Stremke, S.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.
In the near future the appearance and spatial organization of urban and rural landscapes will be strongly influenced by the generation of renewable energy. One of the critical tasks will be the re-integration of these sustainable energy landscapes into the existing environment—which people value and
Full Text Available Planning often yields only limited influence on policy making. This paper explores how planning could address this challenge and support most effectively transitions towards sustainable landscape change. In merging insights from sustainability science research and nine recently concluded case studies of landscape planning, the paper reflects upon the applicability of the concept of “transition support”, discusses planning approaches and their perceived effectiveness to induce change in landscape governance, and identifies lessons learned. The paper’s outcomes include insights and potentially useful approaches that can be attributed to four emerging cross-cutting themes: approaches for (i dealing with the high degree of complexity and uncertainty of landscape systems, (ii integrating the various perspectives of experts, decision makers, and stakeholders in the assessment process (transdisciplinarity, (iii enhancing policy influence, and (iv initiating and sustaining learning and adaptive governance.
Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of physical geography is to determine how natural phenomena produce specific territorial patterns. Therefore, physical geography offers substantial scientific input into territorial planning for sustainability. A key area where physical geography can contribute to land management is in the delimitation of landscape units. Such units are fundamental to formal socio-economic zoning and management in territorial planning. However, numerous methodologies—based on widely varying criteria—exist to delineate and map landscapes. We have selected five consolidated methodologies with current applications for mapping the landscape to analyse the different role of physical geography in each: (1 geomorphological landscape maps based on landforms; (2 geosystemic landscape maps; (3 Landscape Character Assessment; (4 landscape studies based on visual landscape units; (5 landscape image-pair test. We maintain that none of these methodologies are universally applicable, but that each contributes important insights into landscape analysis for land management within particular biogeophysical and social contexts. This work is intended to demonstrate that physical geography is ubiquitous in contemporary landscape studies intended to facilitate sustainable territorial planning, but that the role it plays varies substantially with the criteria prioritized.
The assessment of conditions contained in this report focuses on site-specific environmental and soil conditions that might affect recommendations related to sustainable landscaping and site design, stormwater management, and stormwater reuse.
Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the expected role of spatial and environmental planning in coordination and integration with strategic planning for sustainable spatial/territorial, landscape and tourism development. The application of an integrated approach to sustainable territorial development planning and management in the European Union is also analyzed in the context of problems associated with and possibilities to enhance the European Landscape Convention and Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism implementation. We have analyzed the contributions of reforms that have so far been implemented in current legislation and of planning bases to the establishment of coordinated sustainable territorial development planning and management in Serbia and to the procurement of support for the integration of sustainable tourism development and landscape planning and management into the process of spatial, environmental and sectoral planning. The approach to and problems of landscape protection and sustainable tourism development occurring in the practice in spatial planning are analyzed through examples of a new generation of spatial plans - the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia, and a spatial plan of the special-purpose area for the Nature Park and Tourism Region of Stara Planina Mountain. Through the example of Mt Stara Planina, the role of strategic environmental assessment in coordination with spatial and sectoral planning is analyzed, as well as potential contribution to landscape integration and sustainable tourism development in the process of planning. The possibilities for better coordination of Serbian strategic planning in achieving the sustainable spatial and tourism development, and possibilities to integrate landscapes into the planning process are indicated.
Nancy E. Fleenor
A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...
Full Text Available The dynamics of land-use transitions decrease the coastal resilience of the social-ecological landscape (SEL, particularly in light of the fact that it is necessary to analyze the causal relationship between the two systems because operations of the social system and the ecological system are correlated. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamics of the coastal SEL and create a sustainable land-use planning (SLUP strategy to enhance coastal resilience. The selected study site was Shindu-ri, South Korea, where land-use transitions are increasing and coastal resilience is therefore decreasing. Systems thinking was used to analyze the study, which was performed in four steps. First, the issues affecting the coastal area in Shindu-ri were defined as coastal landscape management, the agricultural structure, and the tourism industry structure. Second, the main variables for each issue were defined, and causal relationships between the main variables were created. Third, a holistic causal loop diagram was built based on both dynamic thinking and causal thinking. Fourth, five land-uses, including those of the coastal forest, the coastal grassland, the coastal dune, the agricultural area, and developed sites, were selected as leverage points for developing SLUP strategies to increase coastal resilience. The results show that “decrease in the size of the coastal forest”, “decrease in the size of the coastal dune”, and “increase in the size of the coastal grasslands” were considered parts of a land-use plan to enhance the resilience of the Shindu-ri SEL. This study developed integrated coastal land-use planning strategies that may provide effective solutions for complex and dynamic issues in the coastal SEL. Additionally, the results may be utilized as basic data to build and implement coastal land-use planning strategies.
Full Text Available The promotion of sustainable tourism models has been widely debated; many pages have been devoted to the attempt to provide the subject with a strong theoretical base and coherent structure. This said, it is still the case that, although such frameworks are crucial for the development of appropriate planning and policy instruments, their actual implementation continue to be fraught with difficulties. These problems are exacerbated when sustainable tourism entails development opportunities which require the support of the local community and the management of natural resources which are typically common goods. Under these circumstances, new management structures, which can both satisfy the needs of the local community and ensure the appropriate stewardship of the natural resources, must be created. Management solutions are not always easy to define and often need to be considered within a general framework, based on which individual cases are then formulated. This study analyses the connections between models of sustainable tourism and natural resource management considering the forest landscape case. This relationship is first examined from a theoretical perspective and then within a case study, in order to highlight the dual approach—both general and within a specific context.
Gardner, Leah [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Rogers, Sam [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Sipes, James L. [Sand County Studios
The goal of the ORNL Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020 is to provide a framework that guides future environmental resources and sustainable landscape practices on the ORNL campus. This document builds on the 2003 ORNL Conceptual Landscape Plan and is presented in the context of embracing new opportunities.
Groot, de R.S.
In order to reconcile landscape conservation with changing demands on land use and natural resources, it is essential that the ecological, socio-cultural and economic values of the landscape be fully taken into account in planning and decision-making. This paper presents a comprehensive framework
Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.
Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.
Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas
Full Text Available Using landscape objects with geo-visualisation tools to create 3D virtual environments is becoming one of the most prominent communication techniques to understand landscape form, function and processes. Geo-visualisation tools can also provide useful participatory planning support systems to explore current and future environmental issues such as biodiversity loss, crop failure, competing pressures on water availability and land degradation. These issues can be addressed by understanding them in the context of their locality. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies which facilitate our work on the issues of sustainability and productivity, and ultimately support for planning and decision-making. We demonstrate an online Landscape Object Library application with a suite of geo-visualisation tools to support landscape planning. This suite includes: a GIS based Landscape Constructor tool, a modified version of a 3D game engine SIEVE (Spatial Information Exploration and Visualisation Environment and an interactive touch table display. By integrating the Landscape Object Library with this suite of geo-visualisation tools, we believe we developed a tool that can support a diversity of landscape planning activities. This is illustrated by trial case studies in biolink design, whole farm planning and renewable energy planning. We conclude the paper with an evaluation of our Landscape Object Library and the suite of geographical tools, and outline some further research directions.
Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.
The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.
Huang, Lei-Chang; Ye, Shu-Hong; Gu, Xun; Cao, Fu-Cun; Fan, Zheng-Qiu; Wang, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Ya-Sheng; Wang, Shou-Bing
Landscape planning is clearly ecologically and socially relevant. Concern about sustainability between human and environment is now a driving paradigm for this professional. However, the explosion of the sustainable landscape in China is a very recent phenomenon. What is the sustainable landscape? How is this realized in practice? In this article, on the basis of the reviews of history and perplexities of Chinese landscape and nature analysis of sustainable landscape, the ecothinking model, an implemental tool for sustainable landscape, was developed, which applies ecothinking in vision, culture, conservation and development of site, and the process of public participation for a harmonious relationship between human and environment. And a case study of the south entrance of TongNiuling Scenic Area was carried out, in which the most optimum scenario was chosen from among three models according to the ecothinking model, to illustrate the construction of the ecothinking model and how to achieve a sustainable landscape.
Termorshuizen, J.W.; Opdam, P.F.M.
Landscape ecology is in a position to become the scientific basis for sustainable landscape development. When spatial planning policy is decentralised, local actors need to collaborate to decide on the changes that have to be made in the landscape to better accommodate their perceptions of value.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the contributions of an intensive educational workshop to advance students’ understanding and skills for collaborative, scenario-based landscape planning. The research design involves a case study workshop with thirty international students and several regional experts as well as a multi-stage, in-process evaluation. The workshop resulted in six different alternative futures for the region of Cagliari, Italy, and a seventh combined version that was considered best by regional reviewers. The students’ learning evaluation showed substantial advances in their relevant understanding and skills. Key aspects of the workshop pedagogy and the evaluation are discussed, and recommendations for future applications presented.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.
The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.
Brandt, Jesper; Antrop, Marc; Ramos, Isabel Loupa
related concepts. International cooperation demands a certain harmonization of these concepts for better mutual understanding. The 2000 European Landscape Convention provided an important momentum to rethink research, policy and management of landscapes from the perspective of sustainable development...... and participatory planning. Landscape ecology as a transdisciplinary science with a dynamic and holistic perspective on landscape offers a great potential for an integrative approach. The specificity of the European landscape research rests on its long history and on the great diversity of the landscapes......, the creation of a specific European Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE-Europe), in addition to the existing International Association (IALE) and its national chapters, became justified by the need to address the specific problems of landscapes in Europe and to stimulate cooperation between landscape...
NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.
Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.
. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution......, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. Hence devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns....
Sustainable development is a widely accepted strategic framework for decisionmaking about the future use of land, but it is not very well adopted in landscape research and planning. Sustainable landscape development aims to ensure the longterm potential of the landscape to sustain ecological,
Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.
Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian
Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the socialecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes......, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage...... Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape...
Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar
time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation...
Full Text Available The most important recent policy initiative concerning quality and diversity, as well as natural and cultural landscape's values within all Europe is European Landscape Convention. The Convention was adopted by Council of Europe's Community of Ministers on 20th October 2000., in Firenze, Italy. The main goal of the Convention is protection, planning and management of the landscape as important part of the quality of life for people living everywhere: in urban areas and in countryside, in degraded areas as well as in the areas with high quality and those recognized as being of outstanding beauty. Serbia has singed Convention on 21 of September 2007. Diversity and quality, the cultural and natural values linked to European landscapes are part of Europe's common heritage, and it is important to co-operate towards its protection, management and planning According to explored international experiences, landscape plan, with its known methodology, is recognized as the most suitable tool in the most Countries which have already implemented European Landscape Convention. As to situation in Serbia, landscape planning is not treated in adequate or appropriate way within system of spatial planning. On the basis of the recent European experiences regarding The European Landscape Convention, the paper will underline the inevitability of landscape planning integration into the spatial planning system at the national, regional and city level, in Serbia.
Full Text Available The heritage landscape of Burhanpur has an architectural and horticultural composition, consisting of many historic gardens, a unique water management system, a sustainable planning and design framework, the use of landscape and topography with numerous heritage components and historical monuments, temples, tombs and mosques that are locally, regionally and nationally significant. Conserving Burhanpur as an inspirational model for other sites is not only a cultural heritage objective, but it is also a crucial component of the heritage-based sustainable regeneration of the landscape, because it is directly linked to environmental integrity, economic efficiency and resources for present and future generations. Although the last decade has witnessed vigorous efforts by the municipal corporation to preserve and develop Burhanpur by designating it as one of the heritage cities of the UNESCO—Indian Heritage Cities Network (in 2006, a coherent, holistic and sustainable heritage outcome has not been achieved. This paper proposes to harness the cultural landscape as an approach for the sustainable regeneration of Burhanpur heritage and takes a holistic approach to the interpretation of the historic district and natural landscape of the city, where historic buildings are located.
No, No and No. Three times No is the answer to the question: is there currently such a thing as aesthetics in sustainable architecture? This answer is drawn from the discussions of three architects who are acclaimed practitioners and thinkers in the field. If we assume that aesthetics is something that all architects pursue in one form or another, it would appear that, currently, sustainability is not an integral part of it.
The concept of sustainable development in modern city landscape design advocates landscape architecture, which is the main development direction in the field of landscape design. They are also effective measures to promote the sustainable development of city garden. Based on this, combined with the connotation of sustainable development and sustainable design, this paper analyzes and discusses the design of urban landscape under the concept of sustainable development.
Oliver Agoncillo; Jennifer Conje; Susan Cordell; James Halperin; Roopa Karia; Beth. Lebow
As part of their development of a new Country Development Strategy, and with potential for incoming Sustainable Landscapes funding, USAID/Philippines commissioned the U.S. Forest Service to work with them on an assessment of efforts aimed at Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) in the Philippines, including the role of conservation,...
No, No and No. Three times No is the answer to the question: is there currently such a thing as aesthetics in sustainable architecture? This answer is drawn from the discussions of three architects who are acclaimed practitioners and thinkers in the field. If we assume that aesthetics is something
Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga
With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the
Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang
Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...
Full Text Available This paper reviews the 'Issues in Landscape Sustainability' subject/project that has been devised by Adelaide University's School of Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Urban Design. It has been successfully run in the townships of Strathalbyn (University of Adelaide 1997, Loxton (University of Adelaide 1998, Port Broughton (University of Adelaide 1999a, and Lobethal (University of Adelaide 2000. The subject/project was recently recognised by the Royal Australian Planning Institute (SA Group with a Student Project Award in their 1999 State Awards of Excellence: 'Issues in Landscape Sustainability' is a project that introduces tertiary students to concepts of urban design, community planning, and landscape design with economic implications, woven around the concept of sustainability as contained in the State Government's Agenda 21 Strategy (Anon 1999 p 19. Agenda 21 is about devising policy and practical ideas to address sustainability objectives in communities. This project has focused upon rural communities as a vehicle to involve community and municipal representatives actively, to expose students to both theory and practice, and to serve as an introduction to landscape design principles at a medium level.
Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar
Conceptual frameworks which have seen man and nature as being an integrated whole were widespread before they became suppressed by developments within both capitalism and socialism. Therefore an idealistic use of such concepts in scientific work has often had limited practical value. At the same...... time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation...... of accessibility and its related conflicts, and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability studies at an abstract conceptual level, but proves its relevance through...
Anifowose M. O. Atolagbe
Full Text Available The poor quality of the Nigerian urban environment has been attributed partly to the inadequate%2C misuse and mis- management of the urban open spaces. This%2C according to various researchers%2C has exerted a major strain on the physical outlook of the environment and a negative effect on the welfare and productivity of the residents. This has called for the need to identify and analyze the open spaces in the urban environment and assess the implications of their landscape planning on the status of the city and the development of a healthy and sustainable environment. This study therefore discusses the concept of sustainability%2C particularly within the built environment. It looks into the principles and indicators for sustainability of the environment and the resulting problems. Furthermore%2C a case study of Akure urban core was carried out to assess the uses and landscape status of the open spaces. The results when statistically analysed showed the inadequacies in the provision and management of the open spaces in the study area. It therefore recommends attainable policies for the effective sustainability of the environment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : urban environment%2C sustainability%2C landscaping.
David J. Brunckhorst
Full Text Available Ecological and social systems are complex and entwined. Complex social-ecological systems interact in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Their interactions can contribute both positive and negative consequences in terms of sustainability and the context in which they exist affecting future landscape change. Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social, and environmental change. Such regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments, and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. Science and policy for “sustainable” futures need to be integrated at the applied “on-ground” level where products and effects of system interactions are fully included, even if unobserved. Government agencies and funding bodies often consider such research as “high-risk.” This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a level of holistic integration through close engagement with landholders and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative and innovative on-ground experimental models. In retrospect, such projects have to some degree integrated through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis, and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and acceptable in business, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.
The transversal and interdisciplinary quality of landscape makes it an essential and useful element in regional and local planning. On the other hand, Green Infrastructures provide an exceptional tool to put in relation different planning scales and offer new possibilities and functions for the design and management of open spaces. The Strategic Plan for the Calderona Mountain Range (Valencia province, Spain) shows how these two concepts: Landscape and Green Infrastructure can work hand in...
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten
Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...
Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper
, South East Asia and South America and the urban sprawl around our megacities are examples of this global tendency. The segregation trend has had a long history in Europe and has traditionally been balanced by the establishment of nature protection zones, designed to conserve valuable landscape resources...... of production activities. These landscapes integrate nature protection, agriculture, settlement and recreation in complex structures of management. They could serve as an example for future sustainable landscape planning at a larger scale, supported by regional regulation. The European Landscape Convention (ELC...
Norman Honie, Jr.; Margie Schaff; Mark Hannifan
The Hopi Tribal Government as part of an initiative to ?Regulate the delivery of energy and energy services to the Hopi Reservation and to create a strategic business plan for tribal provision of appropriate utility, both in a manner that improves the reliability and cost efficiency of such services,? established the Hopi Clean Air Partnership Project (HCAPP) to support the Tribe?s economic development goals, which is sensitive to the needs and ways of the Hopi people. The Department of Energy (DOE) funded, Formation of Hopi Sustainable Energy Program results are included in the Clean Air Partnership Report. One of the Hopi Tribe?s primary strategies to improving the reliability and cost efficiency of energy services on the Reservation and to creating alternative (to coal) economic development opportunities is to form and begin implementation of the Hopi Sustainable Energy Program. The Hopi Tribe through the implementation of this grant identified various economic opportunities available from renewable energy resources. However, in order to take advantage of those opportunities, capacity building of tribal staff is essential in order for the Tribe to develop and manage its renewable energy resources. As Arizona public utilities such as APS?s renewable energy portfolio increases the demand for renewable power will increase. The Hopi Tribe would be in a good position to provide a percentage of the power through wind energy. It is equally important that the Hopi Tribe begin a dialogue with APS and NTUA to purchase the 69Kv transmission on Hopi and begin looking into financing options to purchase the line.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The landscape plan is a general description of refuge lands and provides a broad description of cover types and their locations. The identification of these...
Full Text Available Plant elements in landscape as well as all living beings have been affected from the global warming and drought in the last decade. With consideration the sustainable landscaping approach in order to reduce the negative effects of drought in planning and landscape, xeriscape approach has brought in issues of water use management. This study was conducted to determine the sustainability of grass and refuge plant for xeriscape around the road axis in the campus of Karadeniz Technical University and has led to some noticeably proposals solutions. According to the results achieved, 10 plant species from 53 species were determined with low water request, 13 of them dedicated a middle amount of water demand, and finally 4 of them requested high amount of water. Although water request of plants found in the area is low, natural species which are more effective for the xeriscape approach were not used in the site. In spite of some factors such as type of grass mixture used, capacity of water saving, and being strong to drought as well as dense surface which are important in xeriscape planning approaches , this study emphasizes that it is more appropriate to use natural ground cover in the xeriscape approaches.
Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental sustainability, in terms of intrinsic vulnerability and thermodynamics laws concepts, applied to urban green infrastructures. This approach gives also the track to build more resilient and complex landscapes. Integrating intrinsic vulnerability and thermodynamics laws concepts, an effective strategy could be conceived to face best management practices in planning more sustainable and healthy cities.
Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.
Spencer, Charles G
The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 Energy Management and Sustainability and Stewardship programs support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy effi ciency and sustainability and to achievement of the Guiding Principles. Specifi cally, the Y-12 vision is to support the Environment, Safety and Health Policy and the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, while promoting overall sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The mission of the Y-12 Energy Management program is to incorporate energy-effi cient technologies site-wide and to position Y-12 to meet NNSA energy requirement needs through 2025 and beyond. The plan addresses greenhouse gases, buildings, fleet management, water use, pollution prevention, waste reduction, sustainable acquisition, electronic stewardship and data centers, site innovation and government-wide support.
Bell, S. and Brinkhuijsen. M. (eds, 2013) Sustainable tourism. In: Stiles, R. et al (2103) Antalya’s landscape. LE:NOTRE Landscape Forum 2012. LE:NOTRE Landscape Monographs ISBN 978-90-820558-0-1 p.145-181.
In October 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514 that sets sustainability : goals for Federal agencies and focuses on making improvements in environmental, energy and : economic performance. The Executive Order requires Federal agen...
Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to renewable energy sources are among the emerging fields of activity in landscape architecture. If landscape architects recognize the need for sustainable development on the basis of renewable energy sources, then how can we contribute to sustainable and
Full Text Available Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape, by considering various stakeholder perspectives. It is now recognized that strong community engagement with the landscape should be translated into conservation and management practices. This paper aims to examine the recent conservation activities around endangered traditional rural landscapes in Korea through a case study of Gacheon village. In this village, since 2000, a series of central administrative measures have been implemented to revive the local community, and to conserve its distinctive landscape. By analyzing challenges to the site, by discussing conservation experience and lessons, and by recommending future strategies for sustaining its cultural landscapes, this paper is expected to provide a basis for future policy-making for safeguarding traditional rural landscapes.
Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.
Full Text Available Historic land use practices have dramatically altered landscapes across all scales, homogenising them and restricting opportunities for humans and wildlife. The need for multifunctional landscapes which simultaneously provide food security...
activities through centrally-directed policies and procedures to reduce business travel and increase workplace flexibility through telework , alternative...schedule and telework opportunities. Goal 2: Sustainable Buildings Integration USACE views Sustainable Buildings as an inherently integrated goal...down. USACE plans to execute a Commuter Survey in FY2014. Increase number of employees eligible for telework and/or the total number of days
Sherry, T D; Kohlhorst, D P; Little, S K
The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 Energy Management and Sustainability and Stewardship programs support the DOE and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy efficiency and sustainability and to achievement of the Guiding Principles. Specifically, the Y-12 vision is to support the Environment, Safety and Health Policy and the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) while promoting overall sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Table ES.2 gives a comprehensive overview of Y-12's performance status and planned actions. B&W Y-12's Energy Management mission is to incorporate renewable energy and energy efficient technologies site-wide and to position Y-12 to meet NNSA energy requirement needs through 2025 and beyond. During FY 2011, the site formed a sustainability team (Fig. ES.1). The sustainability team provides a coordinated approach to meeting the various sustainability requirements and serves as a forum for increased communication and consistent implementation of sustainability activities at Y-12. The sustainability team serves as an information exchange mechanism to promote general awareness of sustainability information, while providing a system to document progress and to identify resources. These resources are necessary to implement activities that support the overall goals of sustainability, including reducing the use of resources and conserving energy. Additionally, the team's objectives include: (1) Foster a Y-12-wide philosophy to conserve resources; (2) Reduce the impacts of production operations in a cost-effective manner; (3) Increase materials recycling; (4) Use a minimum amount of energy and fuel; (5) Create a minimum of waste and pollution in achieving Y-12-strategic objectives; (6) Develop and implement techniques, technologies, process modifications, and programs that support sustainable acquisition; (7) Minimize the
Erhart, Steven C. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Spencer, Charles G. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 Energy Management and Sustainability and Stewardship programs support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy effi ciency and sustainability and to achievement of the Guiding Principles. Specifi cally, the Y-12 vision is to support the Environment, Safety and Health Policy and the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP), while promoting overall sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The mission of the Y-12 Energy Management program is to incorporate energy-efficient technologies site-wide and to position Y-12 to meet NNSA energy requirement needs through 2025 and beyond. This plan addresses: Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Inventory; Buildings, ESPC Initiative Schedule, and Regional and Local Planning; Fleet Management; Water Use Efficiency and Management; Pollution Prevention and Waste Reduction; Sustainable Acquisition; Electronic Stewardship and Data Centers; Renewable Energy; Climate Change; and Budget and Funding.
During the last 10 years the collective goals connected with the agenda of sustainable development has been challenged by the globalisation agenda furthering a global liberalised market with the individual producer and consumer in focus. Only in the local planning and management of the concrete...... the perspectives of a globalisation vs. sustainability agenda, focusing on the support for different geographical competences for landscape change devoted to different population groups in the rural community. It is concluded that support for a local sustainable landscape development is depending heavily...... of a liberalized globalisation....
Wang, Wei; Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Hongwei
With the application of the principles of landscape ecology and the techniques of geographic information systems, the landscape of Jiaozuo city was divided into six types, i. e., farmland, garden plot, woodland, residential and industrial area, waters, and others. The landscape diversity, dominance, fragmentation, and isolation indexes were calculated by models and GIS to analyze the spatial patterns of these landscape types. Based on the optimization of landscape spatial patterns, a pattern for developing a rational and natural ecosystem in Jiaozuo city was proposed, i. e., keeping four or five large natural patches, planning small artificial green patches, linking the large and small patches by various corridors to ensure the ecosystem inside the city to circulate well, combining residential areas properly to form a urban troop with Jiaozuo town as the center and with seven surrounding towns joined through highways to form a network city pattern. After doing these, urban built-up areas could be linked each other, and inlayed in a natural ecological matrix. This pattern could strengthen the ecological connection, raise the stability of the ecosystem, and maintain the balance of urban ecological system.
Dahlan, M. Z.; Nurhayati, H. S. A.; Mugnisjah, W. Q.
This study was an explorative study of the various forms of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Sundanese people in the context of sustainable agriculture. The qualitative method was used to identify SundaParahiyangan landscape by using Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal throughsemi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field survey. The Landscape Characteristic Assessment and Community Sustainability Assessment were used to analyze the characteristic of landscape to achieve the sustainable agricultural landscape criteria proposed by US Department of Agriculture. The results revealed that the SundaParahiyangan agricultural landscape has a unique characteristic as a result of the long-term adaptation of agricultural society to theirlandscape through a learning process for generations. In general, this character was reflected in the typical of Sundanese’s agroecosystems such as forest garden, mixed garden, paddy field, and home garden. In addition, concept of kabuyutan is one of the TEKs related to understanding and utilization of landscape has been adapted on revitalizing the role of landscape surrounding the agroecosystem as the buffer zone by calculating and designating protected areas. To support the sustainability of production area, integrated practices of agroforestry with low-external-input and sustainable agriculture (LEISA) system can be applied in utilizing and managing agricultural resources.
Soil compaction can severely limit the success of vegetation establishment. Current grading and landscaping : practices commonly produce compacted soils of varied textures and profiles within SHA medians and roadsides, : resulting in limited capacity...
Catalina VIEIRA MEJÍA
Full Text Available A variety of similarities between green infrastructure and the German landscape planning can be found in comparing the approaches of the two planning instruments. Principles of green infrastructure such as multifunctionality, the multi-scale approach and connectivity show correspondences with landscape planning elements. However, some differences are apparent. The objective of this paper is to determine whether the main aims of these two frameworks overlap. It also seeks to deduce what benefits from ecosystem services could be provided by integrating the green infrastructure approach into the German landscape planning system. The results show that the green infrastructure concept is not well-known in German planning practice, although its principles are generally implemented through traditional landscape planning. Nevertheless, green infrastructure could act as a supplementary approach to current landscape planning practices by improving public acceptance and strengthening the social focus of the current landscape planning system.
Full Text Available Advantages of urbanization such as access to clean water, health, and overall easier life in cities, as well as the disadvantages or its negative effects on environment cannot be ignored. Today, there are numerous environmental problems due to the reduction in ecologically valuable places within urban areas. Bringing nature to the cities appears to be essential to enhance urban environment and to reduce environmental problems in urban communities. In fact, issues resulting from the idea of "sustainability" as a policy-making goal require an integrated environmental policy-making approach. The innovations of new environmental policy-making require policy-making mechanisms that can deal with interdependent characteristics of environmental problems. To this end, new structures have emerged known as Environmental Planning and Management and Strategic Environmental planning and management. This analytical – descriptive article aims to re-examine the origins and concepts related to environmental planning using a field and desk study. With the introduction of urban natural landscape, Environmental planning considers such spaces within the city. In this regard, Khoshk River, Shiraz, Iran, as an urban natural landscape, was analyzed. Environmental planning-based polices were proposed to improve quality of the place under discussion.
Zhang, Jianjun; Fu, Meichen; Hassani, Ferri P; Zeng, Hui; Geng, Yuhuan; Bai, Zhongke
Landscape planning and restoration in mine closure areas is not only an inevitable choice to sustain mining areas but also an important path to maximize landscape resources and to improve ecological function in mine closure areas. The analysis of the present mine development shows that many mines are unavoidably facing closures in China. This paper analyzes the periodic impact of mining activities on landscapes and then proposes planning concepts and principles. According to the landscape characteristics in mine closure areas, this paper classifies available landscape resources in mine closure areas into the landscape for restoration, for limited restoration and for protection, and then summarizes directions for their uses. This paper establishes the framework of spatial control planning and design of landscape elements from "macro control, medium allocation and micro optimization" for the purpose of managing and using this kind of special landscape resources. Finally, this paper applies the theories and methods to a case study in Wu'an from two aspects: the construction of a sustainable land-use pattern on a large scale and the optimized allocation of typical mine landscape resources on a small scale.
Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G.; Antrop, M.
This chapter introduces the contents of the book through an analysis of current trends in landscape research and landscape planning and a discussion of the consequences of these trends for PhD students.
