversity varies among the different forest ownership types and forest-based livelihood benefits are inequitably distributed. Based on a bounded rationality approach, our analysis proposes a set of causal mechanisms that trace these observed social-ecological outcomes to the attributes of the resource system, resource units, actors and governance system. We analyse opportunities and constraints of interactions between the village, regional, and state levels. We discuss how Ostrom’s design principles for community-based resource governance inform the explanation of robustness but have a blind spot in explaining social equity. We report experiences made using the SES framework in empirical fieldwork. We conclude that mapping cross-level interactions in the SES framework needs conceptual refinement and that explaining social equity of forest governance needs theoretical advances.

  17. WEAK GORENSTEIN GLOBAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Bennis, Driss

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the weak Gorenstein global dimensions. We are mainly interested in studying the problem when the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions coincide. We first show, for GF-closed rings, that the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions are equal when they are finite. Then, we prove that the same equality holds for any two-sided coherent ring. We conclude the paper with some examples and a brief discussion of the scope and limits of our results.

  18. Fostering partnerships towards sustainable urban mobility from the national to local level: Matsuyama, Japan and Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Dirgahayani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the implementation of Japan's and Indonesia's national frameworks aiming to promote sustainable urban mobility by placing transport policy coordination as pre-requisites under the decentralization regime. It takes two cities, Matsuyama and Yogyakarta, as the case studies. The analytical framework developed here highlights multi-level government coordination, coordination among local stakeholders, and regulator–operator coordination. The analysis is based on policy documents review, field observation, hearing and a questionnaire survey. The study shows some good practices as well as drawbacks of the schemes and produces lessons-learned from Japan's ‘omnibus town scheme’ to improve Indonesia's public transport program and for other cities in developing countries.

  19. Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L

    2013-01-09

    We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

  20. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  1. Copper alloy surfaces sustain terminal cleaning levels in a rural hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsa-Leasure, Shannon M; Nartey, Queenster; Vaverka, Justin; Schmidt, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    To assess the ability of copper alloy surfaces to mitigate the bacterial burden associated with commonly touched surfaces in conjunction with daily and terminal cleaning in rural hospital settings. A prospective intention-to-treat trial design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of cooper alloy surfaces and respective controls to augment infection control practices under pragmatic conditions. Half of the patient rooms in the medical-surgical suite in a 49-bed rural hospital were outfitted with copper alloy materials. The control rooms maintained traditional plastic, metal, and porcelain surfaces. The primary outcome was a comparison of the bacterial burden harbored by 20 surfaces and components associated with control and intervention areas for 12 months. Locations were swabbed regardless of the occupancy status of the patient room. Significance was assessed using nonparametric methods employing the Mann-Whitney U test with significance assessed at P copper alloys were found to have significantly lower concentrations of bacteria, at or below levels prescribed, upon completion of terminal cleaning. Vacant rooms were found to harbor significant concentrations of bacteria, whereas those fabricated from copper alloys were found to be at or below those concentrations prescribed subsequent to terminal cleaning. Copper alloys can significantly decrease the burden harbored on high-touch surfaces, and thus warrant inclusion in an integrated infection control strategy for rural hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Jutfelt

    Full Text Available As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

  3. Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Simone; Ciobanu, Marcel; Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; Vogel, Anja; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-07-01

    The magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events are predicted to increase in the future due to ongoing climate change. In particular, floods and droughts resulting from climate change are thought to alter the ecosystem functions and stability. However, knowledge of the effects of these weather events on soil fauna is scarce, although they are key towards functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Plant species richness has been shown to affect the stability of ecosystem functions and food webs. Here, we used the occurrence of a natural flood in a biodiversity grassland experiment that was followed by a simulated summer drought experiment, to investigate the interactive effects of plant species richness, a natural flood, and a subsequent summer drought on nematode communities. Three and five months after the natural flooding, effects of flooding severity were still detectable in the belowground system. We found that flooding severity decreased soil nematode food-web structure (loss of K-strategists) and the abundance of plant feeding nematodes. However, high plant species richness maintained higher diversity and abundance of higher trophic levels compared to monocultures throughout the flood. The subsequent summer drought seemed to be of lower importance but reversed negative flooding effects in some cases. This probably occurred because the studied grassland system is well adapted to drought, or because drought conditions alleviated the negative impact of long-term soil waterlogging. Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.

  4. Seagrass Herbivory Levels Sustain Site-Fidelity in a Remnant Dugong Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrika D'Souza

    Full Text Available Herds of dugong, a largely tropical marine megaherbivore, are known to undertake long-distance movements, sequentially overgrazing seagrass meadows in their path. Given their drastic declines in many regions, it is unclear whether at lower densities, their grazing is less intense, reducing their need to travel between meadows. We studied the effect of the feeding behaviour of a small dugong population in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India to understand how small isolated populations graze seagrasses. In the seven years of our observation, all recorded dugongs travelled either solitarily or in pairs, and their use of seagrasses was limited to 8 meadows, some of which were persistently grazed. These meadows were relatively large, contiguous and dominated by short-lived seagrasses species. Dugongs consumed approximately 15% of meadow primary production, but there was a large variation (3-40% of total meadow production in consumption patterns between meadows. The impact of herbivory was relatively high, with shoot densities c. 50% higher inside herbivore exclosures than in areas exposed to repeated grazing. Our results indicate that dugongs in the study area repeatedly graze the same meadows probably because the proportion of primary production consumed reduces shoot density to levels that are still above values that can trigger meadow abandonment. This ability of seagrasses to cope perhaps explains the long-term site fidelity shown by individual dugongs in these meadows. The fact that seagrass meadows in the archipelago are able to support dugong foraging requirements allows us to clearly identify locations where this remnant population persists, and where urgent management efforts can be directed.

  5. Microencapsulation of engineered cells to deliver sustained high circulating levels of interleukin-6 to study hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Diarmuid M; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Jablonski, Elizabeth M; Cahill, Paul A; Halberstadt, Craig R; McKillop, Iain H

    2006-01-01

    Interlukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleitropic cytokine that plays a central role in normal and abnormal hepatic function and response. The aims of the current study were to determine the viability of using cell encapsulation technology to introduce a genetically modified xenogeneic (CHO) cell population to elevate circulating levels of rhIL-6 in a rat model and determine the effects of sustained high rhIL-6 levels on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression in vivo. An alginate matrix was combined with transfected CHO cells, selected for their ability to synthesize rhIL-6, and used to generate uniform alginate-cell beads. Once encapsulated transfected cells continued to undergo replication, formed colonies within the bead, and synthesized/released large quantities of rhIL-6 into culture medium in vitro. Intraperitoneal implantation of beads into rats resulted in significantly increased circulating and intrahepatic levels of rhIL-6 up to 4 days postimplantation. Prolonged implantation led to the escape of CHO cells from the bead, resulting in a host response and CHO cell death within the bead. Subsequently CHO-IL-6 encapsulated cells were implanted into rats previously inoculated intrahepatically with the H4IIE HCC cell line. These studies demonstrated the maintenance of high circulating/intrahepatic rhIL-6 levels in this model. Despite significantly increased rhIL-6, this technique did not significantly alter the rate of net tumor progression. However, Stat3 activity was significantly increased in both normal liver and HCC tissue resected from animals implanted with CHO-IL-6 cells. Collectively these data demonstrate the short-term viability of using cell encapsulation technology to generate high levels of active circulating and intrahepatic cytokines and raise the possibility of modifying specific signal transduction cascades identified to be important during tumor progression.

  6. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Spirit Is Willing, But the Flesh is Weak: Why Young People Drink More Than Intended on Weekend Nights-An Event-Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhart, Florian; Anderson, Kristen G; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Heavy alcohol use is common among young adults on weekend nights and is assumed to be intentional. However, little is known about the extent to which heavy consumption is planned prior to the onset of drinking and what factors contribute to drinking more than intended. This study investigates drinking intentions at the beginning of an evening and individual and situational factors associated with a subsequent consumption over the course of multiple nights. Using a smartphone application, 176 young people aged 16 to 25 (mean age = 19.1; 49% women) completed questionnaires on drinking intentions, consumption, and drinking environments before, during, and after multiple Friday and Saturday nights (n = 757). Multilevel regressions were used to investigate individual-level and night-level factors associated with previous drinking intentions and subsequent deviations from intentions. Participants intended to consume 2.5 drinks (SD = 2.8) per night yet consumed 3.8 drinks (SD = 3.9) on average. Drinking intentions were higher among those who frequently went out at night and engaged in more frequent predrinking. Participants drank more than intended on 361 nights (47.7%). For both genders, the number of drinks consumed before 8 pm, attending multiple locations, and being with larger groups of friends contributed to higher consumption than intended at the individual and the night levels. Heavier consumption than intended also occurred when drinking away from home for men and when going to nightclubs for women. Making young adults aware of the tendency to drink more than intended, particularly when drinking begins early in the evening, moves from location to location, and includes large groups of friends, may be a fruitful prevention target. Structural measures, including responsible beverage service, may also help in preventing excessive drinking at multiple locations. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. You Should Be the Specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners – Reduced Performance Level in Aviation Security with No Gender Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jenny K.; Suchan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed. PMID:27014142

  9. You Should Be the Specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners - Reduced Performance Level in Aviation Security with No Gender Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jenny K; Suchan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.

  10. But you should be the specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners.Reduced performance level in aviation security with no gender effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Kathinka Krüger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.

  11. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor...... variables. The predictor is based on a test for finitesample predictive ability. Our predictor shrinks the OLS estimate not to zero, but towards the null of the test which equates squared bias with estimation variance. We derive the asymptotic distribution and show that the predictor can substantially lower...

  12. Postinduction serum infliximab trough level and decrease of C-reactive protein level are associated with durable sustained response to infliximab: a retrospective analysis of the ACCENT I trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornillie, Freddy; Hanauer, Stephen B; Diamond, Robert H; Wang, Jianping; Tang, Kezhen L; Xu, Zhenhua; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum infliximab trough levels correlate with efficacy; dose escalation is often beneficial in patients with Crohn's disease who stop responding to infliximab treatment. Objective To carry out a post hoc analysis of A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infliximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen I (ACCENT I) to evaluate the association between serum infliximab trough levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 weeks of induction treatment with durable sustained long-term response (Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥70 points and reduction ≥25% from baseline). Design ACCENT I was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Week 14 trough levels and CRP percentage decrease from baseline to week 14 were compared between patients with and without durable sustained response through week 54. Sensitivity and specificity were determined to predict durable sustained response. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified optimal cut-off points; logistic regression determined ORs. Results After induction with 5 mg/kg infliximab, 25% (37/147) and 33% (47/144) of patients sustained week 14 response to infliximab 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, administered every 8 weeks without dose escalation, through week 54. Median week 14 trough levels of patients with and without durable sustained response to infliximab 5 mg/kg were 4.0 and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively (p=0.0331). Optimal predictors of durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg were week 14 trough level ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease (ORs (95% CI), 3.5 (1.1 to 11.4) and 7.3 (1.4 to 36.7)), respectively, in patients with raised baseline CRP (>8.0 mg/L); area under the ROC curve was 0.75 for both predictors. A ≥3.5 µg/mL week 14 infliximab serum level did not predict durable sustained response to 10 mg/kg maintenance infliximab. Conclusions Patients with durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg had higher

  13. Sustained Submicromolar H2O2 Levels Induce Hepcidin via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millonig, Gunda; Ganzleben, Ingo; Peccerella, Teresa; Casanovas, Guillem; Brodziak-Jarosz, Lidia; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Dick, Tobias P.; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mueller, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin regulates mammalian iron homeostasis by blocking ferroportin-mediated iron export from macrophages and the duodenum. During inflammation, hepcidin is strongly induced by interleukin 6, eventually leading to the anemia of chronic disease. Here we show that hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes strongly up-regulate hepcidin when exposed to low concentrations of H2O2 (0.3–6 μm), concentrations that are comparable with levels of H2O2 released by inflammatory cells. In contrast, bolus treatment of H2O2 has no effect at low concentrations and even suppresses hepcidin at concentrations of >50 μm. H2O2 treatment synergistically stimulates hepcidin promoter activity in combination with recombinant interleukin-6 or bone morphogenetic protein-6 and in a manner that requires a functional STAT3-responsive element. The H2O2-mediated hepcidin induction requires STAT3 phosphorylation and is effectively blocked by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing, overexpression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3), and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is required for H2O2 responsiveness, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for adequate basal signaling, whereas Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is dispensable upstream of STAT3. Importantly, hepcidin levels are also increased by intracellular H2O2 released from the respiratory chain in the presence of rotenone or antimycin A. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of hepcidin regulation by nanomolar levels of sustained H2O2. Thus, similar to cytokines, H2O2 provides an important regulatory link between inflammation and iron metabolism. PMID:22932892

  14. Charged weak currents

    CERN Document Server

    Turlay, René

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents the author concentrates on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The authors discusses the general structure of charged currents, new results on total cross- sections, the Callan-Gross relation, antiquark distributions, scaling violations and tests of QCD. A very short summary on multilepton physics is given. (44 refs).

  15. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...

  16. Serum TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) levels of patients with bipolar disorder in manic episode, in remission and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi Yirün, Merve; Yirün, Onur; Ünal, Kübranur; Yüksel, Rabia Nazik; Altunsoy, Neslihan; Tatlidil Yaylaci, Elif; Aydemir, Makbule Çiğdem; Göka, Erol

    2017-11-01

    TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) are members of TNF superfamily, which has various roles in immunologic and inflammatory reactions in the organism. Pathophysiology in bipolar disorder is still under investigation and altered serum levels of cytokines are often encountered. Aim of this study is to detect serum TWEAK and TRAIL levels of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. For this purpose, 55 patients with bipolar disorder -27 manic episode (ME), 28 remission (RE) and 29 healthy controls (HC) were included. TWEAK levels of ME and RE groups were significantly lower than HC. TWEAK levels of bipolar patients (BP) were also lower than HC. TRAIL levels of ME, RE, HC groups and BP, HC groups were statistically similar. In our knowledge, this is the first study concerning about TWEAK and TRAIL levels in bipolar disorder and our results pointed that TWEAK-related immune response might be impaired in bipolar disorder, but our study fails to eradicate the confounders such as medication, smoking and body mass index. Studies having larger samples and limited confounders are needed to be able to evaluate these changes better and detect possible alterations about TRAIL and other TNF superfamily members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiovascular Diseases on the Global Agenda: The United Nations High Level Meeting, Sustainable Development Goals, and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Johanna; Reddy, K Srinath; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the United Nations (UN) organized the first ever meeting for heads of state to discuss the problem of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus. Recognizing that these had emerged as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, including in many low- and middle-income countries, advocates from government and civil society had called for increased attention and a UN response. Earlier, NCD including CVD were absent from the global health agenda in part because of their omission from the Millennium Development Goals. The UN meeting and the global advocacy response offered a game-changing opportunity to redress this omission. The World Heart Federation (WHF) played an instrumental role in the UN meeting and follow up, including inclusion of CVD in the Sustainable Development Goals. The next phase of the global CVD movement is expected through national action, including CVD roadmaps and partnering with the World Health Organization. The WHF is heavily committed to these goals and the other nongovernmental organizations invested in the mission must help take this historical mandate forward. Instrumental to this will be the engagement of people affected by or at risk of developing CVD, to draw more attention and resources to NCD and to ensure that successes to date in global policy translate into action at the national level. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A sustained +21 m sea-level highstand during MIS 11 (400 ka): direct fossil and sedimentary evidence from Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2009-02-01

    A small, protected karstic feature exposed in a limestone quarry in Bermuda preserved abundant sedimentary and biogenic materials documenting a transgressive phase, still-stand, and regressive phase of a sea-level in excess of 21.3 m above present during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (400 ka) as determined by U/Th dating and amino acid racemization. Cobbles and marine sediments deposited during the high-energy transgressive phase exhibit rim cements indicating a subsequent phreatic environment. This was succeeded stratigraphically by a still-stand deposition of fine calcareous lagoonal sediments containing bioclasts of red algae and benthic and planktonic foraminifera that was intensely burrowed by marine invertebrates, probably upogebiid shrimp, that could not be produced under any condition other than sustained marine submergence. Overlying this were pure carbonate beach sands of a low-energy regressive phase containing abundant remains of terrestrial and marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The considerable diversity of this fauna along with taphonomic evidence from seabird remains indicates deposition by high run-up waves over a minimum duration of months, if not years. The maximum duration has yet to be determined but probably did not exceed one or two thousand years. The most abundant snails in this fauna are two species indicative of brackish water and high-tide line showing that a Ghyben-Herzberg lens must have existed at > + 20 m. The nature of these sediments and fossil accumulation is incompatible with tsunami deposition and, given the absence of evidence for tectonic uplift of the Bermuda pedestal or platform, provide proof that sea-level during MIS 11 exceeded +20 m, a fact that has widespread ramifications for geologists, biogeographers, and human demographics along the world's coastlines.

  19. Weak lensing with GEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J. D.; Bennett, D. P.; Kaiser, N.

    2001-12-01

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure (cosmic shear) provides an opportunity to directly observe the dark matter in the universe. Current ground-based and space-based surveys have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in determining the mass distribution and thus placing constraints on cosmological parameters such as Ω m, σ 8, and the bias parameter b. Current surveys have been hampered by the comparatively low resolution of ground-based telescopes and the small field of view of HST. To make significant progress in this field, wide field space-based surveys are needed. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) will be able to provide 500- 1000 sqare degrees with a resolution of better than 0.2 arcseconds in multiple filters. This will make it an ideal instrument for a weak lensing survey.

  20. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  1. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  2. Using Dynamic Sustainment to Determine the Impact of Varying Levels of Reliability on Future Combat Systems Maintenance Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dozier, Pamela C

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis assesses the value of the Dynamic Sustainment simulation model as a logistics modeling tool and demonstrates data analysis techniques that can potentially be applied to model results...

  3. Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide interacting with a weak evanescent field

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Li, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser passively mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) interacting with a weak evanescent field of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The rGO solution is filled into the cladding holes of the PCF based on total reflection, and after evaporation, the rGO flakes bear only 1/107 of the total energy in laser system, which enhances the thermal damage threshold and decreases the accumulated nonlinearity. By incorporating the saturable absorber into an Er/Yb-codoped fiber ring cavity, stable conventional soliton with a duration of 573 fs is generated, and a average output power up to 1.14 W is obtained.

  4. The Problem of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries--Direct and Indirect Causes and Recommendations for Reducing It to a Sustainable Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, Cathy H.; Goode, Pamela M.

    1992-01-01

    Presents direct and indirect causes of erosion in developing countries. Identifies soil conservation developments ranging from major international policy reforms to small-scale, local farming programs. Suggests that strategies at all levels, and the political will to implement them, are needed if erosion is to be reduced to a sustainable rate. (23…

  5. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  6. Ischemia in tumors induces early and sustained phosphorylation changes in stress kinase pathways but does not affect global protein levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertins, Philipp; Yang, Feng; Liu, Tao; Mani, DR; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gillette, Michael; Clauser, Karl; Qiao, Jana; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Davies, Sherri; Ruggles, Kelly; Fenyo, David; Kitchens, R. T.; Li, Shunqiang; Olvera, Narcisco; Dao, Fanny; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel W.; Liebler, Daniel; White, Forest; Rodland, Karin D.; Mills, Gordon; Smith, Richard D.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.

    2014-07-01

    Advances in quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics have sparked efforts to characterize the proteomes of tumor samples to provide complementary and unique information inaccessible by genomics. Tumor samples are usually not accrued with proteomic characterization in mind, raising concerns regarding effects of undocumented sample ischemia on protein abundance and phosphosite stoichiometry. Here we report the effects of cold ischemia time on clinical ovarian cancer samples and patient-derived basal and luminal breast cancer xenografts. Tumor tissues were excised and collected prior to vascular ligation, subjected to accurately defined ischemia times up to 60 min, and analyzed by quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics using isobaric tags and high-performance, multidimensional LC-MS/MS. No significant changes were detected at the protein level in each tumor type after 60 minutes of ischemia, and the majority of the >25,000 phosphosites detected were also stable. However, large, reproducible increases and decreases in protein phosphorylation at specific sites were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome starting as early as 5 minutes post-excision. Early and sustained activation of stress response, transcriptional regulation and cell death pathways were observed in common across tumor types. Tissue-specific changes in phosphosite stability were also observed suggesting idiosyncratic effects of ischemia in particular lineages. Our study provides insights into the information that may be obtained by proteomic characterization of tumor samples after undocumented periods of ischemia, and suggests caution especially in interpreting activation of stress pathways in such samples as they may reflect sample handling rather than tumor physiology.

  7. A Road to Sustainable Development of Chinese Cities: A Perception of Improving Urban Management Efficiency Based on Two-Level Production Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is an inevitable requirement of regional governance and sustainable development to improve urban management efficiency (UME. Different from the previous studies, this paper gives it a new meaning based on the production factors theories. Then the paper analyzes the response of UME to the primary production factors (PPFs characterized by the traditional production factors theory (land, labor, and capital, and the expanded production factors (EPFs reflected by the modern production factors theory (energy and ecology. By analyzing UME in China’s 334 cities on global and local scales, this paper found four characteristics of UME: (1 the striking spatial differences; (2 the strong correlation between management models; (3 the evident development emphasis; and (4 the weak matching linkage. Finally, we put forward the countermeasures of spatial governance, including strengthening the agglomeration effect, promoting diversified development models on different scales, and accelerating resource coordination and sharing.

  8. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  9. Vitamin D levels appear to be normal in Danish patients attending secondary care for low back pain and a weak positive correlation between serum level Vitamin D and Modic changes was demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jannick Vaaben; Manniche, Claus; Kjær, Per

    2013-01-01

    with non-specific LBP and associations with low levels of Vitamin D have been suggested. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) Vitamin D levels in patients seeking care for LBP in a Danish out-patient secondary care setting, and (2) their possible relationship with myopathy-related symptoms...