Resource depletion and climate change motivate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make effective use of renewable sources. Sustainable energy transition necessitates a transformation of large parts of the existing built environment and presents one of the great challenges of present-day
Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this "resource landscape" in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.
Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen
Currently efforts are made in many countries to develop transport planning in a more sustainable direction. In the international research project SUSTAIN national sustainable transport planning is developed in a research programme over four years from 2012 to 206. One of the important indicators...
Markon, Carl; Schroff, Eric
The Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (NWB LCC) is a voluntary, diverse, self-directed management-science partnership, informing and promoting integrated science, sustainable natural and cultural resource management, and conservation to address impacts of climate change and other stressors within and across ecosystems. The NWB LCC area includes parts of Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. Our partnership reflects both the broad geographic scope and an extensive array of active and engaged participants including resource management organizations, government representatives, policy makers, Tribes and First Nations, industry leaders, researchers, non-governmental organizations, and research/education institutions. Bringing together diverse partners will help assure the northwest boreal is a functioning, sustainable landscape. We live in an era of profound conservation challenges, including the loss and fragmentation of habitats, genetic isolation, invasive species, and unnatural wildfire. The effects of rapidly changing climate are already evident on the landscape. In these circumstances, it is imperative that natural resource management agencies, science providers, Tribes, First Nations, conservation organizations, and other stakeholders work together to understand the drivers and impacts of landscape change and to determine how best to address those challenges. Further, it is essential that the public and communities receive clear communication about the vision and activities of the NWB LCC. Open public access to NWB LCC activities and products will promote acceptance and support of the science that guides potential changes in management action and conservation strategy. This strategic plan provides a great opportunity for the NWB LCC to share our approach and intentions to the LCC members, collaborators, communities, and the public at large.
Thakrar, Sonali V; Bell, Diane
Each local health economy has been tasked with producing a sustainability and transformation plan. A health economy is a system that controls and contributes to health-care resource and the effects of health services on its population. This includes commissioners, acute providers, primary care providers, community services, public health and the voluntary sector. Sustainability and transformation plans represent a shift in the way health care is planned for in England. The aim of each sustainability and transformation plan is to deliver care within existing resource limits by improving quality of care, developing new models of care and improving efficiency of care provision. The tight timescales for production of sustainability and transformation plans mean that in most cases there has been limited clinical engagement; as a result many clinicians have limited sight, understanding or ownership of the proposals within sustainability and transformation plans. As sustainability and transformation plans move into the implementation phase, this article explores the role of the clinician in the ongoing design and delivery of the local sustainability and transformation plans. By finding the common ground between the perspectives of the clinician, the commissioner and system leaders, the motivation of clinicians can be aligned with the ambitions of the sustainability and transformation plan. The common goal of a sustainability and transformation plan and the necessary collaboration required to make it successful is discussed. Ultimately, such translation is essential: clinicians are intelligent, adaptive and motivated individuals who must have a lead role in constructing and implementing plans that transform health and social care.
As the aging problem becoming serious in China, Aging care is now one of the top issuer in front of all of us. Lots of private and public aging care architecture and facilities have been built. At present, we only pay attention to the architecture design and interior design scientific, ecological and sustainable design on aged care architecture landscape. Based on the social economy, population resources, mutual coordination and development of the environment, taking the elderly as the special group, this paper follows the principles of the sustainable development, conducts the comprehensive design planning of aged care landscape architecture and makes a deeper understanding and exploration through changing the form of architectural space, ecological landscape planting, new materials and technology, ecological energy utilization.
Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.
Current concepts that aim to align economic development with sustainability, such as the circular and green economy, often consider natural systems as externalities. We extend the green economy concept by including the landscape as the provider of social, economic and environmental values. Our aim
Egmose, Jonas; Andersen, John
This paper elaborates how action research can make methodological contributions to sustainability planning by strengthening civic orientations across citizens’ everyday life and institutionalised contexts. Taking into account an emerging number of civic sustainability initiatives, the paper...... addresses how sustainability planning can more actively integrate civic aspirations as part of broader societal transformations towards sustainability. Conceptualised by the notion of sustaining sustain-abilities the role of planning implies strengthening possibilities for ecological and social life...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence. Analysing learning experiences from a three year action research project taking place in Northern London 2007-9 the paper exemplifies how synergies between action research methodologies and sustainability planning can help strengthening...
Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives......Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives...
Full Text Available The interpretation of the concept of cultural landscape, as well as the interpretation of the general concept of landscape, depends on the context in which the process takes place. As an antithesis to natural landscape, and as notion of spatial and temporal interaction of man and nature, the cultural landscape is conceptualized in terms of scientific approach. The experiences prove that the traditional dichotomy in defining the landscape value (natural vs. cultural, as well as the aspect of its protection, evolving into a holistic approach, which is promoted in European Landscape Convention, at the beginning of XXI century. In the modern theory and practice of spatial planning and nature protection, the concept of cultural landscape appears as a holistic, multidimensional and multifunctional entity, which, in times of globalization, should be preserved and developed in accordance with its regional and local identity (character. The question is: what kind of methodological approach should be applied in determining the landscape value in the spatial planning and nature conservation? The aim of the research is to explain the evolution of landscape approach form reductionism to holistic problem-oriented transdisciplinary research that allows appropriate evaluation of the cultural landscape potential and its application in the spatial planning concept. At the same time, the aim is to explain the conceptualization of the cultural landscape in terms of the institutional protection of natural and cultural heritage and spatial planning in Serbia. The purpose of this paper is to point to legal instruments of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia which defining the obligations of determining the landscape character in the planning concept in spatial and urban plans, as well as the re-evaluation of existing values of cultural landscapes. The subject of the paper is theoretical concept of cultural landscape and the character of the cultural landscape Tr
Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.
Ingram, V.J.; Hospes, O.
During the last two decades, multinational business and international NGOs from the North have initiated global roundtables, standards and certification programs to promote sustainable cropping in the South. In recent years, new programs and projects have emerged to promote sustainable landscapes,
Paul H. Gobster
This issue completes the 100th volume of Landscape and Urban Planning, a benchmark that spans 37 years of publication during which more than 2500 research papers, review articles, and editorials have appeared in the journal and its predecessors, Landscape Planning and Urban Ecology. In commemoration of this achievement we have prepared this Special Issue, inviting...
Henckel, Laura; Börger, Luca; Meiss, Helmut; Gaba, Sabrina; Bretagnolle, Vincent
Agro-ecosystems constitute essential habitat for many organisms. Agricultural intensification, however, has caused a strong decline of farmland biodiversity. Organic farming (OF) is often presented as a more biodiversity-friendly practice, but the generality of the beneficial effects of OF is debated as the effects appear often species- and context-dependent, and current research has highlighted the need to quantify the relative effects of local- and landscape-scale management on farmland biodiversity. Yet very few studies have investigated the landscape-level effects of OF; that is to say, how the biodiversity of a field is affected by the presence or density of organically farmed fields in the surrounding landscape. We addressed this issue using the metacommunity framework, with weed species richness in winter wheat within an intensively farmed landscape in France as model system. Controlling for the effects of local and landscape structure, we showed that OF leads to higher local weed diversity and that the presence of OF in the landscape is associated with higher local weed biodiversity also for conventionally farmed fields, and may reach a similar biodiversity level to organic fields in field margins. Based on these results, we derive indications for improving the sustainable management of farming systems. PMID:25994672
Henckel, Laura; Börger, Luca; Meiss, Helmut; Gaba, Sabrina; Bretagnolle, Vincent
Agro-ecosystems constitute essential habitat for many organisms. Agricultural intensification, however, has caused a strong decline of farmland biodiversity. Organic farming (OF) is often presented as a more biodiversity-friendly practice, but the generality of the beneficial effects of OF is debated as the effects appear often species- and context-dependent, and current research has highlighted the need to quantify the relative effects of local- and landscape-scale management on farmland biodiversity. Yet very few studies have investigated the landscape-level effects of OF; that is to say, how the biodiversity of a field is affected by the presence or density of organically farmed fields in the surrounding landscape. We addressed this issue using the metacommunity framework, with weed species richness in winter wheat within an intensively farmed landscape in France as model system. Controlling for the effects of local and landscape structure, we showed that OF leads to higher local weed diversity and that the presence of OF in the landscape is associated with higher local weed biodiversity also for conventionally farmed fields, and may reach a similar biodiversity level to organic fields in field margins. Based on these results, we derive indications for improving the sustainable management of farming systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Metropolitan landscapes are facing the challenge to find a balance between urban development on the one hand and the preservation of farmland and natural resources on the other. Conventional land use planning approaches are often not up to this complex challenge and many regions are in need for
Sustainable Development Commission
This guidance builds upon the Sustainable Development Commission’s previous guidance, Getting Started (August 2005), which set out the basic elements that the Sustainable Development Commission would expect to see in a good Sustainable Development Action Plan. Publisher PDF Original published August 2005.
Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Sperling, Karl
Rising energy costs, anthropogenic climate change, and fossil fuel depletion calls for a concerted effort within energy planning to ensure a sustainable energy future. This article presents an overview of global energy trends focusing on energy costs, energy use and carbon dioxide emissions....... Secondly, a review of contemporary work is presented focusing on national energy pathways with cases from Ireland, Denmark and Jordan, spatial issues within sustainable energy planning and policy means to advance a sustainable energy future....
Carlos J. Pardo Abad
Full Text Available Old mining and industrial areas, many of them already abandoned after prolonged extractive and productive activity, often put up good experiences associated with recovery heritage and landscapes. Initially promoted by public administrations, particularly municipal bodies, with the active participation of private companies and the local community, nowadays these projects are an extraordinary reference for valuing a peculiar legacy that offers extensive possibilities for reuse under the indispensable perspective of sustainable development.
Tress, B.; Tress, G.; Fry, G.; Opdam, P.F.M.
Research policy favours projects that integrate disciplinary knowledge and involve non-academic stakeholders. Consequently, integrative concepts - interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity - are gaining currency in landscape research and planning. Researchers are excited by the prospect of merging
Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue
Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357
"The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Sustainable Communities Regional Planning (SCRP) Grant Program supports locally-led collaborative efforts that bring together diverse interests from the many...
Viljoen, A.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.
Half the world’s population is now urbanised and cities are assuming a larger role in debates about the security and sustainability of the global food system. Hence, planning for sustainable food production and consumption is becoming an increasingly important issue for planners, policymakers,
PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development - is a part of the Baltic Sea Region's INTERREG II C program. The current report describes some theories, methods and tools developed under the PSSD project. First, the theoretical foundation of the project is described. Secondly, the role...... of indicators in sustainable development is discussed and a Web-based indicator generator is described. Thirdly, we describe a number of methods and tools, which support planning for sustainable development. Finally, some technical interface tools - especially a Web-based interface to the methods and tools...
Full Text Available The present chaotic transformation from the industrial to the global information society is accelerating the ecological, social and economic unsustainability. The rapidly growing unsustainable, fossil energy powered urbanindustrial technosphere and their detrimental impacts on nature and human well-being are threatening the solar energy powered natural and seminatural biosphere landscapes and their vital ecosystem services. A sustainability revolution is therefore urgently needed, requiring a shift from the „fossil age“ to the „solar age“ of a new world economy, coupled with more sustainable lifestyles and consumption patterns. The sustainable future of viable multifunctional biosphere landscapes of the Mediterranean Region and elsewhere and their biological and cultural richness can only be ensured by a post-industrial symbiosis between nature and human society. For this purpose a mindset shift of scientists and professionals from narrow disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity is necessary, dealing with holistic land use planning and management, in close cooperation with land users and stakeholders. To conserve and restore the rapidly vanishing and degrading Mediterranean uplands and highest biological ecological and cultural landscape ecodiversity, their dynamic homeorhetic flow equilibrium, has to be maintained by continuing or simulating all anthropogenic processes of grazing, browsing by wild and domesticated ungulates. Catastrophic wildfires can be prevented only by active fire and fuel management, converting highly inflammable pine forests and dense shrub thickets into floristically enriched, multi- layered open woodlands and recreation forests.
Williams, Ann T.
The Federal Government is committed to following sustainable principles. At its heart, sustainability integrates environmental, societal and economic solutions for present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Building upon its pledge towards environmental stewardship, the Administration generated a vision of sustainability spanning ten goals mandated within Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade. In November 2015, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) responded to this EO by incorporating it into a new release of the NASA Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP). The SSPP recognizes the importance of aligning environmental practices in a manner that preserves, enhances and strengthens NASA's ability to perform its mission indefinitely. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is following suit with KSC's Sustainability Plan (SP) by promoting, maintaining and pioneering green practices in all aspects of our mission. KSC's SP recognizes that the best sustainable solutions use an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach spanning civil servant and contractor personnel from across the Center. This approach relies on the participation of all employees to develop and implement sustainability endeavors connected with the following ten goals: Reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Design, build and maintain sustainable buildings, facilities and infrastructure. Leverage clean and renewable energy. Increase water conservation. Improve fleet and vehicle efficiency and management. Purchase sustainable products and services. Minimize waste and prevent pollution. Implement performance contracts for Federal buildings. Manage electronic equipment and data centers responsibly. Pursue climate change resilience. The KSC SP details the strategies and actions that address the following objectives: Reduce Center costs. center dot Increase energy and water efficiencies. Promote smart
Full Text Available There are rather limited opportunities for using the results of landscape ecology in practical nature conservation. The reasonS for this are – at least partly – the different scales and frames of the two fields. For more effective cooperation there is an opportunity for landscape ecology to determine patch-gradients that are helpful for nature protection in expanding the living space of endangered species via CORINE land use-pattern in mixed use agricultural areas. Such alternative migration tracks become valuable in places, where landscape ecological corridors and stepping stone places are missing. The method applies the gradient concept of landscape structure of McGarigal and Cushman (2005. Determination of patch-gradients can be a good background material for settlement- and infrastructure planning; and for the elaboration of medium- and long term nature protection concepts or for even general landscape protection strategies as well.
Paul F. Hessburg
Full Text Available Land managers in the western US are beginning to understand that early 20th century forests displayed complex patterns of composition and structure at several different spatial scales, that there was interplay between patterns and processes within and across scales, and that these conditions have been radically altered by management. Further, they know that restoring integrity (see Definition of Terms of these conditions has broad implications for the future sustainability (see Definition of Terms of native species, ecosystem services, and ecological processes. Many are looking for methods to restore (see Definition of Terms more natural landscape patterns of habitats and more naturally functioning disturbance regimes; all in the context of a warming climate. Attention is turning to evaluating whole landscapes at local and regional scales, deciphering recent changes in trajectories, and formulating landscape prescriptions that can restore ecological functionality and improve landscape resilience (see Definition of Terms. The business of landscape evaluation and developing landscape prescriptions is inherently complex, but with the advent of decision support systems, software applications are now available to conduct and document these evaluations. Here, we review several published landscape evaluation and planning applications designed with the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS software, and present an evaluation we developed in support of a landscape restoration project. We discuss the goals and design of the project, its methods and utilities, what worked well, what could be improved and related research opportunities. For readability and compactness, fine and broad-scale landscape evaluations that could be a part of multi-scale restoration planning, are not further developed here.
Dikou, Angela; Papapanagiotou, Evangelos; Troumbis, Andreas
We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning.
Simson, A. J.
The World is continuing to urbanise at an increasing and some say alarming rate, and although urbanism is not uniform in all countries, without a doubt the 21st century is the century of the Polycentric City Region. By the year 2007, for the first time in history, the world hosted more urban dwellers than rural, and in order to deal with this urban expansion in an environmentally acceptable way, the concept of the “sustainable compact city” was advocated. There is now an increasing canon of research however that suggests that such cities may not be quite as sustainable as they are claimed to be. As a consequence, the concept of “urban green infrastructure”, which includes the concept of urban forestry, is being incorporated into new thinking on the landscape structure planning of expanding cities and city regions to ensure that they provide an acceptable quality of life for their inhabitants. The environmental, economic, social, health, well-being and cultural benefits that emanate from such an approach to promoting resilient landscape structure planning are considerable. Such an approach to landscape structure planning is well-able to repair the beneficial relationship that people once had with their landscapes, a relationship that has arguably suffered as our scientific and economic cultures have tended to gain the upper hand in the post-industrial times in which we live. Human beings have had a long, deep, cultural relationship with trees, woodlands and the landscape - a relationship which transcends national cultures. The use of the term “landscape” does not refer to the rather shallow modern concept of ‘the landscape as a view”, but to the more fundamental concept of “landscape as the composition of our world”. Thus it refers to both urban, peri-urban and rural areas, and the urban forest is the prime spatial articulator of a landscape structure plan. Although the words “forest” and “forestry” are now generally understood to be
Witt, Monica Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Los Alamos National Laboratory is taking action to operate as a living laboratory for sustainable solutions in buildings, climate, energy, purchasing, transportation, waste, and water. LANL prepared the fiscal year (FY) 2015 Site Sustainability Plan (SSP) to describe progress towards the goals established in the SSPP. In addition, per the requirements of DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses its International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001:2004 certified Environmental Management System (EMS) to establish objectives to improve compliance, reduce environmental impacts, increase operational capacity, and meet long-term sustainability goals. The goals of the 2015 SSP are fully integrated into LANL’s institutional environmental objectives under the EMS and its Long-Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship & Sustainability (LTSESS).
Full Text Available Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.
Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can
Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.
Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can
Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848
Full Text Available The application of landscape ecology in conservation biology has rarely occurred in the context of defined landscapes. Conservation planning has focussed on representation of species diversity patterns and assumed that ecosystems, landscapes...
Sustainability and social benefits of the planning of green areas and landscape planning versus their curteilment. Lifestyles as a challenge to, and an opportunity for, economy; Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Umwelt. Bd. 7. Nachhaltigkeit und gesellschaftlicher Nutzen von Gruenordnungsplanung und Landschaftsplanung kontra Reduktion. - Lebensstile als Herausforderung und Chance fuer die Wirtschaft
The book contains the lecture series given within the framework of the 7th Economy Forum ``Economy, science and environment``, organized jointly by the Zentralstelle fuer Forschungs- und Entwicklungstransfer und Wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung (FET and WW) of Essen University and the chamber of industry and trade for Essen, Muelheim/Ruhr and Oberhausen in Essen. The lectures were delivered at the following events at the Essen University: `Sustainability and social benefits of the planning of green areas and landscapes versus their curtailment` (5 June 1997); and `Lifestyles as a challenge to and an opportunity for economy` (13 November 1997). (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht gibt die Vortraege der Veranstaltungsreihe Wirtschaftsforum VII `Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Umwelt` wieder, veranstaltet von der FET and WW Zentralstelle fuer Forschungs- und Entwicklungstransfer und Wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung der Universitaet-GH Essen in Zusammenarbeit mit der Industrie- und Handelskammer fuer Essen, Muelheim an der Ruhr, Oberhausen zu Essen. Die Vortraege sind auf folgenden Veranstaltungen an der Universitaet-GH Essen gehalten worden:`Nachhaltigkeit und gesellschaftlicher Nutzen von Gruenordnungsplanung und Landschaftsplanung kontra Reduktion` am 5. Juni 1997 und `Lebensstile als Herausforderung und Chance fuer die Wirtschaft` am 13. November 1997. (orig.)
The Strategic Research Action Plan for EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability research program presents the purpose, design and themes of the Agency’s research efforts to ensure safety in the design, manufacture and use of existing and future chemicals.
Pete Bettinger; Marie Lennette; K. Norman Johnson; Thomas A. Spies
A hierarchical spatial framework for large-scale, long-term forest landscape planning is presented along with example policy analyses for a 560,000 ha area of the Oregon Coast Range. The modeling framework suggests utilizing the detail provided by satellite imagery to track forest vegetation condition and for representation of fine-scale features, such as riparian...
Paul H. Gobster
In commemoration of the journal's 40th anniversary, the co-editor explores themes and trends covered by Landscape and Urban Planning and its parent journals through a qualitative comparison of co-occurrence term maps generated from the text corpora of its abstracts across the four decadal periods of publication.Cluster maps generated from the...
The vacation home is a distinct feature of modern societies in Europe, particularly in Nordic realm. The mass development of vacation homes in Denmark can be traced back to the 1950s and vacation-home tourism is still a predominant type of leisure activities today. The spatial development and use...... spatial planning has responded to the environmental consequences of vacation homes in this complexity. By doing so, the paper contributes to the debates on spatial planning for housing, urban and rural sustainability....... on sustainability of vacation homes is integrated into the spatial planning in the Danish context. The lack of ontological and theoretical debates on the environmental sustainability of vacation homes will be reflected upon before investigating the Danish case. A deep realist approach is adopted to explore...... the ontological meanings of vacation homes as (1) a leisure activity where the relationship between leisure and sustainability will be discussed, as (2) part of total housing consumption where the use of vacation homes is conceived as a reflection of urban-based intellectual value and a rebound effect...
Damayanti, Vera; Spek, Mattheus
During the twentieth century concepts of cultural landscape have been developed that have led to the inclusion of the cultural dimension in landscape studies. The implication of this in landscape planning and management is that planners should not only comprehend the physical dimension of a
Full Text Available The forest cover of Serbia occupies around 29% of its territory, which puts it among fairly well wooded countries in Europe. The forests of Serbia are characterized by both state and private forests, medium preservation status, i.e. 27% of area that is covered by insufficiently stocked stands. Coppice forests cover about 50% of the area, and private forests are additionally burdened by fragmented plots. Forest management planning in Serbia is older than 200 years (The Plan of Deliblato Sands Afforestation 1806. There are two basic assumptions that define forest management planning: sustainability and multifunctionality. Today, forest management planning in Serbia is regulated by the Law on forests and it has the characteristics of a system. The planning also has the characteristics of an integral, integrated and adaptive system. The latter is particularly important in terms of pronounced climatic changes. For the forests in protected objects of nature, there are also other types of plans that complement sector plans in forestry (e.g. management plans in protected areas.
Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna
Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific
Dong, Junyan; Zhou, Tiejun; Xin, Lisen; Tan, Yuetong; Wang, Zhigang
Urbanization is an inevitable trend of development of human society, also the inevitable outcome of economic development and scientific and technological progress, while urbanization process in promoting the development of human civilization, also no doubt, urban landscape has been a corresponding impact. Urban environment has suffered unprecedented damage, the urban population density, traffic congestion, shortage of resources, environmental pollution, ecological degradation, has become the focus of human society. In order to create an environment of ecological and harmonious, beautiful, sustainable development in the urban landscape, This paper discusses the concept of ecological design combined with the urban landscape design and sustainable development of urban landscape design.
Pantić Marijana B.
Full Text Available Solving traffic problems, rather than in a conventional manner, i.e. through the construction of infrastructure and customization requirements, began to be implemented in a different way, by applying measures to motivate users to -use passenger car less, and that more of their daily activities are reached by nonmotorized modes of movement. Sustainable urban transport plans (SUP were introduced in legislation of the EU, strategic documents that help create a better quality of life in cities. For the purposes of this study, a review of the literature related to existing plans of some major European cities was carried out, as well as small, focusing on cities of the surroundings. On this basis, the similarities and differences were ephasized in proposed measures to reach the goals of sustainable development of transportation systems. In conclusion recommendations are given on the possibility of use of experiences and applications in all the individual local communities.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that campus and urban landscaping has important connections to biodiversity conservation, perceptions of natural heritage, sense-of-place, ecological literacy and the role of campus landscapes in the larger community. It also aims to show how campus landscapes express values and perform as a…
Full Text Available Damages to coal mined land must be restored through reclamation efforts to provide optimum benefits. In addition to environmental improvements through conservation and protection, coal mined land also has the potential for economic development and the ability to provide social benefits to the community. This study aimed to (1 formulate a spatial plan for coal mined land in order for it to become an integrated and multifunctional landscape by integrating protected areas, conservation areas and cultivated areas that contains a variety of land uses to support sustainable development of the coal mine of PT Bukit Asam, Tanjung Enim, South Sumatera province; and (2 calculate the economic potential of the coal mined land. The methods used for data analysis were the Geographical Information System (GIS, a land suitability evaluation and a feasibility study (Net Present Value, Internal Rate Return and Benefit/Cost Ratio. The results found that the integrated spatial planning of land that had been used as a coal mine that considered sustainability could be implemented. In addition, a variety of businesses in the area of cultivation, including: plantation forests, cultivation of cajuput crops, aquaculture, and cattle farming should be developed. The potential profitable, pre-tax income until the closing of the mine in 2043 amounted to USD 91,295,530 (1 USD = Rp 13,329. If there is a source of a new economy after mining ends, the social conditions and environmental sustainability can be maintained.
Danilyan Eugene Andreevich
Full Text Available At present landscape design does not represent a scientific subject in strict sense, being a superposition of decorative and applied landscape art and the methods of graphic architectural planning. Serving interests of customers, it does not harmonize with the individual needs of the ground based on landscape geochemistry and ecology. Hence, it results in great number of grounds not consistent with each other according to geochemical criteria. In many cases total soil changing, isolation of natural hydrodynamic drainage, introduction of exotic plants interacting with their environment (including abiotic relations take place, it results in disequilibrium in the ground. Ecological system efficiency needs to be constantly artificially maintained, and that does not support its stability. In other words, without maintaining sufficient conditions, it will be influenced by succession with the course of time, as a particular case of potential gradient equalization. Hence, at present there is an acute problem to develop such a concept of landscape design, that, covering ecological requirements of customers, would be mass one, not producing gradient isolation effect and ecologically self-sustaining in given environment at the same time. It is evident, that to meet these requirements, this concept should not be the product of subjective vision of the author, but direct consequence of geophysical and geochemical landscape condition with theoretical development allowing calculation testing at any scale of geographical zoning.
Gelfand, I.; Kravchenko, A. N.; Hamilton, S. K.; Jackson, R. D.; Thelen, K.; Robertson, G. P.
Sustainable production of biofuels cannot be achieved without multiple-use landscapes where food, feed, and fuel can be co-produced without environmental harm. Here we use field level measurements in seven biofuel feedstock production systems grown under similar climatic conditions, but on different soils in two Midwestern (USA) states to understand their relative climatic impacts. We studied annual corn stover, and 6 perennial ecosystems including three polycultures: successional vegetation, restored prairie and a 3-species grass mix; and 3 monocultures: poplar, switchgrass, and miscanthus. All studied ecosystems were grown in replicated plots on moderately fertile soils of SW Michigan and highly fertile soils of central Wisconsin. We measured components of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances over 6 years. On the fertile soil perennial monocultures had GHG emission reductions potentials of 53% relative to fossil fuels, while polycultures had 64% reduction; corn stover had an 84% emissions reduction. Net sequestration ranged from 0.6 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 (successional vegetation) to 3.1 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1, (corn stover). Among feedstocks produced on less fertile soils, perennial monocultures had GHG emissions reduction of 80%, and polycultures had emission reduction of 54%; miscanthus and poplar exhibited the largest sequestration potentials of 5.9 and 3.9 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 respectively, while polycultures sequestered less then 1.0 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1 on average and corn stover was intermediate with 1.4 MgCO2e ha-1yr-1. All studied systems averaged energy production of 30 GJ ha-1 yr-1, except miscanthus (71 GJ ha-1 yr-1) and successional vegetation (20 GJ ha-1 yr-1). Our results inform the design of multiple-use landscapes: more fertile soils could produce food and feed with residuals collected for bioethanol production and more marginal soils could be used for various poly- or mono-cultures of purpose grown biofuel feedstocks but with differential climate benefits.
Norton, B.A.; Evans, K.L.; Warren, P.H.
Effective planning for biodiversity in cities and towns is increasingly important as urban areas and their human populations grow, both to achieve conservation goals and because ecological communities support services on which humans depend. Landscape ecology provides important frameworks for understanding and conserving urban biodiversity both within cities and considering whole cities in their regional context, and has played an important role in the development of a substantial and expandi...
Spatial planners are expressive people. They often use landscape concepts, being metaphors that refer to landscape ideas and planning principles. Examples are Green Heart, Nature Pearls and the Camelisation of landscapes. Such landscape concepts seem ‘innocent’ but are ‘guilty’ of powerful effects.
Sherry, T. D.; Kohlhorst, D. P.; Little, S. K.
The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 National Security Complex Energy Management program support the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy efficiency and sustainability and to achievement of the guiding principles. The site is diligently working toward establishing and prioritizing projects to reach the goals that Executive Orders 13514 and 13423 set forth. Y-12 is working to communicate its sustainment vision through procedural, engineering, operational, and management practices. The site will make informed decisions that are based on the application of the fi ve guiding principles for High Performance Sustainable Buildings (HPSBs) to the maximum extent possible. Current limitations in achievement of the goals lie in the existing Future Years National Security Program funding profiles. Y-12 will continue to execute energy projects as funding becomes available or as they can be accomplished incrementally within existing funding profiles. All efforts will be made to integrate energy initiatives with ongoing site mission objectives. Figures ES.1-ES.4 show some examples of sustainability activities at the Y-12 Complex.
Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) is designed to describe landscape character. It can be applied at a range of scales, from the national, though to the regional and local. It may also integrate landscape character analysis with biodiversity assessments, the analysis of historical character, air,
Opdam, P.F.M.; Verboom, J.; Pouwels, R.
In urbanising landscapes, planning for sustainable biodiversity occurs in a context of multifunctional land use. Important conditions for species persistence are habitat quality, the amount and configuration of habitat and the permeability of the landscape matrix. For planning purposes, these
Full Text Available Against the background of economic transformation and urban renewal, the protection and sustainable development of urban industrial landscapes has become an important practical issue, and how to maintain the unique local culture of these landscapes is key to solving the problem. By integrating the concept of “layer” and regarding the landscape as text, this paper will investigate the representation of industrial landscapes and the process of changes in power represented by different actors through different texts from the perspective of representation. The paper selected Beijing 798 as the research area to explore the shaping of changes in the industrial landscape of 798 from a weapon manufacturing area to an arts district, creative industry park and the “pan 798” by the factory owners, government, management committee, artists, media and tourists through different presentation forms, revealing the game process of representation of powers among the coalition between artists, management committee and the government. The paper points out that in fact, the representation of industrial landscape by different actors through different texts is a process that continues to explore and define the value of landscape. However, we need to look at this when the value of the industrial landscape is no longer given by localized life practices, but rather depends on different actors to produce and reproduce the value of landscape by representation, and thereby affecting the sustainable development of industrial landscape.
This chapter provides a theoretical and methodological approach for dealing with the challenges facing sustainable urban planning. It postulates that by moving our frame of reference from prediction to exploration and speculation we are able to focus attention on theory building and other pedagogic aspects of urban models. It especially exposes our assumptions about time and space and shows that in dynamic simulation models such assumptions are less limiting. Finally, the chapter discusses the advantages of simulation models while acknowledging certain complementarities with stochastic-empirical form of modeling.
Mainor, Avia; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Maier, Ryan C.; Brossart, Laura; Luke, Douglas A.
Implementing and growing a public health program that benefits society takes considerable time and effort. To ensure that positive outcomes are maintained over time, program managers and stakeholders should plan and implement activities to build sustainability capacity within their programs. We describe a 3-part sustainability planning process that programs can follow to build their sustainability capacity. First, program staff and stakeholders take the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool to measure their program’s sustainability across 8 domains. Next, managers and stakeholders use results from the assessment to inform and prioritize sustainability action planning. Lastly, staff members implement the plan and keep track of progress toward their sustainability goals. Through this process, staff can more holistically address the internal and external challenges and pressures associated with sustaining a program. We include a case example of a chronic disease program that completed the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool and engaged in program sustainability planning. PMID:24456644
Patrick A. Zollner; L. Jay Roberts; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He; Volker Radeloff
Incorporating an ecosystem management perspective into forest planning requires consideration of the impacts of timber management on a suite of landscape characteristics at broad spatial and long temporal scales. We used the LANDIS forest landscape simulation model to predict forest composition and landscape pattern under seven alternative forest management plans...
Donald L. Hardesty
The emergence of industrial life support systems in the last three centuries dramatically changed humanenvironmental relationships. Industrial landscapes are repositories of historical knowledge about this ecological revolution. The key components of industrial landscapes include landforms (for example, waste rock dumps from mines), industrial buildings and structures...
Contreras, A.; Yigit, K.S.; Veziroglu, T.N. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States)
There is a growing awareness among all countries and their decision makers, regardless of economic and industrial development, that the environment must be protected, leading towards a sustainable future. This is especially important in the energy sector - which is the principal factor in economic and industrial development - since the primary energy sources of today, fossil fuels, are the main culprits of global environmental problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution. Industrial countries, being greater consumers of fossil fuels, are affected to a greater extent by their environmental harms. Consequently, these countries are leading the way in environmental protection measures. The European Union, the second largest industrial grouping in the world, has become one of the leaders in taking important measures in the energy sector to curb the harmful emissions over the years. Spain, a member of the European Union, has initiated planning to reduce the pollutants produced by the energy sources and bring them in line with the European Union efforts, while keeping up the country`s economic development. This paper reports the efforts and planning of Spain through the year 2010 to comply with the European Union environmental regulations on one hand and to sustain economic development on the other. (author)
Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora
empirical evidence and assess what consideration of cultural ecosystem services adds to landscape management and planning. In general, cultural ecosystem services incentivize the multifunctionality of landscapes. However, depending on context, cultural ecosystem services can either encourage the maintenance...... of valuable landscapes or act as barriers to necessary innovation and transformation. Hence, cultural ecosystems services are not uncontested, as seen through the three analytical lenses of landowner behavior, cultural practices of communities, and landscape planning....
Full Text Available The potential for using a standardized landscape evaluation method for planning a greenway in a young glacial area in northern Poland is evaluated in this paper. In the evaluation of visual landscape attractiveness (VLA, we took into account not only its natural but also its cultural components. The cultural components were divided into two groups, i.e. increasing and decreasing VLA scores. The sources of data needed for the evaluation included a Vector Smart Map level 2 (VMap L2, aerial photographs and a field survey. The newly-designated greenway links two landscape parks (which play the role of greenspaces and runs along numerous lakes, forests, rivers, and objects of cultural heritage. The greenway is composed of existing local roads, allowing a more optimal utilisation of natural and cultural resources of the landscape, primarily those located between the selected greenspaces. Using this application, the idea of sustainable development can be implemented, and the overlapping protected areas will not be subject to devitalisation. The VLA method can facilitate multiple greenway designations in other areas.
Jonge, de J.M.
This thesis examines the typical nature of design thinking, which is compared and contrasted with scientific and political thinking. A theretical framework is formulated and applied to landscape planning and design. During the 20th century the established operational orientation in landscape
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this project was to assess the capability of current and potential future landscapes to provide integral ecosystems and suitable habitat for a suite...
This research supports the integration of new practices and procedures to improve soil : structure that will help turf, meadow, forest and landscape plantings to thrive. It sought : to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of innovative soil decompaction...
Full Text Available This study aims at presenting a conceptual model for landscape management in the Himalayan region of India, using quantitative/mathematical approach. Keeping in view the requirement, (based on fifteen years empirical field work in the Himalayan region and as well as literature survey the MODAM (Multiple Objectives Decision Support Tools for Landscape Management model along with linear programming approach was adopted with a view to presenting additional methodological perspectives on interdisciplinary landscape research. The work has stemmed out from the original research contribution, which tries to integrate interdisciplinary research planning with landscape management related research in the Himalayan region. This biodiversity hotspot has relatively high complexity in terms of sustainable socioeconomic development vis a vis conservation and management of the resources. The concepts and insights presented in this article will provide the basis for a discussion, on decisionmaking issues among multidisciplinary experts with regard to sustainable socioecological development within complex environments.
Cruz, Rex Victor O.
This paper discusses the key issues and concerns regarding sustainable Philippine watershed management. Emphasis is made on the various requisites of a sustainable management with a focus on the critical roles of land use planning.
Terraced paddy fields are essential components of the traditional cultural landscape of Japan, the satoyama landscape. They have been sustainably cultivated in a variety of ecological and social environments through time, and are highly valued as local resources with multiple functions. This paper reviews the recent nationwide movement for conservation of satoyama landscapes and shows that over the last decades, the government has increasingly created policies based on national regulation or international frameworks that concern the culture and environment in rural areas. Recent measures for the sustainability of terraced paddy fields do not only focus on rice terraces, but are directed at each satoyama landscape as a whole under careful consideration of how landscape elements are connected while taking into account the unique features of each area. Nevertheless, it has become difficult to ensure the continued use and maintenance of terraced rice paddies both in depopulated and suburban satoyama landscapes. The motivation for conserving satoyama landscapes, including those with terraced rice paddies, can be found in the awareness and appreciation of the unique characteristics of each locality that offer opportunities that can only be experienced in that particular area. A satoyama landscape that offers such opportunities allows continuity of traditional practices while integrating necessary changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
David Serrano Giné
Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.
Full Text Available This article proposes a figure ground analogy as alternative way of conceptually integrating sustainability and planning. Within this framework planners are challenged to creatively consider planning practice and thought against a background...
Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.
Wang, Yang; Akkerman, Renzo; Birkved, Morten
This paper proposes a modelling framework for combining supply chain planning and sustainability assessment, illustrating how sustainability assessments of logistic activities can be improved by supply chain planning input, and supply chain planning can in turn make use of the results from...... sustainability assessments. We use mathematical programming for the supply chain planning and life cycle assessment for the modelling and quantification of the environmental impacts. We illustrate the benefits of our integrated framework for a case of production, distribution and storage of food products...... produced on industrial scale, studying several important planning decisions like temperature treatments and choice of packaging materials....
Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle
Large-scale divestiture of commercial forestlands is occurring in the United States. Furthermore, increasing demand for cellulose for bioenergy may modify forest management practices widely enough to impact the spatial characteristics of forested landscapes. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to investigate the potential consequences of divestiture and...
Slope was derived from digital elevation model (DEM) and spatially analyzed with land-use/cover information generated from satellite data. The performance of existing land-use was compared with expected land-use performance criteria for steep landscapes and flood plains. Steep slopes and areas within 100 m of the ...
Salling, Kim Bang; Pryn, Marie Ridley
is adopted. The SUSTAIN-DSS model rests upon multi-criteria decision analysis and planning workshops in order to combine the use of qualitative and quantitative assessments. This article stresses the necessity of revising current planning paradigms such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) but also to make clear......This article will expose the necessity for a sustainable planning and decision support framework for transport infrastructure assessment. This will be operationalized through a set of planning criteria and scenario alternatives, which is assessed in the SUSTAIN decision support system (SUSTAIN...... risk analysis as well as sustainable planning criteria in the assessment of the project uncovering new solutions. Thereof the decision support model reveals large potential for the inclusion of planning criteria if the overall objective of development toward a sustainable transportation system...
Promoting sustainable economic development is the basis of the Green Economy: a new vision of Agriculture, Environmental and Regional policy, shared by the wine sector, especially on some crucial issues, such as reducing the consumption of agricultural land, recognition as economically important of the green agricultural production space, spreading of organic farming, adoption of good agricultural practices. Sustainability, in fact , is not just about the use of analysis tools (carbonfoot print, Waterfoot print, etc .) but is about innovations to be introduced in the entire production process, protection of biodiversity, ethic work in the vineyard and winery. It means to disseminate as much as possible all those practices that can enable a more efficient land management also considering the recent climate changes: introduction of agro-energy and precision agriculture, rational use of water resources, creation of an observatory on temperatures and an interactive mapping system, viticultural zoning and municipal planning to make concrete balance between vitality in agronomic sector and landscape quality. Realizing such a regional geopedological mapping about agricultural soil, will allow companies to display a real-time access to all the data needed for a sustainable management of the funds, not only it would be an important tool to support the technical choices of farmers, enhancing their potential and optimizing production in relation to the current climate crisis, but would have a strong impact in terms of managing and saving water and energy resources. A strong efficacy in this context should be recognized at the "Urban Regulation Plans of the Wine Cities", which have developed since 2007 on the base of the guidelines promoted by the Italian Association Città del Vino, in order to enhance the quality of wine districts. The foundations of this multidisciplinary tool are based on: • in-depth knowledge of the characteristics of the wine territory; • unity and
Hyun Sil Shin
Full Text Available The present study was intend to track down the transitional process in which the hierarchical dominance in the urban structure of Namwon City shifted from the Namwoneupseong Walled Town to the area of Gwanghalluwon Garden by using cadastral data and various historical sources. It was aimed to find the factors regarding the transition and a sustainable development plan to the historical landscape. The results were as follows: First, the urban structure of former Namwon City has succeeded to a typical grid street structure of walled town. However, land use and urban landscape to an existing grid street structure and a modified grid street structure was formed by development of transportation in the city. In addition, as the fortress was demolished, land development expanded east and west along the railroad and Yochun River. Accordingly, the central areas of Namwon City also expanded and shifted from Namwoneupseong Walled Town to the new towns in the adjacent area. Secondly, lots transformation process of Gwanghalluwon Garden started the changing by transitioning from the pavilion of a past government office to tourist attraction in the novel Chunhyang-jeon, written during the Joseon Dynasty. It was transformed into the current area of Gwanghalluwon Garden through the regional expansion project in the 1960s, and the relocation of neighboring market in the 1970s by the conflagration. And Namwon County purchased these lands. Later, Gwanghalluwon Garden was designated a cultural asset and the current shape of Gwanghalluwon Garden has been preserved since then. Third, The secret of how Gwanghalluwon Garden has been able to survive as a “dominated landscape” is likely to be found in the relationship between the development of the city (external factor, historical landscapes (internal factor, and complex interactions of history, geography, culture, etc. Furthermore, each factor has served as a unique element in developing Gwanghalluwon Garden into a
Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.
Hansen, Henning Sten; Schrøder, Anne Lise
in the marine and maritime sectors with great potential for innovation and economic growth. Holistic spatial planning systems supporting sustainable development have proved themselves in terrestrial planning and are also needed at sea. Due to this reason, the BONUS BASMATI project is based on the ecosystem...... services approach to assist in assessing sustainable solutions corresponding to policy goals....
Rukavina, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
NREL's Sustainability Program is responsible for upholding all executive orders, federal regulations, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and goals related to sustainable and resilient facility operations. But NREL continues to expand sustainable practices above and beyond the laboratory's regulations and requirements to ensure that the laboratory fulfills its mission into the future, leaves the smallest possible legacy footprint, and models sustainable operations and behaviors on national, regional, and local levels. The report, per the GRI reporting format, elaborates on multi-year goals relative to executive orders, achievements, and challenges; and success stories provide specific examples. A section called 'Sustaining NREL's Future Through Integration' provides insight into how NREL is successfully expanding the adoption of renewable energy technologies through integration.
Full Text Available This study is aimed to investigate strategies for urban landscape planning and ecotourism development of Songkou Town to present distinctive cultural landscape. Questionnaire is designed in terms of economy, environment and life. Based on results of questionnaire survey, interview theme and outline are developed and designed and individual in-depth interviews are performed. Besides, through comparison with interview emphasis of report forms in related literatures, we intend to propose optimal policies on urban and rural landscape and ecotourism of Songkou town in order to provide a reference for local government and future researchers.
Full Text Available This article introduces Pimp your landscape, a tool that was developed for evaluating the effects of changes in land use patterns. The main application field is to support interactions and communication among actors in spatial planning. With this tool, different land use pattern alternatives can be visualized in a short time, and their impact on land use services can be evaluated immediately. Also, spatial training and environmental education with regard to sustainable land use management can be supported. The tool was developed in an iterative process, in close cooperation and over intensive exchanges with end-users. A resulting feature is the provision of two different modi oriented on the professional background and skills of the users. The biggest advantage of Pimp your landscape is the simple entry and handling. However, the system also offers the possibility to go in-depth and work with complex rule sets. The presented paper introduces the development background and development process of Pimp your landscape and describes the tool's resulting concept and actual usage. Finally, possible constraints of the use of the system and potential workarounds are discussed.
Appropriate urban planning can forge a proper and safe city framework so as to achieve safety, health, convenience and comfort. A personalized urban planning is a name card of city development which can demonstrate the unique culture and function of a city. This essay concludes the concept and principles of urban landscape planning; takes the status of landscape planning in Chengdu City as an object, concludes its merits and demerits and offers solutions to the weak points; looks into the future of urban landscape planning so as to offer theoretical support for the development of an ecologically and environmentally friendly low-carbon city.
... agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? 102-76.20 Section 102-76.20... What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? In providing site planning and design services, Federal agencies must— (a) Make the site planning and landscape...
Full Text Available Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending is seen as one of the enablers to maintain the right momentum of economic growth. Previous studies have established the importance of integrating sustainability consideration into Value Planning protocol in order to achieve value for money, underpinned by the sustainable development agenda. Despite the establishment of the framework for the integration, the opportunity of such integration within the Malaysian Value Planning protocol for public projects remains unclear. The present state of sustainability consideration within the Value Planning practice should be first evaluated, so that potential interventions to enhance the integration can be introduced. Responding to the gap, this exploratory study was conducted. The data was collected by means of document analysis, interviews and observations; subsequently analysed using the Template Analysis technique. Based on the current practice of Value Planning in Malaysia, ten interventions are proposed to transform the present practice into Sustainable Value Planning. Sustainable Value Planning is seen as a comprehensive concept in achieving value for money in public spending underpinned by the overarching concept of sustainability
Liu, J.; Opdam, P.F.M.
The challenge of incorporating the concept of ecosystem services in landscape planning has been widely acknowledged, yet values of ecosystem services are not well considered in current landscape planning and environmental governance. This is particularly the case when local stakeholders are strongly
Full Text Available This paper reviews representations of sustainability in the strategic plans of Canadian higher education institutions (HEIs. A content analysis of the strategic plans of 50 HEIs was undertaken to determine the extent to which sustainability is included as a significant policy priority in the plans, including across the five domains of governance, education, campus operations, research, and community outreach. We found 41 strategic plans with some discussion of sustainability, and identified three characteristic types of response: (i accommodative responses that include sustainability as one of many policy priorities and address only one or two sustainability domains; (ii reformative responses that involve some alignment of policy priorities with sustainability values in at least a few domains; and (iii progressive responses that make connections across four or five domains and offer a more detailed discussion of sustainability and sustainability-specific policies. Accommodative responses were dominant. More progressive responses were typically from institutions participating in the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System (STARS of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. The paper concludes with consideration of the political and economic contexts contributing to this relative prevalence of accommodative responses to sustainability.
Full Text Available The use of integrated sustainability plans is an emerging trend in higher education institutions (HEIs to set sustainability priorities and to create a work plan for action. This paper analyses the sustainability plans of 21 Canadian HEIs that have used the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System (STARS from the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE. The plans were coded thematically with a focus on the sustainability goals, process of plan creation, and aspects of plan design outlined in the texts. This paper finds that sustainability goals focused on the environmental aspects of sustainability, while social and economic aspects were less emphasized. Further, most plans were described as being created through a broad stakeholder-consultation process, while fewer plans assigned timelines and parties responsible to sustainability goals. This paper contributes to our understanding of the priorities of Canadian HEI institutions at the end of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and is useful for practitioners interested in developing their own sustainability plans.
Full Text Available Taking into consideration that growth of urban population has impacts on land use and that managing urban population change is one of the most important contemporary challenges, this paper deals with the sustainable development of peri-urban zones which represent important an environment where employment opportunities are developed and resources exploited (particularly agricultural resources and environment where important recreational and leisure activities could be pursued. Within the review of current concepts and planning practices, the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and multifunctional landscapes in peri-urban zones are pointed out, as well as EU Developing Periurban Projects. The paper particularly focuses on the current situation in Serbia, where there is no specific legal basis for the planning of peri-urban areas, although there are positive examples of strategies, regulations and planning documents which treat agriculture and greenery in peri-urban zones in a sustainable manner.
Kubeckova, D.; Krocova, S.
The long-term sustainability of the landscape and its natural environment must be the decisive task of the public administration and, in the wider concept, of every citizen. In new climatic conditions, this need has intensified. The following article suggests in a basic scope whether the above-mentioned task can be accomplished, and what means of solution should be used.
Eric J. Gustafson; David E. Lytle; Randy Swaty; Craig Loehle
While the cumulative effects of the actions of multiple owners have long been recognized as critically relevant to efforts to maintain sustainable forests at the landscape scale, few studies have addressed these effects. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to predict the cumulative effects of four owner groups (two paper companies, a state forest and non-...
Hermes, Niels; Hooghiemstra, Reggy; van Veen, Kees
Eumedion is a Dutch foundation representing the interests of Dutch and foreign institutional investors with investments in Dutch listed companies. In particular, it represents the interests of these participants in the field of corporate governance and sustainability. The foundation was established
Since the beginning of the new millennium, the concept of “energy landscape” is being discussed by academia from the environmental design domain while more and more practitioners have been contributing to sustainable energy transition. Yet, there remains some ambiguity as to what exactly is meant
Feedstock production for biofuel and other bioproducts is poised to rejuvenate rural economies, but may lead to long-term degradation of soil resources or other adverse and unintended environmental consequences if the practices are not developed in a sustainable manner. This presentation will examin...
Antheil, Jane H.; Spinelli, Stephen, Jr.
This article suggests that developing a strategic plan, even through a highly participative and data-driven process, is not sufficient to sustain change if implementation of the plan is not monitored as an organizational change event. To the degree that a strategic plan is institutionally transformative, monitoring change during implementation…
Kristie A. Maczko; John A. Tanaka; Michael Smith; Cindy Garretson-Weibel; Stanley F. Hamilton; John E. Mitchell; Gene Fults; Charles Stanley; Dick Loper; Larry D. Bryant; J. K. (Rooter) Brite
Aligning a rancher's business plan goals with the capability of the ranch's rangeland resources improves the viability and sustainability of family ranches. Strategically monitoring the condition of soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, livestock production, and economics helps inform business plan goals. Business planning and resource monitoring help keep...
Karim Naderi Mahdei
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to analyze Iran’s developmental plans in order to examine and compare their direction and conformity with the sustainable development theory via the compass of sustainability. The approach involves a content analysis used in line with qualitative research methodologies. The results indicated that, in the first developmental plans, there was no direct reference to sustainable development. In the second to fifth plans, the main focus was on the social, environmental, and economic dimensions of development; which were common elements seen in the policies of all the plans. An analysis of the fourth plan revealed that expressions related to sustainable development appeared more frequently, indicating a stronger emphasis on sustainable development by decision-makers.
Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan
Lee Bak Yeo
Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of ecosystem services and its trend, scale and gradient, through reviewing articles, books and internet sources. Result shows that evaluation of ecosystem services in small towns within urban-rural gradient in developing countries still not being scrutinized explicitly, especially trade-offs’ concern. Environmental damages in the developing countries are burgeoning. As land conversion from natural capital to built capital is also keep on rising for temporal economic interests. Therefore, it has induced changes in ecological functions and affected the ecosystem services supply. In the context of Peninsular Malaysia, ungoverned built capitals and flaw of policy further contribute to fallacious decision making. And yet, there is still no specific framework or initiatives directly deals with ecosystem and biodiversity. A conceptual framework has been proposed to assess and value ecosystem services through integration of InVEST model (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs and bundle of ecosystem services. The framework allows stakeholders to have an insight of the pros and cons about the landscape changes, be it in ecological, economic or social-cultural perspectives. Therefore, it may help to ameliorate the trade-offs and enhance the synergies of ecosystem services that eventually can contribute to attaining human well-being, and to promote sustainable growth.
Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.
Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…
Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, Derk Jan; Timmermans, W.
Purpose – Amersfoort Local Municipality implemented the workbench spatial quality method (referred to as workbench method) to enhance participation in green-planning processes. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy project (made possible by
Angelstam, Per; Grodzynskyi, Michael; Andersson, Kjell; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Khoroshev, Alexander; Kruhlov, Ivan; Naumov, Vladimir
Policies at multiple levels pronounce the need to encompass both social and ecological systems in governance and management of natural capital in terms of resources and ecosystems. One approach to knowledge production and learning about landscapes as social-ecological systems is to compare multiple case studies consisting of large spaces and places. We first review the landscape concepts' biophysical, anthropogenic, and intangible dimensions. Second, we exemplify how the different landscape concepts can be used to derive measurable variables for different sustainability indicators. Third, we review gradients in the three dimensions of the term landscape on the European continent, and propose to use them for the stratification of multiple case studies of social-ecological systems. We stress the benefits of the landscape concepts to measure sustainability, and how this can improve collaborative learning about development toward sustainability in social-ecological systems. Finally, analyses of multiple landscapes improve the understanding of context for governance and management.
Full Text Available Deciding upon optimum planning actions in terms of sustainable urban planning involves the consideration of multiple environmental and socio-economic criteria. The transformation of natural landscapes to urban areas affects energy and material fluxes. An important aspect of the urban environment is the urban metabolism, and changes in such metabolism need to be considered for sustainable planning decisions. A spatial Decision Support System (DSS prototyped within the European FP7-funded project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism, enables accounting for the urban metabolism of planning actions, by exploiting the current knowledge and technology of biophysical sciences. The main aim of the BRIDGE project was to bridge the knowledge and communication gap between urban planners and environmental scientists and to illustrate the advantages of considering detailed environmental information in urban planning processes. The developed DSS prototype integrates biophysical observations and simulation techniques with socio-economic aspects in five European cities, selected as case studies for the pilot application of the tool. This paper describes the design and implementation of the BRIDGE DSS prototype, illustrates some examples of use, and highlights the need for further research and development in the field.
Full Text Available Contemporary rural landscapes in Poland are being changed intensively and adversely. These changes lead to landscape disharmony, spatial disorder, the blurring of individual and specific features and disruption to the ecological equilibrium. This article aims to present general rules for the optimization of rural landscapes. It discusses the causes and consequences of unfavourable changes within Poland’s rural landscapes which constitute a threat to their sustainable development. The authors attempt to identify the major factors to be considered in taking steps aimed at landscape optimization. Landscape equilibrium may be assessed through the sustainable development dimensions: ethical, ecological, social, economic, technical, political and legal. Landscape optimization consists in maintaining the balance within these dimensions.
Full Text Available Although it has been recognised that a stakeholder approach is important in effective landscape planning, a lack of objective methods which include stakeholder opinions in planning projects exists. In this paper we describe a new experimental method for creating landscape planning maps based on stakeholder opinions. During interviews, stakeholders are asked to rate the suitability of individual landscape elements and to visualise their ideal landscape plan. The results of the interview are then used to create a new landscape plan for the area. This method is illustrated by means of a case study in the Netherlands in which four stakeholders were included: the municipality, an agricultural organisation, the water board and a nature conservation organisation. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to determine the robustness of the proposed method. Changing weights given to the individual stakeholders did not have a significant influence on the resulting landscape plan, indicating that this is a promising method for participatory landscape planning.
Berke, Philip; Brown, Robert; Elliott, Michael; Friday, Paul; Holst, Robert; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilkens, R. N
These proceedings encompass outcomes from the DoD Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability Workshop, which took place in April 2007, and reflect the opinions and views of workshop participants...
Du Plessis, C
Full Text Available specifically on understanding the dynamic interactions of social-ecological systems, of which the city is a particularly significant example. Building on the literature of planning and sustainability science, this paper presents an argument in favour...
This training handbook is a result of the Environment and Urban Development Training Project. This project introduced participatory environmental planning for sustainable development of small and intermediate towns in Kenya. The human living environment was taken as the entry point.
Angelstam, Per; Elbakidze, Marine; Axelsson, Robert; Koch, Niels Elers; Tyupenko, Tatiana I; Mariev, Alexandr N; Myhrman, Lennart
This special issue of AMBIO presents a new approach to sustainability science that goes beyond interdisciplinary research. Using coupled natural and human systems, or landscapes, as multiple case studies in Europe's East and West knowledge production and learning toward transdisciplinary research was applied in Sweden, countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia. First, the research group Forest-Landscape-Society summarizes the research program (2005-2012) behind this special issue of AMBIO and its development to participate in transdisciplinary research. Second, stakeholders at multiple levels provide their views on the new approach presented and reported.
de Aranzabal, Itziar; Schmitz, María F; Pineda, Francisco D
Tourism and landscape are interdependent concepts. Nature- and culture-based tourism are now quite well developed activities and can constitute an excellent way of exploiting the natural resources of certain areas, and should therefore be considered as key objectives in landscape planning and management in a growing number of countries. All of this calls for careful evaluation of the effects of tourism on the territory. This article focuses on an integrated spatial method for landscape analysis aimed at quantifying the relationship between preferences of visitors and landscape features. The spatial expression of the model relating types of leisure and recreational preferences to the potential capacity of the landscape to meet them involves a set of maps showing degrees of potential visitor satisfaction. The method constitutes a useful tool for the design of tourism planning and management strategies, with landscape conservation as a reference.
Stremke, S.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Koh, J.
Depletion of fossil fuels and climate change necessitate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make efficient use of renewable energy sources. During recent decades, the Second Law of Thermodynamics has helped to increase energy efficiencies. More recently, the disciplines of building
Agudelo Vera, C.M.; Mels, A.R.; Keesman, K.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.
Due to fast urbanization and increasing living standards, the environmental sustainability of our global society becomes more and more questionable. In this historical review we investigate the role of resources management (RM) and urban planning (UP) and propose ways for integration in sustainable
The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,
Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang
From time to time it is appropriate for editors to revisit a journal's aims and scope and assess whether the statement accurately describes what the journal is about to current and potential participants in the journal community as well as to broader societies of concern. With the third editorship of Landscape and Urban Planning now having been involved in...