  10. Deficits in Sustained Attention and Changes in Dopaminergic Protein Levels following Exposure to Proton Radiation Are Related to Basal Dopaminergic Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Davis

    Full Text Available The current report assessed the effects of low-level proton irradiation in inbred adult male Fischer 344 and Lewis rats performing an analog of the human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT, commonly utilized as an object risk assessment tool to quantify fatigue and sustained attention in laboratory, clinical, and operational settings. These strains were used to determine if genetic differences in dopaminergic function would impact radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention. Exposure to head-only proton irradiation (25 or 100 cGy disrupted rPVT performance in a strain-specific manner, with 25 cGy-exposed Fischer 344 rats displaying the most severe deficits in sustained attention (i.e., decreased accuracy and increased premature responding; Lewis rats did not display behavioral deficits following radiation. Fischer 344 rats displayed greater tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels in the frontal cortex compared to the Lewis rats, even though radiation exposure increased both of these proteins in the Lewis rats only. Tyrosine hydroxylase was decreased in the parietal cortex of both rat strains following radiation exposure, regardless of proton dose. Strain-specific cytokine changes were also found in the frontal cortex, with the Lewis rats displaying increased levels of putative neurotrophic cytokines (e.g., CNTF. These data support the hypothesis that basal dopaminergic function impacts the severity of radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention.

  11. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  12. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  13. Energy indicators to assess sustainable development at the national level : acting on the Johannesburg plan of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, I.A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Abdalla, K.L. [United Nations, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs

    2006-04-15

    Energy and its relationship to socio-economic development and the environment was a central theme at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. Countries participating in the resulting Johannesburg plan of implementation need to accurately assess current economic conditions, policy instruments and goals for the future. This article provided details of a cooperative effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs to develop a set of energy indicators to provide insight into the causal relationships between energy trends and policies. The energy indicators are consonant with Agenda 21 objectives, and aim to provide countries with a statistical analysis tool for assessing energy systems status and trends within the paradigm of sustainable development. The first phase of the initiative defined a a conceptual framework that incorporated and identified specific indicators for sustainable energy development. The second phase aimed to test and to provide assistance to countries in the development and use of energy indicators for monitoring progress and for developing energy strategies in conformity with the national objectives of sustainable development. Seven countries participated in the second phase, namely Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russian Federation, Slovakia, and Thailand. All participating countries have now defined their energy and sustainable development priorities, and have applied energy indicators to the analysis of energy policies geared to attaining priority goals. The case studies have led to the development of a number of new initiatives to improve national energy statistics as well as to develop databases on energy indicators. It was noted that many developing countries need to make an investment in their energy statistical databases and programs. It was concluded that the case studies demonstrated the advantages of using an integrated approach in the formulation and

  14. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  16. Prediction for sustained deep molecular response of BCR-ABL1 levels in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Koji; Kantarjian, Hagop; O'Brien, Susan; Ravandi, Farhad; Konopleva, Marina; Borthakur, Gautam; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Wierda, William; Daver, Naval; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Takahashi, Koichi; Jain, Preetesh; Rios, Mary Beth; Pierce, Sherry; Jabbour, Elias; Cortes, Jorge E

    2017-12-20

    The achievement of a sustained deep molecular response is a goal of increasing relevance because it opens the possibility of treatment discontinuation. The objective of this analysis was to develop a prediction model for a sustained molecular response with BCR-ABL1 level <0.0032% on the international scale (MR4.5 ) for at least 2 years according to BCR-ABL1 levels achieved within the first 12 months of therapy. Data for 603 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase in consecutive prospective clinical trials were analyzed. The best fit average molecular response was defined by robust linear regression models, with which the average molecular levels were defined. The minimum acceptable molecular response was defined by quantile regression for the 95th percentile, with which the worst 5% BCR-ABL1 levels were identified. In 603 patients with a median follow-up of 103 months, 2002 BCR-ABL1-level data points within 1 year of tyrosine kinase inhibitors were identified. The regression equation for the best fit average levels for a sustained MR4.5 was Log10 (PCR) = -0.1424 × (Months) - 0.8668, and the regression equation for minimum acceptable levels was Log10 (PCR) = -0.1403 × (Months) + 0.6142 (where PCR indicates polymerase chain reaction). To achieve a sustained MR4.5 , the best fit average levels were 0.051%, 0.019%, 0.007%, and 0.003% at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively; the minimum acceptable levels were 1.561%, 0.592%, 0.225%, and 0.085% at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. This model proposes optimal values that predict the highest probability of reaching such a goal. These values can be used to guide therapy when a sustained MR4.5 is the objective. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  18. Analyzing the Environmental Impacts of Laptop Enclosures Using Screening-Level Life Cycle Assessment to Support Sustainable Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing amount of consumer electronics in service, it is essential industries and policy-makers work together to develop ways to manufacture more environmentally sustainable IT products which meet the needs of society. The objective of this study was to better un...

  19. Institutions of farmer participation and environmental sustainability: a multi-level analysis from irrigation management in Harran Plain, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between farmer participation and environmental sustainability from an institutional perspective in the context of Harran Plain, one of the newest and largest irrigated areas in Turkey. Harran Plain undergoes social, economic and institutional change due to the

  20. Weak Quantum Ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.

  1. The Impact of a Values-Based Supply Chain (VBSC on Farm-Level Viability, Sustainability and Resilience: Case Study Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Hooks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Agriculture of the Middle’ (AotM development paradigm emphasises that in order to survive, family farms must transition from a supply chain approach to a values-based supply chain (VBSC approach, involving amendments to both product type and actor dynamics within the chain. This paper presents a qualitative case study of a beef co-operative integrated to a VBSC. We use an analytical framework of viability, sustainability and resilience to analyse impacts at farm-level. Our analysis highlights a number of positive effects on farm-level viability, sustainability and resilience. These benefits stemmed largely from improvements to market orientation, price stability, and members’ capacities in responding to problems. However, the autonomy of the co-operative was challenged by VBSC chain members, which impacted negatively on the stability of the co-operative.

  2. Levels of governance in policy innovation cycles in community education: the cases of Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kolleck, N.; Jörgens, H.; M. Well

    2017-01-01

    While there is little doubt that social networks are essential for processes of implementing social innovations in community education such as Climate Change Education (CCE) or Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), scholars have neglected to analyze these processes in the multilevel governance system using Social Network Analysis. In this article, we contribute to closing this research gap by exploring the implementation of CCE and ESD in education at the regional and global levels. We...

  3. Levels of Governance in Policy Innovation Cycles in Community Education: The Cases of Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Kolleck; Helge Jörgens; Mareike Well

    2017-01-01

    While there is little doubt that social networks are essential for processes of implementing social innovations in community education such as Climate Change Education (CCE) or Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), scholars have neglected to analyze these processes in the multilevel governance system using Social Network Analysis. In this article, we contribute to closing this research gap by exploring the implementation of CCE and ESD in education at the regional and global levels. We...

  4. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  5. Sustained influence of metformin therapy on circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Dawed, Adem; Welsh, Paul

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate, in the Carotid Atherosclerosis: Metformin for Insulin Resistance (CAMERA) trial (NCT00723307), whether the influence of metformin on the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 axis in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is sustained and related to changes in glycaemia...... or weight, and to investigate basal and post-meal GLP-1 levels in patients with T2DM in the cross-sectional Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CAMERA was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of metformin in 173 participants without diabetes....... These changes were independent of potential confounders including age, sex, adiposity and glycated haemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: In people without diabetes, metformin increases total GLP-1 in a sustained manner and independently of changes in weight or glycaemia. Metformin-treated patients with T2DM also have...

  6. Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

    2010-11-30

    This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60

  7. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  8. Measuring Tools for Quantifying Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Evans; Vladimir Strezov; Tim Evans

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews the tools and methods used for quantifying sustainable development. The paper first reviews categorization of the tools based on weak and strong sustainability. It then provides critical review of the UN review of sustainability indicators and the methods for calculating the indicators, which include the environmental footprint, capital approach to measuring sustainable development, green national net product, genuine savings, genuine progress indicator, indicator of sustain...

  9. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    The concept of the weak measurements, for the first time, was introduced by Aharonov et al.1. Quantum state is preselected in |ψi〉 and allowed to interact weakly with apparatus. Measurement strength can be tuned and for “small g(t)” it is called 'weak measurement'. With postselection in |ψf 〉, apparatus state is shifted by an ...

  10. Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Ryan W; Santos, Santiago Roel; Morris, Mark; Evans, Mal; Alminana, Dan; Guarente, Leonard; Marcotulli, Eric

    2017-01-01

    NRPT is a combination of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) precursor vitamin found in milk, and pterostilbene (PT), a polyphenol found in blueberries. Here, we report this first-in-humans clinical trial designed to assess the safety and efficacy of a repeat dose of NRPT (commercially known as Basis). NRPT was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study in a population of 120 healthy adults between the ages of 60 and 80 years. The study consisted of three treatment arms: placebo, recommended dose of NRPT (NRPT 1X), and double dose of NRPT (NRPT 2X). All subjects took their blinded supplement daily for eight weeks. Analysis of NAD + in whole blood demonstrated that NRPT significantly increases the concentration of NAD + in a dose-dependent manner. NAD + levels increased by approximately 40% in the NRPT 1X group and approximately 90% in the NRPT 2X group after 4 weeks as compared to placebo and baseline. Furthermore, this significant increase in NAD + levels was sustained throughout the entire 8-week trial. NAD + levels did not increase for the placebo group during the trial. No serious adverse events were reported in this study. This study shows that a repeat dose of NRPT is a safe and effective way to increase NAD + levels sustainably.

  11. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and their implementation: A national global framework for health, development and equity needs a systems approach at every level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephen; Pencheon, David; Squires, Neil

    2017-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of global goals for fair and sustainable health at every level: from planetary biosphere to local community. The aim is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity, now and in the future. The UN has established web-sites to inform the implementation of the SDGs and an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on an Indicator Framework. We have searched for independent commentaries and analysis. The goals represent a framework that is scientifically robust, and widely intuitive intended to build upon the progress established by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is a need for system wide strategic planning to integrate the economic, social and environmental dimensions into policy and actions. Many countries have yet to understand the difference between the MDGs and the SDGs, particularly their universality, the huge potential of new data methods to help with their implementation, and the systems thinking that is needed to deliver the vision. The danger is that individual goals may be prioritized without an understanding of the potential positive interactions between goals. There is an increasing understanding that sustainable development needs a paradigm shift in our understanding of the interaction between the real economy and quality of life. There would be many social, environmental and economic benefits in changing our current model. We need to develop systems wide understanding of what supports a healthy environment and the art and science of making change.

  12. A risk-based, product-level approach for assuring aquatic environmental safety of cleaning products in the context of sustainability: The Environmental Safety Check (ESC) scheme of the A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickup, John Alexander; Dewaele, Joost; Furmanski, Nicola L; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Luijkx, Gerard Ca; Mathieu, Sophie; Stelter, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning products have long been a focus of efforts to improve sustainability and assure safety for the aquatic environment when disposed of after use. The latter is addressed at ingredient level through environmental risk assessment, including in formal frameworks such as REACH. Nevertheless, in the context of programs to improve overall sustainability, stakeholders demand both environmental safety assurance and progress at product level. Current product-level approaches for aquatic toxicity (e.g., USEtox™, Critical Dilution Volume) can be seen as predominantly hazard-based. The more logical approach would be risk-based, because ecotoxicity is generally threshold-dependent and hazard-based assessment produces conflicts with risk-based learnings. The development of a risk-based approach to assess formulated products is described: the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (A.I.S.E.) Charter Environmental Safety Check (ESC), which is consistent with the scientific principles underlying REACH. This is implemented through a simple spreadsheet tool and internal database of ingredient parameters including predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and removal rate. A novel feature is applying market volume information for both product types and ingredients to permit a risk-based calculation. To pass the ESC check, the projected environmental safety ratio (PESR) for each ingredient as formulated and dosed (unless cleared by a published risk assessment or exempted as inherently low risk) must be less than 1. The advantages of a risk-based approach are discussed. The strengths and limitations of various possible approaches to standard-setting, product-ranking and driving continuous improvement in respect of potential ecotoxic impacts on the aquatic environment are considered. It is proposed that as ecotoxicity is generally accepted to be threshold-dependent, with no effect below the threshold, the most constructive approach to continuous

  13. Modeling impacts of sea-level rise, oil price, and management strategy on the costs of sustaining Mississippi delta marshes with hydraulic dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Adrian R H; Day, John W; D'Elia, Christopher F; Rutherford, Jeffrey S; Morris, James T; Roy, Eric D; Lane, Robert R; Dismukes, David E; Snyder, Brian F

    2018-03-15

    Over 25% of Mississippi River delta plain (MRDP) wetlands were lost over the past century. There is currently a major effort to restore the MRDP focused on a 50-year time horizon, a period during which the energy system and climate will change dramatically. We used a calibrated MRDP marsh elevation model to assess the costs of hydraulic dredging to sustain wetlands from 2016 to 2066 and 2016 to 2100 under a range of scenarios for sea level rise, energy price, and management regimes. We developed a subroutine to simulate dredging costs based on the price of crude oil and a project efficiency factor. Crude oil prices were projected using forecasts from global energy models. The costs to sustain marsh between 2016 and 2100 changed from $128,000/ha in the no change scenario to ~$1,010,000/ha in the worst-case scenario for sea level rise and energy price, an ~8-fold increase. Increasing suspended sediment concentrations, which is possible using managed river diversions, raised created marsh lifespan and decreased long term dredging costs. Created marsh lifespan changed nonlinearly with dredging fill elevation and suspended sediment level. Cost effectiveness of marsh creation and nourishment can be optimized by adjusting dredging fill elevation to the local sediment regime. Regardless of management scenario, sustaining the MRDP with hydraulic dredging suffered declining returns on investment due to the convergence of energy and climate trends. Marsh creation will likely become unaffordable in the mid to late 21st century, especially if river sediment diversions are not constructed before 2030. We recommend that environmental managers take into consideration coupled energy and climate scenarios for long-term risk assessments and adjust restoration goals accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...

  15. Plasma interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 levels are associated with early, but not sustained virological response during treatment of acute or early chronic HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan J Feld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 have been shown to be associated with impaired treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Whether IP-10 levels predict treatment in acute HCV infection is unknown. METHODS: Patients with acute or early chronic HCV infection from the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC cohort were evaluated. Baseline and on-treatment plasma IP-10 levels were measured by ELISA. IL28B genotype was determined by sequencing. RESULTS: Overall, 74 HCV mono-infected and 35 HIV/HCV co-infected patients were treated in ATAHC, of whom 89 were adherent to therapy and were included for analysis. IP-10 levels correlated with HCV RNA levels at baseline (r = 0.48, P600 pg/mL achieved RVR. There was no association with IP-10 levels and early virological response (EVR or sustained virological response (SVR. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline IP-10 levels are associated with early viral kinetics but not ultimate treatment outcome in acute HCV infection. Given previous data showing that patients with high baseline IP-10 are unlikely to spontaneously clear acute HCV infection, they should be prioritized for early antiviral therapy.

  16. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  17. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...... creation, product innovation and business model innovation). The empirical basis for the typology is an exploratory study of managers' mindsets about sustainability as strategy. Ten top managers involved with integrating sustainability within their companies have been interviewed. In order to reveal...

  18. A novel and sensitive method for measuring very weak magnetic fields of DA white dwarfs. A search for a magnetic field at the 250 G level in 40 Eridani B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Valyavin, G. G.; Gadelshin, D.; Martin, A. J.; Galazutdinov, G.; Semenko, E.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Searches for magnetic fields in white dwarfs have clarified both the frequency of occurrence and the global structure of the fields found down to field strengths of the order of 500 kG. Below this level, the situation is still very unclear. Aims: We are engaged in a project to find and study the weakest magnetic fields that are detectable in white dwarfs, in order to empirically determine how the frequency of occurrence and the structure of fields present changes with field strength. In this paper we report the successful testing of a very sensitive method of longitudinal field detection in DA white dwarfs. We use this method to carry out an extremely sensitive search for magnetism in the bright white dwarf 40 Eri B. Methods: The method of field measurement we use is to measure, at high spectral resolution, the polarisation signal V/I of the narrow non-LTE line core in Hα in DA stars. This small feature provides a much higher amplitude polarisation signal than the broad Balmer line wings. We test the usefulness of this technique by searching for a weak magnetic field in 40 Eri B. Results: One hour of observation of I and V Stokes components of the white dwarf 40 Eri B using ESPaDOnS at the CFHT is found to provide a standard error of measurement of the mean longitudinal magnetic field ⟨ Bz ⟩ of about 85 G. This is the smallest standard error of field measurement ever obtained for a white dwarf. The non-detections obtained are generally consistent with slightly less accurate measurements of 40 Eri B obtained with ISIS at the WHT and the Main Stellar Spectrograph at SAO, in order to provide comparison standards for the new method. These further measurements allow us to make a quantitative comparison of the relative efficiencies of low-resolution spectropolarimetery (using most or all of the Balmer lines) with the new method (using only the core of Hα). Conclusions: The new method of field detection reaches the level of sensitivity that was expected. It

  19. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  20. Towards Sustaining Levels of Reflective Learning: How Do Transformational Leadership, Task Interdependence, and Self-Efficacy Shape Teacher Learning in Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoud Oude Groote Beverborg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas cross-sectional research has shown that transformational leadership, task interdependence, and self-efficacy are positively related to teachers’ engagement in reflective learning activities, the causal direction of these relations needs further inquiry. At the same time, individual teacher learning might play a mutual role in strengthening school-level capacity for sustained improvement. Building on previous research, this longitudinal study therefore examines how transformational leadership, task interdependence, self-efficacy, and teachers’ engagement in self-reflection mutually affect each other over time. Questionnaire data gathered on three measurement occasions from 655 Dutch Vocational Education and Training teachers was analyzed using a multivariate Latent Difference Score model. Results indicate that self-reflection and task interdependence reciprocally influence each other’s change. A considerate and stimulating transformational leader was found to contribute to this process. Change in self-efficacy was influenced by self-reflection, indicating that learning leads to competency beliefs. Together, the findings point to the important role transformational leadership practices play in facilitating teamwork, and sustaining teachers’ levels of learning in schools.

  1. Resisting Weakness of the Will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2011-01-01

    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.

  2. Comparison of parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels in two chicken lines during sustained infection with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Pleidrup, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly large numbers of poultry are held in production systems with access to outdoor areas. In these systems intestinal helminths are found with flock prevalences of up to 100%. Helminth infections influence chicken health negatively, which is why the following investigation has been...... in chicken faeces were measured for a period of 81 weeks.The level of excreted A. galli eggs measured as eggs per gram chicken faeces (EPG) varied greatly between chickens in each line. Significant differences were found between the two lines and with the R5 chickens reaching the highest levels. Likewise......, the A. galli-specific IgG titres in serum differed significantly between the two lines, and an inverse relationship between infection level (EPG) and antibody titres was found. Although this inverse relationship suggests that humoral immunity may be involved in protection against A. galli infection...

  3. Sustained influence of metformin therapy on circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David; Dawed, Adem; Welsh, Paul; Heggie, Alison; Jones, Angus G; Dekker, Jacqueline; Koivula, Robert; Hansen, Tue H; Stewart, Caitlin; Holman, Rury R; Franks, Paul W; Walker, Mark; Pearson, Ewan R; Sattar, Naveed

    2017-03-01

    To investigate, in the Carotid Atherosclerosis: Metformin for Insulin Resistance (CAMERA) trial (NCT00723307), whether the influence of metformin on the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 axis in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is sustained and related to changes in glycaemia or weight, and to investigate basal and post-meal GLP-1 levels in patients with T2DM in the cross-sectional Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) study. CAMERA was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of metformin in 173 participants without diabetes. Using 6-monthly fasted total GLP-1 levels over 18 months, we evaluated metformin's effect on total GLP-1 with repeated-measures analysis and analysis of covariance. In the DIRECT study, we examined active and total fasting and 60-minute post-meal GLP-1 levels in 775 people recently diagnosed with T2DM treated with metformin or diet, using Student's t-tests and linear regression. In CAMERA, metformin increased total GLP-1 at 6 (+20.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-39.0), 12 (+26.7%, 95% CI 10.3-45.6) and 18 months (+18.7%, 95% CI 3.8-35.7), an overall increase of 23.4% (95% CI 11.2-36.9; P metformin was associated with higher fasting active (39.1%, 95% CI 21.3-56.4) and total GLP-1 (14.1%, 95% CI 1.2-25.9) but not post-meal incremental GLP-1. These changes were independent of potential confounders including age, sex, adiposity and glycated haemoglobin. In people without diabetes, metformin increases total GLP-1 in a sustained manner and independently of changes in weight or glycaemia. Metformin-treated patients with T2DM also have higher fasted GLP-1 levels, independently of weight and glycaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Implementing REDD+ at the local level: Assessing the key enablers for credible mitigation and sustainable livelihood outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atela, Joanes O; Minang, Peter A; Quinn, Claire H; Duguma, Lalisa A

    2015-07-01

    Achieving cost-effective mitigation and sustainable livelihoods through reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) depends heavily on the local context within which REDD+ projects are implemented. Studies have focused on how REDD+ can benefit or harm local people, with little attention paid to how people, their assets and institutions can promote or impede REDD+. This paper examines the key local assets necessary for REDD+ to protect forests and support local livelihoods based on evidence from a globally-linked REDD+ project in Kenya. Household interviews (n = 100), focus group discussions (n = 6) and in-depth interviews with government (n = 8) and project stakeholders (n = 14) were undertaken to rank and explain how local assets interact with the project's efforts to protect forests, and the role of State institutions in shaping project-asset interactions. Locally, pro-poor assets such as land tenure and water access had most influence on the project's ability to protect forests. Inclusion of communal forests as part of the REDD+ project entitled local poor peasant farmers to participate in and benefit from the project and so dissuaded them from using protected forests for charcoal production. Water access determined agricultural productivity and intensity of forest use for livelihoods and coping. Even though carbon revenues were distributed equally between social groups and support directed to pro-poor livelihood initiatives, efforts were impeded by State decisions on land that interfered with communal approaches to forest conservation, by strict carbon standards that limited trade-offs between livelihoods and forest protection and by fluctuating carbon prices and buyers that limited funds needed for project operations and local livelihoods. Equitable and pro-poor benefit sharing are necessary but not sufficient for effective REDD+ implementation unless national institutions are reformed and global carbon pricing harmonized

  5. Weak Coupling Phases future directions

    CERN Document Server

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results obtained from B decays on the phases of weak couplings described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are discussed, with particular emphasis on $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma = \\pi - \\beta - \\alpha$.

  6. Intrahepatic mRNA levels of type I interferon receptor and interferon-stimulated genes in genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. Association between IFNAR1 mRNA level and sustained response to interferon therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Akira; Shimomura, Hiroyuki; Moriya, Akio; Yu, Piao Cheng; Umeoka, Fumi; Fujioka, Shin-ichi; Koide, Norio; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between pretreatment intrahepatic mRNA levels of interferon receptor and interferon-stimulated genes and response to interferon therapy for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. Forty-four patients with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C who underwent liver biopsy and then received interferon therapy participated in this study. Pretreatment intrahepatic mRNA levels of interferon receptor genes (IFNAR1, IFNAR2b, and IFNAR2c) and interferon-stimulated genes (OAS1 and PKR) were quantified by competitive polymerase chain reaction. In the genes examined, only IFNAR1 mRNA level was significantly higher in patients with sustained virological and biochemical response to interferon therapy versus those with nonsustained response (p IFNAR1 to IFNAR2 were also significantly higher in patients with sustained virological and biochemical response to IFN therapy (p IFNAR1 and mRNA ratio of IFNAR1 to IFNAR2 before treatment may be associated with a favorable response to interferon therapy. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  8. Weak interactions of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1965-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,

  9. The Potential of Non-Formal Laboratory Environments for Innovating the Chemistry Curriculum and Promoting Secondary School Level Students Education for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Garner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing skills and attitudes among students in terms of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD requires that educators address issues of sustainability in both formal and non-formal education. However, up to now, ESD seems to have been insufficiently implemented in secondary science education in many countries in general, and in high school chemistry learning in particular. A lack of suitable experiments, coupled with missing teaching and learning materials and insufficient teacher professional development have been identified as the reasons for this gap. This paper describes a project of innovation and research in the field of ESD for secondary school chemistry education. Within the project, both half- and full-day learning environments have been developed for non-formal, laboratory-based learning of secondary level students at the university. The research-based development focuses on teaching-learning modules which link formal and non-formal learning. The pedagogy employed is both learner-centered and inquiry-based. All the modules focus on sustainability issues in chemistry-related contexts. Data was collected by questionnaires from teachers and students both prior to and after the visit of the non-formal learning environment. Likert-items were analyzed statistically and the evaluation of the open-ended questions was done by Qualitative Content Analysis. An overview of the project, a case from the non-formal laboratory setting, and findings from accompanying research and evaluation are discussed in this paper. Potential impacts on teacher professional development and curriculum innovation are also outlined.

  10. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  11. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  12. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...

  13. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  14. A QEEG index of level of functional dependence for people sustaining acquired brain injury: the Seville Independence Index (SINDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Carrion, Jose; Martin-Rodriguez, Juan Francisco; Damas-Lopez, Jesus; Martin, Juan Manuel Barroso Y; Dominguez-Morales, Maria Del Rosario

    2008-01-01

    To find an easy-to-use, valid and reliable tool for evaluating the level of functional dependence of an individual with brain damage who seeks a diagnosis of his/her functional dependence in daily activities. Eighty-one patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) in post-acute phase, 40 traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 41 cerebral vascular accident (CVA), were assessed using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and grouped according to the FIM + FAM scale. Discriminant analysis was performed on QEEG variables to obtain a discriminant function with the best discriminative capacity between functionality groups. Discriminant analysis showed classification accuracy of 100% in the training set sample and 75% in an external cross-validation sample; 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity were reached. Coherence measures were the most numerous variables in the function. These results point out that the discriminant function may be a useful tool in objective evaluations of patients seeking a diagnosis of their level of dependence and that it could be included in current functionality assessment protocols.

  15. Food for thought: the importance of glucose and other energy substrates for sustaining brain function under varying levels of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L

    2010-10-01

    The brain requires a constant and substantial energy supply to maintain its main functions. For decades, it was assumed that glucose was the major if not the only significant source of energy for neurons. This view was supported by the expression of specific facilitative glucose transporters on cerebral blood vessels, as well as neurons. Despite the fact that glucose remains a key energetic substrate for the brain, growing evidence suggests a different scenario. Thus astrocytes, a major type of glial cells that express their own glucose transporter, play a critical role in coupling synaptic activity with glucose utilization. It was shown that glutamatergic activity triggers an enhancement of aerobic glycolysis in this cell type. As a result, lactate is provided to neurons as an additional energy substrate. Indeed, lactate has proven to be a preferential energy substrate for neurons under various conditions. A family of proton-linked carriers known as monocarboxylate transporters has been described and specific members have been found to be expressed by endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. Moreover, these transporters are subject to fine regulation of their expression levels and localization, notably in neurons, which suggests that lactate supply could be adjusted as a function of their level of activity. Considering the importance of energetics in the aetiology of several neurodegenerative diseases, a better understanding of its cellular and molecular underpinnings might have important implications for the future development of neuroprotective strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  17. Levels of Governance in Policy Innovation Cycles in Community Education: The Cases of Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolleck

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that social networks are essential for processes of implementing social innovations in community education such as Climate Change Education (CCE or Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, scholars have neglected to analyze these processes in the multilevel governance system using Social Network Analysis. In this article, we contribute to closing this research gap by exploring the implementation of CCE and ESD in education at the regional and global levels. We compare the way CCE is negotiated and implemented within and through the global conferences of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC with the way the UN Decade of ESD is put into practice through networks in five different German municipalities. We argue that the role of social networks is particularly strong in policy areas like CCE and ESD, which are best characterized as multi-level and multi-actor governance. Based on data derived from standardized surveys and from Twitter we analyze the complex interactions of public and private actors at different levels of governance in the two selected policy areas. We find, amongst others, that the implementation of CCE and ESD in community education depends in part on actors that had not been assumed to be influential at the outset. Furthermore, our analyses suggest the different levels of governance are not well integrated throughout the phases of the policy innovation cycle.

  18. Diaphragm weakness in pulmonary arterial hypertension: role of sarcomeric dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, E.; Man, F.S. de; Handoko, M.L.; Westerhof, N.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Stienen, G.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that diaphragm muscle weakness is present in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). However, the nature of this diaphragm weakness is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether changes at the sarcomeric level contribute to

  19. Stress-restress evokes sustained iNOS activity and altered GABA levels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Brand, Linda

    2004-01-01

    RATIONALE: Stress-related glucocorticoid and glutamate release have been implicated in hippocampal atrophy evident in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamatergic mechanisms activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS), while gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) may inhibit both...... glutamatergic and nitrergic transmission. Animal studies support a role for NOS in stress. OBJECTIVES: We have studied the role of NOS and glucocorticoids, as well as inhibitory and excitatory transmitters, in a putative animal model of PTSD that emphasizes repeated trauma. METHODS: Hippocampal NOS activity, N......-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor binding characteristics and GABA levels were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats 21 days after exposure to a stress-restress paradigm, using radiometric analysis, radioligand studies and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with electrochemical detection, respectively...

  20. Metastatic prostate cancer-associated P62 inhibits autophagy flux and promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition by sustaining the level of HDAC6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianhan; Huang, Yiqiao; Liang, Xue; Jiang, Funeng; He, Yongzhong; Li, Tian; Xu, Guibin; Zhao, Haibo; Yang, Weiqing; Jiang, Ganggang; Su, Zhengming; Jiang, Lingke; Liu, Leyuan

    2018-01-31

    P62 (also named sequestosome-1, SQSTM1) is involved in autophagy regulation through multiple pathways. It interacts with autophagosomes-associated LC3-II and ubiquitinated protein aggregates to engulf the aggregates in autophagosomes, interacts with HDAC6 to inhibit its deacetylase activity to maintain the levels of acetylated α-tubulin and stabilities of microtubules to enhance autophagosome trafficking, and regulates autophagy initiation and cell survival. We performed immunohistochemistry staining of P62 in prostate tissues from prostate cancer patients and found that levels of P62 in patients with prostate adenocarcinomas (PCA) are significantly higher than those in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). High levels of P62 predict high tumor grade and high intensity of metastasis. We created prostate cancer cell lines stably overexpressing P62 and then suppress the expression of P62 in the cell line stably overexpressing P62 with CRISPR technology. Cell proliferation assay with crystal violet, cell migration assay, cell invasion assay, Western blot analysis, and confocal fluorescent microscopy were conducted to test the impact of altered levels of P62 on the growth, migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, autophagy flux, HDAC6 activity, and microtubular acetylation of cancer cells. P62 increased the levels of HDAC6 and reduced the acetylation of α-tubulin and the stability of microtubules. Consequently, high levels of P62 caused a promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in addition to an impairment of autophagy flux, and further led to an enhancement of proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells. P62 promotes metastasis of PCA by sustaining the level of P62 to inhibit autophagy and promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in; Pati, Arun Kumar, E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in

    2014-04-15

    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.

  2. Design support tools to sustain climate change adaptation at the local level: A review and reflection on their suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Dubois

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For mid-latitude cities, higher summer temperatures due to climate change are a cause for concern because they aggravate the urban heat island phenomenon and reduce thermal comfort inside buildings. By acquiring the appropriate knowledge and skills, architects and urban designers can become key actors in adaptation to climate change. Two workshops bringing together architects and urban designers provided evidence of deficiencies in this area. We hypothesize that a design support tool (DST focused on the issue of adaptation of mid-latitude cities to rising summer temperatures could help improve knowledge and skills of professionals in the field. The first section presents the results taken from a review and classification of DSTs, which highlight the tools׳ features that are likely to reach this goal. Tools of the “hybrid” category seem most appropriate. To verify this, seven DSTs were selected and tested by fourteen students enrolled in a graduate-level architecture design studio. The second section presents the results from this test, including an analysis of the final projects, a web-based questionnaire and two focus groups. The relevance of hybrid approaches is established, but the results bring into question the capacity of a single DST to meet the individual and multiple needs of professionals.

  3. Quantitative sensory response of the SCM muscle on sustained low level activation simulating co-contractions during bruxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Lydia; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans-Jürgen; Schmitter, Marc; Pfau, Doreen

    2017-11-10

    Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise. QST comprised thermal and mechanical stimuli. A submaximal activation of the SCM (15% MVC) was kept for 10min in sitting position. In separate test sessions one month apart, one sham and one verum experiment were conducted in randomized order. During the muscle loading, the parameters cold detection threshold (CDT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) and pressure pain treshold (PPT) were tested and experimental pain recorded by visual analogoue scales (VAS). All test sessions were performed during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 5), to avoid effects on pain perception. Data were analyzed with Repeated Measures ANOVA (SPSS 22.0) RESULTS: No significant changes were found during or after (sham) loading except for stimulus-response-function (SR, P=0.01) and PPT (P=0.02) in the sham test. No effect was observed in the verum experiment (P=0.12 up to 1.0). Prolonged low level contraction of the SCM does not evoke painful sensitization. In contrast, submaximal muscle activation seems to have a protective effect corresponding to a training effect preventing sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karta Kooner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  5. The Importance of Institutional Design for Distributed Local-Level Governance of Groundwater: The Case of California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiparsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of the world, groundwater resources are increasingly stressed, and unsustainable use has become common. Where existing mechanisms for governing groundwater are ineffective or nonexistent, new ones need to be developed. Local level groundwater governance provides an intriguing alternative to top-down models, with the promise of enabling management to better match the diversity of physical and social conditions in groundwater basins. One such example is emerging in California, USA, where new state law requires new local agencies to self-organize and act to achieve sustainable groundwater management. In this article, we draw on insights from research on common pool resource management and natural resources governance to develop guidelines for institutional design for local groundwater governance, grounded in California’s developing experience. We offer nine criteria that can be used as principles or standards in the evaluation of institutional design for local level groundwater governance: scale, human capacity, funding, authority, independence, representation, participation, accountability, and transparency. We assert that local governance holds promise as an alternative to centralized governance in some settings but that its success will depend heavily on the details of its implementation. Further, for local implementation to achieve its promise, there remain important complementary roles for centralized governance. California’s developing experience with local level groundwater management in dozens of basins across the state provides a unique opportunity to test and assess the importance and influence of these criteria.

  6. Factors regarding increase of platelet counts in chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virological response to interferon-Relation to serum thrombopoietin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagura, Michiyasu; Tanaka, Akihisa; Tokita, Hajime; Kamitsukasa, Hiroshi; Harada, Hideharu

    2005-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia is frequently found in patients with chronic liver disease, and associated with advanced fibrosis stage and with decreased liver function. Serum thrombopoietin (TPO) levels also decrease as the disease progresses from mild fibrosis to cirrhosis. On the other hand, platelet counts increase associated with improvement of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) patients with sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon (IFN) therapy. Then, we studied if the increase of platelet counts in SVR associate with elevated TPO production or a reduction of spleen size. Liver fibrosis, spleen size, serum TPO levels, albumin, zinc turbidity test (ZTT), platelet counts were compared in fifteen CH-C patients with SVR before and after IFN therapy. Albumin increased from 4.2+/-0.3 to 4.3+/-0.3g/dl (p=0.067), ZTT decreased from 17.7+/-5.9 to 8.9+/-3.9K-U (psize was measured by ultrasonography, and the spleen index was calculated by multiplication of the long and short axes from hilus, which decreased from 14.6+/-5.0 to 10+/-3.1 (preduction of spleen size and increased serum TPO levels associated with improvement of fibrosis after IFN therapy.

  7. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  8. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  10. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  11. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 119, No. 3, June 2009, pp. 297–318. © Printed in India. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Sevilla,. Apartado de Correos 1160, 41080-Sevilla, Spain.

  12. Beam splitting on weak illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.

  13. On Weak-BCC-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983

  14. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  15. Multi-Scale Governance of Sustainable Natural Resource Use—Challenges and Opportunities for Monitoring and Institutional Development at the National and Global Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bringezu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized economy, the use of natural resources is determined by the demand of modern production and consumption systems, and by infrastructure development. Sustainable natural resource use will require good governance and management based on sound scientific information, data and indicators. There is a rich literature on natural resource management, yet the national and global scale and macro-economic policy making has been underrepresented. We provide an overview of the scholarly literature on multi-scale governance of natural resources, focusing on the information required by relevant actors from local to global scale. Global natural resource use is largely determined by national, regional, and local policies. We observe that in recent decades, the development of public policies of natural resource use has been fostered by an “inspiration cycle” between the research, policy and statistics community, fostering social learning. Effective natural resource policies require adequate monitoring tools, in particular indicators for the use of materials, energy, land, and water as well as waste and GHG emissions of national economies. We summarize the state-of-the-art of the application of accounting methods and data sources for national material flow accounts and indicators, including territorial and product-life-cycle based approaches. We show how accounts on natural resource use can inform the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and argue that information on natural resource use, and in particular footprint indicators, will be indispensable for a consistent implementation of the SDGs. We recognize that improving the knowledge base for global natural resource use will require further institutional development including at national and international levels, for which we outline options.

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Why do I feel ... level. Some people write down how they are feeling each day in a notebook to share with ...

  17. At Home with Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green......-fuel-based energy. To act otherwise requires additional effort and is less likely. Motivated by a need to understand how defaults might bridge standards and sustainable consumption, I investigate how organizational processes potentially lead from standardized green default rules to individual awareness that can...... spread and facilitate sustainable consumption. This paper examines the Active House sustainable building demonstrations in Europe in order to understand how (1) communications and market creation and (2) responsible, user-centered experimentation are organized to move from defaults to sustainable...

  18. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  19. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, John C; McConnachie, Lisa A; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D; Collier, Ann C; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2017-03-27

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay. For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes.

  20. Promoting Success of Ethnic Minority and Male Students in an Accelerated, Entry-Level Master of Nursing Program: The SUSTAIN Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Patricia A; Weeks, Y'Esha; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2015-09-01

    Diverse health care workers are essential to meet the needs of a diverse U.S. Ethnic minorities and men are frequently underrepresented in the nursing profession and within schools of nursing. Although many nursing schools have implemented programs to improve retention and academic success of these students, the lack of success is, in part, a reflection of program ineffectiveness. A nursing college developed the multifaceted SUSTAIN (Scholarships for Underrepresented Students in an Accelerated Initial Nursing) program to promote ethnic minority and male students' success in an accelerated entry-level master of nursing program. Students engaged in mentoring, academic support, and service-learning activities. Participants (N = 51) achieved 100% retention and graduation rates and a 92% first-time NCLEX-RN(®) examination pass rate. Program students participated in professional organizations and held leadership roles within the college. Implementation of a program focused on student retention and success is recommended for diverse students enrolled in accelerated entry-level master of nursing programs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  2. Sustainable healthcare: how to assess and improve healthcare structures' sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Bottero, M; Cavagliato, E; Speranza, S; Volpatti, L

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is a broad and debated subject, often difficult to be defined and applied into real projects, especially when dealing with a complex scenario as the one of healthcare. Many research studies and evaluation systems have handled this topic from different perspectives, but many limits and criticalities still have to be overcome to properly cope with actual needs. The Sustainable Healthcare project has been developed through three main phases: a deep study of the state of the art, unraveling pros and cons of available sustainability scoring systems; an accurate analysis of the stakeholders network and their needs; the realization of an objective evaluation framework, through scientific methods, as the ANP. The newly developed evaluation system takes into consideration all the three pillars of sustainability, analyzing social, environmental and economic sustainability through a set of criteria, specified by measurable indicators. So the system identifies both global sustainability and specific critical areas, pointing out possible strategic solutions to improve sustainability. The evaluation is achieved through technical analyses and qualitative surveys, which eventually allow to quantitatively assess sustainability, through a sound scoring method. This study proposes an innovative evaluation method to determine the sustainability of a hospital, already existing or in the design phase, within the European context. The Sustainable Healthcare system overcomes some of the current evaluation systems' limits by establishing a multidisciplinary approach and being an easy-to-use tool. This protocol is intended to be of support in the identification of the main hospital's weaknesses and in setting priorities for implementation of the solutions.

  3. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  4. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  5. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  6. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability...

  7. Profiling Sustainability Curriculum in AACSB Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the landscape of Sustainability Curriculum being used across the Association of Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB–accredited schools in the United States on the basis of a non-probabilistic sample (n = 119. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, four clusters were obtained based on sustainability-related courses in management, marketing, entrepreneurship, finance, accounting, information systems/information technology, strategy, globalization, communication, and miscellaneous. Cluster 1 had uniform dispersion on sustainability courses in all business courses except marketing. Clusters 2 and 4 were the largest ones with most sustainability courses in the management area, whereas, Cluster 3 had weak, but uniform, dispersion of sustainability courses in most business disciplines. Based on their characteristics and strength of dispersion among 10 business subject areas, these were labeled as Sustainability Prominent, Sustainability Moderate, Sustainability Meek, and Sustainability Quiescent.

  8. Mechanisms Undlerlying Quadriceps Weakness in Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETTERSON, STEPHANIE C.; BARRANCE, PETER; BUCHANAN, THOMAS; BINDER-MACLEOD, STUART; SNYDER-MACKLER, LYNN

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify determinants of quadriceps weakness among persons with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods One-hundred twenty-three individuals (mean age 64.9 ± 8.5 yr) with Kellgren/Lawrence grade IV knee OA participated. Quadriceps strength (MVIC) and volitional muscle activation (CAR) were measured using a burst superimposition test. Muscle composition (lean muscle cross-sectional area (LMCSA) and fat CSA (FCSA)) were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Specific strength (MVIC/LMCSA) was computed. Interlimb differences were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. Regression analysis was applied to identify determinants of MVIC. An alpha level of 0.05 was adopted. Results The OA limb was significantly weaker, had lower CAR, and had smaller LMCSA than the contralateral limb. CAR explained 17% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 40% in the OA limb. LMCSA explained 41% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 27% in the OA limb. Conclusion Both reduced CAR and LMCSA contribute to muscle weakness in persons with knee OA. Similar to healthy elders, the best predictor of strength in the contralateral, nondiseased limb was largely determined by LMCSA, whereas CAR was found to be the primary determinant of strength in the OA limb. Deficits in CAR may undermine the effectiveness of volitional strengthening programs in targeting quadriceps weakness in the OA population. PMID:18379202

  9. Mechanisms underlying quadriceps weakness in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Stephanie C; Barrance, Peter; Buchanan, Thomas; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    To identify determinants of quadriceps weakness among persons with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). One-hundred twenty-three individuals (mean age 64.9 +/- 8.5 yr) with Kellgren/Lawrence grade IV knee OA participated. Quadriceps strength (MVIC) and volitional muscle activation (CAR) were measured using a burst superimposition test. Muscle composition (lean muscle cross-sectional area (LMCSA) and fat CSA (FCSA)) were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Specific strength (MVIC/LMCSA) was computed. Interlimb differences were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. Regression analysis was applied to identify determinants of MVIC. An alpha level of 0.05 was adopted. The OA limb was significantly weaker, had lower CAR, and had smaller LMCSA than the contralateral limb. CAR explained 17% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 40% in the OA limb. LMCSA explained 41% of the variance in the contralateral limb's MVIC compared with 27% in the OA limb. Both reduced CAR and LMCSA contribute to muscle weakness in persons with knee OA. Similar to healthy elders, the best predictor of strength in the contralateral, nondiseased limb was largely determined by LMCSA, whereas CAR was found to be the primary determinant of strength in the OA limb. Deficits in CAR may undermine the effectiveness of volitional strengthening programs in targeting quadriceps weakness in the OA population.

  10. Sustainable investment: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns

  11. Transgovernance: advancing sustainability governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meuleman, Louis

    2013-01-01

    ... – together characterized as the emergence of a knowledge democracy – may imply for governance for sustainable development, on global and other levels of societal decision making, and the other way around...