Concept of 'multifunctionality' of cultural landscapes is a reflection of imbued meaning and aesthetics inherent there and also human manifestation of this spirit through existence and aliveness by human creation, love and continuance in various cultures and traditions. This sense helps envisioning landscapes that cross urban-rural divides in sustainable and an integrated way - characterised by wholeness and ecospirituality that developed in the cultural history of landscape sustainability. That is how, the idea of 'wholeness' (cosmality) is transformed into 'holiness' (sacrality) ― evolved and represented with sacred ecology and visualised through the cosmic frames of sacredscapes in Asian region that survived there as part of lifeworld. Understanding, feeling, living with, practicing and passing on these inherent meanings and aesthetics provide peace, solace and deeper feelings to human mind which are the ethereal breathe of sustainability. The rethinking should be based on the foundational value ― the reasoning that underlies the ethical sense of deeper understanding of Man-Nature Interrelatedness, the basic philosophy of coexistence ― referred in different cultures in their own ways, like multicultural co-living ('Old-comer') in Korea, harmonious coexistence (tabunka kyosei) in Japan, harmonious society (xiaokang) in China, wahi tapu (sacred places) in Maori's New Zealand, global family (vasudhaiva kutumbakam) in Indian thought, and also African humanism (ubuntu) in South Africa. Think universally, see globally, behave regionally, act locally but insightfully; this is an appeal for shared wisdom for global sustainability in making our cultural landscapes mosaic of happy, peaceful and sustainable places crossing all the borders and transitions, especially interwoven links among Korea, Japan, China, and India.
Paassen, van A.; Berg, van den J.; Steingröver, E.G.; Werkman, R.A.; Pedroli, B.
Stakeholders currently put much emphasis on participatory processes in landscape planning procedures. This poses a special challenge for research. What role does research play in our present world characterised by complexity, competing claims and development needs, and an increased concern for
What do a mussel shoat, a zoo, and a biomass plantation have in common? Each can benefit from ecology-based landscape planning. This paper provides examples of landscape ecological planning from some diverse projects the author has worked on, and discusses how processes employed and lessons learned from these projects are being used to help answer questions about the effects of biomass plantings (hardwood tree crops and native grasses) on wildlife habitat. Biomass environmental research is being designed to assess how plantings of different acreage, composition and landscape context affect wildlife habitat value, and is addressing the cumulative effect on wildlife habitat of establishing multiple biomass plantations across the landscape. Through landscape ecological planning, answers gleaned from research can also help guide biomass planting site selection and harvest strategies to improve habitat for native wildlife species within the context of economically viable plantation management - thereby integrating the needs of people with those of the environment.
La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo
Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berglund, Björn E; Kitagawa, Junko; Lagerås, Per; Nakamura, Koji; Sasaki, Naoko; Yasuda, Yoshinori
Traditional, pre-industrial farming was adapted to the natural environment-topography, geology, hydrology, climate, and biota. Traditional land use systems are still to be traced in Scandinavia as an "infield/outland landscape", and in Japan as a "Satoyama landscape." There are obvious similarities and differences in land use-the main difference being that pasturing of cattle and sheep has been less important in Japan. These land use systems can be traced back to early sedentary settlements 1500-2500 years ago. In both regions, traditional management almost ceased in the mid-twentieth century leading to afforestation and decreased biological diversity. Today, there is in Japan a growing movement for landscape restoration and promotion of a sustainable living countryside based on local agrarian and forestry production, local energy, tourism, etc. With this background, the so-called Satoyama Initiative has been organized and introduced as a global socio-ecological project with ecosystem services for human well-being.
Fuels management produces changes in the landscape that can impact scenic beauty. If people do not consider a forest to be scenic, they may think that the low scenic quality is a result of poor management or ecological health. This fact sheet looks at the relevency of the effects of natural and human-caused landscape changes, when planning fuels management.
Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua Millspaugh
Landscape-based population models are potentially valuable tools in facilitating conservation planning and actions at large scales. However, such models have rarely been applied at ecoregional scales. We extended landscape-based population models to ecoregional scales for three species of concern in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region and compared model...
Julius Gy Fabos; Kimball H. Ferris
This paper justifies and illustrates (in simplified form) a landscape planning approach to the environmental management of the metropolitan landscape. The model utilizes a computerized assessment and mapping system, which exhibits a recent advancement in computer technology that allows for greater accuracy and the weighting of different values when mapping at the...
Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen
the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...
Sustainable Development Commission
This paper details the guidance, support and scrutiny that the SDC will provide on Sustainable Development Action Plans (SDAPs), to government departments, executive agencies, and other government bodies. Publisher PDF
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical framework for planning for sustainability for any proposed development project. The objective of this framework is to foster and preserve the social ecological system in which the proposed development project...
Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.
The paper discusses National aspirations, National challenges, resultoriented planning, imperatives for goal achievement, and levels of education in Nigeria. Important suggestions are presented as recommendations drawn from the write up. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol.
Heraclitus said that "no man ever steps in the same river twice." Everything continues to change. Land use change will keep redefine itself and subject the Earth and humankind to collateral changes. Humankind benefits from ecosystem in many ways. The ecosystem provides people with nutrients, enriches soil with sediment, and sustains all living organisms with water; these benefits are known as ecosystem services. In Taiwan, land use change has impacted ecosystem and biodiversity on various levels. Thus, we took six land use scenarios from 1999 to 2005 in Chen Youlan river watershed as our case study, intending to observe the course of ecosystem and biodiversity changes and the cause of it. Systematic Landscape conservation planning (SLCP) framework can be adopted when designing land use policy to safeguard human interests and ecosystem. This study use SLCP to develop ecosystem services and biodiversity protection strategies. Several strategies were designed by using 1999 to 2005 data as provision to protect the intactness of future ecosystem services and biodiversity. This research explores the potential and possible impacts of different land use protection strategies in the future. It is possible to identify the conservation priority of a certain region by using the Zonation meta-algorithm. This study selects the zonation critical protection area (Joint set of Yushan National Park) as strategy A, B and C. Strategy D takes Yushan National Park as a protected area; unstable hot spots in 1999/03 (Joint set of Yushan National Park) are selected as strategy E. Next, we used Kappa statistical method to find the minimal ecosystem services change and biodiversity hotspots change of the five aforementioned strategies and compared with those from 1999/03. By the Kappa statistical method, we further prioritized the important conservation areas by strategy A, B, C, E in the future. The results can not only serve as management reference for government agencies, but also develop
Ana Nikezic; Dragan Markovic
.... The study shows results of Masters Students' research on situating a housing complex in the context of the agrarian landscape of Vojvodina, Serbia, considering it as a resource for a new sustainable urban lifestyle...
Europe's cities are full of office buildings which are technically and visually outdated. Research has demonstrated that more than 60% of German office stock is in acute need for refurbishment. Building planning needs intelligent approaches to façade refurbishment in order to tackle this enormous
Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman
A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.
Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.
Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important
Lennox, L; Maher, L; Reed, J
Improvement initiatives offer a valuable mechanism for delivering and testing innovations in healthcare settings. Many of these initiatives deliver meaningful and necessary changes to patient care and outcomes. However, many improvement initiatives fail to sustain to a point where their full benefits can be realised. This has led many researchers and healthcare practitioners to develop frameworks, models and tools to support and monitor sustainability. This work aimed to identify what approaches are available to assess and influence sustainability in healthcare and to describe the different perspectives, applications and constructs within these approaches to guide their future use. A systematic review was carried out following PRISMA guidelines to identify publications that reported approaches to support or influence sustainability in healthcare. Eligibility criteria were defined through an iterative process in which two reviewers independently assessed 20% of articles to test the objectivity of the selection criteria. Data were extracted from the identified articles, and a template analysis was undertaken to identify and assess the sustainability constructs within each reported approach. The search strategy identified 1748 publications with 227 articles retrieved in full text for full documentary analysis. In total, 62 publications identifying a sustainability approach were included in this review (32 frameworks, 16 models, 8 tools, 4 strategies, 1 checklist and 1 process). Constructs across approaches were compared and 40 individual constructs for sustainability were found. Comparison across approaches demonstrated consistent constructs were seen regardless of proposed interventions, setting or level of application with 6 constructs included in 75% of the approaches. Although similarities were found, no approaches contained the same combination of the constructs nor did any single approach capture all identified constructs. From these results, a consolidated
The basic problem that this work wishes to address concerns the unsustainable use of water resources in many places of the world. In some places, the problem leads to human suffering and death while also obstructing social and economic development. In other places, where the consequences are less severe, natural environments are seriously damaged. A significant part of the solution to this problem lies in the planning and decision-making domain. The overall aim of this thesis is therefore to...
Salmon are important to the economic, social, cultural, and aesthetic values of the people in the Nisqually River. The Mashel watershed is important to recovery of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and long-term sustainability of coho salmon (O. kisutch) in the Nisqually basin. The Mashel is the second largest Nisqually subwatershed by area (84 square miles) and is the largest tributary by flow accessible to salmonids. It is mostly forested, a combination of regularly harvested state and private timberlands. The watershed and salmonids utilizing the Mashel are particularly vulnerable to changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature because of its hydrologic flashiness, low summer flows and potential for sediment transport.We analyzed fish habitat potential under alternative forest management and climate scenarios using a linked modeling framework. The modeling framework includes a spatially-distributed watershed simulator (VELMA - Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments). VELMA quantifies effects of forest management and climate scenarios on key flow variables affecting salmon habitat. Spatially distributed output from VELMA was input to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) fish habitat model to evaluate salmonid habitat potential and population responses.We show how historic timber harvest is still affecting salmonid habitat potential and how a community forest based management plan could be more pr
Full Text Available The emphasis on learning and adaptation among different actors at various political administrative levels and on various geographic scales has become a precondition for the emergence of sustainable development. It is possible to find the essential form of collaborative management by using a Strategic Plan, designed to determine a local model of sustainable competitiveness in economic, social and environmental terms. The adoption of a Strategic Plan stimulates a process of shared knowledge, through which it is possible to generate a new environmental governance (EG that is truly representative of a local system. This paper presents, as a case study representative of the Italian context, the Strategic Plan of the Nebrodi area (SP, and assesses the structure of a new form of public and private environmental governance focused on sustainable concern. Finally, the SP could be considered a guideline for managing the local territorial and environmental system from a long-term perspective.
Robert Thayer Jnr
Full Text Available This paper emphasises physical, technological and economic variables in a globalising world, and how they might influence local economies and local landscapes. With the expected 'big rollover' in demand versus supply of oil in the next decade, the scale of the landscape will change in response to a permanent rise in the price of transportation and shipping fuels. Air travel will become less accessible, as will shipping of high mass, low value-added materials and goods. This will necessitate the re-establishment of more local supplies and shorter transport distances for people and goods, and for the first time in human history the perceived size of the world will expand. In response, the 'grain' of the landscape will become finer. More people will populate the rural landscape, while cities and towns will become more compact. The landscape is influenced by the three major operative technological systems (matter, energy and information. While the depletion of oil will greatly affect matter and energy, it will have less influence on information, which is relatively immune from entropic thermodynamic effects. While source-to-end-use distances will shorten, world per-capita energy expenditures will fall, and more local goods will be created and consumed, it remains to be seen whether this contraction in the scale of the instrumental landscape will be matched by more localised ownership, or by continued globalisation of corporate systems of production and distribution. Assuming the former is preferable, the paper concludes by suggesting that the bioregion, or natural 'life place', is the appropriate location for the protection of biodiversity, sustained use of resources, and identity and life satisfaction of local inhabitants.
Michaela Foster; M. Nils Peterson; Frederick Cubbage; Gerard McMahon
The number of studies evaluating the quality and content of many types of plans have grown in recent decades. Natural resource conservation plans have been included in some of these plan evaluation studies; however, no meta-analysis of natural resource planning literature has been conducted. This focus is needed because natural resource conservation planning differs...
Full Text Available A literature review indicates that there is an increasing number of Land Use/Transport Interaction (LUTI models being used in policy analysis and support of urban land use, transport and environmental planning. In this context, LUTI models are considered to be useful for the development of scenarios during the preparatory stage of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs. A SUMP can be defined as a strategic planning framework, proposed by the European Commission, for planning and design of an urban multimodal transport system, which combines multi-disciplinary policy analysis and decision making. The objective of a SUMP is to achieve sustainable urban mobility, i.e. accessibility for all, safety and security, reduction in emissions and energy consumption, efficient and cost-effective transport and an improvement in the urban environment. Based on the overall conceptual and methodological framework of LUTI models (Geurs and van Wee 2004, the scope of the proposed research is to fully integrate a LUTI model into a contemporary transport planning framework and, more specifically, into the SUMP structure. This paper focuses on the configuration of the integration pattern, according to which a LUTI model may evolve and interact with the planning process throughout the eleven elements of the SUMP, as well as the evaluation of the benefits and drawbacks from the implementation of the proposed pattern for the enhancement of SUMP and overall promotion of sustainable urban planning.
Full Text Available Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation. We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.
Crossman, Neville D.; MacEwan, Richard J.; Wallace, D. Dugal; Bennett, Lauren T.
Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage) were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation). We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes. PMID:24616632
Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen
useful for the handling and assessment of multiple, often conflicting objectives or criteria like environmental or social issues intrinsically difficult to quantify. Therefore, it is necessary to broaden the assessment and the decision making process beyond merely economic factors. The research project......-based software model. The latter employs the use of CBA, multi-criteria decision analysis and risk analysis techniques enabling the assessment of non-quantifiable impacts within a decision support context. The concept of a decision conference is introduced as relevant for dealing with the strategic elements...... on Sustainable National Transport Planning (SUSTAIN) seeks, among other things, to develop a flexible decision-support model to assess the sustainability of transport projects and policies, the SUSTAIN framework model. The SUSTAIN framework model consists of two parts, namely decision conferences and an Excel...
den Uyl, Roos M; Driessen, Peter P J
Prominent strands of discussion in the literature on governance for sustainable development debate how change can be induced to enhance sustainability, and how to evaluate the interventions aimed at prompting such change. Strikingly, there are few contributions about how prominent ideas of inducing change deal with multiple governance criteria for pursuing sustainable development. Moreover, the way ideas about inducing change relate to criteria of governance for sustainable development is not yet studied in an empirical context. This paper therefore comparatively analyses how three prominent modes of sustainable development governance - adaptive management, transition management and payments for environmental services - relate to a set of five prominent criteria reported in the literature, namely: equity, democracy, legitimacy, the handling of scale issues and the handling of uncertainty issues. It finds that the academic debates on these three modes address these criteria with varying attention and rather fragmented, while in the empirical setting of the Dutch fen landscape several aspects relating to the studied criteria were present and substantially influenced the functioning of the three modes of sustainable development. Together, the analysis of the literature debate and the empirical data are able to show that a narrow evaluation perspective may fail to diagnose and capture relevant struggles and complexities coming along with governance for sustainable development relevant issues. The study shows that in order to advance our understanding of governance for sustainable development, it is indeed important to include multiple criteria in studying these modes. Moreover, the study shows the importance of including empirical experiences which manifest when different modes for sustainable development are applied in real-world settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qiu, Jiangxiao; Carpenter, Stephen R; Booth, Eric G; Motew, Melissa; Zipper, Samuel C; Kucharik, Christopher J; Chen, Xi; Loheide, Steven P; Seifert, Jenny; Turner, Monica G
Sustaining food production, water quality, soil retention, flood, and climate regulation in agricultural landscapes is a pressing global challenge given accelerating environmental changes. Scenarios are stories about plausible futures, and scenarios can be integrated with biophysical simulation models to explore quantitatively how the future might unfold. However, few studies have incorporated a wide range of drivers (e.g., climate, land-use, management, population, human diet) in spatially explicit, process-based models to investigate spatial-temporal dynamics and relationships of a portfolio of ecosystem services. Here, we simulated nine ecosystem services (three provisioning and six regulating services) at 220 × 220 m from 2010 to 2070 under four contrasting scenarios in the 1,345-km2 Yahara Watershed (Wisconsin, USA) using Agro-IBIS, a dynamic model of terrestrial ecosystem processes, biogeochemistry, water, and energy balance. We asked (1) How does ecosystem service supply vary among alternative future scenarios? (2) Where on the landscape is the provision of ecosystem services most susceptible to future social-ecological changes? (3) Among alternative future scenarios, are relationships (i.e., trade-offs, synergies) among food production, water, and biogeochemical services consistent over time? Our results showed that food production varied substantially with future land-use choices and management, and its trade-offs with water quality and soil retention persisted under most scenarios. However, pathways to mitigate or even reverse such trade-offs through technological advances and sustainable agricultural practices were apparent. Consistent relationships among regulating services were identified across scenarios (e.g., trade-offs of freshwater supply vs. flood and climate regulation, and synergies among water quality, soil retention, and climate regulation), suggesting opportunities and challenges to sustaining these services. In particular, proactive land
Full Text Available The article discusses the interaction of the object of landscape architecture and urban context in the processes of territorial planning, in which the guidelines of city management and development are coded. Considering that the field of landscape architecture includes and deals with the issues of links between nature and built environment infrastructure, on the level of planning, issues of protection and adaptation for the use of natural structures, the development of urbanized natural environment objects and their systems and the interaction between natural and urban frame are all included in the field of the competencies of landscape architecture and urbanism and in the search of sustainable relationship. Based on case study methodology, this article analyses the examples of master plans of different Lithuanian cities (Vilnius, Utena, Rokiškis, Biržai, focusing on the problem of the interaction between natural structures and urbanistic solutions. Besides general city plans, the study analyses conclusions of Strategic environmental assessment (SEA documents and monitorings that best reflect the problem of implementing the solutions of interaction between landscape architecture and urban context. Using a comparative method, the Lithuanian experience is analysed in the light of the latest global urbanistic theories and trends, which widen the field of interaction between landscape architecture and urbanism.
This report describes the process of creating continuity and sustainability for demonstration and validation (DEMVAL) assets at the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The DEMVAL asset program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The mission of the NSTI program is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. Part of this support is envisioned to be research and development of companies’ technology initiatives, at the same time providing robust test and evaluation of actual development activities. This program assists companies in developing technologies under the NSTI program through demonstration and validation of technologies applicable to national security created by incubators and other sources. The NSPP also will support the creation of an integrated demonstration and validation environment. Development of the commercial potential for national security technologies is a significant NSTI focus. As part of the process of commercialization, a comprehensive DEMVAL program has been recognized as an essential part of the overall incubator mission. A number of resources have been integrated into the NSTI program to support such a DEMVAL program.
Rahman, Md. Ashiq Ur
Planning is a crucial element for any development initiative. Planning entails choice making in pursuit of stated goals e.g. improving living conditions for individuals and societies. Planning initiatives are employed within social systems that are governed by institution, and planning intervenes with and may reconfigure these institutions resulting in social change. This paper discusses how urban sustainability can be achieved through strategic action in urban development by analysing the pl...
Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth, Jr.
Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fiber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. As we embark on the 19th Triennial Conference of the International Soil and Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), I am pleased to proclaim that our members are well poised to lead these endeavors because of our comprehensive understanding of soil, water, agricultural and bio-systems engineering processes. The concept of landscape management, as an approach for integrating multiple bioenergy feedstock sources, including biomass residuals, into current crop production systems, is used as the focal point to show how these ever-increasing global challenges can be met in a sustainable manner. Starting with the 2005 Billion Ton Study (BTS) goals, research and technology transfer activities leading to the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Revised Billion Ton Study (BT2) and development of a residue management tool to guide sustainable crop residue harvest will be reviewed. Multi-location USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) team research and on-going partnerships between public and private sector groups will be shared to show the development of landscape management strategies that can simultaneously address the multiple factors that must be balanced to meet the global challenges. Effective landscape management strategies recognize the importance of nature’s diversity and strive to emulate those conditions to sustain multiple critical ecosystem services. To illustrate those services, the soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues are presented to show how careful, comprehensive monitoring of soil, water and air resources must be an integral part of sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems. Preliminary analyses suggest that to sustain soil resources within the U.S. Corn Belt, corn (Zea mays L.) stover should not be harvested if average grain
David J. Brunckhorst
Full Text Available Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social and environmental change. However, these regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability, ecosystem health through to larger scales of biospheric functioning. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. These are, in essence, complex social-ecological systems intertwined in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Over time, the cycles of complex social-ecological systems also reach crossroads, which might be crisis points at which future options are no longer available (possibly because of resource degradation or loss, or turning points where opportunities arise when it is easier to change direction towards more sustainable activities. This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a holistic integration through close engagement with residents and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative high-risk on-ground experimental models to learn by doing. In the final analysis, each project has characteristically, however, sought to integrate through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and corporately, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the ways of categorising landscapes as ‘urban’ and ‘rural’ using a physicalist approach, where these terms have special meaning. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the question whether such a division is still meaningful with regard to anthropogenic landscapes, not least in spatial planning. The concerns raised in this paper depart from the increasingly complicated structure of geographical space, including that of anthropogenic landscapes. Our standpoint is illustrated using cases of landscape ambiguities from Poland, Germany, Romania and Greece. Leaning on frameworks of physicalist (mechanicistic theory, this paper suggests an explanation to the outlined semantic conflicts. This is done by pointing to the relationality between the impact of centripetal and centrifugal forces, the specifics of socio-economic development, as well as the varying landscape forms that emerge from the differences within that development.
Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai; Wang, Hao
As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.
Kevin C. Ryan; Kristine M. Lee; Matthew G. Rollins; Zhiliang Zhu; James Smith; Darren Johnson
Managers are faced with reducing hazardous fuel, restoring fire regimes, and decreasing the threat of catastrophic wildfire. Often, the comprehensive, scientifically-credible data and applications needed to test alternative fuel treatments across multi-ownership landscapes are lacking. Teams from the USDA Forest Service, Department of the Interior, and The Nature...
Soeung, Sann Chan; Grundy, John; Maynard, Jim; Brooks, Alan; Boreland, Marian; Sarak, Duong; Jenkinson, Karl; Biggs, Beverley-Ann
The expanded programme of immunization was established in Cambodia in 1986. In 2002, 67% of eligible children were immunized, despite significant health sector and macro-economic financial constraints. A financial sustainability planning process for immunization was introduced in 2002, in order to mobilize national and international resources in support of the achievement of child health objectives. The aim of this paper is to outline this process, describe its early impact as an advocacy tool and recommend additional strategies for mobilizing additional resources for health. The methods of financial sustainability planning are described, including the advocacy strategies that were applied. Analysis of financial sustainability planning results indicates rising programme costs associated with new vaccine introduction and new technologies. Despite this, the national programme has demonstrated important early successes in using financial sustainability planning to advocate for increased mobilization of national and international sources of funding for immunization. The national immunization programme nevertheless faces formidable system and financial challenges in the coming years associated with rising costs, potentially diminishing sources of international assistance, and the developing role of sub-national authorities in programme management and financing.
Xue, Jin; Næss, Petter; Yao, Yinmei
The theme of this article is how the challenge of sustainable mobility has been dealt with in urban planning and urban development in the metropolitan areas of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Hangzhou (China). The two metropolises have followed different trajectories in their land use and transport...
leverage off strong installation pollution prevention, energy man- agement, environmental management systems (EMSs) (such as ISO 14001 implemen- tation...Plans in 2007 Fort Campbell, “Sustainable Installation Management System ISO 14001 .” Fort Campbell, KY, 15 January 2006. As of October 19, 2006
Pfund, Jean-Laurent; Watts, John Daniel; Boissière, Manuel; Boucard, Amandine; Bullock, Renee Marie; Ekadinata, Andree; Dewi, Sonya; Feintrenie, Laurène; Levang, Patrice; Rantala, Salla; Sheil, Douglas; Sunderland, Terence Clarence Heethom; Urech, Zora Lea
We examine five forested landscapes in Africa (Cameroon, Madagascar, and Tanzania) and Asia (Indonesia and Laos) at different stages of landscape change. In all five areas, forest cover (outside of protected areas) continues to decrease despite local people's recognition of the importance of forest products and services. After forest conversion, agroforestry systems and fallows provide multiple functions and valued products, and retain significant biodiversity. But there are indications that such land use is transitory, with gradual simplification and loss of complex agroforests and fallows as land use becomes increasingly individualistic and profit driven. In Indonesia and Tanzania, farmers favor monocultures (rubber and oil palm, and sugarcane, respectively) for their high financial returns, with these systems replacing existing complex agroforests. In the study sites in Madagascar and Laos, investments in agroforests and new crops remain rare, despite government attempts to eradicate swidden systems and their multifunctional fallows. We discuss approaches to assessing local values related to landscape cover and associated goods and services. We highlight discrepancies between individual and collective responses in characterizing land use tendencies, and discuss the effects of accessibility on land management. We conclude that a combination of social, economic, and spatially explicit assessment methods is necessary to inform land use planning. Furthermore, any efforts to modify current trends will require clear incentives, such as through carbon finance. We speculate on the nature of such incentive schemes and the possibility of rewarding the provision of ecosystem services at a landscape scale and in a socially equitable manner.
Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per; Myhrman, Lennart; Sädbom, Stefan; Ivarsson, Milis; Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kenneth; Cupa, Petr; Diry, Christian; Doyon, Frederic; Drotz, Marcus K; Hjorth, Arne; Hermansson, Jan Olof; Kullberg, Thomas; Lickers, F Henry; McTaggart, Johanna; Olsson, Anders; Pautov, Yurij; Svensson, Lennart; Törnblom, Johan
To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the network about social learning. While activities resulted in exchange of experiences and some local solutions, a major challenge was to secure systematic social learning and make new knowledge explicit at multiple levels. None of the development initiatives used a systematic approach to secure social learning, and sustainability assessments were not made systematically. We discuss how social learning can be improved, and how a learning network of development initiatives could be realized.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that, as part of its mission, sustainability science can change the way planners engage with urban problems on three points: First, that effective standard planning is an illusion, and the crucial task for urban planners should be considering—on a place-based rationale—the long-term consequences of decisions, policies and, technology change. Second,how it is necessary to develop collaborative planning and co-production of knowledge. Third, to build effective actions on the basis of collaborative planning, it is crucial to take first into account how the population and the institutions respond to and resist change. Conversely, this paper shows that urban planning is also a breeding ground for consolidating the theoretical framework of sustainability science, considering that cities can be seen as paragons of both socio-ecological systems and complex adaptive systems—a position that is discussed throughout the article. Bringing sustainability science and urban planning in closer dialogue with each other, to exploit their potential synergies, has not been done sufficiently: It is an important gap in the academic literature that this article aims at filling.
Gruen, Russell L; Elliott, Julian H; Nolan, Monica L; Lawton, Paul D; Parkhill, Anne; McLaren, Cameron J; Lavis, John N
Planning for programme sustainability is a key contributor to health and development, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. A consensus evidence-based operational framework would facilitate policy and research advances in understanding, measuring, and improving programme sustainability. We did a systematic review of both conceptual frameworks and empirical studies about health-programme sustainability. On the basis of the review, we propose that sustainable health programmes are regarded as complex systems that encompass programmes, health problems targeted by programmes, and programmes' drivers or key stakeholders, all of which interact dynamically within any given context. We show the usefulness of this approach with case studies drawn from the authors' experience.
Greenland’s strong political desire to increase self-rule and economic independence from Denmark requires new sources of income and diversification of the economy. Mineral resources and urban centralization are promoted as the key instruments for creating economic independence. This transition...... will have a large impact on the citizen’s everyday life through the ongoing changes of settlement patterns and livelihoods. The key question of this paper is how the citizens may inform and influence the sustainability of planning and implementation of local raw material projects and urban planning. Further...... that the social, economic and environmental sustainability will depend on the degree to which the citizens are engaged in both local developments of specific mining projects, as well as in societal planning where multiple and complex issues are at stake such as urban settlement patterns, cultures, livelihood...
Een belangrijke opgave voor de ruimtelijke planning is en balans te vinden tussen de toegenomen druk op de open groene ruimte door verstedelijking en economische ontwikkeling enerzijds, en de noodzaak van het behouden van deze landelijke gebieden voor natuur, recreatie, landschap en voedselproductie
Moyano-Santiago, Miguel A; Rivera-Lirio, Juana M
To determine the degree to which the health plans of the autonomous communities focus on the usual three dimensions of sustainability: economic, social and environmental, both in the general level of discourse and in the different areas of intervention. A qualitative study was conducted through content analysis of a large sample of documents. The specific methodology was analysis of symbolic and operational sensitivity in a sample of eleven health plans of the Spanish state. Social aspects, such as social determinants or vulnerable groups, are receiving increasing attention from the health planner, although there is room to strengthen attention to environmental issues and to provide specific interventions in economic terms. The analysis demonstrates the incipient state of health plans as strategic planning documents that integrate economic, social and environmental aspects and contribute to the sustainability of the different health systems of the country. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Keith Reynolds; Paul Hessburg; Joan. O’Callaghan
Human settlement and land management have radically altered the composition and structure of eastern Washington forests. Restoring high-functioning landscapes and habitat patterns have broad implications for the future sustainability of native species, ecosystem services, and ecosystem processes. Many land managers and scientists have turned their attention to whole...
Renée M. de Waal
Full Text Available Making the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy seems inevitable. Because energy transition poses new challenges and opportunities to the discipline of landscape architecture, the questions addressed in this paper are: (1 what landscape architects can learn from successful energy transitions in Güssing, Jühnde and Samsø; and (2 to what extent landscape architecture (or other spatial disciplines contributed to energy transition in the aforementioned cases. An exploratory, comparative case study was conducted to identify differences and similarities among the cases, to answer the research questions, and to formulate recommendations for further research and practice. The comparison indicated that the realized renewable energy systems are context-dependent and, therefore, specifically designed to meet the respective energy demand, making use of the available potentials for renewable energy generation and efficiency. Further success factors seemed to be the presence of (local frontrunners and a certain degree of citizen participation. The relatively smooth implementation of renewable energy technologies in Jühnde and on Samsø may indicate the importance of careful and (partly institutionalized consideration of landscape impact, siting and design. Comparing the cases against the literature demonstrated that landscape architects were not as involved as they, theoretically, could have been. However, particularly when the aim is sustainable development, rather than “merely” renewable energy provision, the integrative concept of “sustainable energy landscapes” can be the arena where landscape architecture and other disciplines meet to pursue global sustainability goals, while empowering local communities and safeguarding landscape quality.
Sin Tey, Jia; Goh, Kai Chen; Ern Ang, Peniel Soon
Landfill is one of the most common, widely used waste management technique in Malaysia. The ever increasing of solid waste has made the role of landfill become prominent despite the negative impacts that caused by the landfill is unavoidable. The public and government regulations are getting more aware with the negative impacts that could be brought by the landfill towards the community. It led to the cultural shift to integrate the concept of sustainability into the planning of siting a landfill in an urban area. However, current urban planning tends to emphasize more on the environmental aspect instead of social and economic aspects. This is due to the existing planning guidelines and stakeholder’s understandings are more on the environmental aspect. This led to the needs of incorporating the concept of sustainability into the urban planning. Thus, this paper focuses on the industry stakeholders view on the negative impacts that will cause by the landfill towards the urban planning. The industry stakeholders are those who are related to the decision-making in the selection of a landfill site in the government department. The scope of the study is within the country of Malaysia. This study was conducted through the semi-structured interviews with a total of fifteen industry stakeholders to obtain their perspective on the issues of impacts of siting a landfill in the urban area. The data obtained was analysed using the software, QSR NVivo version 10. Results indicate that landfill bought significant sustainability-related impacts towards landfill siting in urban planning. The negative impacts stated by the respondents are categorized under all three sustainable aspects such as environmental, social and economic. Among the results are such as the pollution, such as the generation of leachate, the objection in siting a landfill site against by the public, and the negotiating and getting money contribution from local authorities. The results produced can be served
DeFries, R; Rosenzweig, C
Increasing food production and mitigating climate change are two primary but seemingly contradictory objectives for tropical landscapes. This special feature examines synergies and trade-offs among these objectives. Four themes emerge from the papers: the important roles of both forest and agriculture sectors for climate mitigation in tropical countries; the minor contribution from deforestation-related agricultural expansion to overall food production at global and continental scales; the opportunities for synergies between improved food production and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions through diversion of agricultural expansion to already-cleared lands, improved soil, crop, and livestock management, and agroforestry; and the need for targeted policy and management interventions to make these synergistic opportunities a reality. We conclude that agricultural intensification is a key factor to meet dual objectives of food production and climate mitigation, but there is no single panacea for balancing these objectives in all tropical landscapes. Place-specific strategies for sustainable land use emerge from assessments of current land use, demographics, and other biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics, using a whole-landscape, multisector perspective.
Full Text Available The long-term survival of Andean forest landscapes (AFL and of their capacity to contribute to sustainable development in a context of global change requires integrated adaptation and mitigation responses informed by a thorough understanding of the dynamic and complex interactions between their ecological and social components. This article proposes a research agenda that can help guide AFL research efforts for the next 15 years. The agenda was developed between July 2015 and June 2016 through a series of workshops in Ecuador, Peru, and Switzerland and involved 48 researchers and development experts working on AFL from different disciplinary perspectives. Based on our review of current research and identification of pressing challenges for the conservation and sustainable governance of AFL, we propose a conceptual framework that draws on sustainability sciences and social–ecological systems research, and we identify a set of high-priority research goals and objectives organized into 3 broad categories: systems knowledge, target knowledge, and transformation knowledge. This paper is intended to be a reference for a broad array of actors engaged in policy, research, and implementation in the Andean region. We hope it will trigger collaborative research initiatives for the continued conservation and sustainable governance of AFL.
Lerner, Amy M.; Zuluaga, Andrés Felipe; Chará, Julián; Etter, Andrés; Searchinger, Timothy
A growing population with increasing consumption of milk and dairy require more agricultural output in the coming years, which potentially competes with forests and other natural habitats. This issue is particularly salient in the tropics, where deforestation has traditionally generated cattle pastures and other commodity crops such as corn and soy. The purpose of this article is to review the concepts and discussion associated with reconciling food production and conservation, and in particular with regards to cattle production, including the concepts of land-sparing and land-sharing. We then present these concepts in the specific context of Colombia, where there are efforts to increase both cattle production and protect tropical forests, in order to discuss the potential for landscape planning for sustainable cattle production. We outline a national planning approach, which includes disaggregating the diverse cattle sector and production types, identifying biophysical, and economic opportunities and barriers for sustainable intensification in cattle ranching, and analyzing areas suitable for habitat restoration and conservation, in order to plan for both land-sparing and land-sharing strategies. This approach can be used in other contexts across the world where there is a need to incorporate cattle production into national goals for carbon sequestration and habitat restoration and conservation.
Kusters, Koen; Buck, Louise; de Graaf, Maartje; Minang, Peter; van Oosten, Cora; Zagt, Roderick
Integrated landscape initiatives typically aim to strengthen landscape governance by developing and facilitating multi-stakeholder platforms. These are institutional coordination mechanisms that enable discussions, negotiations, and joint planning between stakeholders from various sectors in a given landscape. Multi-stakeholder platforms tend to involve complex processes with diverse actors, whose objectives and focus may be subjected to periodic re-evaluation, revision or reform. In this article we propose a participatory method to aid planning, monitoring, and evaluation of such platforms, and we report on experiences from piloting the method in Ghana and Indonesia. The method is comprised of three components. The first can be used to look ahead, identifying priorities for future multi-stakeholder collaboration in the landscape. It is based on the identification of four aspirations that are common across multi-stakeholder platforms in integrated landscape initiatives. The second can be used to look inward. It focuses on the processes within an existing multi-stakeholder platform in order to identify areas for possible improvement. The third can be used to look back, identifying the main outcomes of an existing platform and comparing them to the original objectives. The three components can be implemented together or separately. They can be used to inform planning and adaptive management of the platform, as well as to demonstrate performance and inform the design of new interventions.
Full Text Available The impact of the transport sector is in the range of 20%-40% in terms of consumption of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases and particulate matter. In this context, policies aimed at reducing these effects are very important. Many urban areas are trying to adopt planning strategies aimed to a sustainable use of resources often referred to as sustainable mobility. These policies are very different in terms of costs and expected benefits, and the effects of these policies and their combinations are difficult to anticipate on a purely intuitive basis and sometimes the end effect could be contrary to intuitive expectations (e.g. policies aimed to reduce pollution, ending up in increasing it. In this context, the concept of eco-rational planning assumes a central role. This means identifying the right mixture of interventions to be implemented on the transport system that is: rational for the transport system (e.g. reduction in terms of congestion, traffic accidents, travel time and sustainable for people’s health and for the environmental (e.g. emissions reduction and requires minimal economic resources (e.g. lower monetary cost per unit of CO2 saved. The paper discusses the importance of rational decisions in transport planning.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Planning Implementation Team (PIT) was chartered to address Recommendation 1 (Incorporate the lessons learned from our first round of CCPs and HMPs into the next...
Windt, v.d. H.J.; Swart, J.A.A.; Keulartz, F.W.J.
this study we examine the relevance and dynamics of views on nature in nature and landscape planning. In our conceptual framework we distinguish between three views on nature: a wilderness, an arcadian and a functional valuation approach to nature, each related to specific ecological, aesthetic and
De Montis, Andrea, E-mail: email@example.com [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Ledda, Antonio, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Caschili, Simone, E-mail: email@example.com [UCL QASER Lab and Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 7HB (United Kingdom); Ganciu, Amedeo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Barra, Mario, E-mail: email@example.com [Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione Ingegneria del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy)
The Italian administrative bodies and planning agencies have embraced with mixed feedbacks the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) through the European Directive 2001/42/EC. Concurrently, regional and local spatial planning practice have been characterized by a new approach inspired by landscape planning. The Italian region of Sardinia has been one of the pioneering administrative bodies in the Italian and European arena that has adopted landscape principles for the construction of its regional master plan (PPR, Piano Paesaggistico Regionale). Municipalities are now carrying out the review of their master plans to the PPR's prescriptions and indications. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to assess the level of SEA implementation in the municipal master plans of Sardinia, six years after the approval of the PPR. Rooted in the SEA international literature we construct a modular and adaptable on-line survey for officers involved in the review of municipal master plans. The results show that many Sardinian municipalities have not reviewed their master plans to the PPR's regulations yet and only a few municipalities have started this review process according to the SEA procedure. - Highlights: • We study strategic environmental assessment (SEA) effectiveness on land use plans • Four SEA implementation key issues are drawn from international literature • Data collection has included an on-line survey with close and open questions • Results indicate that SEA has been poorly implemented in landscape and master plans • Weak aspects include planning alternatives, financial resources, and monitoring.
The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide, harmonise and shape changes which are brought about by social, economic and environmental processes. In this respect we can consider urbanism as an object or goal-oriented interdisciplinary approac...
Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Mels, Adriaan R; Keesman, Karel J; Rijnaarts, Huub H M
Due to fast urbanization and increasing living standards, the environmental sustainability of our global society becomes more and more questionable. In this historical review we investigate the role of resources management (RM) and urban planning (UP) and propose ways for integration in sustainable development (SD). RM follows the principle of circular causation, and we reflect on to what extent RM has been an element for urban planning. Since the existence of the first settlements, a close relationship between RM, urbanization and technological development has been present. RM followed the demand for urban resources like water, energy, and food. In history, RM has been fostered by innovation and technology developments and has driven population growth and urbanization. Recent massive resource demand, especially in relation to energy and material flows, has altered natural ecosystems and has resulted in environmental degradation. UP has developed separately in response to different questions. UP followed the demand for improved living conditions, often associated to safety, good manufacturing and trading conditions and appropriate sanitation and waste management. In history UP has been a developing research area, especially since the industrial era and the related strong urbanization at the end of the 18th century. UP responded to new emerging problems in urban areas and became increasingly complex. Nowadays, UP has to address many objectives that are often conflicting, including, the urban sustainability. Our current urban un-sustainability is rooted in massive resource consumption and waste production beyond natural limits, and the absence of flows from waste to resources. Therefore, sustainable urban development requires integration of RM into UP. We propose new ways to this integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen
A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M; Healey, John Robert
Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective of smallholder farmers, the factors that facilitate their adoption of tree farming, and the potential of landscape-scale approaches to foster sustainable land management. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisals, focus group discussions, field observations, semi-structured interviews of farm households and key informant interviews of state agricultural officers. Land at both study sites is typically fragmented due to conversion of forest to agriculture and community settlement. Local land use challenges are associated with pressures of population increase, poverty, deforestation, shortage of forest products, lack of community-scale management, weak tenure, underdeveloped markets, government decision-making with insufficient involvement of local people, and poor extension services. Despite these challenges, smallholder tree farming is found to be successful from farmers' perspectives. However, constraints of local food crop cultivation traditions, insecure land tenure, lack of capital, lack of knowledge, lack of technical assistance, and perceived risk of investing in land due to local conflict (in Bangladesh) limit farmers' willingness to adopt this land use alternative. Overcoming these barriers to adoption will require management at a landscape scale, including elements of both segregation and integration of land uses, supported by competent government policies and local communities having sufficiently high social capital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greenways are systems and/or networks of protected lands that are managed for multiple uses including: nature protection, biodiversity management, water resources, recreation, and cultural/historic resource protection. Greenway planning is defined here as a
Greenways are systems and/or networks of protected lands that are managed for multiple uses including: nature protection, biodiversity management, water resources, recreation, and cultural/historic resource protection. Greenway planning is defined here as a
Giampaolo Maria Cogo
Full Text Available Moved by Pope Frances’ urgent call to protect our common home by dealing with the environmental challenge and its human roots to achieve sustainable and integral development, the historical-legislative and institutional recognition act was drawn up on the protection and valorization of cultural-landscape-environmental heritage, matrix of the progress of civilization outlined in the fundamental principles of the Italian Constitution in the “cultural programme” focused on the relationship between cultureperson and environment-person. It recalls the action of the institutions to protect nature and the ecological-environmental balance and the activities of international organizations to safeguard nature from human actions. They are a sign of the critical issues of codification in the field of cultural, landscape and environmental heritage (2006-2009 due to a departure from natural legal right (jus envisaged as a moral law for enjoyment, compatible with a loving, responsible and prudent use, aimed at guaranteeing an integral sustainable development for future generations. In losing the natural moral law, one encounters the decisive factor in the fall of legality, with serious consequences for heritage protection and people’s growth, based on shared standards. A glimmer of hope can be discerned in the community/EU legislation to harmonize the protection and valorization of the environment according to criteria of substantive law, where the primary aims for the guarantee of future generations lead to regulatory processes anchored to the ethics of natural moral law, under the bulwark of true cooperation and good faith, in a strict justicial and sanctioning system, tempered by the use of fairness when the general interest of the common good prevails.
Linda R. Klein; William G. Hendrix; Virginia I. Lohr; Jolie B. Kaytes; Rodney D. Sayler; Mark E. Swanson; William J. Elliot; John P. Reganold
Inspired by international escalation in agricultural sustainability debates, we explored the promise of landscape-scale conservation buffers to mitigate environmental damage, improve ecological function, and enhance scenic quality. Although the ecological benefits of buffer vegetation are well established by plot- and field-scale research, buffer adoption by farmers is...
Martínez-Graña, A M; Silva, P G; Goy, J L; Elez, J; Valdés, V; Zazo, C
Geomorphology is fundamental to landscape analysis, as it represents the main parameter that determines the land spatial configuration and facilitates reliefs classification. The goal of this article is the elaboration of thematic maps that enable the determination of different landscape units and elaboration of quality and vulnerability synthetic maps for landscape fragility assessment prior to planning human activities. For two natural spaces, the final synthetic maps were created with direct (visual-perceptual features) and indirect (cartographic models and 3D simulations) methods from thematic maps with GIS technique. This enabled the creation of intrinsic and extrinsic landscape quality maps showing sectors needing most preservation, as well as intrinsic and extrinsic landscape fragility maps (environment response capacity or vulnerability towards human actions). The resulting map shows absorption capacity for areas of maximum and/or minimum human intervention. Sectors of high absorption capacity (minimum need for preservation) are found where the incidence of human intervention is minimum: escarpment bottoms, fitted rivers, sinuous high lands with thick vegetation coverage and valley interiors, or those areas with high landscape quality, low fragility and high absorption capacity, whose average values are found across lower hillsides of some valleys, and sectors with low absorption capacity (areas needing most preservation) found mainly in the inner parts of natural spaces: peaks and upper hillsides, synclines flanks and scattered areas. For the integral analysis of landscape, a mapping methodology has been set. It comprises a valid criterion for rational and sustainable planning, management and protection of natural spaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paul Brouha; Elisabeth Grinspoon
The USDA Forest Service is among the pioneers incorporating the Montreal Process criteria and indicators into its programs. Among its initial efforts is the adaptation of a criteria and indicators framework for its national strategic plan, which is the primary instrument for setting the course to achieve the Forest Service mission of sustaining the nationâs forests and...
Romeo Cătălin CREŢU
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce the certification procedure of ecological tourism as well as the criteria that have to be fulfilled by the lodging units whose desire is to voluntarily adhere to this new form of tourism. In Romania, the Certifying System in Ecotourism is used by the AER (Romanian Association of Ecotourism and that adjusts the international experience into the national context. This is developed as the same as the Accreditation Program in Nature and Ecotourism promoted by the Australian Association of Ecotourism (NEAP is the first accreditation system in ecological tourism and in conformity with Nature’s Best of the Swedish Association of Ecotourism (the first accreditation system in Ecotourism in the northern hemisphere. An important element in the certification procedure consists of drawing up a plan of sustained development which has to respond to the entirely certification requirements. The hereby study allows to see a model of sustained development plan that maybe used by managers and directors of lodging units which wanted to acquire this certification of tourism.
Ilknur Turkseven Dogrusoy
Full Text Available The "speed" concept, as being one of the significant phenomena that shaped industrial cities, creates a significant obstacle for sustainability. The speed that was gained with mechanization and industrialization resulted in disintegration in urban environment, disrupted the relation between place and the individual, and caused the rapid transformation of cultural and environmental values that once belonged to the place. At this point, "slowing down" emerges as a significant concept in the quest for sustainability and for regaining the relationship between the urban environment and the individual. This study puts forward Slow Urbanism as an alternative approach in sustainable planning as it forms the antithesis of "speed" and confronts the deformations of global culture shaped by fast consumption. Following a brief discussion of the transformations caused by "speed" in built environments; this study aims to draw attention to new challenges of "Slow Urbanization" model by highlighting its adaptability and flexibility through focusing on three different slow city experiences: Midden-Delfland (The Netherlands, Hersbruck (Germany and Seferihisar (Turkey. The evaluation of these cases displayed that the adaptability and flexibility of the model makes it unique as it can be implemented in settlements that have different characteristics. The findings also revealed that the model focuses on originality, diversity, heterogeneity, a sense of belonging and appropriation instead of homogeneity, monotony, and uniformity. It replaces the "destroy and construct" philosophy of consumption culture with "re-explore and reconstruct" approach and in this way encourages cities to use and develop their distinctive social, economic and cultural potentials.
Full Text Available The trend of renovate residential houses especially the interior of the house has become a common phenomenon for homeowners nowadays in Malaysia. This scenario is quiet concern because sometimes no modifications to comply with the law and the guidelines set by the government housing. Modifications with not done properly can cause injury and harm to families and the people around. To reduce this problem, the concept of sustainable inner walls with flexible floor plan should be incorporated in every house in Malaysia. This is because the wall is the basic structure of a building and usually serves as the border, supporting structures and dividing the space with another space. Wall also causes an increase of the price of a house. This is due to the increase in raw material costs and labor costs, land subsidence have to bear by the developer. The increasing in house prices is causing among Malaysians, especially young executives cannot afford to buy their first home. To reduce the price of the home, reduction in construction interior wall in wet construction should be done and replaced with the sustainable inner wall. This sustainable inner wall also can save the space and the owner simplify can added or reduced the room according their need without spending too much money for renovation in the future.
Tadić Snežana R.
Full Text Available The main objective of city logistics system is sustainability, or efficiency, wide acceptability, environmental protection and safety. On the other hand, the city logistics system is very complex. It is characterized by a large number of participants, with different, usually conflicting goals and complex interactions. In addition, the system of city logistics is part of a wider system of the town, the region, and there are complex interactions with the external environment. The system depends on the specific characteristics of the city, affects other forms of urban mobility and is subject to the policies of higher rank (regional, national policy. Given the exceptional complexity, sustainable city logistics solution requires an integrated approach in all phases of planning, from stages of problem identification, definition of alternative solutions and effects assessment, to implementation and by exploitation. In this way, the solution of city logistics is becoming widely accepted and not only affects the efficiency of the socio-economic system of town, already on the sustainability of the whole region.
Migdalas, Athanasios; Rassia, Stamatina; Pardalos, Panos
Sustainable development within urban and rural areas, transportation systems, logistics, supply chain management, urban health, social services, and architectural design are taken into consideration in the cohesive network models provided in this book. The ideas, methods, and models presented consider city landscapes and quality of life conditions based on mathematical network models and optimization. Interdisciplinary Works from prominent researchers in mathematical modeling, optimization, architecture, engineering, and physics are featured in this volume to promote health and well-being through design. Specific topics include: - Current technology that form the basis of future living in smart cities - Interdisciplinary design and networking of large-scale urban systems - Network communication and route traffic optimization - Carbon dioxide emission reduction - Closed-loop logistics chain management and operation ...
Full Text Available Sustainable development is one of the great challenges of 21st century for various disciplines including city and regional planning. Studies showed that city plans fail to promote sustainable development, design professionals have limited understanding of sustainability issues, and curriculums in design education schools do not put the necessary emphasis on sustainability concepts. However, no study has tested whether planning students’ have a different perception and understanding of sustainable development than other students. Thus, this study aims to understand attitudes of planning students towards sustainable development and compare planning students’ and other students’ knowledge about sustainable development. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, which asked questions about perception and attitudes towards sustainable development, source of information to improve sustainability knowledge, and level of knowledge for general, legal and architectural aspects of sustainability. One hundred ten volunteers (79 planning students, 31 general students participated in the study. Results showed that students thought that very little sustainable practice appears to be undertaken. Although, planning students thought that the sensitivity to sustainability determines an important percentage of their final grades in a studio project, they reported not using many of the sustainability principles in studios. In addition, planning students reported that they improve their understanding of sustainable development via classes, scientific articles and books. On the other hand, other students reported that they rely on visual and written media to improve their understanding of sustainable development. Despite those differences in sources of information, results showed that, planning students’ level of knowledge (for general, legal and architectural aspects of sustainability was not different than that of other students. In conclusion, although
Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial
Azpeitia Santander, Arturo; Azkarate Garai-Olaun, Agustín
Urban areas in historic cities resemble a living organism that evolves in parallel to social transformation processes, shaping the material substrate that expresses identity and collective memory. In the twenty-first century, exponential population growth, globalization and the information society have resulted in many of these socio-economic processes accelerating, with consequences that we are not yet able to discern in their entirety. In this context, cities need to adapt to the general dynamics of urban development by incorporating the environmental, economic and social aspects of the "sustainability paradigm". With good planning, urban heritage is a key sustainable resource that needs promoting as part of the existing territorial competitiveness in a scenario marked by an increase in rivalry between cities. This requires the development of a conceptual framework that, based on a global, holistic and integrative approach, covers equity and social justice, respect for human rights, the gender perspective, public health and environmental quality, among other aspects. In this sense, the purpose of this paper is to study the concept of landscape applied to urban planning in greater depth, paying special attention to the analysis of the notion of Historic Urban Landscapes from a critical point of view, since the economic pressures arising from the reality of today's globalized world pose a serious threat that hinders their custody and protection, complicating this new comprehensive approach: how to bring this new systemic and transversal concept to the current regulatory framework in order to achieve real legal protection and effective governance models in urban areas? What should be the acceptable limits to ensure that "managing this change" does not result in public spaces being at the service of the interests of financial capitalism? These, along with many other questions, make the work of the professionals in charge of urban conservation more challenging in
M. H. M. Yatim
Full Text Available Within few years before, the urge to implement the marine spatial planning is due to increasing numbers of marine activities that will lead into uncertainties of rights, restrictions and responsibilities of the maritime nations. Marine authorities in this situation that deal with national rights and legislations are the government institutions that engage with marine spatial information. There are several elements to be considered when dealing with the marine spatial planning; which is institutional sustainability governance. Providing the importance of marine spatial planning towards sustainable marine spatial governance, the focus should highlight the role marine institutions towards sustainable marine plan. The iterative process of marine spatial planning among marine institutions is important as the spatial information governance is scattered from reflected rights, restrictions and responsibilities of marine government institutions. Malaysia is one of the maritime nations that conjures the initial step towards establishing the sustainable marine spatial planning. In order to have sustainable institutions in marine spatial planning process, it involves four main stages; planning phase, plan evaluation phase, implementation phase and post implementation phase. Current situation has witnessed the unclear direction and role of marine government institutions to manage the marine spatial information. This review paper is focusing on the institutional sustainability upon interaction of marine government institutions in the marine spatial planning process based on Institutional Analysis Framework. The outcome of the integration of institutional sustainability and marine spatial planning process will propose a framework of marine institutional sustainable plan.
"Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape" with the sub-title "Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain" focuses on the role of
"Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape" with the sub-title "Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain" focuses on the role of
Full Text Available Windbreaks often form networks of forest habitats that improve connectivity and thus conserve biodiversity, but little is known of such effects in the tropics. We determined bird species richness and community composition in windbreaks composed of remnant native vegetation amongst tea plantations (natural windbreaks, and compared it with the surrounding primary forests. Fifty-one, ten-minute point counts were conducted in each habitat type over three days. Despite the limited sampling period, our bird inventories in both natural windbreaks and primary forests were nearly complete, as indicated by bootstrap true richness estimator. Bird species richness and abundance between primary forests and windbreaks were similar, however a difference in bird community composition was observed. Abundances of important functional groups such as frugivores and insectivores did not vary between habitat types but nectarivores were more abundant in windbreaks, potentially as a result of the use of windbreaks as traveling routes, foraging and nesting sites. This preliminary study suggests that natural windbreaks may be important habitats for the persistence of bird species in a production landscape. However, a better understanding of the required physical and compositional characteristics for windbreaks to sustain bird communities is needed for effective conservation management.
Sreekar, Rachakonda; Mohan, Anand; Das, Sandeep; Agarwal, Prerna; Vivek, Ramachandran
Windbreaks often form networks of forest habitats that improve connectivity and thus conserve biodiversity, but little is known of such effects in the tropics. We determined bird species richness and community composition in windbreaks composed of remnant native vegetation amongst tea plantations (natural windbreaks), and compared it with the surrounding primary forests. Fifty-one, ten-minute point counts were conducted in each habitat type over three days. Despite the limited sampling period, our bird inventories in both natural windbreaks and primary forests were nearly complete, as indicated by bootstrap true richness estimator. Bird species richness and abundance between primary forests and windbreaks were similar, however a difference in bird community composition was observed. Abundances of important functional groups such as frugivores and insectivores did not vary between habitat types but nectarivores were more abundant in windbreaks, potentially as a result of the use of windbreaks as traveling routes, foraging and nesting sites. This preliminary study suggests that natural windbreaks may be important habitats for the persistence of bird species in a production landscape. However, a better understanding of the required physical and compositional characteristics for windbreaks to sustain bird communities is needed for effective conservation management.
Tawil, N. M.; Husaini, H. A.; Ani, A. I.; Basri, H.; Saleh, R. M.
The rises of house price in the market is so drastic that it effects the younger generation nowadays especially young executives and young couples who could not afford to buy their first home. The factors that determine the house price presumably are the interior and exterior structural of the house itself. So to lessen the house price, we have to minimize the usage of wet construction thus the idea of having a sustainable green inner-wall implemented into the house with a flexible floor plan. This concept is user-friendly as it is built on needs and the ownership's affordability. They can design the interior of the house however they want with using minimal cost because it does not involve wet construction.
DeAngelo, B. J.; Reidmiller, D.; Lipschultz, F.; Cloyd, E. T.
One of the four main objectives of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's (USGCRP's) Strategic Plan is to "Conduct Sustained Assessments", which seeks to build a process that synthesizes and advances the state of scientific knowledge on global change, develops future scenarios and potential impacts, and evaluates how effectively science is being and can be used to inform and support the Nation's response to climate change. To do so, USGCRP strives to establish a standing capacity to conduct national climate assessments with sectoral and regional information to evaluate climate risks and opportunities, and to inform decision-making, especially with regard to resiliency planning and adaptation measures. Building on the success of the 3rd National Climate Assessment (NCA) (2014), we discuss the range of USGCRP activities that embody the sustained assessment concept. Special reports, such as the recent Climate and Human Health Assessment and upcoming Climate Science Special Report, fill gaps in our understanding and provide crucial building blocks for next NCA report (NCA4). To facilitate the use of consistent assumptions across NCA4, new scenario products for climate, population, and land use will be made available through initiatives such as NOAA's Climate Resilience Toolkit. NCA4 will be informed by user engagement to advance the customization of knowledge. The report will strive to advance our ability to quantify various risks, monetize certain impacts, and communicate the benefits (i.e., avoided impacts) of various mitigation pathways. NCAnet (a national network of climate-interested stakeholders) continues to grow and foster collaborations across levels of governance and within civil society. Finally, USGCRP continues to actively engage with other assessment processes, at international, state, city, and tribal levels, to exchange ideas and to facilitate the potential for "linked" assessments across spatial scales.
Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard
Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.
McCarthy, Kathryn A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Busby, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Barnard, Cathy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.
George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy
Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.
Kerstens, S M; de Mes, T Z D; Lue, B
China is undergoing rapid urbanization and economic development. This requires a new approach on spatial planning and environmental infrastructure. In the presented project an example of this approach is given for the city of Changzhou (China) where a new residential area (Qinglong district) will be developed for 100.000 inhabitants. Key issue within the formulation of sustainable sanitation concepts is the integration and management of water, waste and energy in such a way that they will become beneficial to the establishment of the envisaged green city. Starting point was the closing of material cycles focusing on possibilities to recover and reuse valuable resources and energy from "waste" produced in an urban setting. Four different scenarios focusing on water, nutrient and energy recovery were compared with the baseline wastewater management practice. Besides environmental benefits, the economical benefits of sustainable sanitation concepts are attractive, the break even point with the baseline scenario, is already after 5 years, provided that recovered resources will be sold for a marketable price. We believe that presented concepts are applicable for a wide range of new urban development initiatives in China and similar rapidly developing densely populated regions worldwide.
Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen
transport raises important questions concerning the organization of national, planning processes integrating sustainability. In Denmark the effectiveness of the previous ‘ad hoc’ approach has been questioned, and some planning innovations have been adopted, like longer time frames, fixed planning cadences...... and coherent, strategic analyses. Internationally, transdisciplinary research on national, sustainable transport planning is limited and it is not established as a coherent field of research. The ambition of this paper is to contribute to this new field of research by establishing understandings...... and definitions of national sustainable transport planning. This will be done by distinguishing between existing national transport planning frameworks; those frameworks that attempt to incorporate sustainability; and a more elaborate and or ideal concept of national sustainable transport planning. Selected...
Zakka Solomon Dyachia
Full Text Available Land use, urban development and environmental sustainability have become an interesting research arena as urban development would change the city landscape as well as generate environmental degradation. This paper looks at the missing link between land use planning and urban growth, and it implications for environmental sustainability in a selected sub Saharan Africa city of Kaduna, Nigeria. We assessed urban growth from historical GIS data of the city to evaluate the urban expansion. At the same time, regression analysis was used to established relationship between carbon emission and traffic volume in the city. A city characterized by weak land use planning has created a gap leading to uncoordinated land use planning and uncontrolled physical growth. A steady increase of built up area of 8,400.31 hectares in 1982 to an area of 17,120.5 hectares in 2015 can be a reflection of the presence of uncontrolled urban expansion. The lack of coordination between land use planning and urban growth has resulted to environmental ills within the city. One among the ills, is ubiquitous traffic congestion within the city leading to high carbon (CO2 emission. Findings shows a strong connection between emission and volume of traffic. In addition to findings, is the decline of green areas in the city. By this findings, it is suggested that the modern concept of land use planning which embraces flexibility, public participation and integration of environmental issues should be entrenched and allow to take the lead in the process of urban growth.
Regina Maria Martins de Araujo Klein
Full Text Available The technologies and services applied in a virtual environment offer alternative inclusion of citizens in the urban scenes qualification process, it is therefore desirable for the prevention of lack of articulation of landscape theme in the public administration sphere. Given these assumptions, the central question of the research focused on the interpretation of the incorporation possibilities real theme and factual participation of the population in municipal management through technological information resources. In this context, the main research objective is to analyze the potential of participatory planning of the landscape in the digital city. Thus, it is supported by documentary study on the reality of Curitiba, State of Parana. The observation unit covered the intervening legislation in green areas composition, defined as relevant clippings of landscape components of the urban area. Legal standards were associated with both qualitative and quantitative parameters of morphological and compositional elements as the interface with the community perspectives. The results demonstrate the lack of effective integration of urban dwellers in the current planning processes of these spaces in Curitiba. Notwithstanding the procedures adopted limitations, the conclusion indicates existence of capacity expansion in this connection within the digital city. This fact diagnosed by identifying enhancement opportunities of citizen’s virtual involvement and technological diversity options for this purpose.
Murtha, T., Jr.; Schroth, O.; Orland, B.; Goldberg, L.; Mazurczyk, T.
As we increasingly embrace deep shale gas deposits to meet global energy demands new and dispersed local and regional policy and planning challenges emerge. Even in regions with long histories of energy extraction, such as coal, shale gas and the infrastructure needed to produce the gas and transport it to market offers uniquely complex transformations in land use and landcover not previously experienced. These transformations are fast paced, dispersed and can overwhelm local and regional planning and regulatory processes. Coupled to these transformations is a structural confounding factor. While extraction and testing are carried out locally, regulation and decision-making is multilayered, often influenced by national and international factors. Using a geodesign framework, this paper applies a set of geospatial landscape ecological planning tools in two shale gas settings. First, we describe and detail a series of ongoing studies and tools that we have developed for communities in the Marcellus Shale region of the eastern United States, specifically the northern tier of Pennsylvania. Second, we apply a subset of these tools to potential gas development areas of the Fylde region in Lancashire, United Kingdom. For the past five years we have tested, applied and refined a set of place based and data driven geospatial models for forecasting, envisioning, analyzing and evaluating shale gas activities in northern Pennsylvania. These models are continuously compared to important landscape ecological planning challenges and priorities in the region, e.g. visual and cultural resource preservation. Adapting and applying these tools to a different landscape allow us to not only isolate and define important regulatory and policy exigencies in each specific setting, but also to develop and refine these models for broader application. As we continue to explore increasingly complex energy solutions globally, we need an equally complex comparative set of landscape ecological
Eddy-Miller, C.; Caldwell, R.; Wheeler, J.; McCarthy, P.; Binley, A. M.; Constantz, J. E.; Stonestrom, D. A.
Anthropogenically impacted landscapes constitute rising proportions of the Earth’s surface that are characterized by generally elevated nutrient and sediment loadings concurrent with increased consumptive water withdrawals. In recent years a growing number of hydraulically engineered riparian habitat restoration projects have attempted to ameliorate negative impacts of land use on groundwater-surface water systems resulting, e.g., from agricultural practices and urban development. Often the nature of groundwater-surface water interactions in pre- and minimally altered systems is poorly known, making it difficult to assess the impacts of land use and restoration projects on groundwater sustainability. Traditional assessments of surface water parameters (flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, biotic composition, etc.) can be complemented by hydraulic and thermal measurements to better understand the important role played by groundwater-surface water interactions. Hydraulic and thermal measurements are usually limited to point samples, however, making non-invasive and spatially extensive geophysical characterizations an attractive additional tool. Groundwater-surface water interactions along the Smith River, a tributary to the Missouri River in Montana, and Fish Creek and Flat Creek, tributaries to the Snake River in Wyoming, are being examined using a combination of hydraulic measurements, thermal tracing, and electrical-property imaging. Ninety-two direct-current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization cross sections were obtained at stream transects covering a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings ranging from shallow bedrock to thick alluvial sequences, nature of groundwater-surface water interactions (always gaining, always losing, or seasonally varying) and anthropogenic impacts (minimal low-intensity agriculture to major landscape engineering, including channel reconstruction). DC resistivity and induced polarization delineated mutually distinct features
Tatu, Mihai; Niculae, Lucica; Popa, Răzvan-Gabriel
Buzău Land is an aspiring Geopark in Romania, located in the mountainous region of the southern part of the Carpathian Bend Area. From a geologic point of view, the East Carpathians represent a segment of the Alpine - Carpathian orogene, and they are composed of numerous tectonic units put up throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic orogenesis. They represent a result of two compressional phases, (1) during Late Cretaceous and (2) during Early and Middle Miocene that were responsible for thrusting of internal units onto external units. The latter cover tectonically the Foredeep folded deposits. Landslides are one of the most widespread and dangerous natural hazards in this region, disrupting access routes and damaging property and habitats at least twice per year, in the rainy seasons. This hazard induces deep changes in the landscape and has serious economic consequences related to the damaging of infrastructure and isolation of localities. The proximity to the Vrancea seismogenic zone increases the risk of landslide triggering. A first step in observing the space and time tendency and amplitude of landslides, in order to distinguish the main vulnerabilities and estimate the risk, is to produce an inventory map. We shall present a landslide inventory map for the Buzău Land territory (~1036 km2), which is the primary base of information for further discussions regarding this phenomenon and an essential tool in observing the development of mass-wasting processes and in landscape planning. The inventory map is in accordance with the recommendations of the IAEG Commission on Landslides and other Mass-Movement, applied across the EU. Based on this work, we can already draw some remarks: - The Geopark territory mostly covers two major tectonic units of the East Carpathians: the external nappes and the folded foredeep; areas with landslide potential are common, but by far the highest landslide frequency is observed in the foredeep. This is related to the soft, argillaceous
proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans. For the LWRS Program, sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer-than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets with respect to long-term operations: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the industry to implement technology to exceed the performance of the current labor-intensive business model.
Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume
Fragmented structures create metaphorical wounds in the landscape altering the ecological and cultural processes associated with it, as it can be seen in many mine areas. Therefore it is advisable to organize the reclamation plan in the beginning of mine operating to provide spatial and functional integration of the landscape based on scientific arguments and with all possible legal and administrative means, which is generally the case of the Strategic Environmental Assessment. However, there are many abandon mine areas where no reclamation plan has been carried out, such as the case of Mining District of Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Unión, SE Spain. In these cases it is vital to respond in a sustainable manner for healing the landscape wounds of post-mining activities. Reclamation activities of a post-mining district includes not only the mine soils also all land uses around them, for this reason on necessary create practical solutions for returning the functions of ecologic and cultural processes of the area. Greenway approach shows the main veins which are crucial for keeping alive and sustaining the mentioned processes of the area. Therefore the main objectives of this study are to 1) develop an integrated local greenway network to be able to preserve significant resources and values of the district, and to 2) develop this greenway network as a part of reclamation process for degraded areas. Landscape assessments revealed the most valuable and potential connectivity resources of the area. These clustering and linear patterns of resource concentrations include mountain range and valleys, natural drainage network, legally protected areas and cultural-historical resources. Conservation areas, cultural-educational resources of post-mining activities and the riverbeds have been the main building stones for the greenway corridor. The multifunctional greenway approach serves as landscape reclamation and planning tool in a degraded area by showing the priority zones for
Álvarez H. Carlos G.
Full Text Available Este ensayo examina la politica petrolera y de recursos naturales del Plan de Desarrollo. Muestra, en particular, que las declaraciones de 'sostenibilidad' son inconsistentes con las politicas que se adelantan y que se trata de una propuesta de incrementos desaforados de la produccion petrolera bajo la mirada de la economia estandar. El 'desarrollo sostenible' resulta siendo tarea de las generaciones futuras, desconociendo el mandato constitucional. Tambien discute la propuesta de reforma a la ley de regalias implicita en el articulo 60 del proyecto de ley de plan de desarrollo y muestra que se emplean indicadores de competitividad manipulados para subestimar la competitividad colombiana. De acuerdo con el analisis efectuado por el Ministerio de Minas no parece razonable aprobar esa reforma si se trata de mejorar la competitividad financiera. En suma, la actual politica petrolera no introduce elementos de democracia y sostenibilidad.This essay examines the oil and natural resource policies of the Development Plan. In particular, it shows that its declarations of 'sustainability' are inconsistent with the policies it puts forward and that it is really a proposal for boundless increases in oil production under the gaze of the standard economy. 'Sustainable development' turns out to be the task of future generations, ignoring the constitutional mandate.
It also discusses the proposal for reform of the law on payments for oil and mineral exploitation implicit in Article 60 of the Plan's law proposal and shows that the competitiveness indicators it uses are manipulated to underestimate Colombian competi tiveness. In accordance with the analysis carried out by the Ministry of Mines, it does not appear reasonable to approve this reform if the purpose is to improve financial competitiveness. In sum, the current oil policy does not introduce elements of democracy or of sustainability.
US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Tapping Site Planning and Design Kevin S. Holden, RLA, ASLA Landscape Architecture Community of Practice...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Corps of Engineers,Community of Practice Leader for Landscape ,Rock Island,IL,61204-2004 8...STRONG® Site Planning and Design 1. How is Site Planning and Design foundational to sustainable development? 2. What role does the Landscape Architect
Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Ponce-Ortega, José María, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Betzabe González-Campos, J. [Institute of Chemical and Biological Researches, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Serna-González, Medardo [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Adjunct Faculty at the Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.
Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle
Ownership parcelization of forest land and divestiture of industrial forest land is increasing throughout the U.S. This may affect (positively or negatively) the ability of forested landscapes to produce benefits that society values, such as fiber, biodiversity and recreation. We used a timber harvest simulator and neutral model landscapes to systematically study how...
Full Text Available : http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss2/art6 1CSIR; 2Albany Museum Insight Use of Landscape-level River Signatures in Conservation Planning: a South African Case Study Dirk Roux1, Ferdy de Moor2, Jim Cambray2, and Helen Barber-James2... biota (Cowling and Pressey Conservation Ecology 6(2): 6. http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss2/art6 The most significant river system that flows though the GAENP is the Sundays River and its tributaries. Darlington Dam is the largest man...
Full Text Available Indonesia's 1999-2004 decentralization reforms created opportunities for land-use planning that reflected local conditions and local people's needs. We report on seven years of work in the District of Malinau in Indonesian Borneo that attempted to reconnect government land-use plans to local people's values, priorities, and practices. Four principles are proposed to support more interactive planning between government and local land users: Support local groups to make their local knowledge, experience, and aspirations more visible in formal land-use planning and decision making; create channels of communication, feedback, and transparency to support the adaptive capacities and accountability of district leadership and institutions; use system frameworks to understand the drivers of change and resulting scenarios and trade-offs; and link analysis and intervention across multiple levels, from the local land user to the district and national levels. We describe the application of these principles in Malinau and the resulting challenges.
Grindsted, Thomas Skou
While a number of studies have explored campus planning and higher education in the context of regional sustainable initiatives, little emphasis has been put into the analysis of education for sustainability across scale. This article presents an empirical analysis of education for sustainability...... related to regional planning. The study combines multiscalar governance on RSI with a research project of HEI students’ opinion on sustainability competences. Drawing upon a sample of 398 respondents the survey is supplemented with a discussion on the nexuses and linkages between business, education......, environmental and regional development plans. The results from the survey illustrate that students generally value sustainability competences and that they consider such competences important to possess in order to become attractive in future labour markets. By relating student perception to regional climate...
Concepts of sustainability are rarely clearly defined and their applications often seem abstract. Because these concepts must address systems scale, even simple strategies often seem complex, abstract, and overwhelming. The opportunity to apply a theory for sustainable developmen...
Amato, Nancy M; Dill, Ken A; Song, Guang
We investigate a novel approach for studying the kinetics of protein folding. Our framework has evolved from robotics motion planning techniques called probabilistic roadmap methods (PRMs) that have been applied in many diverse fields with great success. In our previous work, we presented our PRM-based technique and obtained encouraging results studying protein folding pathways for several small proteins. In this paper, we describe how our motion planning framework can be used to study protein folding kinetics. In particular, we present a refined version of our PRM-based framework and describe how it can be used to produce potential energy landscapes, free energy landscapes, and many folding pathways all from a single roadmap which is computed in a few hours on a desktop PC. Results are presented for 14 proteins. Our ability to produce large sets of unrelated folding pathways may potentially provide crucial insight into some aspects of folding kinetics, such as proteins that exhibit both two-state and three-state kinetics that are not captured by other theoretical techniques.
In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their preferences generate the market demands for real estate and transport, which are the basis to promote sustainable planning in the market. To achieve sustainability goals in China, planners need to adopt ...
Rapoport, E. R.
Recent years have seen a growth in proposals around the globe to develop new urban areas incorporating ambitious sustainability objectives. These projects are often planned by a small, elite group of international architecture, engineering and planning consultants, the Global Intelligence Corps (GIC). This dissertation describes and conceptualizes how and why urban planning ideas travel internationally, using sustainable urbanism as a case study. The dissertation draws on qualitative research...
Full Text Available Planning and developing urban tourism destinations must encompass landscape optimization to achieve healthy urban ecosystems, as well as for evolution sustainability. This study explored sustainable landscape planning by examining the optimization of landscape spatial distribution in an urban tourism destination–Nanjing, China—using an integrated approach that included remote sensing (RS, geographic information system (GIS, and landscape metrics in the context of an urban tourism destination evolution model. Least-cost modeling in GIS was also used to optimize decision-making from an ecological perspective. The results indicated that landscapes were more homogenous, fragmented, and less connected. Except for the eastern area, the landscape evolution showed characteristics of both degeneration and growth. A complete greenway network including sources, greenways, and nodes were constructed, and an increase in natural landscapes was strongly recommended. The findings provide geographic insights for sustainable urban tourism planning and development via comprehensive methodological applications.
Full Text Available The article considers new forms of relationship between city and landscape. It also reveals one of the major challenges for planning and urban governance: to use the creative potential which is formed in different pioneering or temporary uses and activities of people for sustainable development of the urban environment.
María M. Borrego-Marín
Full Text Available This paper analyses and compares the sustainability of the water plans in the Spanish River basins according to the objectives of the Water Framework Directive. Even though the concept of sustainability has been traditionally associated with the triple bottom line framework, composed of economic, environmental, and social dimensions, in this paper sustainability has been enlarged by including governance aspects. Two multicriteria decision analysis approaches are proposed to aggregate the sustainability dimensions. Results show that the environmental dimension plays the most important role in the whole sustainability (40% of water basins, followed by both economic and social criteria (25%. By contrast, the dimension of governance is the least important for sustainability (11%. A classification of the Spanish basins according to their sustainability indicates that the water agency with the highest sustainability is Western Cantabrian, followed by Eastern Cantabrian and Tagus. By contrast, Minho-Sil, Jucar, and Douro are the least sustainable.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management... GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and... forest management plan shall be prepared and revised as needed for all Indian forest lands. Such...
Energy is one of the main factors that must be considered in the discussions of sustainable development. The basic dimensions of sustainability of energy production are environmentally, technically, economically and socially sustainable supply of energy resources that, in the long term, is reliable, adequate and affordable. Renewable, clean and cost effective energy sources are preferred but unfortunately no one of the alternative energy sources can meet these demands solely. So, the problem ...
Broto Rauth Bhardwaj
Green supply chain management (GSCM) is a driver of sustainable strategy. This topic is becoming increasingly important for both academia and industry. With the increasing demand for reducing carbon foot prints, there is a need to study the drivers of sustainable development. There is also need for developing the sustainability model. Using resource based theory (RBT) the present model for sustainable strategy has been developed. On the basis of data collected, the key drivers of sustainabili...
Favre-Bac, L; Mony, C; Ernoult, A; Burel, F; Arnaud, J-F
In intensive agricultural landscapes, plant species previously relying on semi-natural habitats may persist as metapopulations within landscape linear elements. Maintenance of populations' connectivity through pollen and seed dispersal is a key factor in species persistence in the face of substantial habitat loss. The goals of this study were to investigate the potential corridor role of ditches and to identify the landscape components that significantly impact patterns of gene flow among remnant populations. Using microsatellite loci, we explored the spatial genetic structure of two hydrochorous wetland plants exhibiting contrasting local abundance and different habitat requirements: the rare and regionally protected Oenanthe aquatica and the more commonly distributed Lycopus europaeus, in an 83 km(2) agricultural lowland located in northern France. Both species exhibited a significant spatial genetic structure, along with substantial levels of genetic differentiation, especially for L. europaeus, which also expressed high levels of inbreeding. Isolation-by-distance analysis revealed enhanced gene flow along ditches, indicating their key role in effective seed and pollen dispersal. Our data also suggested that the configuration of the ditch network and the landscape elements significantly affected population genetic structure, with (i) species-specific scale effects on the genetic neighborhood and (ii) detrimental impact of human ditch management on genetic diversity, especially for O. aquatica. Altogether, these findings highlighted the key role of ditches in the maintenance of plant biodiversity in intensive agricultural landscapes with few remnant wetland habitats.
Paul H. Gobster
Landscape and Urban Planning encourages multiple perspectives and approaches to help understand landscapes as social-ecological systems, with the goal that by building a robust science of landscape we can provide sustainable solutions for guiding its change. But the link between science and practice, or more simply put, between knowledge and action, is not always clear...
Land cover change analysis is essential for effective land use management and biodiversity conservation. The advantages of Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 image fusion for land cover classification and landscape diversity maps development were studied. The methodology of landscape metrics interpretation for sustainable land use planning is developed and tested on agricultural landscapes in Ukraine.
Full Text Available Spatial planning and urban planning represent aspects of urban dynamics. They have a complex character and aim to identify some ways of eliminating the territorial disparities, for ensuring the territorial functionality, following up the sustainable develo pment principles. The territorial reality, that is to be investigated for this purpose, can be represented using the mental maps that present the subjective perception of the residents on the environment where they are living. This cognitive perception out lines an urban overview that reflects the local failures. Therefore, the urban overview can function as an instrument of urban rebranding, by its diagnosis and prognosis functions. As regards Brăila City, attractive, repulsive and neutral spaces were ident ified, being created in this way the premises for the appearance of some strategies of territorial planning, in accordance with reality
Murad Jorge Mussi Vaz
Full Text Available This paper is an integrant part of a master research that searchs the creation of instruments about the popular reading in the process of urban planning. Many interventions in existing spaces can be proposals and new projects that complement the urban landscape, but actually we have a creation of scenes without vitality, so we are looking for the popular identification and percetion to have an effectively appropriation. Is was chosen as example area – o Largo da Ordem in Curitiba, a traditional space, to ratify the methods that can be used in other scales and space clippings The method - mental maps and interviews can be used in diverses scales and interventions, being as suggestion, ratified for the research, for other space clippings. The results gotten together to the population had shown that the creation of this common language between community and technician for the construction of the urban landscape is viable.
Measuring social values for landscapes is an emerging field of research and is critical to the successful management of urban ecosystems. Green open space planning has traditionally relied on rigid standards and metrics without considering the physical requirements of green spaces that are valued for different reasons and by different people. Relating social landscape values to key environmental variables provides a much stronger evidence base for planning landscapes that are both socially desirable and environmentally sustainable. This study spatially quantified residents' values for green space in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia by enabling participants to mark their values for specific open spaces on interactive paper maps. The survey instrument was designed to evaluate the effect of spatial scale by providing maps of residents' local area at both suburb and municipality scales. The importance of open space values differed depending on whether they were indicated via marker dots or reported on in a general aspatial sense. This suggests that certain open space functions were inadequately provided for in the local area (specifically, cultural significance and health/therapeutic value). Additionally, all value types recorded a greater abundance of marker dots at the finer (suburb) scale compared to the coarser (municipality) scale, but this pattern was more pronounced for some values than others (e.g. physical exercise value). Finally, significant relationships were observed between the abundance of value marker dots in parks and their environmental characteristics (e.g. percentage of vegetation). These results have interesting implications when considering the compatibility between different functions of green spaces and how planners can incorporate information about social values with more traditional approaches to green space planning.
van Teeffelen, A.J.A.; Opdam, P.; Wätzold, F.; Hartig, F.; Johst, K.; Drechsler, M.; de Vos, C.C.; Wissel, S.; Quétier, F.
Protected areas are a cornerstone of current biodiversity policy. The continued loss of biodiversity, however, as well as the limited scope to extend protected area networks necessitates a conservation perspective that encompasses both protected areas and the wider landscape. This calls for policy
Full Text Available The quality of urban public space presumes, among other aspects, a balance between quantity, distribution and placement of the outdoor advertising. In Romania, despite existice of legislation regarding the placement of outdoor advertising, there is no correlation with any urban planning legislation, so far. The lack of legislative and operational correlation had as effect for the past two decades an excessive and uncontrolled invasion of outdoor advertising, especially in central urban areas. Based on an interdisciplinary approach, the study focuses on a protected built area, with historical monuments, in which the normative elements are explained through their territorial effects, meaning the impact on the quality of public spaces, of the conservation of heritage, the enhancement of urban landscape, the road safety etc.
Lechner, Alex Mark; Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark
Context Recent papers on the spatial assessment of conservation opportunity have focused on how social values for conservation may change modeled conservation outcomes. Accounting for social factors is important for regional wildlife corridor initiatives as they often emphasize the collaborative...... aspects of conservation planning. Objectives We present an approach for characterizing the potential effects of public conservation orientation and projected future development land use scenarios on landscape connectivity. Methods Using public participation GIS techniques (mail-based surveys linked...... to a mapping component), we classified spatially explicit conservation values and preferences into a conservation orientation index consisting of positive, negative, or neutral scores. Connectivity was then modeled using a least-cost path and graph-network approach for a range of conservation orientation...
Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century an uncontrolled and generalized growth of historic urban centres takes place, based on anarchic town-planning that causes a break with the natural evolutionary process of these cities. Our proposal aims to make a commitment with the new contemporary urban development models, in search for characteristic links that reestablish the natural growth and transformation of the landscape. Therefore, we have designed the investigation project on the specific case of the Valencian Historic Huerta (fertile, irrigated area, (located at Campanar. We analyze its urban fabric as well as the elements that have determined its growth over the years while we respect its original appearance.
Umberto Di Salvatore
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.
R.A. Birdsey; R. Lucas; Y. Pan; G. Sun; E.J. Gustafson; A.H. Perera
The science of landscape ecology is a rapidly evolving academic field with an emphasis on studying large-scale spatial heterogeneity created by natural influences and human activities. These advances have important implications for managing and conserving natural resources. At a September 2008 IUFRO conference in Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China, we highlighted both the...
Lawson, G. M.
Professional discourse in education has been the focus of research conducted mostly with teachers and professional practitioners, but the work of students in the built environment has largely been ignored. This article presents an analysis of students' visual discourse in the final professional year of a landscape architecture course in Brisbane,…
Current agricultural production systems must adapt to meet increasing demands for more economically and environmentally sustainable cropping systems. The application of precision agricultural technologies and geospatial and environmental modeling for conservation planning can aid in this transition....
Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.
This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.
van Stigt, M.
The challenge of sustainable urban development entails integration of environmental interests in decision-making about urban plans. In practice, this is not always successful. This dissertation offers explanations and suggests some strategies for further improvement. Three different perspectives are
This plan outlines the Office of Research and Development’s role in achieving EPA’s objectives for cleaning up communities, making a visible difference in communities, and working toward a sustainable future.
Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen
Sustainability has become a significant ambition for transport planners and policy-makers around the world. However, a transition to sustainable transport is a challenging, long term process, which raises important questions concerning how national, planning processes could support the integration...... of sustainability. This is the topic of the research project SUSTAIN. Internationally, research on national transport planning is limited, and not well established as a coherent field of research. This paper presents preliminary results within SUSTAIN. The aim of the paper is to discuss how to conceive and define...... the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...
EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program presents the purpose, design and themes of the Agency’s CSS research efforts to ensure safety in the design, manufacture and use of existing and future chemicals
Georgios N. Kouziokas
It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...
Casado-Arzuaga, I.; Onaindia, M.; Madriaga, I.; Verburg, P.H.
This paper presents a method to quantify cultural ecosystem services (ES) and their spatial distribution in the landscape based on ecological structure and social evaluation approaches. The method aims to provide quantified assessments of ES to support land use planning decisions. A GIS-based
Groot, de R.S.; Alkemade, J.R.M.; Braat, L.; Hein, L.G.; Willemen, L.L.J.M.
Despite the growing body of literature on ecosystem services, still many challenges remain to structurally integrate ecosystem services in landscape planning, management and design. This paper therefore aims to provide an overview of the challenges involved in applying ecosystem service assessment
den Uijl, Roos; Driessen, P.P.J.
Prominent strands of discussion in the literature on governance for sustainable development debate how change can be induced to enhance sustainability, and how to evaluate the interventions aimed at prompting such change. Strikingly, there are few contributions about how prominent ideas of inducing
Full Text Available Sustainable communities are promoted as a desirable policy goal and, in particular, local authorities are encouraged to contribute to climate change mitigation through urban planning. Furthermore, recent research takes a broad perspective on the environmental sustainability of urban areas and considers the environmental impact of all consumption. A focus group study was conducted in Finland for the purpose of examining how increased environmental awareness influences urban land use. The 32 participants of three focus groups were professionals of urban planning and environmental sustainability, at both a municipal and a state level. The main finding was that urban planning is viewed as being unable to support environmental sustainability in the broader sense. In general, the participants did not see a connection between urban structure and sustainable lifestyles and only the influence of planning on housing and daily journeys was recognised. Three main reasons for this were identified. Firstly, environmental sustainability in its broader definition is seen as too complex for urban planners to influence alone. Secondly, the dominance of short-term economic issues in decision-making and the lack of co-operation from other stakeholders to achieve environmental aims demotivate land use planners. Thirdly, the prioritisation of urban density may overrule alternative means of promoting environmental sustainability, such as the encouragement of sustainable suburban or non-urban lifestyles.
common PREREQ 1 Walkable Streets yes Planning, Desi gn, Construction, OaM Medium use areas. Plan careft,j!y to accommodate simftar functions in the...apjly the specific LEED·ND criteria. Pay special attention to roads that connect LSA ~ife support areas) to common Walkable Streets yes Planning... Walkable Streets Intent: ►To promote transportation efficiency. ►To promote walking by providing: • Safe •Appealing •Comfortable street
be implemented through various funding and management methods (i.e., Range Development Plan (RDP), Range Complex Master Plan ( RCMP )). Includes...not fulfilled by alternate means IAW RCMP • Percentage of Km2 days maneuver land by type deficit or not fulfilled by alternate means IAW RCMP ...Requirements Model (ARRM). Updated ARRM requirements are imported into the Range Complex Mas- ERDC/CERL SR-12-7 60 ter Plan ( RCMP ) tool to support land
Simona R. Grădinaru
Full Text Available The evaluation of spatial planning results, or outcomes, has been rather neglected by scholars and practitioners. The causes of this neglect are linked to the characteristics of the planning systems in use or difficulties in quantifying results. To advance the state of the art of outcome evaluation, this paper focuses on assessing the implementation of national spatial planning objectives in urban landscapes through the use of an evaluation framework, which makes use of spatially explicit information. The framework is built around four dimensions, which reflect the main domains of spatial planning: efficient built-up development, conservation of agricultural land, landscape preservation and human perception. Indicators that are capable of capturing landscape changes in both time and space are used to verify the degree of conformance between adopted objectives and actual development patterns. We make use of spatially explicit data, as well as assess whether and where landscape changes occurred, by integrating the framework into a multi-criteria analysis. In the present study, the framework is tested in two study areas located in Switzerland and Romania, while the results are interpreted from the perspective of spatial planning approaches in the two countries. The efficiency and utility of the framework are demonstrated by the ability to provide valuable information that facilitates improvement in the performance of planning processes, such as identifying where the implementation of objectives is less effective, and the domains of affected spatial planning. Our findings indicate that the distance between objectives and outcomes can be attributed to differences in countries’ spatial planning approaches, which should also be placed into the wider economic, institutional and legislative context. Our study provides valuable insights for the integration of time series of spatial data into the evaluation procedure.