  12. Level of sustained glycemic control and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe SM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Mekonnen Abebe,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,3 Shitaye Alemu,1 Nebiyu Mesfin1 1University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: The level of sustained glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM is a major determinant of the occurrence of both acute and chronic complications. However, information about the level of glycemic control among patients in the follow-up care at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital is scanty. The study assessed the degree of glycemic control and associated factors among diabetic patients in the study area. Method: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital. All diabetic patients aged ≥18 years who visited the Diabetes Clinic in January and February 2013 for follow-up medical evaluation and medication participated in the study. Patients with glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c of ≥7% were classified as having a poor level of glycemic control. Propensity score was used to estimate the treatment effect. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associated factors. Result: Two hundred and fifty three (64.7% of the 391 diabetic patients included in the study had a poor level of glycemic control, as evidenced by HbA1c ≥7%. Poor glycemic control was much higher among Type 1 patients (82.9% compared with Type 2 patients (57.5%. Being on insulin treatment (AOR =2.51; 95% CI =1.25, 5.04 and reporting poor medication adherence (AOR =3.19; 95% CI =1.76, 5.80 were found to be associated with poor glycemic control among Type 2 DM patients. High waist circumference was inversely associated with a poor level of glycemic control in Type 1 DM patients (AOR =0.05; 95% CI =0.01, 0.85. Conclusion: The proportion of

  13. Low levels of microbial translocation marker LBP are associated with sustained viral response after anti-HCV treatment in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nyström

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT contributes to immune activation during HIV and HCV infections. We investigated the kinetics of MT markers during anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatments, and if baseline plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP and soluble CD14 (sCD14 could predict anti-HCV treatment outcome.Plasma from 78 HIV-infected patients was evaluated for LPS, LBP and sCD14. The patients starting anti-HCV treatment (with ongoing antiretroviral (ART treatment were categorized into sustained viral responders (SVR; n = 21 or non-responders (NR; n = 15 based on treatment outcome. ART starting subjects--were categorized into chronically HCV-infected (CH; n = 24 and mono-infected (HIV; n = 18, based on the HCV infection status. Samples were collected before start (at baseline of pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV or antiretroviral-therapy and two years after treatment start (at follow up. χ2-test, non-parametric statistics and logistic regression were applied to determine the associations with treatment response and changes of the soluble markers.Plasma levels of LPS and sCD14 were elevated in all subjects before antiviral-treatment but remained unchanged at follow-up. Elevated levels of LBP were present in patients with HIV and HIV/HCV co-infection and were reduced by ART. Additionally, higher levels of LBP were present at baseline in NR vs. SVR. Higher levels of LBP at baseline were associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV treatment in both bivariate (OR: 0.19 95% CI: 0.06-0.31, p = 0.004 and multivariate analysis (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1-1.86, p = 0.07.In HIV/HCV co-infected patients high baseline LBP levels are associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Plasma LBP (decreased by ART may be a more relevant MT marker than LPS and sCD14.

  14. Optimal Weak Lensing Skewness Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John

    2003-01-01

    Weak lensing measurements are entering a precision era to statistically map the distribution of matter in the universe. The most common measurement has been of the variance of the projected surface density of matter, which corresponds to the induced correlation in alignments of background galaxies. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content, like using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. But when the depth is shallow as happens near a beach, waves beco...

  15. Weak neutral-current interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z/sup 0/ boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references. (JFP)

  16. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  17. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators too. The research presented in this paper validates…

  18. [Muscle weakness in cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givon, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, muscle weakness has been shown to be a major component of cerebral palsy (CP) pathology. Caused by multiple etiologies including variations in the muscle fiber type, pathologic motor unit function, co-contraction of agonists and antagonists, and muscle size and rigidity, weakness interferes with function and leads to limited function and participation. Muscle strength was found to be associated with walking ability and with functional scales. Children with CP were found to be weaker than typically developing children, and differences were found with respect to muscle groups in children with CP. Muscle weakness should be evaluated as objectively as possible to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment. Manual muscle testing is not sufficient for evaluation, and instrumented muscle testing is validated in CP. Muscle strengthening is an important part of treatment of CP. Several methods of strengthening have been described. Muscle lengthening and other spasticity-modifying therapies have been shown to have a positive effect on muscle strength. Children who participated in muscle strengthening programs had a better quality of life and improved function.

  19. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  20. A statistical study on consumer's perception of sustainable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Izvercian, Monica; Ivaşcu, Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability and sustainable concepts are quite often but not always used correctly. The statistical research on consumer's perception of sustainable products has tried to identify the level of knowledge regarding the concept of sustainability and sustainable products, the selected criteria concerning the buying decision, the intention of purchasing a sustainable product, main sustainable products preferred by consumers.

  1. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if the operator ρa of right multiplication by a is compact (weakly compact, respectively). An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) if any element a ∈ A is right completely continuous (right weakly completely con- tinuous, respectively). Left completely continuous (left weakly ...

  2. Legitimacy Building under Weak Institutional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejs, Anja; Harvold, Kjell; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    Local strategies for adaptation to climate change in Denmark and Norway are discussed. In both countries, the national impetus for local adaptation is weak; it is largely left to local actors to take the initiative. The dynamics of the different approaches to climate-change adaptation at the local...... level are illuminated. Using decision-making and learning theory, we present an analytical framework to examine four cases, two in Norway and two in Denmark, which represent two different responses, i.e. anticipatory actions and obligatory actions. We find that, by bringing in knowledge and resources...

  3. Evaluating Tidal Marsh Sustainability in the Face of Sea-Level Rise: A Hybrid Modeling Approach Applied to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralberg, Diana; Brennan, Matthew; Callaway, John C.; Wood, Julian K.; Schile, Lisa M.; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Kelly, Maggi; Parker, V. Thomas; Crooks, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Tidal marshes will be threatened by increasing rates of sea-level rise (SLR) over the next century. Managers seek guidance on whether existing and restored marshes will be resilient under a range of potential future conditions, and on prioritizing marsh restoration and conservation activities. Methodology Building upon established models, we developed a hybrid approach that involves a mechanistic treatment of marsh accretion dynamics and incorporates spatial variation at a scale relevant for conservation and restoration decision-making. We applied this model to San Francisco Bay, using best-available elevation data and estimates of sediment supply and organic matter accumulation developed for 15 Bay subregions. Accretion models were run over 100 years for 70 combinations of starting elevation, mineral sediment, organic matter, and SLR assumptions. Results were applied spatially to evaluate eight Bay-wide climate change scenarios. Principal Findings Model results indicated that under a high rate of SLR (1.65 m/century), short-term restoration of diked subtidal baylands to mid marsh elevations (−0.2 m MHHW) could be achieved over the next century with sediment concentrations greater than 200 mg/L. However, suspended sediment concentrations greater than 300 mg/L would be required for 100-year mid marsh sustainability (i.e., no elevation loss). Organic matter accumulation had minimal impacts on this threshold. Bay-wide projections of marsh habitat area varied substantially, depending primarily on SLR and sediment assumptions. Across all scenarios, however, the model projected a shift in the mix of intertidal habitats, with a loss of high marsh and gains in low marsh and mudflats. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest a bleak prognosis for long-term natural tidal marsh sustainability under a high-SLR scenario. To minimize marsh loss, we recommend conserving adjacent uplands for marsh migration, redistributing dredged sediment to raise elevations, and

  4. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  5. Decision Guidance for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing has significant impacts on a company's business performance and competitiveness in today's world. A growing number of manufacturing industries are initiating efforts to address sustainability issues; however, to achieve a higher level of sustainability, manufacturers need methodologies for formally describing, analyzing,…

  6. Organizational citizenship behavior towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dhiman Deb

    2013-01-01

    This article extends literature of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the context of corporate sustainability. The author presents the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior towards Sustainability (OCBS) as a variant, contending it's appropriateness for today's much needed behavioral competence to implement sustainability measure at organizational level. The formulation of OCBS espouses Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) with a twist. The viewpoint defended that a for...

  7. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution, and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe u...

  8. Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

  9. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  10. Crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization of bulk states in ultrathin Bi₂Se₃ films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huichao; Liu, Haiwen; Chang, Cui-Zu; Zuo, Huakun; Zhao, Yanfei; Sun, Yi; Xia, Zhengcai; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xie, X C; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Jian

    2014-07-24

    We report transport studies on the 5 nm thick Bi₂Se₃ topological insulator films which are grown via molecular beam epitaxy technique. The angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data show that the Fermi level of the system lies in the bulk conduction band above the Dirac point, suggesting important contribution of bulk states to the transport results. In particular, the crossover from weak antilocalization to weak localization in the bulk states is observed in the parallel magnetic field measurements up to 50 Tesla. The measured magneto-resistance exhibits interesting anisotropy with respect to the orientation of parallel magnetic field B// and the current I, signifying intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the Bi₂Se₃ films. Our work directly shows the crossover of quantum interference effect in the bulk states from weak antilocalization to weak localization. It presents an important step toward a better understanding of the existing three-dimensional topological insulators and the potential applications of nano-scale topological insulator devices.

  11. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  12. Weak polyelectrolytes in Confined Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Sikora, Benjamin

    Crucial to the behavior of recently designed charge-rejection and mosaic membranes are the conformations of polyelectrolyte brushes and oligomeric grafts used to control the membranes' surface charge. The use of pH-tunable weak polyelectrolytes with associative interactions enables fine tuning of material transport properties. Here, we apply constant-pH molecular dynamics along with free energy sampling algorithms to understand the subtle tug-of-war between pH, salt concentrations, and solvation forces in confined systems, and determine how each of these effects alters transport within the system. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the design of electrolyte separation membranes.

  13. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  14. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...

  15. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  16. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, V

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...

  17. Time—periodic weak solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Henriques de Brito

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.

  18. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  19. Sustainable forest management preferences of interest groups in three regions with different levels of industrial forestry: an exploratory attribute-based choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Kati; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Messier, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The challenge of sustainable forest management is to integrate diverse and sometimes conflicting management objectives. In order to achieve this goal, we need a better understanding of the aspects influencing the preferences of diverse groups and how these groups make trade-offs between different attributes of SFM. We compare the SFM preferences of interest groups in regions with different forest use histories based on the reasoning that the condition of the forest reflects the forest use history of the area. The condition of the forest also shapes an individual's forest values and attitudes. These held values and attitudes are thought to influence SFM preferences. We tested whether the SFM preferences vary amongst the different interest groups within and across regions. We collected data from 252 persons using a choice experiment approach, where participants chose multiple times among different options described by a combination of attributes that are assigned different levels. The novelty of our approach was the use of choice experiments in the assessment of regional preference differences. Given the complexity of inter-regional comparison and the small sample size, this was an exploratory study based on a purposive rather than random sample. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the aggregation of preferences of all individuals within a region does not reveal all information necessary for forest management planning since opposing viewpoints could cancel each other out and lead to an interpretation that does not reflect possibly polarised views. Although based on a small sample size, the preferences of interest groups within a region are generally statistically significantly different from each other; however preferences of interest groups across regions are also significantly different. This illustrates the potential importance of assessing heterogeneity by region and by group.

  20. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  1. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  2. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  3. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  4. Sustainable Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  5. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Sustainable Enterprise Excellence balances complementary and competing interests of key stakeholder segments, including society and the natural environment and increases the likelihood of superior and sustainable competitive positioning and hence long-term enterprise success that is defined...... by continuously relevant and responsible governance, strategy, actions and performance consistent with high-level organizational resilience, robustness and resplendence (R3). This is accomplished through organizational design and function emphasizing innovation, enterprise intelligence & analytics, operational......, supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...

  6. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  7. Diaphragm single-fiber weakness and loss of myosin in congestive heart failure rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, H.W.H. van; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Pigmans, C.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Brouwer, R.M.H.J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphragm weakness commonly occurs in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and is an independent predictor of mortality. However, the pathophysiology of diaphragm weakness is poorly understood. We hypothesized that CHF induces diaphragm weakness at the single-fiber level by decreasing myosin

  8. Weak transitions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some techniques to calculate the effects of the strong interactions on the matrix elements of weak processes are described. The lattice formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics is used to account for the low energy gluons, and the corresponding numerical methods are explained. The high energy contributions are included in effective lagrangians and the problem of matching the different scales related to the renormalization of the operators and wavefunctions is also discussed. The ..delta..l = 1/2 enhancement rule and the K/sup 0/-anti-K/sup 0/ are used to illustrate these techniques and the results of a numerical calculation is reported. The values obtained are very encouraging and they certainly show good qualitative agreement with the experimental values. The emphasis is on general techniques, and in particular, several improvements to this particular calculation are proposed.

  9. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    (fm≈6 N/mm2) compression tests of masonry with perforated bricks show that the EC6 expression is not always safe for Danish masonry. This is probably because the tensile strength of the bricks also has an effect on the compressive strength of masonry when the mortar is stronger than weak lime mortar......The use of weak mortar has a number of advantages (e.g. prevention of expansion joints, environmental issues). However, according to EC6, the strength of masonry vanishes when the compressive strength of the mortar approaches zero. In reality the presence of even unhardened mortar kept in place...... in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fmstrength...

  10. Sustainability in coastal tourism development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Marie Visbech; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Liburd, Janne J.

    2018-01-01

    Denmark’s coastlines have been protected from tourism development and construction for more than 80 years. In 2014, the Danish politicians opened up for softer regulation of the coastlines and invited proposals for tourism development projects within the hitherto protected coastal zone. The call ...... benefits are emphasized. Key findings also indicate weak political leadership in the envisaged transfer towards sustainable tourism development.......Denmark’s coastlines have been protected from tourism development and construction for more than 80 years. In 2014, the Danish politicians opened up for softer regulation of the coastlines and invited proposals for tourism development projects within the hitherto protected coastal zone. The call...... explicitly requested nominations for sustainable tourism projects. A comparison between academic sustainability discourse and the approved projects suggests that tourism actors do not address sustainable tourism development as a holistic concept. Long-term perspectives are largely absent, whereas economic...

  11. BUSINESS VALUATION IN TERMS OF INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The indexes regarding the sustainable development have an important role in the decision-making process and that is why several bodies and institutions are concerned about their development. This fact happens not only at macro-level, but also at micro-level, the entities being encouraged to take into account the sustainable development principles and to relate its individual performances to the environment in which they operate (local, regional, global. The usage of the indexes regarding the sustainable development offers information regarding the evolution in time helps at identifying the possibilities of improving the activity and the weaknesses; they can be used in order to establish and achieve the objectives, the values being easily communicated both within and outside the company. A main disadvantage is the aggregation level, which hinders comparisons. This paper analyzes the information regarding the sustainable development published by the companies ranked at the Stock Exchange of Bucharest in the 1st category and the subsidiaries of 30 national companies.

  12. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.

    2009-01-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as

  13. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  14. Democracy and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Peter; Clausen, Laura Tolnov; Tind, Esben

    to nature conservation is setting a new agenda with more emphasis on sustainability than preservation. It thereby challenges the traditional agenda of nature conservation. The public administrations at central, regional and local level, as well as most nature conservation organisations at central level, do...

  15. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  16. Testing weak form efficiency on the capital markets in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kršikapa-Rašajski Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak-form efficient market hypothesis assumes that participants on the financial markets are not able to achieve above-average returns based on historical prices. In order to establish the presence of a weak-form market efficiency in the Serbian market, the analysis incorporates daily data of the two most prominent indices on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, BELEX 15 and BELEX LINE, since their inception until 31 December 2014. Results obtained by the analysis and testing indicate that the capital market in Serbia can not be considered sufficiently efficient, more precisely it indicates that postulates assumed by the weak-form market efficiency are not fully met. Taking into account that the capital market in Serbia is still underdeveloped, primarily because of the small volumes, turnover and types of securities which are traded on the market, as well as the fact that it is not sufficiently regulated and transparent, lack of investors is noticeable. Consequently, analysis presented in this paper indicates a weak sustainability of the efficient market hypothesis in Serbia.

  17. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  18. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  19. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  20. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  1. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  2. MAJOR ISSUES IN BRINGING ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainability is now fast approaching half a century of dedicated work. Although there have been significant breakthroughs, sustainability and its corollary, sustainable development, have proven a tough nut to crack. In our paper, we have started from some fundamental questions, which have yet to be answered and analyzed the implications that stem from these questions. Going past the problem of weakly quantifiable concepts in the definition, a very important issue is that of individual and community preferences. Specifically, these are all short to mid-term lived, while some sustainability problems, particularly those relating to the environment require a significantly longer time period. Another implication is that, given our limited resources, sustainable development would require a careful balance between investments among the three pillars of sustainability, and not follow a maximization policy. Lastly, we conclude that basing our sustainability policies on premises of linear evolution is a dangerous undertaking.

  3. Sustainable finance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  4. Mental fatigue after very severe closed head injury: Sustained performance, mental effort, and distress at two levels of workload in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Brouwer, W.H.; Mulder, L.J.M.; Cremer, R.; Veldman, J.B.P.

    1999-01-01

    In patients with very severe closed head injury (CHI), returning to work is often problematic. The present study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, viz. mental fatigue. To study this, the effect of sustained workload is assessed in a continuous dynamic divided attention task. Three

  5. Mental fatigue after very severe closed head injury : Sustained performance, mental effort, and distress at two levels of workload in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Hoedemaeker, M; Brouwer, WH; Mulder, LJM; Veldman, JBP

    In patients with very severe closed head injury (CHI), returning to work is often problematic. The present study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, viz. mental fatigue. To study this, the effect of sustained workload is assessed in a continuous dynamic divided attention task. Three

  6. Sustained influence of metformin therapy on circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Dawed, Adem; Pearson, Ewan R.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate, in the Carotid Atherosclerosis: Metformin for Insulin Resistance (CAMERA) trial (NCT00723307), whether the influence of metformin on the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 axis in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is sustained and related to changes in glycaemia...

  7. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  8. Weak matrix elements of kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    We present results from the Wilson fermion part of the Grand Challenge'' weak matrix element project. A new procedure for correcting the chiral behavior of {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd}, the K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} {Beta} parameter,'' is proposed and applied. On our largest lattice (24{sup 3} {times} 40 at {beta} = 6.0), we get {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} = .86 {plus minus} .11 {plus minus} .05, where the first error is statistical and the second is a measure of the systematic errors due to the procedure and to related finite-size effects. Results for the direct K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} amplitude are also presented. There is some evidence for higher order chiral effects which may make these results compatible both with experiment and with the {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} computation. The status of the direct K{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi} {sup +} {pi}{sup {minus}} {Delta}I = 1/2 amplitude is then discussed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  10. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.

  11. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  12. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  13. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  14. The macroecology of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R; Allen, Craig D; Brown, James H; Burnside, William R; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  15. Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lage Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a general framework for examining how governance choice affects competitive advantage. I argue that firms rely on assets for competing, and that these assets can be accessed by different governance structures (i.e., they can be in- or outsourced). The transaction cost economics framework is used to expose strengths and weaknesses of governance structures with respect to creating and sustaining competitive advantage. The result is a tradeoff to consider when choosing how to ...

  16. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  17. Sustainable Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels.

  18. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  19. Performance Metrics for Sustainability Value

    OpenAIRE

    Sundfors, David

    2016-01-01

    The trend that started with Green Building has moved on into Sustainable Building. But how do we know that something is really sustainable? This project started out with the intention to find a small set of performance indicators for commercial buildings, which could be continuously measured and monitored over time, which would give a good indication of the level of sustainability of the building and as such, and be presented as an additional part in a valuation. Since it has been shown sever...

  20. Weak isometries of the Boolean cube

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, S De; Korb, M

    2014-01-01

    Consider the metric space $\\mathcal{C}$ consisting of the $n$-dimensional Boolean cube equipped with the Hamming distance. A weak isometry of $\\mathcal{C}$ is a permutation of $\\mathcal{C}$ preserving a given subset of Hamming distances. In \\cite{Krasin} Krasin showed that in most cases preserving a single Hamming distance forces a weak isometry to be an isometry. In this article we study those weak isometries that are not automatically an isometry, providing a complete classification of weak...

  1. Pseudo-Weak-R0 Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A positive answer to the open problem of Iorgulescu on extending weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras to the noncommutative forms is given. We show that pseudo-weak-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-IMTL algebras and that pseudo-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-NM algebras. Some properties, the noncommutative forms of the properties in weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras, are investigated. The simplified axiom systems of pseudo-weak-R0 algebras and pseudo-R0 algebras are obtained.

  2. A conceptual approach to design livestock production systems for robustness to enhance sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Veen, van der A.A.; Oosting, S.J.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Existing approaches to enhance sustainability of livestock production systems focus on the level of sustainability indicators. Maintaining the level of sustainability in the face of perturbations, which is robustness of sustainability, is relatively unexplored. Perturbations can be classed as noise

  3. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  4. A young woman with weakness of the legs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On neurological examination she had profound bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, a positive Babinski sign and a T6 sensory level. Tests for syphilis and HIV and screening for auto-immune conditions were negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord revealed ...

  5. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  6. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  7. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  8. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  9. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  10. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  11. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  12. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  13. Sustained exogenous expression of therapeutic levels of IFN-gamma ameliorates atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice via Th1 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kayoko; Nishikawa, Makiya; Watcharanurak, Kanitta; Ikoma, Akihiko; Kabashima, Kenji; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Rei; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2010-03-01

    The short in vivo half-life of IFN-gamma can prevent the cytokine from inducing immunological changes that are favorable for the treatment of Th2-dominant diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. To examine whether a sustained supply of IFN-gamma is effective in regulating the balance of Th lymphocyte subpopulations, plasmid vector encoding mouse IFN-gamma, pCpG-Mugamma, or pCMV-Mugamma was injected into the tail vein of NC/Nga mice, a model for human atopic dermatitis. A single hydrodynamic injection of a CpG motif reduced pCpG-Mugamma at a dose of 0.14 microg/mouse resulted in a sustained concentration of IFN-gamma in the serum, and the concentration was maintained at >300 pg/ml over 80 d. The pCpG-Mugamma-mediated IFN-gamma gene transfer was associated with an increase in the serum concentration of IL-12, reduced production of IgE, and inhibition of mRNA expression of IL-4, -5, -10, -13, and -17 and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in the spleen. These immunological changes were not clearly observed in mice receiving two injections of 20 microg pCMV-Mugamma, a CpG-replete plasmid DNA, because of the transient nature of the expression from the vector. The mice receiving pCpG-Mugamma showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions and in the intensity of their scratching behavior. Furthermore, high transepidermal water loss, epidermal thickening, and infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils, all of which were obvious in the untreated mice, were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that an extraordinary sustained IFN-gamma expression induces favorable immunological changes, leading to a Th1-dominant state in the atopic dermatitis model.

  14. Ethics and sustainability: a preliminary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    M G Reed; O Slaymaker

    1993-01-01

    Geographers or students of human - environment relations have an important role to play in addressing the questions and issues associated with environmental sustainability. It is the authors' thesis that a central weakness in geography's response to environmental problems and to issues of sustainability is the lack of engagement with questions of ethics. An overall ethic of care, respect, and responsibility is proposed. Within this overarching framework, it is suggested that the society - env...

  15. Pathways to urban sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Finco, Adele

    2001-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development has become very much "en vogue" in the past decade.We have also observed a shift in the interpretation of this concept from a global perspectiveto a meso perspective, i.e. a local, regional or sectoral level.This paper aims to highlight the urban dimension of

  16. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Project summary

    OpenAIRE

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    In many parts of the world and certainly in Europe large areas exist where the wind resources are good or very good and the grid is relatively weak due to a small population. In these areas the capacity of the grid can very often be a limiting factor forthe exploitation of the wind resource. There are two main problems concerned with wind power and weak grids. The first is the steady state voltage level. When the power consumption is low e.g. during the night the voltage of the grid can incre...

  17. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 8. Report on general competency trainings (basic level) by TEDC for SMK teachers from the five CASINDO regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-03-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report presents an overview of the training activities on general renewable energy technologies competencies conducted by TEDC Bandung (Technical Education Development Centre), for the teachers of the 11 SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) involved in the CASINDO project. The report also contains a description of the Training of Trainers activities conducted by the CASINDO consortium for TEDC staff in the renewable energy technologies micro hydro power, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass , biogas and energy efficiency.

  18. Sustainable flood risk management – What is sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Brudler, Sarah; Lerer, Sara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable flood risk management has to be achieved since flood protection is a fundamental societal service that we must deliver. Based on the discourse within the fields of risk management and sustainable urban water management, we discuss the necessity of assessing the sustainability of flood...... risk management, and propose an evaluation framework for doing so. We argue that it is necessary to include quantitative sustainability measures in flood risk management in order to exclude unsustainable solutions. Furthermore, we use the concept of absolute sustainability to discuss the prospects...... of maintaining current service levels without compromising future generation’s entitlement of services. Discussions on the sustainability of different overall flood risk schemes must take place. Fundamental changes in the approaches will require fundamental changes in the mind-sets of practitioners as well...

  19. A classification of weakly acyclic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Simon, S.

    2012-01-01

    Weakly acyclic games form a natural generalization of the class of games that have the finite improvement property (FIP). In such games one stipulates that from any initial joint strategy some finite improvement path exists. We classify weakly acyclic games using the concept of a scheduler recently

  20. Revisiting Weak Simulation for Substochastic Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, David N.; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of branching-time relations for probabilistic systems has been investigated thoroughly by Baier, Hermanns, Katoen and Wolf (2003, 2005), including weak simulation for systems involving substochastic distributions. Weak simulation was proven to be sound w.r.t. the liveness fragment...

  1. A note on Weak Stability Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Fernando; Gómez Muntané, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    This paper is devoted to clarify the algorithmic definition of the weak stability boundary in the framework of the planar Restricted Three Body Problem. The role of the invariant hyperbolic manifolds associated to the central manifolds of the libration points L1 and L2, as boundary of the weak stability region, is shown Peer Reviewed

  2. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  3. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  4. Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arboleda, Juan David, E-mail: juan.arboledaj@udea.edu.co; Arnache Olmos, Oscar [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Ramos, Rafael [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Anadon, Alberto [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-06-06

    We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.

  5. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  6. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, J.; Hermans, G.

    2017-01-01

    When critically ill, a severe weakness of the limbs and respiratory muscles often develops with a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a condition vaguely termed intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Many of these patients have serious nerve and muscle injury. This syndrome is

  7. Teaching Young Learners about Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Mindy; Eckhoff, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a core 21st-century movement that stresses keeping interrelationships among the environment, human cultures, and economic systems healthy now--and for future generations--across local, regional, national, and global levels. The ideal sustainable community is able to maintain this balance among the social, environmental, and…

  8. Management of the four waters at micro level by considering the social and economic backwardness for sustainable development using remote sensing & gis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    As we enter the third millennium, we are witnessing a gale of bewildering change and transformation. Communication is well on its way to becoming instant. Knowledge based processes and an electronic network blankets the globe. And yet, there are certain things that never change, like for instance, the basic needs, of which water is most important. While in the past wars were fought over territory, markets and access to resources, future wars in the new millennium are likely to be fought over access to water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Water that most abundant of natural resources, is also very scarce in its usable form in most places on earth. The critical challenge facing arid and semi-arid areas will be to provide enough water for domestic and sustainable agricultural purposes. Already 22 countries have renewable water resources of less than one thousand cubic meters per capita, dangerously little in years of rain scarcity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. This dangerous situation can still be reversed through efficient rainwater harvesting and judicious utilization by the local community. And the best socio-physical unit for such resource management is the watershed. The present study deals with the application of Remote sensing and Geographical Information systems techniques for the generation of an alternative land use/land cover practice with due consideration to the social and economic backwardness of the different ethnic groups besides protecting the long term carrying capacity of the eco-system through the integrated micro-level management of the four waters concept. The Remote sensing data used is IRS-IC-LISS-III imagery and ERDAS / IMAGINE 8.3 GIS software. Landuse/Landcover, Hydro-geomorphology, Soil map etc are generated by interpreting the satellite data and with necessary ground check. The slope map and drainage maps are generated with the help of 1:50,000 scale

  9. Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen

    2014-04-08

    An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin.

  10. SUSTAINABLE CORPORATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  11. The Two Faces of Sustainability : Fuzzy Evaluation of Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, T.

    2003-01-01

    An evaluative framework of sustainable development operates at both the production system level and the society level: objective information gathered at the production system level is given subjective meaning at the society level. The evaluative framework constitutes a complete cycle

  12. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...

  13. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  14. Predictors of activity level and retention among African American lay health advisors (LHAs) from The National Witness Project: Implications for the implementation and sustainability of community-based LHA programs from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S; Crookes, Danielle M; Erwin, Deborah O

    2016-03-22

    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs are increasingly being implemented in the USA and globally in the context of health promotion and disease prevention. LHAs are effective in addressing health disparities when used to reach medically underserved populations, with strong evidence among African American and Hispanic women. Despite their success and the evidence supporting implementation of LHA programs in community settings, there are tremendous barriers to sustaining LHA programs and little is understood about their implementation and sustainability in "real-world" settings. The purpose of this study was to (1) propose a conceptual framework to investigate factors at individual, social, and organizational levels that impact LHA activity and retention; and (2) use prospective data to investigate the individual, social, and organizational factors that predict activity level and retention among a community-based sample of African American LHAs participating in an effective, evidence-based LHA program (National Witness Project; NWP). Seventy-six LHAs were recruited from eight NWP sites across the USA. Baseline predictor data was collected from LHAs during a telephone questionnaire administered between 2010 and 2011. Outcome data on LHA participation and program activity levels were collected in the fall of 2012 from NWP program directors. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to identify differences between retained and completely inactive LHAs, and LHAs with high/moderate vs. low/no activity levels. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify variables that predicted LHA retention and activity levels. In multivariable models, LHAs based at sites with academic partnerships had increased odds of retention and high/moderate activity levels, even after adjusting for baseline LHA activity level. Higher religiosity among LHAs was associated with decreased odds of being highly/moderately active. LHA role clarity and self-efficacy were associated with

  15. From Sustainability-as-usual to Sustainability Excellence in Local Bioenergy Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Kasurinen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy business operators can significantly contribute to the sustainability of bioenergy systems. While research has addressed the maturity of corporate responsibility for sustainability, the maturity levels of bioenergy business have not been determined. The objectives of this research were to characterise the maturity levels of bioenergy corporate responsibility for sustainability and outline an approach by which companies can operate at the most mature sustainability excellence level. Literature, three workshops attended by bioenergy experts and a case study on biobutanol production in Brazil were used to develop the maturity model and approach. The results characterise the profitability, acceptability, and sustainability orientation maturity levels through sustainability questions and methods, and list the components of a systemic, holistic approach. Although the shift of business mindset from sustainability-as-usual to sustainability excellence is challenging, a systemic approach is necessary to broadly identify sustainability questions and a multitude of methods by which they can be answered.

  16. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  17. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  18. Towards our Common Future: Comparative Assessment of the Sustainable Development Strategies of the European Union, the Mediterranean and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz DEŽELAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses three sustainable de- velopment strategies – the European Union’s Sustainable Development Strategy in its revised version, the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustain- able Development and Slovenia’s Development Strategy – according to the level of sustainability these strategies provide. Deriving from three di- verse sustainable development regimes, select- ed strategies are scrutinised for the presence of the five general principles of effective sustainable development strategies promoted by the United Nations and the Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development. Building on George and Kirkpatrick’s (2006 framework for analysis, we concentrate on principles of strategic planning and sustainable development, and a coordinated set of measures to ensure their implementation. The results reveal that the major differences be- tween the assessed strategies are present in the sophistication of the theoretical bases and the integration of three main pillars of sustainable development (i.e. environmental, economic and social. In general, the assessed strategies re- flect a high degree of inclusiveness of a variety of interests. However, there is a common weak- ness among them in terms of implementation, be it in the provision of adequate resources, the guarantee of adequate implementing capacity of the institutions designated for implementation or the precise definition of the institutional frame- work responsible for the implementation of the strategy.

  19. Quadriceps weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemenda, C; Brandt, K D; Heilman, D K; Mazzuca, S; Braunstein, E M; Katz, B P; Wolinsky, F D

    1997-07-15

    The quadriceps weakness commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the knee is widely believed to result from disuse atrophy secondary to pain in the involved joint. However, quadriceps weakness may be an etiologic factor in the development of osteoarthritis. To explore the relation between lower-extremity weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee. Cross-sectional prevalence study. Population-based, with recruitment by random-digit dialing. 462 volunteers 65 years of age or older. Radiographs of the knee were graded for the presence of osteoarthritis. Knee pain and function were assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, the strength of leg flexors and extensors was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, and lower-extremity lean tissue mass was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among participants with osteoarthritis, quadriceps weakness, but not hamstring weakness, was common. The ratio of extensor strength to body weight was approximately 20% lower in those with than in those without radiographic osteoarthritis. Notably, among women with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis, extensor weakness was present in the absence of knee pain and was seen in participants with normal lower-extremity lean mass (extensor strength, 30.1 lb-ft for those with osteoarthritis and 34.8 lb-ft for those without osteoarthritis; P osteoarthritis of the knee (odds ratio for prevalence of osteoarthritis per 10 lb-ft loss of strength, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.90] for radiographic osteoarthritis and 0.71 [CI, 0.51 to 0.87] for symptomatic osteoarthritis). Quadriceps weakness may be present in patients who have osteoarthritis but do not have knee pain or muscle atrophy; this suggests that the weakness may be due to muscle dysfunction. The data are consistent with the possibility that quadriceps weakness is a primary risk factor for knee pain, disability, and progression of joint damage in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  20. Managing sustainability in management education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Environmental issues are increasingly becoming a key business concern at local, national, international and global levels. Consequently, environmental issues and sustainability have found their way into management education in terms of business ethics, corporate social or sustainability responsib......Environmental issues are increasingly becoming a key business concern at local, national, international and global levels. Consequently, environmental issues and sustainability have found their way into management education in terms of business ethics, corporate social or sustainability...... practical and theoretical problems. Among others, problems concerning trade-offs and complexity. This paper proposes an approach to sustainability in management education which help to initiate such critical reflection and discussion concerning trade-offs and complexity by drawing attention to the complex...... network of relations in which a given business or industry is embedded....

  1. NOT CARELESS BUT WEAK: LANGUAGE MIXING OF MALAYSIAN CHINESE IN A BUSINESS TRANSACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Ching Hei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is an inevitable tool for business transactions and regardless of nationality, ethnicity, gender, religion, age and social class, interlocutors depend on it to conduct their daily dealings. In multilingual and multicultural Malaysia, it is not uncommon to hear a business transaction being conducted in various languages depending on who the participants are and what the context involves. This study focussed on the phenomenon of language (code mixing within a business transaction that involved four Malaysians of Chinese descent. The study aimed to detect at what level language mixing occurred and what their functions would be. Data were video recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Mandarin utterances were documented in Chinese and Han Yu Pin Yin and provided with translations. Utterances containing a mixture of languages were then extracted for analysis. Findings suggest that language mixing occurred at the word, phrase, sentential and tag level. Language mixing was applied as a strategy to sustain the conversation mainly because of the interlocutors’ weak proficiency in specific languages. It was also employed for various functions such as for distancing or narrowing the social status, making emphasis and projecting a higher personal identity. A follow up interview is required in order to verify the extent of the participants’ low or high proficiency level in the various languages used in this context.

  2. Strong versus Weak Ties in Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline; Zenou, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the role of strong versus weak ties in the rural-to-urban migration decision in China. We first develop a network model that puts forward the different roles of weak and strong ties in helping workers to migrate to the city. We then use a unique longitudinal data that allows us to test our model by focusing on first-time migration. Strong ties are measured by the closest family contact (excluding household members) while weak ties are determined by the fraction of migrants ...

  3. Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui, E-mail: quaninformation@sina.com

    2014-12-15

    Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be ‘extracted’ not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.

  4. Fast weak-lensing simulations with halo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Di Meo, Sandra; Meneghetti, Massimo; Jullo, Eric; de la Torre, Sylvain; Moscardini, Lauro; Baldi, Marco; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2017-09-01

    Full ray-tracing maps of gravitational lensing, constructed from N-body simulations, represent a fundamental tool to interpret present and future weak-lensing data. However, the limitation of computational resources and storage capabilities severely restricts the number of realizations that can be performed in order to accurately sample both the cosmic shear models and covariance matrices. In this paper, we present a halo model formalism for weak gravitational lensing that alleviates these issues by producing weak-lensing mocks at a reduced computational cost. Our model takes as input the halo population within a desired light cone and the linear power spectrum of the underlined cosmological model. We examine the contribution given by the presence of substructures within haloes to the cosmic shear power spectrum and quantify it to the percent level. Our method allows us to reconstruct high-resolution convergence maps, for any desired source redshifts, of light cones that realistically trace the matter density distribution in the universe, account for masked area and sample selections. We compare our analysis on the same large-scale structures constructed using ray-tracing techniques and find very good agreements in both the linear and non-linear regimes up to few percent levels. The accuracy and speed of our method demonstrate the potential of our halo model for weak-lensing statistics and the possibility to generate a large sample of convergence maps for different cosmological models as needed for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  5. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rizzuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.

  6. Towards sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, R. E.

    Sustainable development is a difficult phrase to define, particularly in the context of human ecosystems. Questions have to be asked, such as "Sustainable for whom?" "Sustainable for what purposes?" "Sustainable at the subsistence or at the luxury level?" and "Sustainable under what conditions?" In this paper, development is taken to mean improving the quality of life. (If development were to mean growth, then it could not be sustained over the long term.) Studies of development must, of course, consider economic factors, particularly in the case of societies who suffer from the pollution of poverty. However, cultural and environmental factors are equally important. In fact, development is not sustainable over the long term if it is not ecologically sustainable. The terms maximum sustainable yield of a renewable resource, carrying capacity of a region and assimilative capacity of a watershed or airshed are discussed. Approaches using these resource management tools are recommended when external conditions are not changing very much. The problem today is that unprecedented rates of change are expected in the next century, not only of environmental conditions such as climate but also of socioeconomic conditions such as renewable resource consumption and populations (of both people and of automobiles)! In rapidly changing situations, policies must be adopted that strengthen resilence and ecosystem integrity; that is, society must increase its ability to adapt. Maintaining the status quo is a long-term prescription for disaster. The problem is of course that little is known about how to design strategies that will increase resilience and ecosystem integrity, and this area of research needs to be strengthened. Some suggestions on appropriate indicators of ecosystem integrity are given in the paper but these need considerable refinement. One of the main problems with long-term environmental policy formulation is the uncertainty to be expected, including the possibility

  7. Matrix sustainability : applying input-output analysis to environmental and economic sustainability indicators : case: Finnish Forest Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari

    2004-01-01

    Pre-requisite for all sustainability actions in business is accurate measurement of economic, environmental and social performance. Sustainability indicators, or indicator sets, are then the tools, which simplify the complex sustainability information applicable for management processes, decision-making and communication. Measuring business sustainability is not an easy task, especially while simultaneously considering macro-level sustainability. Indicators should somehow capture the corporat...

  8. Embracing the sacred: an indigenous framework for tomorrow's sustainability science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Christian P. Giardina

    2016-01-01

    Mahalo (thank you) for reading our paper. What you will find is an attempt to synthesize and compare the strengths and weaknesses of Indigenous and Western perspectives on sustainability and a proposed path leading to the integration of these two perspectives into a sustainability framework that considers resources as much more than commodities. We enter into this...

  9. Current problems in the weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, A

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references. (JFP)

  10. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  11. Regularity of Tor for weakly stable ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Ansaldi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that if I and J are weakly stable ideals in a polynomial ring R = k[x_1, . . ., x_n], with k a field, then the regularity of Tor^R_i (R/I, R/J has the expected upper bound. We also give a bound for the regularity of Ext^i_R (R/I, R for I a weakly stable ideal.

  12. The regularization of Old English weak verbs

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Tío Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporate...

  13. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  14. Muscle weakness causes joint degeneration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Youssef, A; Longino, D; Seerattan, R; Leonard, T; Herzog, W

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) induced quadriceps weakness on micro-structural changes in knee cartilage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into an experimental and a sham control group. Each group received a unilateral single quadriceps muscle injection either with saline (sham control; n=4) or BTX-A (experimental; n=11). BTX-A injection produced significant quadriceps muscle weakness (Pmuscle mass (Pknee cartilage, assessed with the Mankin grading system, were the same for the injected and non-injected hind limbs of the experimental group animals. Sham injection had no effect on joint degeneration but all control animals showed some degenerative changes in the knee. Degenerative changes of the retro-patellar cartilage were more severe in the experimental compared to sham control group rabbits (P0.05). Quadriceps muscle weakness caused increased degeneration in the retro-patellar cartilage of NZW rabbits, providing evidence that muscle weakness might be a risk factor for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Future work needs to delineate whether muscle weakness directly affects joint degeneration, or if changes in function and movement execution associated with muscle weakness are responsible for the increased rate of OA onset and progression observed here.

  15. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with the occurrence of concomitant upper limb fractures in older women who sustain a fall-related fracture of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Vallero, Fulvia; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the occurrence of simultaneous fractures of the upper limb in older women who sustain a fall-related fracture of the hip. Cross-sectional study. We investigated 472 of 480 white women consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital because of a fall-related hip fracture. Twenty-seven (5.7%) of the 472 women sustained a concomitant upper-limb fracture of either distal radius (20 women) or proximal humerus (seven women). We assessed serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 14.2 ± 4.1 (mean ± SD) days after surgical repair of the hip fracture in the 472 women by an immunoenzymatic assay. Twenty-five-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in the 27 women with concomitant fractures of both hip and upper limb than in the remaining 445 hip-fracture women: mean ± SD values were 6.5 ± 5.0 ng/ml and 11.7 ± 10.4 ng/ml respectively in the two groups (mean difference between groups 5.2 ng/ml: 95% CI 1.2-9.2; p=0.011). Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly associated with concomitant fractures of the upper limb (p=0.017), after adjustment for eight potential confounders including age, height, weight, hip-fracture type, cognitive impairment, neurologic impairment, previous hip fracture, and previous upper-limb fracture. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly associated with concomitant upper-limb fractures in our sample of older women with a fall-related fracture of the hip. Preventing vitamin D deficiency may lower the incidence of simultaneous fractures due to a singe fall in elderly women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New triplet visions on sustainable building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; CIB,

    2005-01-01

    The theme for the second World Sustainable Building Conference is “Action for sustainability”. A new vision has been developed that makes actions easier by specifying sustainable measurements by compartments. Each compartment contains three levels of sustainability and there are four compartments

  18. Annual Sustainability Report FY 2014. Incorporates NREL Site Sustainability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukavina, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-01

    NREL's Sustainability Program is responsible for upholding all executive orders, federal regulations, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and goals related to sustainable and resilient facility operations. But NREL continues to expand sustainable practices above and beyond the laboratory's regulations and requirements to ensure that the laboratory fulfills its mission into the future, leaves the smallest possible legacy footprint, and models sustainable operations and behaviors on national, regional, and local levels. The report, per the GRI reporting format, elaborates on multi-year goals relative to executive orders, achievements, and challenges; and success stories provide specific examples. A section called 'Sustaining NREL's Future Through Integration' provides insight into how NREL is successfully expanding the adoption of renewable energy technologies through integration.