Wicaksono, A. D.
Since the last few years, Indonesia has experienced important events that bring significant changes to the social, political and economic life. The changes directly or indirectly impact the field of planning. With the challenging condition which grows fast and is more complex ahead, and the greater demands on the role of planning, it is required that planning should have higher quality. This paper seeks to answer some questions as follows: (i) How are changes in paradigm and also the development of planning model for the current transition era?, (ii) What is the best way to improve the quality of planning control on the last generation planning model to realize sustainable city?. Analysis steps that will be used to achieve the paper objectives are: (i) Review of planning and sustainable cities theory, (ii) Pattern recognition, (iii) Identifying control mechanisms and sustainable urban forms, (iv) conceptualization. Based on discussion about sustainable cities and control mechanism, some conclusions can be generated as follows: (i) The third generation planning model is based on the theory of expanded system, emphasizing on the constraint of capacity and the ability of planners within the context of larger environment, (ii) There are various theoretical studies that recommend prescriptive model or solution for sustainable urban form and structure. The concepts of Sustainable Cities can be grouped in Neotraditional Development, Urban Containment, Compact City and The Eco-City. The four models above have criteria, namely (i) high density; (ii) a high level of diversity; (iii) mixed land use; (iv) compactness; (5) sustainable transport; (6) passive solar design; (7) Greening Ecological Design. The three main activities in control mechanisms are: Monitoring and Recommendation; a comparative review of the facts (conditions that exist or are developing) with the purpose (expected conditions, set out in urban planning) and recommendations; Evaluation, a review on the
Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hudey, Bryce D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is both the largest science and energy laboratory in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex and one of the oldest national laboratories still operating at its original site. ORNL implemented an aggressive modernization program in 2000, providing modern, energy-efficient facilities that help to support the growth of important national scientific missions while faced with the unique and challenging opportunity to integrate sustainability into legacy assets. ORNL is committed to leveraging the outcomes of DOE-sponsored research programs to maximize the efficient use of energy and natural resources across a diverse campus. ORNL leadership in conjunction with the Sustainable Campus Initiative (SCI) maintains a commitment to the integration of technical innovations into new and existing facilities, systems, and processes with a comprehensive approach to achieving DOE directives and the new Executive Order 13693. Energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reductions, climate change resiliency, and other pursuits toward integrated sustainability factor in all we do. ORNL continues to pursue and deploy innovative solutions and initiatives to advance regional, national, and worldwide sustainability and continues to transform its culture and engage employees in supporting sustainability at work, at home, and in the community.
The new SOGON Plan involves interventions with a focal objective of reducing the case-fatality of emergency obstetric conditions. The plan is anchored on interventions where SOGON has comparative advantage such as providing human resources and promoting capacity building for emergency obstetric care and skilled ...
Full Text Available Research and policy needs to allign with the needs of different social categories and take into account the unequal social relations that exist in societies. It is argued that one cannot address poverty and sustainable development, especially...
Ory, Marcia G; Sanner, Brigid; Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Melvin, Cathy L
The Centers for Disease Prevention and Control's National Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) Program oversee CCC programs designed to develop and implement CCC plans via CCC coalitions, alliances, or consortia of program stakeholders. We reviewed 40 up-to-date plans for states and the District of Columbia in order to assess how capacity building and sustainability, two evidence-based practices necessary for organizational readiness, positive growth, and maintenance are addressed. We employed an electronic key word search, supplemented by full text reviews of each plan to complete a content analysis of the CCC plans. Capacity is explicitly addressed in just over half of the plans (53%), generally from a conceptual point of view, with few specifics as to how capacity will be developed or enhanced. Roles and responsibilities, timelines for action, and measurements for evaluation of capacity building are infrequently mentioned. Almost all (92%) of the 40 up-to-date plans address sustainability on at least a cursory level, through efforts aimed at funding or seeking funding, policy initiatives, and/or partnership development. However, few details as to how these strategies will be implemented are found in the plans. We present the Texas plan as a case study offering detailed insight into how one plan incorporated capacity building and sustainability into its development and implementation. Training, technical assistance, templates, and tools may help CCC coalition members address capacity and sustainability in future planning efforts and assure the inclusion of capacity building and sustainability approaches in CCC plans at the state, tribal, territorial, and jurisdiction levels.
Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to
Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.
The Lisbon strategy has prioritized socio-economic issues in the European development. Through the Lisbon strategy together with the Gothenburg strategy Europe is striving for a balance between the social, economic and ecological dimension of sustainable development. In research the social dimension
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Sustainable and Healthy Communities (SHC) Research Program develops methodologies, resources, and tools to assist local and regional community planners, community members, and local decision makers in implementing sustainabl...
SOGON a formulé un plan stratégique sur la santé des femmes basé sur la santé de la reproduction en vue de réduire la ... Le nouveau plan de la. SOGON implique des interventions ayant un objectif focal de réduire la fatalité de cas des conditions ..... Antenatal Care in. Developing Countries: Promises, achievements and.
Bryson, John M; Alston, Farnum K
Based on John Bryson's acclaimed comprehensive approach to strategic planning, the Implementing and Sustaining Your Strategic Plan workbook provides a step-by-step process, tools, techniques, and worksheets to help successfully implement, manage, and troubleshoot an organization's strategy over the long haul. This new and immensely practical workbook helps organizations work through the typical challenges of leading implementation for sustained change. It spotlights the importance of effective leadership for long-term successful strategic plan implementation. The authors include a wealth of to
Paletto, A.; Ferretti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de
Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP) is intended to have an intermediate role between forest management plans on a regional level and forest management on a unit level. FLMP addresses long-term management issues, with special attention to social and environmental functions, normally not meticulously considered when working on a single forest property level. This paper presents a method to evaluate forest multi functionality, in order to define management guidelines and support forest planning. A FLMP was conducted in a district of the Basilicata region (Italy). A total of 92 inventory plots comprising the main forest types: i) turkey oak, Hungarian oak, and sessile oak forests (Quercus cerris L. dominant), ii) downy oak forests (Quercus pubescens Willd. dominant), iii) Mediterranean evergreen oak forests (Quercus ilex L. dominant), were considered. Technicians evaluated the multifunctionality of each area by estimating in the context of an Index of Importance of Function (I) the capacity of each forest to fulfil different functions. The index was successively aggregated according to forest type and forest system (high forest and coppice). The results showed that the higher level of multifunctionality was found in the high forests. According to the synthetic indicators of multifunctionality, the turkey oak forests obtained the highest values among all forest types. The last part of the paper illustrates an approach to multi-functional forest management, analysing how different silvicultural systems are able to fulfil the main forest functions. This method, as shown in the results, seems to provide a useful support for technicians to evaluate multifunctionality related to forest types and different silvicultural treatments. (Author) 55 refs.
Gawryluk, Dorota; Zagroba, Marek
should result in appropriate records at all levels of planning documents to protect the fortified landscape of the historic barracks. The article points to the use of greenery as a means to correct barracks exposures and to improve the standard of using historic complexes for new, contemporary functions.
Braam (АА Rust
Full Text Available This paper undertakes a review of the literature that examines the highlights and changes in specific external environmental factors (Ecology, Economy, Politics, Legislation and legal structures, and Society, between1994 and 2008 in South Africa, with the aim to ascertain how these factors affect the day-to-day labour relations in the workplace and add to sustainable development. These factors form the landscape for labour relations. Changes to them have consequences on the quality of labour relations, that is, inter alia, the frequency, and intensity of conflicts, disputes, demands and industrial actions. It is also evident that with its power and through the political system, the South African trade union was enhanced to shape the labour relations landscape. Labour laws were particularly designed to be worker friendly and to ensure that trade unions could use a fair collective bargaining system to spread the wealth of the mining industry, agriculture and other industries more evenly. Also, because of the alliance that exists between Labour and the ruling party (ANC, the economy was influenced so that economic policies could to a certain extent guide and steer economic growth, unemployment, inflation, interest rates and exchange rates. Trade unions were instruments in ensuring that formal changes in laws and policies did, in fact, reach and positively impact families and households within the social environment. Lastly, trade unions were the most effective instrument for heralding change within South Africa in the environmental fields of ecology, economy, politics, legislation and legal structures, as well as within society. Furthermore, these fields have interchangeably affected the labour relations landscape thereby indelibly shaping it between 1994 and 2008.
implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential...... to increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful...
Kouziokas, Georgios N.
It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.
Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun
Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.
George C. Schoneveld
Full Text Available In the context of globalization, market liberalization, and deregulation, many African governments are embracing the potential of private agricultural investment to address structural issues within their agricultural economies. Sustainably integrating these investments into target landscapes, however, poses a number of governance challenges since it requires careful reconciliation of competing needs, priorities, and land uses. This paper examines the effectiveness of existing policy arrangements in managing these conflicts within two environmentally significant investment landscapes, the Oban-Korup Forest Block, Nigeria, and Lower Baro-Akobo River Basin, Ethiopia. Findings reveal that investments tend to conflict with socially and environmentally valuable land uses, largely as a result of institutional failings. The paper identifies a number of underlying institutional challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development objectives within Africa’s many emerging investment landscapes. Findings have relevance for the development of sustainable landscape governance systems and the alignment of global governance innovations with landscape-level policy arrangements.
Araujo, Juliano; Pintão, Raphael; Rosa, Cyntia,
Part 19: Sustainability Issues; International audience; Industrial Symbiosis is an important component of Industrial Ecology which studies the collaboration and coexistence of companies to achieve mutual benefits. Its concepts have traditionally focused on eco-efficiency and its direct benefits such as costs reduction, resources optimization and environmental impacts reduction. The paper introduces the use of externalities and collaborative networks as tools to amplify the spectrum of opportu...
Brian R. Sturtevant
Full Text Available To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM. The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and local domain experts in the meta-model building process. The modeling team works iteratively with each of these groups to define essential questions, identify data resources, and then determine whether available tools can be applied or adapted, or whether new tools can be rapidly created to fit the need. The desired goal of the process is a linked series of domain-specific models (tools that balances generalized "top-down" models (i.e., scientific models developed without input from the local system with case-specific customized "bottom-up" models that are driven primarily by local needs. Information flow between models is organized according to vertical (i.e., between scale and horizontal (i.e., within scale dimensions. We illustrate our approach within a 2.1 million hectare forest planning district in central Labrador, a forested landscape where social and ecological values receive a higher priority than economic values. However, the focus of this paper is on the process of how SFM modeling tools and concepts can be rapidly assembled and applied in new locations, balancing efficient transfer of science with adaptation to local needs. We use the Labrador case study to illustrate strengths and challenges uniquely associated with a meta-modeling approach to integrated modeling as it fits within the broader collaborative modeling framework. Principle advantages of the approach include the scientific rigor introduced by peer-reviewed models, combined with the adaptability of meta-modeling. A key challenge is the limited transparency of scientific models to different participatory groups
Full Text Available Ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and its entry into force after adoption of the Law on Ratification of the European Landscape Convention in 2011. created in the Republic of Serbia the conditions for further development of landscape planning and management. Taking into account new circumstances, the main aim of this paper is to determine the place and coverage of the Study which will take into consideration landscape planning and, as well formulate recommendations for the development of a methodological approach for landscape planning with special reference to spatial planning. As a result of the analysis of the existing legal and planning framework, the paper stress potentials and as well limitations and points out the necessity for creating the Action Plan for the implementation of ELC which should, above all, clear up misunderstandings and establish a framework - methodological and procedural, for inclusion of landscape planning in the process of urban and spatial planning in the Republic of Serbia. The development of the information base with a parallel development of institutional framework and capacity building are emphasized as next steps. As a contribution to the development of the methodological approach within spatial planning, the work points out the importance of preparing Study on landscape and, as an example present the Spatial Plan of the Area of the Special Purposes of the National Park Đerdap. For further development of landscape planning, as priority activities aiming the implementation of the provisions of the ELC, are stressed the following: the development of strategic documents, updating and harmonization of the legal framework, the creation of bylaws, manuals, establishing a framework and institutional framework and education.
I. S. Gusev
Full Text Available Studies have proven that, at present one of the priority research areas as part of the Development Strategy of the Food Processing Industry of the Russian Federation until 2020 is to develop effective mechanisms for sustainable socio-economic development of industrial enterprises. This article investigated the logic of strategic planning within the framework of sustainable economic growth, analyzed the structure of strategic planning, study the subject of strategic planning in the management of sustainable development of enterprises, justified the basic principles of strategic planning for the effective management of sustainable development of industrial enterprises, as well as the complex of organizational tactical activities of operational management strategy for sustainable development of the enterprise. The observation revealed that currently there was a high need for the framework of the branch, departmental and state programs implemented in industrial management of scientific and methodological approaches of strategic planning. Studies have shown that these approaches in its conceptual entity should be based on the growth potential of the sustainable development of meat processing plants in space and time in order to achieve high competitive advantages. Conducted a systematic analysis of industry conditions proved that the problem of sustainable operation and development of meat processing enterprises as a problem of management and control is relatively new, unexplored and highly relevant. On the contrary, it is the basis of modern management strategy and management is a concept and methodology of the so-called adaptive enterprise development under the action of various external and internal factors, risks that may threaten its economic stability and sustainability.
Steenbergen, van F.; Tuinhof, A.; Knoop, L.; Kauffman, J.H.
This book is about sustainable land management, the development of water buffers and the business case underneath it. It is part of the discussion on the green economy: investment in natural resource management makes business sense. This also applies for investment in land, water and vegetative
Pozzi, Francesca; Francesca, Donatella
This paper tackles the issue of learning design and pedagogical planning in the context of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). In this sector, we witness the same variety of approaches and tools that we find in the technology-enhanced learning (TEL) research field. In particular, in the CSCL context, notions such as…
The optimal farm plans indicated that the cassava/maize intercrop gave the best results in Ijemo-Fadipe and Ajura, while the cassava/melon and sole cassava enterprises were best in Ijale-Papa and Ilewo-Orile respectively. Operating expenses was found to be the most limiting factors in all the villages. The study concluded ...
Miller, Russell Lowell
Perhaps no state in the Federal Republic of Germany witnessed a more pronounced state sponsored modernization effort than Bavaria, 1950-1980. This vast transformation, particularly in the field of nuclear energy, required a continuous negotiation of landscape planning between state officials, scientists, and ordinary citizens. While ordinary Bavarians had little input in the technical or scientific aspects of the nuclear industry, they could shape the landscape policy, by offering environmental and cultural criticism on specific locations for reactors. Using material from the Bavarian State Archives (some, from the 1970s, only recently declassified), this dissertation compares the Bavarian landscape disputes over nuclear facilities in the nineteen-fifties with those featured in the widespread anti-nuclear demonstrations of the nineteen-seventies. As one of the few English language studies on the topic, this dissertation suggests considerably more continuity in landscape disputes than previous scholarship and offers a fresh look into the migration of skepticism towards the landscape use of nuclear power from political right to left over the course of thirty years.
The Cincinnati Museum Center invited a number of local stakeholders, political leaders, nationally and internationally recognized design professionals and the Design Team, that has been engaged to help shape the future of this remarkable resource, to work together in a Workshop that would begin to shape a truly sustainable future for both the Museum and its home, the Union Terminal, one of the most significant buildings in America. This report summarizes and highlights the discussions that took place during the Workshop and presents recommendations for shaping a direction and a framework for the future.
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.
Andrea De Montis
Full Text Available Urban-rural landscape planning research is nowadays focusing on strategies and tools that support practitioners in designing integrated spaces starting from the analysis of local areas, where human and natural pressures interfere. A prominent framework is provided by the ecological networks, whose design regards the combination of a set of green areas or patches (the nodes interconnected through environmental corridors (the edges. Ecological networks are useful for biodiversity protection and enhancement, as they are able to counteract fragmentation, and to create or strengthen relations and exchanges among otherwise isolated elements. Biodiversity evolution, indeed, depends on the quantity and quality of spatial cohesion of natural areas. In this paper, we aim at designing an ecological network for the periurban area on the town of Nuoro in central Sardinia. The narrative unfolds in two parts. Part A is presented in this paper and includes its methodological premises, i.e. biodiversity conservation and ecological network analysis and design, and the introductory elements of a spatial analysis on a pilot ecological network of one hundred patches. We locate patches by focusing on the ecosystems supported by the target vegetal species holm oak (Quercus ilex and cultivated or wild olive (Olea europaea var. sativa, O. europaea var. sylverstis. These are very common plants species in the municipality and some animal species are active as seed dispersal. The reminder, i.e. Part B, of the essay is presented in an homonymous paper that focuses on the illustration of the network analysis conceived as a monitoring system and, in future perspective, as a planning support system.
Bretzel, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Benvenuti, Stefano; Bravi, Alessio; Malorgio, Fernando
Native herbaceous plants have the potential for renaturalizing and recovering derelict soils, such as urban or anthropized soils. Ecological restoration following the establishment of a native wildflower meadow should lead to a reduction in management costs and to the preservation of native plant populations. This study was aimed at determining the ecological characteristics and the cultivation needs of 26 herbaceous species native to Italy and southern Europe in order to identify their landscape potential in low-maintenance conditions. The species were selected on the basis of their adaptation to unproductive soils in semi-natural and rural areas, and on their ornamental value, including their ability to attract insects. Mono-specific plots were set up in three different soils. Seed germination, seedling emergence, flowering dynamics, and plant growth were determined. Dormancy-breaking treatments were effective in improving the germination of most species. The percentage of field establishment and biomass appeared to be affected by the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Soil texture slightly affected seedling emergence, whereas soil texture and the C and N levels affected plant growth, the number of flowers and the duration of flowering. Dianthus carthusianorum, Verbascum blattaria, Matricaria chamomilla and Hypochoeris radicata developed a higher biomass per plant in the soils with a low nutrient content, indicating their adaptability to infertile soils. Daucus carota, Papaver rhoeas, Verbascum sinuatum, Coleostephus myconis produced a higher biomass per plant in the most fertile soil, where they appeared to show a higher potential when competing with other species. The ecological characteristics shown by the native plants are extremely important in terms of combining seeds of different species to create and to maintain semi-natural herbaceous communities in low-maintenance landscapes.
María de Lourdes Flores Lucero
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.
A. Finco; Nijkamp, P.
Space - and in particular land use - forms the geographical projection of the dispersion of human activities. In the light of the environmental externalities of these activities, space demonstrates also the spatial dispersion of environmental decay. It is clear that space is thus also the geographical platform of conflicting issues in land use management and physical planning, in particular in an urbanized world. In the past decades a vvide variety of decision support methods and expert syste...
Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present. The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability? Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...
Full Text Available Planning and implementation of sustainable urban neighborhoods has led in Europe and in other countries to the development of some recognized best practices. Each of these cases has followed specific aims and methodologies but it is still far the systematization of the results and the translation of the good practices into action lines. The paper involves the necessity of new tools for local planning directed to the overall sustainability of the city. Sustainable energy, reduction of the climate-change causes, waste reduction, attention to water resources and to the natural ones are specific operational elements. A possible way to face this challenge is to consider the potentialities of executive plans addressed to increase the sustainability of urban areas starting from limited portions of they. These plans should foresee the minimum impact of volumes and functions to be set up, will provide for the realization of public spaces with zero or almost zero impact, will promote the integration of all the technologies to reduce consumption and encourage energy generation, in order to increase the resilience of the city reducing its vulnerability. On this basis, aim of the paper is to deepen the issue of the measure of the expected results. To this purpose it is necessary to structure a new certification system (Urban Labelling that can be able to assign a specific sustainability level to a plan using both traditional and new indexes. The same system can also be applied to existing urban areas and as a basis for evaluating reward operations. The impact of the new tool will be cultural (to switch by a description to the facts in relation to urban sustainability, economic (to involve the supply chain from design, implementation, and urban transformation and technological (the sustainability of urban areas requires the use of advanced technologies not only for the buildings but also in the control of green areas, public spaces and mobility.
Full Text Available Landscape is a crucial component of world heritage and, in the last few years, landscape projects have played a vital role in the development of sustainable scenarios. As reported in the European Landscape Convention, landscape means an area, as perceived by people, of which the character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, in landscape planning and assessment, the community is necessarily involved. In order to improve the effectiveness of a project for landscape enhancement, this study suggests strategies for an integrated project, taking into account the numerous, heterogeneous variables involved. A landscape project, therefore, is a complex project that requires structured valuation stages, open to the community dimension. The qualitative, intergenerational, and inclusive characteristics of landscapes suggest that the limits of traditional economic analysis should be exceeded by adopting new assessment methods. With this aim in mind, this paper proposes social evaluation approaches, which operate by combining deliberative processes with total economic and multidimensional approaches. In this paper, we present: (1 a brief overview of the main features and issues concerning landscape projects; (2 strategies for integrated projects in landscape enhancement; and (3 social approaches in landscape assessment that account for complexity and social inclusion.
A methodology has been developed and implemented, whereby detailed assessment of a few model or archetype islands may be used as basis for subsequent estimation of possibilities for other islands of similar kind, provided certain key data for present day energy consumption are available. A consistent interaction with the population on the model islands has been important in that process. The technical-economical results of the study show, that a number of measures seem cost-effective with the aim of contributing to a sustainable energy supply for the small Danish islands. Most prominent are energy savings for both heat and electricity, grid connected wind turbines for electricity production and collective heat supply, in decreasing order of cost-effectiveness. It has become clear, that an organisational structure based on the cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the fram work of cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the framework of cooperatives. This means that it is a well proven concept, in Denmark well established in the legal and financial structure including the tax laws. Consequently such energy cooperatives represent the organisational structure recommended by the project also for other sustainable energy initiatives on the small Danish islands. The implication on a European level is that the methodology developed in the project, as well as the concrete recommendations of the project including organisational structures, seem well suited to be applied on a European level in the context of local communities with a strong identity. (LN)
Birch, Stephen; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cumming, Jackie
The financial sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is a challenge to policymakers in many countries as health care absorbs an ever increasing share of both national wealth and government spending. New technology, aging populations and increasing public expectations of the health care system are often cited as reasons why health care systems need ever increasing funding as well as reasons why universal and comprehensive public systems are unsustainable. However, increases in health care spending are not usually linked to corresponding increases in need for care within populations. Attempts to promote financial sustainability of systems such as limiting the range of services is covered or the groups of population covered may compromise their political sustainability as some groups are left to seek private cover for some or all services. In this paper, an alternative view of financial sustainability is presented which identifies the failure of planning and management of health care to reflect needs for care in populations and to integrate planning and management functions for health care expenditure, health care services and the health care workforce. We present a Health Care Sustainability Framework based on disaggregating the health care expenditure into separate planning components. Unlike other approaches to planning health care expenditure, this framework explicitly incorporates population health needs as a determinant of health care requirements, and provides a diagnostic tool for understanding the sources of expenditure increase. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Aleksandar D. Slaev
Full Text Available In this paper, we explore how master planning promotes and implements particular urban development patterns and, more generally, contributes to sustainability. Our goal is to understand the link between urban growth intentions articulated through the master planning process and realisation of its specific forms, e.g., monocentric or polycentric, compact or dispersed. As a case study, we examine the current General Urban Development Plan (GUDP of the Bulgarian capital Sofia against the city’s actual development pattern. We observe that the primary goals of the GUDP are to promote a polycentric urban structure and low-density expansion, as well as preserve green edges. While the question of whether and how these goals reflect the sustainability ideal requires further consideration, there are some indications that Sofia’s GUDP may not be effective in encouraging sustainable forms of growth. Substantial inconsistencies exist between the plan’s overall goals and some of its measures and implementation tools. The results on the ground suggest that, despite the plan’s low-density aspirations, Sofia is becoming more compact and densified, while losing its green edges and failing to redirect growth to its northern territories where ample space and opportunities exist. We conclude that employing the achievements of research on sustainability and developing relevant implementation tools such as more effective zoning regulations and viable suburban transportation infrastructure are necessary for realising both the patterns proposed through master planning and achieving sustainable urban growth.
Du Plessis, C
Full Text Available still being able to enjoy the awesome natural beauty, abundant resources and biodiversity for which the continent is famous. The building and construction sector, in partnership with its stakeholders, will therefore have to prepare itself... (including such needs as maximising shareholder value and achieving a high standard of living). This dualistic tension can be found in the debates around weak and strong sustainability (Turner and Pearce, 1993), Brown and Green Agendas (Mc...
Meeting our 21st century challenges will require sustainable energy planning by our cities, where over half of the population resides. This already has become evident in the State of California, which has set rigorous greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and timeframes. To attain these targets will necessitate technically-integrated and cost-optimum solutions for innovative asset development and management within urban communities. Using California as a case study, this paper focuses on the crucial role for sustainable energy planning in creating the context and conditions for integrating and optimizing clean and efficient energy use with the urban built environment and infrastructure.
ISO 14001 compliant and includes all 22,000 people employed at the base, each of whom is required to take EMS training. The base’s EMS has been a...billing anomalies and permits strategic planning of capital improvements. In FY 2009, the EMS was certified as conformant with the ISO 14001
Sonal Y. Khobragade
Full Text Available A presentation of the notion of sustainable development through the eye of a town planner, by elucidating how open space development would change the character of the city and augment towards harmony in the socio-environmental chords of sustainable development. It is an attempt to put forward awareness about the sustainability and environmental risk to ultimately reconcile ecological, social and economic factors of society. It is an attempt to reflect on socio-environmental dimension of the open space planning by addressing urban metamorphosis.
Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; D. Todd. Jones-Farland
Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at multiple scales. By combining habitat and demographic modeling, landscape-based population viability models effectively relate small-scale habitat and landscape patterns to regional population...
Bretagnolle, Vincent; Berthet, Elsa; Gross, Nicolas; Gauffre, Bertrand; Plumejeaud, Christine; Houte, Sylvie; Badenhausser, Isabelle; Monceau, Karine; Allier, Fabrice; Monestiez, Pascal; Gaba, Sabrina
Agriculture is currently facing unprecedented challenges: ensuring food, fiber and energy production in the face of global change, maintaining the economic performance of farmers and preserving natural resources such as biodiversity and associated key ecosystem services for sustainable agriculture. Addressing these challenges requires innovative landscape scale farming systems that account for changing economic and environmental targets. These novel agricultural systems need to be recognized, accepted and promoted by all stakeholders, including local residents, and supported by public policies. Agroecosystems should be considered as socio-ecological systems and alternative farming systems should be based on ecological principles while taking societal needs into account. This requires an in-depth knowledge of the multiple interactions between sociological and ecological dynamics. Long Term Socio-Ecological Research platforms (LTSER) are ideal for acquiring this knowledge as they (i) are not constrained by traditional disciplinary boundaries, (ii) operate at a large spatial scale involving all stakeholders, and (iii) use systemic approaches to investigate biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study presents the socio-ecological research strategy from the LTSER "Zone Atelier Plaine & Val de Sèvre" (ZA PVS), a large study area where data has been sampled since 1994. Its global aim is to identify effective solutions for agricultural development and the conservation of biodiversity in farmlands. Three main objectives are targeted by the ZAPVS. The first objective is intensive monitoring of landscape features, the main taxa present and agricultural practices. The second objective is the experimental investigation, in real fields with local farmers, of important ecosystem functions and services, in relation to pesticide use, crop production and farming socio-economic value. The third aim is to involve stakeholders through participatory research, citizen science and
The zero-sum nature of mega-event hosting encourages cities to escalate investment with an eye towards convincing event rights holders that a positive outcome will result. The discursive frameworks of “legacy” and “sustainability”, the global competition to attract events and the compressed event horizon make for mega-event preparation regimes that may seriously compromise long-term urban planning agendas in mega-event hosts. By examining the sustainable urban planning literature, the discurs...