  19. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fais

    Full Text Available Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0 = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418 within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  20. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  1. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  2. Program sustainability: focus on organizational routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, P; Potvin, L; Denis, J L; Pelletier, J

    2004-12-01

    Program sustainability is an ongoing concern for most people in health promotion. However, the current notion of sustainability in organizations, namely routinization, needs refinement. This article examines organizational routines. In so doing, it refines the notion of sustainability and the assessment of routines. Drawing on the organizational literature, a routinized program is defined by the presence of routinized activities, meaning that these activities exhibit four characteristics of organizational routines: memory, adaptation, values and rules. To answer the question of how these characteristics are useful, we conducted an empirical study of the routinization of the Quebec Heart Health Demonstration Project in five community health centers. Our method consisted of a multiple-case study. We observed project activities in each center in 2000. The data came from documents and interviews with project actors. Our results show that, in one of the centers, no resources had been officially committed to project activities. Even so, the actors continued some activities on an informal basis. In another center, the activities satisfied three of the four routine characteristics. In the three others, activities satisfied all of the characteristics. These results suggest focusing the study of program sustainability on the routinization of activities resulting from it. They indicate four distinct degrees of sustainability: (1) the absence of sustainability; no program activity is continued; (2) precarious sustainability; some residual activities are pursued, at least unofficially; (3) weak sustainability; the program produces some official activities that are not routinized; and (4) sustainability through routinization; routinized activities result from the program.

  3. Analyzing sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida; Shahzad Khuram; Takala Josu; Bojnec Stefan; Papler Drago; Liu Yang

    2016-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sens...

  4. Early Results from the Q{sub weak} Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Birchall, J; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cornejo, J C; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Gaskel, D; Gericke, M T.W.; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hoskins, J R; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Leacock, J; Leckey, J; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J; McHugh, M J; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Myers, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; W T H, Nuruzzaman; Oers, van; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roche, J; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Young, R D; Zhamkochyan, S

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Q{sub weak} experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic {vector e}p scattering to provide the first determination of the protons weak charge Q{sub w}{sup p}. The experiment employed a 180 {micro}A longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons corresponding to Q{sup 2} of 0.025 GeV{sup 2} were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of Q{sub w}{sup p} to 4.2 percent (combined statistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(thetaw) at the level of 0.3 percent, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d}. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the worlds highest power LH{sub 2} target. The new constraints on C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d} provided by the subset of the experiments data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  5. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving

  6. Effects of Sustained Low-Level Elevations of Carbon Dioxide on Cerebral Blood Flow and Autoregulation of the Intracerebral Arteries in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwka, U.; Krasney, J. A.; Simon, S. G.; Schmidt, P.

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) was measured by insonating the middle cerebral arteries of 4 subjects using a 2 Mhz transcranial Doppler. Ambient CO2 was elevated to 0.7% for 23 days in the first study and to 1.2% for 23 days in the same subjects in the second study. By non-parametric testing CBFv was elevated significantly by +35% above pre-exposure levels during the first 1-3 days at both exposure levels after which CBFv progressively readjusted to pre-exposure levels. Despite similar CBFv responses, headache was only reported during the initial phase of exposure to 1.2% CO2. Vascular reactivity to CO2 assessed by rebreathing showed a similar pattern with the CBFv increases early in the exposures being greater than those elicited later. An increase in metabolic rate of the visual cortex was evoked by having the subjects open and close their eyes during a visual stimulus. Evoked CBFv responses measured in the posterior cerebral artery were also elevated in the first 1-3 days of both studies returning to pre-exposure levels as hypercapnia continued. Cerebral vascular autoregulation assessed by raising head pressure during 10 deg head-down tilt both during the low-level exposures and during rebreathing was unaltered. There were no changes in the retinal microcirculation during serial fundoscopy studies. The time-dependent changes in CO2 vascular reactivity might be due either to retention of bicarbonate in brain extracellular fluid or to progressive increases in ventilation, or both. Cerebral vascular autoregulation appears preserved during chronic exposure to these levels of ambient CO2.

  7. Sustainability of farming enterprise -understanding, governance, evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    BACHEV H.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives answers to following important questions: "what is sustainability of farming enterprises" such as individual and family farms, agri-firms of different types, agri-cooperatives, etc.", "what are the mechanisms and modes of governance of sustainability of farming enterprises", and "how to evaluate the sustainability level of farming enterprise and efficiency of its governance". First, evolution of the "concept" of sustainability of farming enterprise is discussed and more ade...

  8. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  9. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  10. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  11. Factors Influencing Museum Sustainability and Indicators for Museum Sustainability Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Luiza Pop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the factors upon which museum sustainability depends and the way in which this can be measured. Methodologically, we applied a qualitative research approach, using semi-structured interviews with experts from the Romanian museum sector, complemented by an in-depth study of the literature in this field. Results indicated that any objective measuring of sustainability must take into account the size of a museum’s collections and its organizational structure. It was also found that museum type can affect sustainability via its competitive advantage. However, the sustainability of a museum is not strictly determined by these factors, but also by the management and marketing strategies applied. Based on analysis of literature- and respondent-based factors influencing sustainability, this article proposes a set of 33 indicators that can be used by museums to measure their sustainability, as well as a model that enables evaluation of the sustainability levels of various museums comparatively, regardless of their type, size or importance (e.g., national, regional and local. The results obtained are useful both from a theoretical point of view, given that there are few writings on this topic, and from a practical point of view, as they provide a basis for a clear, objective model of museum sustainability measurement.

  12. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    in order to generate new and/or existing unit operations that are configured into flowsheet alternatives inclusive of hybrid/intensified unit operations. The flowsheet alternatives that satisfy the performance criteria and design targets, give innovative and more sustainable, non-trade off flowsheet...... materials (feedstock) and the use of sustainable technologies or processes which directly impacts and improves sustainability/LCA factors. Process intensification is a concept by which processes, whether conceptual or existing, can be designed or redesigned to achieve more efficient and sustainable designs....... Therefore sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process syn-thesis and process intensification together. The main contribution of this work is the development of a systematic computer-aided multi-scale, multi-level framework for performing process synthesis-intensification that aims...

  13. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Holtbruegge, Johannes; Lutze, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process synthesis and process intensification together. This approach first defines a design target through a sustainability analysis and then finds design alternatives that match the target through process intensification. A systematic......, multi-stage framework for process synthesis- intensification that identifies more sustainable process designs has been developed. At stages 1-2, the working scale is at the level of unit operations, where a base case design is identified and analyzed with respect to sustainability metrics. At stages 3...... concepts and the framework are presented together with the results from a case study highlighting the application of the framework to the sustainable design of a production process for dimethyl carbonate....

  14. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  15. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  16. The macroecology of sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Burger

    Full Text Available The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1 physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2 smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3 global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  17. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  18. Nível de disclosure nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o Global Reporting Initiative (GRI = Level of disclosure in sustainability reports in compliance with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Di Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar o nível de disclosure nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o Global Reporting Initiative (GRI nas empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa. Nesse sentido, realizou-se pesquisa descritiva com procedimentos de coleta documental e abordagem quantitativa. A amostra analisada ficou composta por 93 empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa, que divulgaram o relatório de sustentabilidade no ano de 2014 em conformidade com o modelo GRI. Os resultados mostram que à medida em que há maior complexidade nas informações, que compreendem os grupos de indicadores apresentados nos relatórios de sustentabilidade, reduz o nível de evidenciação pelas empresas. Com relação ao nível de evidenciação, percebe-se que o maior grupo de empresas se concentra com baixa evidenciação. Representa cerca de 30% das empresas analisadas, atendendo até 50 itens dos 150 que o relatório propõe. Quanto ao setor econômico, utilidade pública apresentou maior nível de evidenciação nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o modelo GRI. Conclui-se que, embora tenha havido aumento na divulgação dos relatórios de sustentabilidade, as empresas ainda carecem de adaptação para atender aos indicadores do GRI, melhorando a qualidade dos relatórios divulgados e elevando a transparência aos diversos públicos de interesse. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of disclosure in the sustainability reports in compliance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI in the companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. In this sense, a descriptive research was carried out with procedures of documentary collection and quantitative approach. The sample analyzed was composed of 93 companies listed on the BM&FBovespa, which published the sustainability report in 2014 in compliance with the GRI model. The results show that to the extent that there is more complexity in the information that comprises the groups of indicators

  19. The First Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions and the Prediction of Weak Neutral Currents

    OpenAIRE

    Bludman, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    The three theoretical and historical components of the Standard Model are the exact chiral gauge theory of weak interactions, electroweak unification, and the Higgs mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. I put into historical perspective my 1958 invention of the first gauge theory of weak interactions, predicting weak neutral currents, and show how the fundamental differences between global and gauge symmetries and between partial flavour and exact gauge symmetries, emerged in the stron...

  20. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1–64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η ‑ χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  1. Plantar flexor muscle weakness and fatigue in spastic cerebral palsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyroud, Daria; Armand, Stéphane; De Coulon, Geraldo; Sarah R Dias Da Silva; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy develop an important muscle weakness which might affect the aetiology and extent of exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue. This study evaluated the aetiology and extent of plantar flexor neuromuscular fatigue in patients with cerebral palsy. Ten patients with cerebral palsy and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (∼20 years old, 6 females) performed four 30-s maximal isometric plantar flexions interspaced by a resting period of 2-3s to elicit a resting twitch. Maximal voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation level and peak twitch were quantified before and immediately after the fatiguing task. Before fatigue, patients with cerebral palsy were weaker than healthy individuals (341±134N vs. 858±151N, pfatiguing task (-10±23%, p>0.05), whereas it decreased by 30±12% (pmuscles of patients with cerebral palsy were weaker than their healthy peers but showed greater fatigue resistance. Cerebral palsy is a widely defined pathology that is known to result in muscle weakness. The extent and origin of muscle weakness were the topic of several previous investigations; however some discrepant results were reported in the literature regarding how it might affect the development of exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue. Importantly, most of the studies interested in the assessment of fatigue in patients with cerebral palsy did so with general questionnaires and reported increased levels of fatigue. Yet, exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue was quantified in just a few studies and it was found that young patients with cerebral palsy might be more fatigue resistant that their peers. Thus, it appears that (i) conflicting results exist regarding objectively-evaluated fatigue in patients with cerebral palsy and (ii) the mechanisms underlying this muscle fatigue - in comparison to those of healthy peers - remain poorly understood. The present study adds important knowledge to the field as it shows that when young adults with

  2. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio

    2016-06-23

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  4. Managing Sustainability of Fennoscandian Forests and Their Use by Law and/or Agreement: For Whom and Which Purpose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tuomasjukka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and sustainable behaviour is of crucial importance in the management of Fennoscandian forests and forest-related industries. This paper reviews a number of voluntary instruments, which aim at promoting or assessing sustainability impacts at different levels. The multitude of available instruments brings confusion in practice, where companies, consumers and investors meet legal and different voluntary regulatory and non-regulatory instruments. The practical suitability and covered sustainability dimension for each instrument is reviewed with an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, actors and purposes for assessing different aspects of sustainability. Each of them is compared against the other in an overview about which sustainability dimensions they cover (workplace, human rights, community, market place, environment, economy. Results highlight covered, overlapping and missing aspects for each approach and how they can support or reinforce each other. Special attention is given to current approaches in impact assessment, particularly on their areas of application (companies, NGOs, products, operations, production practices, etc., and recommendations for supplementing it with sustainability impact assessment.

  5. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  6. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  7. Extrapolating weak selection in evolutionary games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By "qualitatively valid" we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies [Formula: see text]. In particular, rank changes are almost certain for [Formula: see text], which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection.

  8. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  9. Understanding the Nature of X-ray Weak Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, William

    Eddington ratio. Specifically, we will measure if/how the fraction of X-ray weak quasars declines when considering quasar samples with increasing C IV emission-line equivalent width. X-ray spectral measurements will also be used to search for heavy X-ray absorption and Compton-reflection signatures occurring when our line of sight intercepts the thick inner disk. These measurements will clarify if inner-disk shielding plays a broader role in setting the high-ionization emission-line strengths of quasars. Furthermore, our new sample of X-ray weak quasars will let us identify reliably the UV emission-line, UV continuum, and spectral energy distribution properties that trace X-ray weakness, so that physical modeling of identified connections can proceed with confidence. There is mounting evidence that some X-ray weak quasars, including a significant fraction of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, simply lack the means to produce a typical level of X-ray emission. We will utilize both individual spectroscopic and X-ray stacking analyses to determine the frequency of BAL quasars with intrinsically weak Xray emission, thereby clarifying the overall importance of intrinsic X-ray weakness for the launching of quasar winds. Utilizing quasars with multiple X-ray observations, we will also assess how often extreme X-ray variability causes transient X-ray weakness. Finally, given our past results, we expect our greatly improved sample to reveal new unexpected X-ray weak quasars that can provide fresh insights. The proposed program will probe the nature of black holes, explore the extreme physical conditions of the Universe, and investigate outstanding issues in the development of galaxies over cosmic time. It thereby directly addresses NASA's strategic objective to discover how the Universe works, and how it began and evolved (Objective 1.6 of the 2014 NASA Strategic Plan).

  10. A theoretical overview of hypernuclear weak decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumillas, C. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garbarino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: garbarin@to.infn.it; Parreno, A.; Ramos, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The physics of the weak decay of hypernuclei is briefly reviewed from a theoretical point of view. Special regard is devoted to the recent progress concerning the determination of the non-mesonic decay widths and the asymmetry parameters. Convincing evidence has been achieved for a solution of the long-standing puzzle on the ratio {gamma}{sub n}/{gamma}{sub p}. Very recently, it has been shown that the exchange of a {pi}{pi} pair in the weak mechanism plays a crucial role in explaining the discrepancies between theory and experiment on the decay asymmetries.

  11. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  12. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. A Continuation Method for Weakly Kannan Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza-Ruiz David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first continuation method for contractive maps in the setting of a metric space was given by Granas. Later, Frigon extended Granas theorem to the class of weakly contractive maps, and recently Agarwal and O'Regan have given the corresponding result for a certain type of quasicontractions which includes maps of Kannan type. In this note we introduce the concept of weakly Kannan maps and give a fixed point theorem, and then a continuation method, for this class of maps.

  14. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesgaard, Kristine S; Albert, Kristian R; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Michelsen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Schmidt, Niels M

    2012-08-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion study in high arctic Greenland. During the growing season, the gas exchange (H₂O and CO₂) and chlorophyll-a fluorescence were measured in Vaccinium uliginosum. The leaf dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, stable carbon isotope ratio, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were determined from a late season harvest. The net photosynthesis per leaf area was on average 22% higher in 61% reduced UV-B treatment across the season, but per ground area photosynthesis was unchanged. The leaf level increase in photosynthesis was accompanied by increased leaf nitrogen, higher stomatal conductance and F(v)/F(m). There was no change in total leaf biomass, but reduction in total leaf area caused a pronounced reduction of specific leaf area and leaf area index in reduced UV-B. This demonstrates the structural changes to counterbalance the reduced plant carbon uptake seen per leaf area in ambient UV-B as the resulting plant carbon uptake per ground area was not affected. Thus, our understanding of long-term responses to UV-B reduction must take into account both leaf level processes as well as structural changes to understand the apparent robustness of plant carbon uptake per ground area. In this perspective, V. uliginosum seems able to adjust plant carbon uptake to the present amount of solar UV-B radiation in the High Arctic. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  15. Sustainable building design in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability certification schemes experience growing popularity. Denmark got its own sustainability certification scheme based on the German DGNB certification scheme. Previous work based on four case studies – DGNB certified healthcare centres, suggests further research on how to improve...... and support the iterative design process in the initial design phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the design process on a more common level experienced by Danish DGNB consultants when designing sustainable buildings using the Danish DGNB certification scheme and thereby possibly...

  16. Analysis of opinion about nuclear energy and sustainability in a graduate level population; Analisis de opinion sobre la energia nuclear y sustentabilidad en una poblacion de nivel superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza L, C.D.; Arredondo S, C. [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: angie2esa@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Mexican society has a modest knowledge of the nuclear energy, even at the participant students of superior education level in this survey is finds a scarce compression with regard to their obtaining, use and manage. As a result of the lack of interest of the same society and at the problems that know each other like they are: the pollutants that it produces those nuclear waste and the possible use or warlike end, a fear is believed about this energy type. In the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics there is the possibility to make studies so much at master degree level in the one fear of the nuclear energy and the applications of the same one in peaceful uses. However, particularly the studies at master level seem to be immersed in a crisis that requires of different supports to be resolved. For all it previous was thought in carrying out a survey inside a student population with superior level to know the opinion and the knowledge on the nuclear energy in Mexico. In this work the results of the survey are analyzed with the purpose of to determine which is the knowledge of the community mentioned regarding the other energy types, the impact that they have these in the environment, the sustenance of the same ones and in particular on knowledge about the nuclear energy considering the aspects before mentioned. With base had said analysis settles down that the interviewed community knows very little about the nuclear energy but they show interest to study and to obtain bigger information about the same one, for what is very important to diffuse but and better information on the nuclear energy to the population's strata, because it is of supposing that the rest of the population has erroneous information on the nuclear energy. In particular for the community of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics the diffusion of all the benefits of the peaceful applications of the nuclear energy, including the capacity to generate enormous quantities and

  17. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 9. Report on specific competency trainings (basic level) by TEDC for SMK teachers from the five CASINDO regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-03-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report describes the trainings conducted by TEDC Bandung (Technical Education Development Centre) on specific competencies for the teachers of the 11 SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) involved in CASINDO in the renewable energy technologies micro hydropower , solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass, biogas and energy efficiency. The report also contains a description of the Training of Trainers activities conducted by the CASINDO consortium for TEDC staff in the renewable energy technologies micro hydro power, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass , biogas and energy efficiency. Additionally, the report describes training activities that are closely linked to and highly relevant for CASINDO.

  18. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  19. A single-dose cytomegalovirus-based vaccine encoding tetanus toxin fragment C induces sustained levels of protective tetanus toxin antibodies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Rob; Nakai, Toru; Parkins, Christopher J; Caposio, Patrizia; Fairweather, Neil F; Sesardic, Dorothea; Jarvis, Michael A

    2012-04-26

    The current commercially available vaccine used to prevent tetanus disease following infection with the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani is safe and effective. However, tetanus remains a major source of mortality in developing countries. In 2008, neonatal tetanus was estimated to have caused >59,000 deaths, accounting for 1% of worldwide infant mortality, primarily in poorer nations. The cost of multiple vaccine doses administered by injection necessary to achieve protective levels of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies is the primary reason for low vaccine coverage. Herein, we show that a novel vaccine strategy using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccine platform induces protective levels of anti-tetanus antibodies that are durable (lasting >13 months) in mice following only a single dose. This study demonstrates the ability of a 'single-dose' CMV-based vaccine strategy to induce durable protection, and supports the potential for a tetanus vaccine based on CMV to impact the incidence of tetanus in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion s...... seems able to adjust plant carbon uptake to the present amount of solar UV-B radiation in the High Arctic.......Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion...... study in high arctic Greenland. During the growing season, the gas exchange (H(2) O and CO(2) ) and chlorophyll-a fluorescence were measured in Vaccinium uliginosum. The leaf dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, stable carbon isotope ratio, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were determined from a late season...

  1. Donor-funded project's sustainability assessment: a qualitative case study of a results-based financing pilot in Koulikoro region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppey, Mathieu; Ridde, Valéry; Touré, Laurence; Coulibaly, Abdourahmane

    2017-12-08

    Results-based financing (RBF) is emerging as a new alternative to finance health systems in many African countries. In Mali, a pilot project was conducted to improve demand and supply of health services through financing performance in targeted services. No study has explored the sustainability process of such a project in Africa. This study's objectives were to understand the project's sustainability process and to assess its level of sustainability. Sustainability was examined through its different determinants, phases, levels and contexts. These were explored using qualitative interviews to discern, via critical events, stakeholders' ideas regarding the project's sustainability. Data collection sites were chosen with the participation of different stakeholders, based on a variety of criteria (rural/urban settings, level of participation, RBF participants still present, etc.). Forty-nine stakeholders were then interviewed in six community health centres and two referral health centres (from 11/12/15 to 08/03/16), including health practitioners, administrators, and those involved in implementing and conceptualizing the program (government and NGOs). A theme analysis was done with the software © QDA Miner according to the study's conceptual framework. The results of this project show a weak level of sustainability due to many factors. While some gains could be sustained (ex.: investments in long-term resources, high compatibility of values and codes, adapted design to the implementations contexts, etc.) other intended benefits could not (ex.: end of investments, lack of shared cultural artefacts around RBF, loss of different tasks and procedures, need of more ownership of the project by the local stakeholders). A lack of sustainability planning was observed, and few critical events were associated to phases of sustainability. While this RBF project aimed at increasing health agents' motivation through different mechanisms (supervision, investments, incentives, etc

  2. Weak ionization of the global ionosphere in solar cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Hao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following prolonged and extremely quiet solar activity from 2008 to 2009, the 24th solar cycle started slowly. It has been almost 5 years since then. The measurement of ionospheric critical frequency (foF2 shows the fact that solar activity has been significantly lower in the first half of cycle 24, compared to the average levels of cycles 19 to 23; the data of global average total electron content (TEC confirm that the global ionosphere around the cycle 24 peak is much more weakly ionized, in contrast to cycle 23. The weak ionization has been more notable since the year 2012, when both the ionosphere and solar activity were expected to be approaching their maximum level. The undersupply of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV irradiance somewhat continues after the 2008–2009 minimum, and is considered to be the main cause of the weak ionization. It further implies that the thermosphere and ionosphere in the first solar cycle of this millennium would probably differ from what we have learned from the previous cycles of the space age.

  3. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  4. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... consumption of meat and dairy products (especially beef), to favor organic fruits and vegetables, and to avoid goods that have been transported by air on both individual and institutional levels (e.g., public procurement, public catering). In examining the unsustainability of the current food system...

  5. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  6. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  7. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced

  8. Cultural capital: strengths, weaknesses and two advancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss two weaknesses in Bourdieu’s work on cultural capital, both of which are related to his integration of the multidimensional nature of social space in different domains of life: social mobility, lifestyle differentiation, and political orientation. First, there is an anomaly

  9. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  10. Thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in weak electrically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in fluids with weak elec- trical conductivity is studied numerically under 1g and μg conditions. The results with a non-linear thermorheological equation considered in the problem when compared with those of the classical approach with constant viscosity ...

  11. Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...

  12. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The history of weak interactions starting with. Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Dis- coveries of parity violation, matter{antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted. Introduction. Sun gives us ...

  13. Phenomenological model of the weak interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Schunck, Franz E.

    2008-01-01

    We use the informations known so far about elementary particles in order to construct a simple model. We find a reason for the gyromagnetic factor of 2 for leptons and a vivid imagination for the weak interaction. By this, we understand, why the elementary particles with lowest mass are stable and all other unstable.

  14. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran, G.

    2014-01-01

    The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.

  15. Dynamical theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, F

    1974-01-01

    The gauge theory of unified weak and electromagnetic interactions is developed without the use of scalar mesons. It is shown that the Glashow Weinberg scheme is unrealistic, but that a similar such scheme is possible if one includes two pairs of leptons, identified with e-, νe and μ-, νμ.

  16. The weak acid nature of precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John O. Frohliger; Robert L. Kane

    1976-01-01

    Recent measurements of the pH of precipitation leave no doubt that rainfall is acidic. Evidence will be presented that precipitation is a weak acid system. The results of this research indicate the need to establish standard sampling procedures to provide uniform sampling of precipitation

  17. Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the W and Z bosons allowing us to neglect the momentum dependence in the. W and Z propagators. This is equivalent to lowest-order GF calculations and is justified for low-energy neutrinos and low temperatures and weak fields compared to the Fermi scale. Since, in this work we focus our attention on the possible astro ...

  18. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions. G Rajasekaran. General Article Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 18-44 ... Keywords. Fermi; beta decay; parity violation; electroweak theory; neutral current; quarks and leptons; neutrino mass.

  19. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  20. Sustainability and Risk Disclosure: An Exploratory Study on Sustainability Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Truant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB, the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB, and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial and social-environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure calls for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of large Italian organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between their level of risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only a few of them seem to adopt a managerial perspective linking strategy, risk metrics, and disclosure.

  1. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  2. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  3. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  4. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  5. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

  6. Negative affect, pain and disability in osteoarthritis patients: the mediating role of muscle weakness.

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, J.; Tola, P; Aufdemkampe, G.; Winckers, M.

    1993-01-01

    Negative affect has been shown to be associated with high levels of pain and disability in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. As an explanation of this association, it was hypothesized that muscle weakness is a mediating factor between negative affect, pain and disability. Accordingly, negative affect enhances the patient's tendency to avoid pain-related activities; a low activity level induces muscle weakness, instability of joints and thus pain and disability. This theory leads to the prediction...

  7. Managed Sustainable Development Classification Of Resources And Goods amp Services Calculating Sustainable Growth Rate And The Sustainable Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Saxena

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Macro-level manmade problems can often be best solved by understanding and manipulating the economics behind it. The world today is facing genuine problems of scarcity of resources and environmental amp ecological issues in view of intergenerational equity. The paper proposes a new approach of identification and classification of i Resources and ii Goods and services in the context of sustainable development. Every economy has ambitious economic growth aspirations which are often found conflicting with the commitments on natural resource conservation and climate change obligations. The proposed methodology is a reconciliation of the aspired economic growth of a region and the conservation of the resources and nature. The paper employs contribution of different types of goods and services in the gross domestic product GDP of a region to analyze sustainability of development. The important parameters that the paper establishes are Sustainability Ratio R Sustainable Growth Rate SG and the Sustainable Development Index SI. These parameters can be used to compare the sustainable development level of different regions. Ensuring natural resource and environmental sustainability will eventually ensure economic sustainability. The paper considers resource depletion concerns as well as the environmental pollutants biological risks carbon footprint warhead proliferation et cetera thereby ensuring all round sustainability from survival to economic end. The sustainability analysis is done for long periods such as 50 years 100 years et cetera. The index shows how sustainable the development of an economy is and how sustainability it is growing. The presently much revered GDP growth numbers are directionless it does not tell the type of growth an economy essentially has. The direction should be sustainability which the paper stresses upon. An illustration of sustainability analysis of India is also done. Such indices can help identifying sustainably developing

  8. Sustainable Ergonomic Program - Basic Condition for Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Petra; Beňo, Rastislav; Hatiar, Karol

    2012-12-01

    Gradually increasing pressure on companies to start to behave socially responsible is a response to social, environmental and economic requirements. The society faces a period of changes that have occurred since the beginning of the crisis and revealing weaknesses in the economy. We become witnesses of rapid changes and challenges posed by globalization, lack of resources, demographic structure and innovation. Objective necessity becomes a corporate social responsibility (CSR) already at the companies’ level, which is supported by the approach of the EU institutions and the Slovak Republic. One of the possible appliance through which we can contribute to the sustainability of CSR are sustainable ergonomic programs. When we want to talk about sustainable ergonomic program is important to focus on three key areas. The first area is the Impact of technic and technology to employees at work, the second area is the Importance and impact of socially responsible HR in ergonomics and last area is the Creation of the work environment in relation to environmental sustainability. Ergonomic programs sustainability requires to apply appropriate methods for evaluation of their cost benefit and health effect.

  9. Preserving the 'commons': addressing the sustainable use of antibiotics through an economic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, C M; Edwards, S E; Harbarth, S

    2017-10-01

    As the growth of antibiotic resistance has resulted in large part from widespread use of antibiotics, every effort must be made to ensure their sustainable use. This narrative review aims to assess the potential contribution of health economic analyses to sustainable use efforts. The work draws on existing literature and experience with health economic tools. The study examines some of the weaknesses in the health, regulatory, and industry arenas that could contribute to inappropriate or suboptimal prescribing of antibiotics and describes how economic analysis could be used to improve current practice by comparing both costs and health outcomes to maximize societal wellbeing over the longer-term. It finds that economic considerations underpinning current antibiotic prescribing strategies are incomplete and short-termist, with the result that they may foster suboptimal use. It also stresses that perverse incentives that drive antibiotic sales and inappropriate prescribing practices must be dis-entangled for sustainable use policies to gain traction. Finally, payment structures can be used to re-align incentives and promote optimal prescribing and sustainable use more generally. In particular, eliminating or altering reimbursement differentials could help steer clinical practice more deliberately towards the minimization of selection pressure and the resulting levels of antibiotic resistance. This work highlights the need for appropriately designed cost-effectiveness analyses, incentives analysis, and novel remuneration systems to underpin sustainable use policies both within and beyond the health sector. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  11. Weakly Supervised Multilabel Clustering and its Applications in Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yingjie; Nie, Liqiang; Zhang, Luming; Yang, Yi; Hong, Richang; Li, Xuelong

    2016-12-01

    Clustering is a useful statistical tool in computer vision and machine learning. It is generally accepted that introducing supervised information brings remarkable performance improvement to clustering. However, assigning accurate labels is expensive when the amount of training data is huge. Existing supervised clustering methods handle this problem by transferring the bag-level labels into the instance-level descriptors. However, the assumption that each bag has a single label limits the application scope seriously. In this paper, we propose weakly supervised multilabel clustering, which allows assigning multiple labels to a bag. Based on this, the instance-level descriptors can be clustered with the guidance of bag-level labels. The key technique is a weakly supervised random forest that infers the model parameters. Thereby, a deterministic annealing strategy is developed to optimize the nonconvex objective function. The proposed algorithm is efficient in both the training and the testing stages. We apply it to three popular computer vision tasks: 1) image clustering; 2) semantic image segmentation; and 3) multiple objects localization. Impressive performance on the state-of-the-art image data sets is achieved in our experiments.

  12. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneil A Raju

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient’s right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient’s symptoms. Intrigued by our patient’s case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  13. Search for the Scalar Component of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Zakoucky, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Weak interactions ar e described by the Standard Model which postulates the basic assumption about the pure " V (ector) - A (xial vector)" character of the interaction. Nevertheless, even after half a century of development of the model and experimental testing of its fundamental i ngredients, experimental data still allow the existence of other types of weak interactions - e.g. scalar interactions are ruled out only on the 7% level. Experimental project WITCH ( W eak I nteraction T rap for CH arged particles) was set up at the isoto pe separator ISOLDE at CERN trying to probe the properties of the weak interaction in order to look for their forbidden (scalar, tensor) components or at least significantly improve their current experimental limits. Experimental setup consisting of a comb ination of 2 Penning traps and retardation spectrometer allows to catch the radioactive nuclei from ISOLDE separator, traps and cools them and lets them decay in rest and then probes the energy spectrum of recoiling nuclei whic...

  14. Annual Sustainability Report FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    NREL's Sustainability Program is responsible for upholding all executive orders, federal regulations, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and goals related to sustainable and resilient facility operations. But NREL continues to expand sustainable practices above and beyond the laboratory's regulations and requirements to ensure that the laboratory fulfills its mission into the future, leaves the smallest possible legacy footprint, and models sustainable operations and behaviors on national, regional, and local levels. The report, per the GRI reporting format, elaborates on multi-year goals relative to executive orders, achievements, and challenges; and success stories provide specific examples. A section called 'NREL's Resiliency is Taking Many Forms' provides insight into how NREL is drawing on its deep knowledge of renewable energy and energy efficiency to help mitigate or avoid climate change impacts.

  15. University involvement in sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education and on the univer......With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education...... is Sustainable Development understood at executive level at the university? How (if at all) is sustainable development integrated in the core activities of the university? How is the university attached to ‘real life outside the ivory tower', e.g. through the establishing of Public-Private-Academic Partnerships...

  16. Managing Sustainability in Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    concerning trade-offs and complexity. Thus, the paper proposes an approach to sustainability in management education which help to initiate such critical reflection and discussion by drawing attention to the complex network of relations in which a given business or industry is embedded.......Sustainability has until relatively recently been seen as irrelevant to business practice and, hence, has been largely missing from management education. But, environmental issues are increasingly becoming a key business concern at local, national, international and global levels. This conceptual...... paper addresses the question: How can sustainability be addresses within management education? It engages in a critical discussion of traditional models for teaching sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in order to develop an advanced framework that addresses the limitations...

  17. Quantum Groups, Property (T), and Weak Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Michael; Kerr, David

    2017-11-01

    For second countable discrete quantum groups, and more generally second countable locally compact quantum groups with trivial scaling group, we show that property (T) is equivalent to every weakly mixing unitary representation not having almost invariant vectors. This is a generalization of a theorem of Bekka and Valette from the group setting and was previously established in the case of low dual by Daws, Skalski, and Viselter. Our approach uses spectral techniques and is completely different from those of Bekka-Valette and Daws-Skalski-Viselter. By a separate argument we furthermore extend the result to second countable nonunimodular locally compact quantum groups, which are shown in particular not to have property (T), generalizing a theorem of Fima from the discrete setting. We also obtain quantum group versions of characterizations of property (T) of Kerr and Pichot in terms of the Baire category theory of weak mixing representations and of Connes and Weiss in terms of the prevalence of strongly ergodic actions.

  18. Model Reduction of Strong-Weak Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven James Cox

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travelfrom the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous workwe have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell modelsmay be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of stronglyexcitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude,without sacrificing thespatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs. We combine the best of these twostrategies via a predictor--corrector decomposition scheme andachieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.

  19. Model reduction of strong-weak neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.

  20. Weak Gravitational Lensing of Finite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Pierre; Larena, Julien; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The standard theory of weak gravitational lensing relies on the infinitesimal light beam approximation. In this context, images are distorted by convergence and shear, the respective sources of which unphysically depend on the resolution of the distribution of matter—the so-called Ricci-Weyl problem. In this Letter, we propose a strong-lensing-inspired formalism to describe the lensing of finite beams. We address the Ricci-Weyl problem by showing explicitly that convergence is caused by the matter enclosed by the beam, regardless of its distribution. Furthermore, shear turns out to be systematically enhanced by the finiteness of the beam. This implies, in particular, that the Kaiser-Squires relation between shear and convergence is violated, which could have profound consequences on the interpretation of weak-lensing surveys.

  1. On Uniform Weak König's Lemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The so-called weak Konig's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an infinite path b in any infinite binary tree (given by a representing function f). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higher-order arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics...... is of interest in the context of explicit mathematics as developed by S. Feferman. The elimination process in Kohlenbach [10] actually can be used to eliminate even this uniform weak Konig's lemma provided that PRA only has a quantifier-free rule of extensionality QF-ER instead of the full axioms (E...... as the computational strength of UWKL relative to the intuitionistic variant of PRA both with and without the Markov principle....

  2. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  3. The regularization of Old English weak verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tío Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporated the texts of the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. As regards the question of the limits of normalization, the solution adopted are, in the first place, that when it is necessary to regularize, normalization is restricted to correspondences based on dialectal and diachronic variation and, secondly, that normalization has to be unidirectional.

  4. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  5. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  6. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  7. Weakly Collisional and Collisionless Astrophysical Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlok, Thomas

    investigate helium mixing in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxy clusters using Braginskii MHD. Secondly, we present a newly developed Vlasov-fluid code which can be used for studying fully collisionless plasmas such as the solar wind and hot accretions flows. The equations of Braginskii MHD...... are used to study weakly collisional, stratified atmospheres which offer a useful model of the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters. Using linear theory and computer simulations, we study instabilities that feed off thermal and compositional gradients. We find that these instabilities lead to vigorous...... mixing of the composition and discuss the potential consequences for X-ray observations of galaxy clusters. Collisionless plasmas can be subject to microscale velocity-space instabilities which are not well-described by Braginskii MHD. In contrast, Vlasov-fluid theory captures all the kinetic phenomena...

  8. A dynamical weak scale from inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tevong

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical scanning of the Higgs mass by an axion-like particle during inflation may provide a cosmological component to explaining part of the hierarchy problem. We propose a novel interplay of this cosmological relaxation mechanism with inflation, whereby the backreaction of the Higgs vacuum expectation value near the weak scale causes inflation to end. As Hubble drops, the relaxion's dissipative friction increases relative to Hubble and slows it down enough to be trapped by the barriers of its periodic potential. Such a scenario raises the natural cut-off of the theory up to ~ 1010 GeV, while maintaining a minimal relaxion sector without having to introduce additional scanning scalars or new physics coincidentally close to the weak scale.

  9. On weakly D-differentiable operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Let DD be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space HH and aa a bounded operator on HH. We say that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, if for any pair of vectors ξ,ηξ,η from HH the function 〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉 is differentiable. We give an elementary example of a bounded operator aa...

  10. Dynamic properties of superconducting weak links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Albert; Schön, Gerd; Tinkham, Michael

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamic properties of the order parameter and the quasiparticles in superconducting short weak links is presented. Both diffusion and inelastic scattering are found to be important in relaxing nonequilibrium populations. At low voltages a dissipative current, which is considerably larger than the normal ohmic current, is found and at higher voltages the maximum supercurrent is enhanced. These effects describe quantitatively well the foot structure in the I-V characteristic observed experimentally by Octavio, Skocpol, and Tinkham.

  11. On weak compactness in L_1 spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2009), s. 1885-1893 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610; GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA AV ČR IAA1019103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weak compactness * subspace of L_1 * superreflexive space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.260, year: 2009

  12. Summary of the Hadronic Weak Interaction session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, G.; Bryman, D. A.; Numao, T.

    1993-07-01

    We summarize and discuss present and future experiments on decays of light mesons and muons that were presented in the Hadronic Weak Interaction working group session of the Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Facilities. Precise measurements and rare-decay searches, which sense mass scales in the 1-1000 TeV region, are discussed in the context of the standard model and beyond.

  13. Summary of the Hadronic Weak Interaction session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Bryman, D.A.; Numao, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility

    1993-07-01

    We summarize and discuss present and future experiments on decays of light mesons and muons that were presented in the Hadronic Weak Interaction working group session of the ``Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Facilities.`` Precise measurements and rare-decay searches, which sense mass scales in the 1--1000 TeV region, are discussed in the context of the standard model and beyond.

  14. Diffusion in a weakly random Hamiltonian flow

    OpenAIRE

    Komorowski, T.; Ryzhik, L.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the motion of a particle governed by a weakly random Hamiltonian flow. We identify temporal and spatial scales on which the particle trajectory converges to a spatial Brownian motion. The main technical issue in the proof is to obtain error estimates for the convergence of the solution of the stochastic acceleration problem to a momentum diffusion. We also apply our results to the system of random geometric acoustics equations and show that the energy density of the acoustic waves...

  15. Sustainability in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: The Interrelationships among Sustainability Initiatives and Geographic and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Dan; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip; Wright, Tarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a census of high-level sustainability initiatives at all accredited post-secondary institutions in Canada by documenting the institutions that have undertaken sustainability assessments, have signed one or more sustainability declarations, have sustainability offices or officers or have sustainability…

  16. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  17. European Food and Drink Wholesalers and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose- The aim of this paper is to review and reflect on the sustainability agendas and achievements reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Design/Methodology/Approach- The paper begins with a short introduction to corporate sustainability, sustainability reporting and food and drinks wholesaling within Europe and the empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers' corporate websites. Findings- There are marked variations in the extent to which Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermine its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers' definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. More critically the authors argue that this approach is couched within existing business models centred on continuing growth and consumption Limitations- The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality- The role of Europe's wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature and this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing and employees and executives working in the distribution sector of the economy.

  18. Systematic review: role of acid, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Smout, Smout J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. Aim To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH 7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their correlation with symptoms. Methods Studies were identified by systematic PubMed and Embase searches. Data are presented as sample-size weighted ...

  19. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z 330 times weaker than...... expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL...... quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three...

  20. SWOT ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaul Haque Mondal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a small country with enormous natural beauty and cultural attractions. These gorgeous natural and cultural traits make this country as one of the important tourist destinations in the world but, this potentiality has been overlooked. The tourism industry is facing several challenges, and development efforts of this industry are not sustainable. This paper maps out a way to sustainable growth of the tourism industry in Bangladesh using the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats model and a derived matrix out of it. The data used for this study were derived from multiple sources, including literature review and interviews with professionals. To analyze strategic factors of the tourism industry in the country, internal strengths and weaknesses as well as external opportunities and threats were determined to be followed by development of strategic planning based on the SWOT matrix. Results showed that existing tourism activities in Bangladesh are unsustainable. To develop a sustainable tourism industry to attract tourists, this study suggests different WT (weaknesses- threats strategies such as ensuring safety and security of tourists, effective planning for sustainable economic benefits, strict implementation of environmental regulations for ecological sustainability, alerting people about the importance of sustainable tourism development, and infrastructure development. Perhaps the findings of this study would be important in the effort to develop and promote a sustainable tourism industry in beautiful Bangladesh.

  1. Addressing multimorbidity to improve healthcare and economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Francesca; García-Goñi, Manuel; Schwierz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Patients with multimorbidity are responsible for more than half of all healthcare utilization, challenging the healthcare budgets of all European nations. Although the European Union is showing signs of a fragile economic recovery, achieving sustainable growth will depend on delivering a combination of fiscal responsibility, structural reforms, and improved efficiency. Addressing the challenges of multimorbidity and providing more effective, affordable, and sustainable care, has climbed the political agenda at a global, European, and national level. Current healthcare systems are poorly adapted to cope with the challenges of patients with multimorbidity. Little is known about the epidemiology and natural history of multimorbidity; the evidence base is weak; clinical guidelines are not always relevant to this population; and financing and delivery systems have not evolved to adequately measure and reward quality and performance. Pockets of innovation are, however, beginning to emerge. In Spain, for example, the ongoing economic crisis has forced regional governments to deliver substantial efficiency savings and, with this in mind, integrated care programmes have been introduced across the country for people with chronic disease and multimorbidity. Early results suggest that formalized integrated care for patients with multimorbidity improves their perceptions of care coordination, reduces hospital and emergency admissions and readmissions, and reduces average costs per capita. Such innovations require meaningful investments at a national level – something that is now supported within the framework of the European Union’s Stability and Growth Pact. PMID:29090168

  2. Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes with Predominant Limb Girdle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Teresinha; Hanna, Mike; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined disorders characterized by impaired neuromuscular transmission. They usually present from birth to childhood and are characterised by exercise induced weakness and fatigability. Genotype-phenotype correlations are difficult. However, in some patients particular phenotypic aspects may point towards a specific genetic defect. The absence of ptosis and ophthalmoparesis in patients with limb-girdle weakness makes the diagnosis of a neuromuscular transmission defect particularly challenging (LG-CMS). This is illustrated by a well-documented case published by Walton in 1956. The diagnosis of LG-CMS is secured by demonstrating a neuromuscular transmission defect with single fibre EMG or repetitive nerve stimulation, in the absence of auto-antibodies. Ultimately, a genetic test is required to identify the underlying cause and assure counselling and optimization of treatment. LG-CMS are inherited in autosomal recessive traits, and are often associated with mutations in DOK7 and GFPT1, and less frequently with mutations in COLQ, ALG2, ALG14 and DPAGT. Genetic characterization of CMS is of the upmost importance when choosing the adequate treatment. Some of the currently used drugs can either ameliorate or aggravate the symptoms depending on the underlying genetic defect. The drug most frequently used for the treatment of CMS is pyridostigmine an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. However, pyridostigmine is not effective or is even detrimental in DOK7- and COLQ-related LG-CMS, while beta-adrenergic agonists (ephedrine, salbutamol) show some sustained benefit. Standard clinical trials may be difficult, but standardized follow-up of patients and international collaboration may help to improve the standards of care of these conditions. PMID:26870666

  3. Free to Squander? Democracy, Institutional Design, and Economic Sustainability, 1975–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Indra de Soysa; Jennifer Bailey; Eric Neumayer

    2004-01-01

    While democracy’s effect on economic growth has come under intense empirical scrutiny, its effect on economic sustainability has been noticeably neglected. We assess the effects of regime type and democratic institutional design on economic, or “weak” sustainability. Sustainability requires that stocks of capital do not depreciate in value over time. The World Bank gauges the rate of net investment in manufactured, human, and natural capital, a unified indicator of weak sustainability (the ge...

  4. Legitimising Corporate Sustainability Reporting Throughout the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores corporate sustainability disclosure practices in a global context. A unique sample of 2009 sustainability reports from some of the world’s largest companies in 24 diverse countries are examined using a comprehensive disclosure index. These reports are analysed to better understand how company characteristics and institutional factors explain sustainability communication using a legitimacy theory framework. The world renowned Global ReportingInitiative 2006 guidelines are used as the benchmark disclosure index checklist. The empirical results indicate that the average level of sustainability disclosure is a surprisingly high 61.9 percent.Statistical analysis indicates that high profile industries and additional assurance procedures influence the disclosure of more sustainability information. Interestingly, companies operating inemerging country systems disclose more sustainability information than Anglo-Saxon or Communitarian jurisdictions. Consistent with legitimacy theory, these results suggest that these globally well known firms use sustainability disclosure as a legitimising tool.

  5. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Yamamoto, H

    2006-01-01

    Recent research (Flache 1996; Flache and Macy 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  7. Sustainability and Organizational Change by Sustainable Crediting Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Ilie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that one of the therapies to achieve sustainability and organizational change in the context of current challenges in the national economies is sustainable crediting. The research method is based on a survey of 30 commercial companies from various fields of activity that have or have not implemented, at the leadership level, the concept of sustainable crediting. The data collecting and processing approach has resulted in the determination of the main economic-financial indicators for a period of 5 years, indicators used by banks in relation with the credited organizations. The main results show that companies that have implemented the sustainable crediting concept are more able to achieve sustainability in their developed activity, as well as organizational change with positive effects on their business and on the company as a whole. The concept of sustainable crediting implies the capitalization of the commercial companies, the increase of the loan portfolio quality, the achievement of the financial balance and environmental protection

  8. Organizing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…

  9. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  10. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Project summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    . There are two main problems concerned with wind power and weak grids. The first is the steady state voltage level. When the power consumption is low e.g. during the night the voltage of the grid can increase tolevels above the limits if the wind power input is high. The other main problem is voltage...... fluctuations. Because the wind is fluctuating the output from the wind turbines is also fluctuating. This together with wind turbine cut-ins can result in voltagefluctuations that are above the flicker limit. Some or all of the these problems can be avoided if a so-called power control concept is applied...... together with the wind farm. The idea behind the power control concept is to eliminate the violations of thesteady state voltage level by buffering the power from the wind turbines in periods where the voltage limits might be violated and then release it when the voltage level is lower and combine...

  11. Systematic review: role of acid, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Smout, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH <4), weakly acidic (pH 4-7) and weakly alkaline (pH >7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their

  12. How to assess sustainability in automated manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how sustainability in automation can be assessed. The assessment method is illustrated using a case study of a robot. Three aspects of sustainability assessment in automation are identified. Firstly, we consider automation as part of a larger system...... that fulfills the market demand for a given functionality. Secondly, three aspects of sustainability have to be assessed: environment, economy, and society. Thirdly, automation is part of a system with many levels, with different actors on each level, resulting in meeting the market demand. In this system......, (sustainability) specifications move top-down, which helps avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting. From these three aspects, sustainable automation is defined as automation that contributes to products that fulfill a market demand in a more sustainable way. The case study presents the carbon footprints...

  13. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  14. The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.

  15. The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.

  16. Happiness and Sustainability Together at Last! Sustainable Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable happiness is "happiness that contributes to individual, community and/or global well-being without exploiting other people, the environment or future generations" (O'Brien, 2010a, n.p.). It underscores the interrelationship between human flourishing and ecological resilience. At the national and international levels,…

  17. Sustainable spatial development in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Terlević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is not only a great challenge for society as a whole, but also for higher education institutions, which have been rapidly including sustainable development in their educational process in the last two decades. Directly or indirectly, education for sustainable spatial development includes all aspects of sustainable development: environmental, economic, social and cultural. Space is a junction of various interests, which requires coordinating the entire process of spatial planning, taking into account the goal of sustainable spatial development. The existing values of space are insufficient for the rapid implementation of a sustainable spatial development paradigm. Suitable education is needed by both individuals and spatial planning professionals and at all levels of education. It is therefore necessary to transform some of the academic programs in the higher education curriculum by integrating teaching content and methods that include long-term knowledge and holistic thinking, taking into account the importance of interdisciplinary integration. This article reviews literature in sustainable development in higher education from 2002 to 2013. Topics discussed include students’ and teachers’ conceptions of sustainable development, the presence of sustainable development and sustainable spatial development in higher education and the reasons for the slow introduction of this material into the curriculum. Based on a literature analysis, the last section identifies important drivers that can contribute to a more rapid integration of a sustainable spatial development paradigm into higher education.

  18. Supersymmetric Higgs bosons in weak boson fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollik, Wolfgang; Plehn, Tilman; Rauch, Michael; Rzehak, Heidi

    2009-03-06

    We compute the complete supersymmetric next-to-leading-order corrections to the production of a light Higgs boson in weak-boson fusion. The size of the electroweak corrections is of similar order as the next-to-leading-order corrections in the standard model. The supersymmetric QCD corrections turn out to be significantly smaller than expected and than their electroweak counterparts. These corrections are an important ingredient to a precision analysis of the (supersymmetric) Higgs sector at the LHC, either as a known correction factor or as a contribution to the theory error.

  19. Are the Weak Measurements Really Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Sokolovski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Weak measurements can be seen as an attempt at answering the Which way? question without destroying interference between the pathways involved. Unusual mean values obtained in such measurements represent the response of a quantum system to this forbidden question, in which the true composition of virtual pathways is hidden from the observer. Such values indicate a failure of a measurement where the uncertainty principle says it must fail, rather than provide an additional insight into physical reality. Quanta 2013; 2: 50–57.

  20. Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lisa I-Ching

    1988-11-01

    The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.

  2. Weak η production off the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The weak η-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of N{sup *} (1535)S{sub 11} and N{sup *} (1650)S{sub 11} resonances. The vector part of the N-S{sub 11} transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.

  3. Sustaining Shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnardel-Azzarelli, Betty [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 4th Floor, 310-312 Regent Street, London, London W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    some shipping companies, air carriers, ports and terminals, have instituted policies of not accepting radioactive materials. Let's define our terms here, when we talk about denial or delay of shipment. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI) understand shipment denials and delays as those impediments to transport occasioned in particular by the radioactive properties of the materials for transport, and outside the normal regulatory and operational processes and requirements. For this purpose those impediments than can and do arise for a host of other reasons, and which could apply equally to any other consignment are excluded. Experience has shown that many things can affect the willingness of carriers to accept Class 7 consignments- maybe the potential service providers are unsure about insurance implications. Perhaps they worry about the perception of other customers whose goods they want to carry. Maybe they think special handling procedures or reporting requirements are too complicated, or too onerous. Perhaps they are put off by problems with ports, or terminals, which themselves are not prepared to accept Class 7 cargoes, or raise seemingly complex issues. In short, the decisions taken by shipping companies are based in considerable part on maximising profit; if the return from carrying Class 7 materials does not seem substantial enough, then why bother? Our member companies tell us that in some regions service availability and acceptance levels have rapidly declined in recent years. Consignors increasingly confront departure, transit, trans-shipment, and discharge port limitations or restrictions. It is difficult sometimes to get a clear understanding, and, therefore, consistent interpretation of the regulations, within and between jurisdictions. Shipping companies fear that the carriage of Class 7 cargo will result in unexpected delays with port clearance processes or, at worst, refusal to dock. And, in some instances this is becoming a reality

  4. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VERSUS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited number of variables such as household income, employment labour, consumption of goods and services, etc.. Perpetuation of this model has led, over time, to the company's inability to solve the problems facing mankind today and serious discrepancies regarding current levels of human development. This type of model does not take into account variables such as unemployment, poverty, education, health, environmental pollution, population migration, urban overcrowding, social inclusion etc. At the opposite side of this type of development, which proves to be beyond the crowd problems currently facing humanity, is a new alternative model, that of sustainable development, which provides an integrated view of all these variables and hence the chance of the human society to a new level of evolution. The sustainable development model of mankind put, among others, the zero growth issue or even sustained decrease for some countries. This model requires also reducing resource consumption and increase sustainability of assets created. It also offers practical solutions to many current problems of mankind, among which we can mention providing food for a growing world population and producing clean alternative energy.

  5. Optimal Weak-Lensing Skewness Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John

    2003-12-01

    Weak-lensing measurements are starting to provide statistical maps of the distribution of matter in the universe that are increasingly precise and complementary to cosmic microwave background maps. The most common measurement is the correlation in alignments of background galaxies, which can be used to infer the variance of the projected surface density of matter. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content and is analogous to using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. However, when the depth is shallow, as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5‧ optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding ΔΩm/Ωm~10%. This is significantly better than other filters that have been considered in the literature. This can be further improved with tomography and other sophisticated analyses.

  6. Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan

    2014-10-07

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

  7. Synchronizability of nonidentical weakly dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Letellier, Christophe

    2017-10-01

    Synchronization is a very generic process commonly observed in a large variety of dynamical systems which, however, has been rarely addressed in systems with low dissipation. Using the Rössler, the Lorenz 84, and the Sprott A systems as paradigmatic examples of strongly, weakly, and non-dissipative chaotic systems, respectively, we show that a parameter or frequency mismatch between two coupled such systems does not affect the synchronizability and the underlying structure of the joint attractor in the same way. By computing the Shannon entropy associated with the corresponding recurrence plots, we were able to characterize how two coupled nonidentical chaotic oscillators organize their dynamics in different dissipation regimes. While for strongly dissipative systems, the resulting dynamics exhibits a Shannon entropy value compatible with the one having an average parameter mismatch, for weak dissipation synchronization dynamics corresponds to a more complex behavior with higher values of the Shannon entropy. In comparison, conservative dynamics leads to a less rich picture, providing either similar chaotic dynamics or oversimplified periodic ones.

  8. Do weak global stresses synchronize earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendick, R.; Bilham, R.

    2017-08-01

    Insofar as slip in an earthquake is related to the strain accumulated near a fault since a previous earthquake, and this process repeats many times, the earthquake cycle approximates an autonomous oscillator. Its asymmetric slow accumulation of strain and rapid release is quite unlike the harmonic motion of a pendulum and need not be time predictable, but still resembles a class of repeating systems known as integrate-and-fire oscillators, whose behavior has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable ability to synchronize to either external or self-organized forcing. Given sufficient time and even very weak physical coupling, the phases of sets of such oscillators, with similar though not necessarily identical period, approach each other. Topological and time series analyses presented here demonstrate that earthquakes worldwide show evidence of such synchronization. Though numerous studies demonstrate that the composite temporal distribution of major earthquakes in the instrumental record is indistinguishable from random, the additional consideration of event renewal interval serves to identify earthquake groupings suggestive of synchronization that are absent in synthetic catalogs. We envisage the weak forces responsible for clustering originate from lithospheric strain induced by seismicity itself, by finite strains over teleseismic distances, or by other sources of lithospheric loading such as Earth's variable rotation. For example, quasi-periodic maxima in rotational deceleration are accompanied by increased global seismicity at multidecadal intervals.

  9. Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.

  10. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  11. Tourism in Timor Leste: contributions to a sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Vong, Manuel Florencio da Canossa

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to analyse tourism as a contributor to sustainable development, from a supply and demand perspective, in Timor-Leste, a destination not only “young” but also framed in an early stage of touristic development. From the supply side, studies 1 and 2 present a literature review on the concept of sustainable development, in small islands destinations, its weaknesses and vulnerabilities, and whose attractiveness lies in an integrated set of natural resources (attr...

  12. Determination of consumer awareness about sustainable fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricam, C.; Erdumlu, N.; Silan, A.; Dogan, B. L.; Sonmezcan, G.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of sustainability has begun to gain importance in fashion industry. The companies, which are acting in sustainable fashion, want to gain recognition, inform the consumer about their products and services and generate a demand from the consumers. But the awareness of the consumers about sustainability is still an unknown. In this study, the level of awareness of consumers about sustainable fashion was tried to be determined with a survey established in Turkey in which the socio-demographic characteristics and the awareness level of the participants were questioned. The result of the survey showed that the level of awareness among the participants is not so high and the perception of sustainability is mostly limited to some aspects of sustainable fashion such as “Usage of organic materials” and “Recycling”. Besides, the analysis of the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and awareness level of sustainable fashion showed that the awareness level increased with the education level and income to some extent. But specifically, the males and the participants aged between 24-29 have higher levels of awareness compared with the other participants.

  13. Lower Choline-Containing Metabolites/Creatine (Cr Rise and Failure to Sustain NAA/Cr Levels in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with Depressive Episode Recurrence under Maintenance Therapy: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Henigsberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS parameters at the start of the index episode recovery phase and at recurrence in patients with recurrent depression who were treated with prolonged maintenance therapy.Methods1H-MRS parameters were analyzed in 48 patients with recurrent depression who required maintenance therapy with antidepressant medication prescribed by a psychiatrist and who continued with the same antidepressant during the maintenance phase, either to recurrence of depression, completion of the 10-year observation period, or the start of the withdrawal phase (tapering-off antidepressant. N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline-containing metabolites (Cho, creatine (Cr, and glutamine/glutamate were measured at the start of the recovery phase and 6 months later.ResultsRecurrent depressive episodes occurred in 20 patients. These individuals had a smaller increase in Cho/Cr after the beginning of the recovery phase compared to the non-recurrent patient group and also exhibited a decreased NAA/Cr ratio.ConclusionSustainable NAA and increased Cho levels at the onset of the recovery phase of the index episode are early markers of antidepressant effectiveness associated with a lower risk of major depressive disorder recurrence. The NAA and Cho changes in the non-recurrent group may be attributable to increased brain resilience, contrary to the transient temporal effect observed in subjects who experienced a depressive episode.

  14. The Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development for Well-Being in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the psychology of sustainability and sustainable development to well-being in organizations from a primary prevention perspective. It deals with sustainability not only in terms of the ecological, economic, and social environment but also in terms of improving the quality of life of every human being. The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development is seen as a primary prevention perspective that can foster well-being in organizations at all the different levels going from the worker, to the group, to the organization, and also to inter-organizational processes. The possibilities for further research and interventions are also discussed.

  15. The Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development for Well-Being in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the psychology of sustainability and sustainable development to well-being in organizations from a primary prevention perspective. It deals with sustainability not only in terms of the ecological, economic, and social environment but also in terms of improving the quality of life of every human being. The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development is seen as a primary prevention perspective that can foster well-being in organizations at all the different levels going from the worker, to the group, to the organization, and also to inter-organizational processes. The possibilities for further research and interventions are also discussed. PMID:28974935

  16. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  17. Sustainable Entrepreneurial Orientation: A Business Strategic Approach for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Criado-Gomis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes sustainable entrepreneurial orientation (SEO as a multidimensional construct that offers researchers the possibility of empirically testing their theoretical proposals in the sustainable entrepreneurship field. The authors propose an integration of different theories. In accordance with the dynamic capabilities view, SEO is approached under an organizational paradigm of strategic orientations delimited by competitive culture and multiple orientation perspectives. Furthermore, SEO’s nature is conceived at a firm-based entrepreneurship level and is based on an integrated triple bottom line sustainability. This approach is conceptualized using a categorization scheme and defined in accordance with the organizational predisposition perspective. Several research lines are proposed, all based on relational models with SEO as the key concept.

  18. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.; Darnhofer, I.; Gibbon, D.; Dedieu, B.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run and focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and supported, taking into account renewal intitiatives at the farm level, organised projects, heterogeneous actors and differing interests. Sustainable

  19. Education for Sustainable Development: Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verbalising problems or organising token environmental actions. As sustainable development is taken up at political levels, the environment ..... consensus around an explicit integrating idea (e.g. sustainable development) and skilled teachers who enjoy ambiguity and can link the integrating idea to the knowledge base ...

  20. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  1. The quest for sustainability in existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Michaelsen, Lisbet; Jensen, Per Anker

    2014-01-01

    to sustainability at societal level. Due to lack of professional skills, decisions about operation and renovation of buildings are made every day in Denmark and beyond, without adequate knowledge about e.g. energy management and the potential ways of integrating sustainability (social, environmental and economic...

  2. Sustainability Reporting at Schools: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbach, Eva; Fischer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances made there is still an implementation gap with regard to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in formal educational systems at the school level. The present paper focuses on sustainability reporting as a recently emerging practice in the school sector. It presents the approach and findings of an exploratory interview study…

  3. Developing a Binational Geography Curriculum in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Araya, Fabian; Cortés, Ximena; Ullestad, Mollie

    2015-01-01

    In a world with an ever-increasing population, diminishing natural resources, and greater levels of consumption, sustainability has emerged as a critical concept and it encompasses everything from international policy to lifestyle changes to "green" technologies. While various aspects of sustainability have been adopted by schools and…

  4. Sustainable Marketing : The Importance of Being a Sustainable Business

    OpenAIRE

    Reutlinger, Janina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...

  5. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  6. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  7. Building a Sustainable Energy Future for Africa - Acting Now and Together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, L.

    2007-07-01

    The key energy challenges Africa is facing are: low level of access to commercial energy, low per capita energy consumption, weak development of energy infrastructure and lack of investment and financing for energy projects. Addressing these challenges is critical for sustainable economic and social development, and assured access to secure, affordable and reliable energy. In spite of these daunting challenges, Africa is well endowed in energy resources, but these resources are largely untapped and concentrated in a few countries. In addition, there are numerous 'rooms' for opportunities that could be seized concretely to overcome the main obstacles to the Sustainable Energy Development of the Continent. Thus, right actions must be taken to overcome these obstacles, including: financing the huge needed investments, technological development, private-public partnerships, energy market reform and effective regulation, sound and sustainable energy policies, and economic and social measures. Subsequently, from priority areas, the related stakeholders should 'act now' and 'act together', through effective collaboration and partnership and making proper alliances, to initiate effective and concrete actions to support Africa aspirations in order to build a Sustainable Energy Future for Africa, in a cost-effective and timely manner. (auth)

  8. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  9. Search for a new weakly interacting particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, D.; Deschizeaux, B.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Alemany, R.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mato, P.; Ll. M., Mir; Pacheco, A.; Catanesi, M. G.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Ruan, T.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bird, F.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Brown, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Dydak, F.; Forty, R. W.; Grab, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jost, B.; Kasemann, M.; Knobloch, J.; Lacourt, A.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Marchioro, A.; Martinez, M.; Menary, S.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miguel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Rotscheidt, H.; St. Denis, R.; Schlatter, D.; Takashima, M.; Talby, M.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wheeler, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Falvard, A.; El Fellous, R.; Gay, P.; Harvey, J.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nielsen, E. R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Bourotte, J.; Braems, F.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Guirlet, R.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Veitch, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Nicoletti, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Zografou, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Halley, A. W.; Ten Have, I.; Hearns, J. L.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Taylor, G.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Rowlingson, B. S.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Albanese, J.-P.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Courvoisier, D.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Qian, Z.; Becker, H.; Blum, W.; Cattaneo, P.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Jahn, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lange, E.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Pan, Y.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Stierlin, U.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Ganis, G.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Moneta, L.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Saich, M. R.; Strong, J. A.; Thomas, R. M.; West, L. R.; Wildish, T.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Klopfenstein, C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Vallage, B.; Ashman, J. G.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dinsdale, M.; Dogru, M.; Hatfield, F.; Martin, J.; Parker, D.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Brandt, S.; Burkhardt, H.; Grupen, C.; Meinhard, H.; Mirabito, L.; Neugebauer, E.; Schäfer, U.; Seywerd, H.; Apollinari, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Liello, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stiegler, U.; Bellantoni, L.; Boudreau, J. F.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Deweerd, A. J.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jacobsen, J. E.; Jared, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Leclaire, B. W.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Walsh, A. M.; Wear, J. A.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Sau, Lan, Wu; Zhou, Z. L.; Zobernig, G.

    1991-06-01

    A search for events of the type e+e--->l+l-X0, where X0 can be any weakly interacting particle which couples to the Z, has been performed with the ALEPH detector at LEP, by searching for acollinear lepton pairs. Such particles can be excluded up to a mass of 7.0 GeV/c2 for a value of the ratio of branching fractions, Br(Z-->X0l+l-)/Br(Z-->l+l-), greater than 2.5 × 10-3 if the X0 has third component of isospin, I3 greater than 1/2 and decays to a pair of virtual gauge bosons. When this analysis is combined with the previous results of the Higgs particle searches from ALEPH, this limit can be extended to an X0 mass of 60 GeV/c2.

  10. Simulating Error in Cluster Weak Lensing Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kellen J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an N-body simulation of the various sources of systematic error in constraining the dark energy equation of state via cluster weak lensing tomography. The use of tomographic techniques to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter is a pivotal component of future large survey missions, however, the application of tomography to cosmic shear necessitates the exclusion of regions around galaxy clusters from analysis. We therefore test the applicability tomography to cluster-induced shear as a secondary, complementary sample through which estimates of the dark energy e.o.s. parameter can be made. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of this technique to a test sample of 10 massive galaxy clusters imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  12. A Soberania Fraca / The Weak Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Matthes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Em Vadios: Dois Ensaios sobre a Razão, Derrida propõe que se entenda o conceito de soberania a partir de duas noções principais: incondicionalidade e indivisibilidade. O objetivo desse artigo é mostrar que o autor aborda esses dois pontos com o intuito de criar uma compreensão da soberania como uma força fraca e divisível no tempo. Palavras Chaves: Soberania, Jacques Derrida, Filosofia Francesa, Voyous, Política. Abstract In Rogues: Two Essays on Reason, Derrida argues that sovereignty is comprised of two main features: the unconditional and the indivisible. The aim of this article is to show that the author approaches these aspects in order to make a point about the concept of sovereignty. This point is precisely to think sovereignty as a weak force and as something divisible in time. Key Words: Sovereignty, Jacques Derrida, French Philosophy, Rogues, Politics.

  13. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  14. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  15. Livestock biodiversity and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence

  16. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  17. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them......Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...

  18. Intermediaries in sustainable urban transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    processes in sustainable urban management and the paper explores the development of communities of practise as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of involving citizens and how they contribute to the development of new actor configurations in urban social...... the development of new practises plays a part in multi level transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have performed innovative forms of involving citizens in sustainable urban development. The empirical material......The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate projects, which promote sustainable transi-tion in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local intermediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing associations; NGO...

  19. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  20. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…