Campagna, Michele; Matta, Andrea
This paper presents a Geodesign tool supporting collaborative decision-making in Strategic Environmental Assessment of Local Land-use Planning. The tool consists of a Planning Support Systems implementing a spatial DPSIR model, which allows the real time interaction among plan alternatives design, impact evaluation and documentation. The Planning Support System demonstrates the opportunity for innovation in spatial planning, design and governance given by the availability of Spatial Data Infrastructures. The study proposed in this paper concerns the Sardinia (Italy) case study, but the results can be generalized to other regions in Europe and worldwide.
Lamorgese, Lydia, E-mail: email@example.com; Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper presents a framework for analysing the degree of consideration of sustainability principles in Strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and demonstrates its application to a sample of SEA of Italian urban plans. The framework is based on Gibson's (2006) sustainability principles, which are linked to a number of guidance criteria and eventually to review questions, resulting from an extensive literature review. A total of 71 questions are included in the framework, which gives particular emphasis to key concepts, such as intragenerational and intergenerational equity. The framework was applied to review the Environmental Report of the urban plans of 15 major Italian cities. The results of this review show that, even if sustainability is commonly considered as a pivotal concept, there is still work to be done in order to effectively integrate sustainability principles into SEA. In particular, most of the attention is given to mitigation and compensation measures, rather than to actual attempts to propose more sustainable planning decisions in the first place. Concerning the proposed framework of analysis, further research is required to clarify equity concerns and particularly to identify suitable indicators for operationalizing the concepts of intra/inter-generational equity in decision-making. -- Highlights: ► A framework was developed in order to evaluate planning against sustainability criteria. ► The framework was applied to analyse how sustainable principles are addressed in 15 Italian SEA reports. ► Over 85% of the reports addressed, to some extent, at least 40% of the framework questions. ► Criteria explicitly linked to intra and inter-generational equity are rarely addressed.
Mydske, Hans Jacob [New Energy Performance AS - NEPAS (Norway); Aamodt Espegren, Kari [Inst. for Energy Technology - IFE (Norway)
The project demonstrates how the concept of 'Sustainable Energy Communities' can become a reality without much additional efforts in terms of costs and human resources. 3-NITY includes 28 communities in nine European countries.The 3-fold initiative engages local stakeholders such as politicians, planners, citizens and local energy actors to take part in local energy planning and implementation of sustainable energy measures, as well as adopting a working methodology for continuous improvement. This is achieved through the development, testing and demonstration of a comprehensive set of tools, quality systems and sustainable best practices that cover the following three main areas: Sustainable Planning; Sustainable Measures and Activities; Sustainable Excellence. 'Sustainable Planning' aims to develop a modern planning and investment decision tool for local energy planning which is prepared to engage several levels in the local community i.e. politicians, planners, energy market actors as well as the citizens. The new model is based on the existing KRAM model. The KRAM model is a simulation tool suited for sustainable energy planning in a municipality, a part of a city or in a region. Both energy for heating purposes and electricity for light and equipment can be analysed with the KRAM model. In addition, the model can be used to analyse the implementation of energy efficiency measures.'Sustainable Measures and Activities' aims to engage local politicians, planners and energy actors as well as the citizens to actively participate in local energy planning and implementation of sustainable energy measures. 'Sustainable Excellence' will make use of the existing tool for monitoring and measuring qualitative results achieved by an organisation, i.e. the EFQM-excellence model for local governments and municipalities. The Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) is based on the premise that excellent
Gonzalez-Redin, Julen; Luque, Sandra; Poggio, Laura; Smith, Ron; Gimona, Alessandro
An integrated methodology, based on linking Bayesian belief networks (BBN) with GIS, is proposed for combining available evidence to help forest managers evaluate implications and trade-offs between forest production and conservation measures to preserve biodiversity in forested habitats. A Bayesian belief network is a probabilistic graphical model that represents variables and their dependencies through specifying probabilistic relationships. In spatially explicit decision problems where it is difficult to choose appropriate combinations of interventions, the proposed integration of a BBN with GIS helped to facilitate shared understanding of the human-landscape relationships, while fostering collective management that can be incorporated into landscape planning processes. Trades-offs become more and more relevant in these landscape contexts where the participation of many and varied stakeholder groups is indispensable. With these challenges in mind, our integrated approach incorporates GIS-based data with expert knowledge to consider two different land use interests - biodiversity value for conservation and timber production potential - with the focus on a complex mountain landscape in the French Alps. The spatial models produced provided different alternatives of suitable sites that can be used by policy makers in order to support conservation priorities while addressing management options. The approach provided provide a common reasoning language among different experts from different backgrounds while helped to identify spatially explicit conflictive areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Following the rise of climate and environmental challenges during thelast decade or so, the growing awareness among various actors of sustainability issues at the local and global levels has resulted in a change in public policies as in industrial and financial strategic moves. This change has been rapidly translated into substantial investments both in public and private environmental sectors. Indeed, many “green” technologies and innovations are now reaching the market and more radical ones are being developed through significant Research and Developing (R&D investments. However, the deve-lopment of this emergent “Green Economy” is rather concentrated in certain leading countries or regions. Building on some national examples, the paper explains this phenomenon by the key role played both by the integration and inter-temporal coherence of public policies and by territorial specific settings and permissive conditions.
Lundie, Sven; Peters, Gregory M; Beavis, Paul C
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. Developing a life cycle assessment for a large water and wastewater system involves making methodological decisions about the level of detail which is retained through different stages of the process. In this article we discuss a methodology tailored to strategic planning needs which retains a high degree of model segmentation in order to enhance modeling of a large, complex system. This is illustrated by a case study of Sydney Water, which is Australia's largest water service provider. A prospective LCA was carried out to examine the potential environmental impacts of Sydney Water's total operations in the year 2021. To our knowledge this is the first study to create an LCA model of an integrated water and wastewater system with this degree of complexity. A "base case" system model was constructed to represent current operating assets as augmented and upgraded to 2021. The base case results provided a basis for the comparison of alternative future scenarios and for conclusions to be drawn regarding potential environmental improvements. The scenarios can be roughly classified in two categories: (1) options which improve the environmental performance across all impact categories and (2) options which improve one indicator and worsen others. Overall environmental improvements are achieved in all categories by the scenarios examining increased demand management, energy efficiency, energy generation, and additional energy recovery from biosolids. The scenarios which examined desalination of seawater and the upgrades of major coastal sewage treatment plants to secondary and tertiary treatment produced an improvement in one environmental indicator but deteriorations in all the other impact categories, indicating the environmental tradeoffs within the system. The desalination scenario produced a significant increase in greenhouse gas
Contemporary architecture has been strongly influenced by the concept of landscape in recent times. The landscape analogy that accompanied architecture for a long time in tectonics or ornament is now transforming the concepts of form and space. The landscape analogy has moved from marginal subjects
Okan Örsan Özener
Full Text Available Currently, as being the highest petroleum consuming sector in the world, transportation significantly contributes to the total greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Road transportation not only is responsible for approximately 20% of the total emissions of carbon dioxide in the EU and in the US but also has a steadily increasing trend in contributing to global warming. Initiatives undertaken by authorities, such as Emission cap and trade in the EU, limit the emissions resulted from the actions of the companies and also give economic incentives to companies to reduce their emissions. However, in logistics systems with multiple entities, it is difficult to assess the responsibilities of the companies both in terms of costs and emissions. In this study, we consider a delivery network with multiple customers served by a single carrier, which executes a delivery plan with the minimum transportation cost, and allocate the resulting costs and the emissions among the customers in a fair manner. We develop allocation mechanisms for both costs and emissions. In order to develop a mechanism that provides further reduction of the emissions, we study a setting where the carrier takes the responsibility of the emissions and reflects the resulting inefficiencies while charging the customers.
Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M
The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gizem CENGİZ GÖKÇE
Full Text Available The main goal in the countries which have not completed their development progress is industrialization and development just as soon as possible. Therefore, negative effects of industrialization and development on envi ronment and/or nature cannot be mostly discussed adequately. One of the planning approach instruments that targets sustainability, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA is used in many countries effectively. But in recent years, that has understood; EIA is an impact assessment instrument that contains defensive preventions only on the basis of projects and this situation has caused some concerns against EIA. In this direction, Strategical Environmental Assessment (SEA exists as the final point of the instruments which are formed to provide sustainable development . In this study; the importance and the requirement of effectively taking a role of landscape architectures that have ecological based job, in the SEA workings which isn’t have got a legal status in Turkey yet, are emphasized by reviewing the relations between EIA and SEA concepts.
Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan
With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China.
Vroom, Lucas; van Straalen, F.M.
The objective of this article is to show how Dutch municipalities use scientific literature about sustainable development in their spatial planning policies and processes. The approach to this research is twofold. First, we conducted a literature review that summarized the most important discourses
Petratos, Panagiotis; Damaskou, Evangelia
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the effects of campus sustainability planning to annual campus energy inflows and outflows in California higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary statistical analysis for the evaluation of impact factors on energy outflows and a link between energy outflows and building…
Sarah Taylor Lovell
Full Text Available Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become involved in the development and transformation of cities to support community farms, allotment gardens, rooftop gardening, edible landscaping, urban forests, and other productive features of the urban environment. Despite the growing interest in urban agriculture, urban planners and landscape designers are often ill-equipped to integrate food-systems thinking into future plans for cities. The challenge (and opportunity is to design urban agriculture spaces to be multifunctional, matching the specific needs and preferences of local residents, while also protecting the environment. This paper provides a review of the literature on urban agriculture as it applies to land use planning in the United States. The background includes a brief historical perspective of urban agriculture around the world, as well as more recent examples in the United States. Land use applications are considered for multiple scales, from efforts that consider an entire city, to those that impact a single building or garden. Barriers and constraints to urban agriculture are discussed, followed by research opportunities and methodological approaches that might be used to address them. This work has implications for urban planners, landscape designers, and extension agents, as opportunities to integrate urban agriculture into the fabric of our cities expand.
King, Curtis A.
To reduce the risk of illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radiological materials, the Megaports Initiative installs radiation detection systems at international seaports. Port Klang, Malaysia, is one such seaport identified by the Megaports Initiative as a key area to install equipment to accomplish the mission of preventing the acquisition and smuggling of materials that could be used to create weapons of mass destruction or radiological dispersal devices. Sustainability is a critical factor of all components of the Megaports Initiative. The sustainability plan is developed to assist the partner country in securing the technical, financial, and policy commitments required to develop and implement a country-specific strategy. A robust sustainability plan will define the long-term relationship between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Government of Malaysia as well as promote the ongoing proficient radiation detection system operations at Port Klang, Malaysia.
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Gladstone, Emilie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Substantial research illuminates many factors effecting the implementation of evidence-based mental health promotion programs in schools; however, research on how schools plan for sustaining their investments in these programs is limited. In this qualitative study, we elicited descriptions of opportunities and challenges for sustainability. We interviewed 24 individuals from schools involved in a longitudinal, qualitative research project that followed uptake and implementation of the evidence-based WITS Programs across 2 years (Leadbeater et al. 2012). WITS stands for Walk away, Ignore, Talk it out and Seek help and the online WITS Programs focus on preventing peer victimization ( www.witsprograms.ca ). Our findings suggest that sustainability planning in schools is not merely a next step following high quality implementation, but rather involves multiple ongoing processes that need to be anticipated and supported by school leadership and program champions and developers in order to realize investments in evidence-based programs.
Sitas, Nadia E
Full Text Available Despite much progress in ecosystem services research, a gap still appears to exist between this research and the implementation of landscape management and development activities on the ground, especially within a developing country context...
Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz; Tüdeş, Şule
The sustainability agenda has maintained its importance since the days, when the production system took its capitalist form, as well as the population in the urban areas started to rise. Increasing number of both goods and the people have caused the degradation of the certain systems, which generate the urban areas. These systems could mainly be classified as social, environmental, physical and economical systems. Today, urban areas still have difficulty to protect those systems, due to the significant demand of the population. Therefore, studies related with the sustainable issues are significant in the sense of continuity of the urban systems. Therefore, in this paper, those studies in the context of the effects of physical decisions taken in the spatial planning process on urban sustainability, will be examined. The components of the physical decisions are limited to land use, density and design. Land use decisions will be examined in the context of mixed land use. On the other hand, decisions related with density will be analyzed in the sense of population density and floor area ratio (FAR). Besides, design decisions will be examined, by linking them with neighborhood design criteria. Additionally, the term of urban sustainability will only be limited to its social and environmental contexts in this study. Briefly stated, studies in the sustainable literature concerned with the effects of land use, density and design decisions taken in the spatial planning process on the social and environmental sustainability will be examined in this paper. After the compilation and the analyze of those studies, a theoretical approach will be proposed to determine social and environmental sustainability in the context of land use, density and design decisions, taken in the spatial planning process.
Full Text Available Cities are the most dramatic manifestations of human activities on the surface of the earth. These human-dominated organisms—i.e., cities—degrade natural habitats, simplify species composition, disrupt hydrological systems, and modify energy flow and nutrient cycling. Today, these consequential impacts of human activities, originated from population increase, rapid urbanization, high private motor vehicle dependency, deregulated industrialization and mass livestock production, are increasing exponentially and causing great deal of environmental, social, and economic challenges both at global and local scales. In such a situation, establishment of sustainable cities, through sustainable urban development practices, is seen as a potential panacea to combat these challenges responsibly, effectively, and efficiently. This paper offers a critical review of the key literature on the issues relating to planning, development and management of sustainable cities, introduces the contributions from the Special Issue, and speculates on the prospective research directions to place necessary mechanisms to secure a sustainable urban future for all.
This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.
Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.
Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to
Hansen, Carsten Jahn
This article explores the potential role of culture in relation to policy-making and planning activities, exemplified through a discussion on how it may influence sustainable transport policy and planning. It is recognised that discourses and institutions play an essential part in framing problems...... and solutions, however an improved understanding of barriers and potentials in policy and planning deliberation is likely to be reached if underlying layers of values and perceptions are considered and illuminated more explicitly. Culture is also changeable, which means that it becomes relevant for policy...... and barriers. In conclusion, a culture focus recognises diversity inside and outside normal policy and planning settings and procedures and attempts to bring different cultures to interact and to learn from each other. A transport policy-making and planning process based in a culture approach may illuminate...
Mockrin, Miranda H; Rockwell, Robert F; Redford, Kent H; Keuler, Nicholas S
Understanding the spatial dimensions of hunting and prey population dynamics is important in order to estimate the sustainability of hunting in tropical forests. We investigated how hunting offtake of vertebrates differed in mixed forest and monodominant forest (composed of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei) and over different spatial extents within the hunting catchment around the logging town of Kabo, Congo. In 9 months of recall surveys with hunters, we gathered information on over 1500 hunting trips in which ungulates were 65% of the species killed and 82% of harvested biomass. Hunters supplied information on animals killed and the hunting trip, including the area visited (i.e., hunting zone; 11 separate zones within a 506 km(2) catchment or commonly hunted area). Over 65% of all animals were killed in monodominant forest, which made up 28% of the hunting catchment, and zones with small amounts of monodominant forest were used most frequently by hunters. Given the large offtakes from monodominant forests, we suggest that animal dispersal may be maintaining high, localized harvests in these areas. We believe hunters preferred to hunt in monodominant forest because the understory was accessible and that areas with small amounts of monodominant forest and large amounts of mixed forest were more productive. The variation in hunting pressure we found between and within hunting zones differs from past examinations of spatial variation in hunting offtake, where entire hunting catchments were considered population sinks and areas with low to no hunting (no-take zones) were outside hunting catchments. Future use of no-take zones to manage hunting should incorporate variability in offtake within hunting catchments. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.
Full Text Available Although many old sites are well preserved, many sites of historical and cultural value in the United States are disappearing due to their abandonment. In some cases, the condition of these sites makes restorers’ work very difficult. In other cases, in order to recover blighted local economies, administrations and cultural institutions are adopting strategic spatial plans to attract tourists or accommodate historical theme parks. However, recent scholarly interest in the interaction of history and collective memory has highlighted these sites. Even if the memory of some historical sites is fading quickly, this memory is receiving greater attention than in the past in order to enhance local identity and strengthen the sense of community. This article examines a number of plans and strategies adopted to give shape to the memorial landscape in Alabama, thereby documenting and exploring some key relations between city planning and the commemoration of African-American history.
Elisa Conticelli and Simona Tondelli
Full Text Available The definition and the subsequent development of eco-industrial parks (EIPs have been deeply based on the application of industrial ecology theory, which pays specific attention to metabolic exchanges within industrial processes to address a deep reduction of limited resource consumption and a minimization of waste production in the framework of a sustainable development approach. Despite the EIPs configurations being essentially based on the overall idea of sustainability, the problem of defining their proper location inside the territory and the consequent land use model, to minimize land consumption, have not always been central in the wide range of studies and practices concerning the EIPs. Nevertheless, the specific problem of a drastic reduction of land consumption at the EIP planning stage acquires a crucial role and, therefore, needs to be carefully assessed inside the perspective of sustainable urban development. In this framework, the paper firstly aims at facing the nontrivial relationship between the EIPs’ theorizations and implementations and the reduction of land consumption by referencing specific studies and shared tools, where new developments have been favored despite the conversion and redevelopment of existing industrial parks; secondly, it focus on an Italian case study and its emblematic EIP planning processes, in order to deepen the contradictions between sustainable spatial planning and eco-industrial parks. Finally, some final conclusions will be presented, in order to integrate some main issues concerning the reduction of land consumption inside the more traditional EIP design processes.
Full Text Available Sustainable spatial development is a generally accepted objective and principle in spatial planning. It is implemented mainly by regulations in the sectors for management of natural resources, but not comprehensively in implementing regulations for urban space management. One of the most important instruments of spatial planning at local level is land use, for which there is no comprehensive framework of implementing measures for achieving sustainable spatial objectives in urban areas. In accordance with the review and critical analysis of literature, there are four measures presented in the paper: protection of natural resources and reduction of environmental-climate risks, compact urban structure, mixed-use and accessibility of urban functions. The review and analysis have shown that the listed measures enable sustainable development of urban areas, but only if they are planned and implemented in accordance with supporting physical, social and economic elements of urban space. In the conclusion, indicators which can assess the level of sustainability in land use design are presented and guidelines for restructuring land use in existing settlement areas are described.
Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Yu, Chien-Hwa
Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of system analysis, driving force-state-response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure in this work. The integrated management of the land, water, and air resources of a river basin system is considered in the procedure. Two modified land use management procedures combined with the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure are developed in this work. Based on the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure, the sustainable river basin land use management DSR dynamic decision support system (SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS) is developed by using the Vensim, MS Excel, ArcView, and Visual Basic software. The concepts of object-orientation are used to develop the system dynamic optimization and simulation models of SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS. Based on the modified land use management procedures, SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS is used to assist decision makers in generating the land use plans of the Nankan river basin in Taoyuan County of Taiwan. Since the decisions of land, water and air resources management are still made at different agencies, the land use management system should be modified based on the innovational procedure to implement the management strategy developed in this work. The results show that the modified land use management procedures can be a guidance for the governments in modifying the systems and regulation of urban and regional plans in Taiwan.
Fürst, Christine; Volk, Martin; Pietzsch, Katrin; Makeschin, Franz
The article presents the platform "Pimp your landscape" (PYL), which aims firstly at the support of planners by simulating alternative land-use scenarios and by an evaluation of benefits or risks for regionally important ecosystem services. Second, PYL supports an integration of information on environmental and landscape conditions into impact assessment. Third, PYL supports the integration of impacts of planning measures on ecosystem services. PYL is a modified 2-D cellular automaton with GIS features. The cells have the major attribute "land-use type" and can be supplemented with additional information, such as specifics regarding geology, topography and climate. The GIS features support the delineation of non-cellular infrastructural elements, such as roads or water bodies. An evaluation matrix represents the core element of the system. In this matrix, values in a relative scale from 0 (lowest value) to 100 (highest value) are assigned to the land-use types and infrastructural elements depending on their effect on ecosystem services. The option to configure rules for describing the impact of environmental attributes and proximity effects on cell values and land-use transition probabilities is of particular importance. User interface and usage of the platform are demonstrated by an application case. Constraints and limits of the recent version are discussed, including the need to consider in the evaluation, landscape-structure aspects such as patch size, fragmentation and spatial connectivity. Regarding the further development, it is planned to include the impact of land management practices to support climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in regional planning.
Business Planning for Cultural Heritage Institutions. A Framework and Resource Guide to Assist Cultural Heritage Institutions with Business Planning for Sustainability of Digital Asset Management Programs
Bishoff, Liz; Allen, Nancy
The purpose of this document is to present a framework and resource guide to help cultural heritage institutions plan sustainable access to their digital cultural assets and to do so by means that link their missions to planning modes and models. To aid cultural heritage organizations in the business-planning process, this resource will do the…
Vlek, Lulseged Tamene, Quang Bao Le, Jens Liebe, Paul L. G.
Although many soil/water-landscape studies have been published in the last two decades, progress in developing operational tools for supporting landscape planning to minimize land and water degradation in developing regions is still modest. Some of the existing tools are very data demanding and/or too complicated to be useful to data scarce regions. A research group at the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn has developed a LAndscape Management and Planning Tool (LAMPT) to facilitate land management decision making and landscape planning by optimization. Firstly, we used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a Distributed Sediment Delivery Model (DSDM) in a GIS environment to estimate the spatial distribution of areas experiencing different levels of soil loss in the White Volta basin. The RUSLE is employed to map the spatial patterns of major sediment source areas based on data calibrated for the study region. As RUSLE only estimates the potential gross erosion of each grid cell, a DSDM is used to estimate the sediment delivery efficiency of each cell using flow distance and velocity along the flow path. The combined models allow a classification of sub-watersheds experiencing different levels of soil loss using a soil tolerance threshold suitable for the study areas (Burkina Faso and Ghana). The result shows that the majority of areas around north-eastern and eastern parts of the White Volta basin (mainly south-eastern Burkina Faso and upper east region of Ghana) are associated with high levels of sediment yield (over 15 t ha-1 yr-1). The main reason could be high population pressure, poor surface cover and relatively high slope of some of the areas in Ghana. On the other hand, the north-western and southern parts of the basin experience low levels of sediment yield (less than 5 t ha-1 yr-1) mainly due to their flat terrain and good surface cover that encourage sediment deposition rather than erosion. We revealed that a GIS
Blancas, F J; Lozano-Oyola, M; González, M; Guerrero, F M; Caballero, R
This paper proposes an indicators system to analyse the sustainability of tourist activity at rural destinations in countries with a consolidated tourism sector. The proposed system aims at providing tourist managers and policy-makers with information to better understand the transition to sustainability at specific destinations and to encourage them to carry out corresponding policy and management responses. To illustrate how indicators can be quantified, we create a practical guideline on how to use the statistical information available. Likewise, we suggest a method for obtaining sustainability indexes by aggregation that reduces the subjectivity associated with the composite indicator. This procedure is based on the combination of principal component analysis and distance to a reference point. Together with the definition of sustainable tourism indicators, we explain how to use these systems and sustainability indexes to fulfil three practical uses in tourism sector planning: the comparison and characterisation of destinations, the definition of benchmarking practices, and the quantification of sustainable tourism objectives. Each practical use is illustrated using the case of rural zones in a consolidated destination such as Andalusia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of urban planning and architecture in the era of independence of Uzbekistan. There is also considered the issues of sustainable development of the regions and cities of Uzbekistan. In the realization process of above mentioned tasks first it is necessary to refuse old methods of functional urban planning design obtruded by the Soviet urban planning. In the XX century in designing master plans of cities development of new city parts was taken as a composition framework which neglected old city part that hasnt received appropriate attention. This was the main mistake of the Soviet politics which made cities lost historical city images ensemble construction spirit.
Hyun Woo Kim
Full Text Available The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is rich in natural resources. Its watershed has been impacted by excessive and degraded stormwater runoff from rapid urbanization. We used an empirical approach to investigate how local planning capacity in the Chesapeake Bay watershed affected stream flow. A multiple regression analysis was employed to examine to what extent that the planning factors and other contextual variables were associated with peak runoff. Counterintuitively, we found that sub-basins included in the sample jurisdictions with a relatively high plan quality score tend to generate higher volumes of peak runoff. Results further indicate that specific geographical, basin characteristic, and biophysical factors affected mean annual peak runoff significantly. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of local planning capacity and sustainable stormwater management concepts in mitigating excessive runoff.
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Ericsson, Eva; Tight, Miles
” to examine to what extent various kinds of decision support are used and have become influential in three different planning situations—a local cycle plan in Copenhagen, the Stockholm congestion charging trial and the UK national transport strategy. The results reveal the extensive use of decision support......Improved decision support is deemed essential for the planning and implementation of sustainable transport solutions, but limited evidence exists that decision-relevant information is effectively used for these purposes. This paper applies a framework inspired by research in “knowledge utilization...... but also the difficulty of unpicking its exact role in each case. Stockholm presented the most successful case, with a mix of academic and experience-based knowledge inputs facilitating understanding and acceptance. The cycle plan example revealed very limited influence of cycling design guidance. The UK...
Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran
Despite providing water-related services as the primary purpose of urban water system (UWS), all relevant activities require capital investments and operational expenditures, consume resources (e.g. materials and chemicals), and may increase negative environmental impacts (e.g. contaminant discharge, emissions to water and air). Performance assessment of such a metabolic system may require developing a holistic approach which encompasses various system elements and criteria. This paper analyses the impact of integration of UWS components on the metabolism based performance assessment for future planning using a number of intervention strategies. It also explores the importance of sustainability based criteria in the assessment of long-term planning. Two assessment approaches analysed here are: (1) planning for only water supply system (WSS) as a part of the UWS and (2) planning for an integrated UWS including potable water, stormwater, wastewater and water recycling. WaterMet(2) model is used to simulate metabolic type processes in the UWS and calculate quantitative performance indicators. The analysis is demonstrated on the problem of strategic level planning of a real-world UWS to where optional intervention strategies are applied. The resulting performance is assessed using the multiple criteria of both conventional and sustainability type; and optional intervention strategies are then ranked using the Compromise Programming method. The results obtained show that the high ranked intervention strategies in the integrated UWS are those supporting both water supply and stormwater/wastewater subsystems (e.g. rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling schemes) whilst these strategies are ranked low in the WSS and those targeting improvement of water supply components only (e.g. rehabilitation of clean water pipes and addition of new water resources) are preferred instead. Results also demonstrate that both conventional and sustainability type performance indicators
Poul Alberg Østergaard
Full Text Available This editorial introduces the fourth volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. Topics include mean-variance approach of energy systems design, the role of heat savings in smart energy systems, analyses of the German secondary reserve market, options for replacing lignite-fired district heating in plants in Greece with biomass-fired district heating plants based on boilers or cogeneration of heat and power. Topics also include how local Norwegian governments engage in local energy planning and how they differ in approach. Finally, this volume addresses characterisation of the building stock with a view to assessing savings potentials with a case from Belgium.
Geoffrey Koch; Alan Ager; Jeff Kline; Paige Fischer
Effectively addressing wildfire risk to communities on large multi-owner landscapes requires an understanding of the biophysical factors that influence risk, such as fuel loads, topography, and weather, and social factors such as the capacity and willingness for communities to engage in fire-mitigation activities. Biophysical and social processes often are disconnected...
Michael A. Larson; Frank R., III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; William D. Dijak; Stephen R. Shifley
Methods for habitat modeling based on landscape simulations and population viability modeling based on habitat quality are well developed, but no published study of which we are aware has effectively joined them in a single, comprehensive analysis. We demonstrate the application of a population viability model for ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus)...
Gary H. Elsner
Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.
Full Text Available There is a growing interest in assessing ecosystem services to improve ecosystem management in landscapes containing a mix of different ecosystems. While methodologies for assessing ecosystem services are constantly improving, only little attention has been given to the identification of which ecosystem services to assess. Service selection is mostly based on current state of the landscape although many landscapes are both inherently complex and rapidly changing. In this study we examine whether scenario development, a tool for dealing with uncertainties and complexities of the future, gives important insights into the selection of ecosystem services in changing landscapes. Using an agricultural landscape in South Africa we compared different sets of services selected for an assessment by four different groups: stakeholders making the scenarios, experts who have read the scenarios, experts who had not read the scenarios, and services derived from literature. We found significant differences among the services selected by different groups, especially between the literature services and the other groups. Cultural services were least common in literature and that list was also most dissimilar in terms of identity, ranking, and numbers of services compared to the other three groups. The services selected by experts and the scenario stakeholders were relatively similar indicating that knowledge of a study area gained through the scenario exercise is not very different from that of experts actively working in the area. Although our results show limited value in using scenario development for improved ecosystem service selection per se, the scenario development process triggers important discussions with local and regional stakeholders about key issues of today, helping to more correctly assess changes in the future.
Giuliano Dall'O'; Maria Franca Norese; Annalisa Galante; Chiara Novello
For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO 2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cos...
SAHEB YAMINA; KONA ALBANA; MASCHIO ISABELLA; Szabo, Sandor
This guidebook is adapted to the South Mediterranean context from the Joint Research Centre’s (JRC) guidebook How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan, developed in 2010 to support the implementation of the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative in European cities. Through the CES-MED project, the European Union has opened the CoM initiative to local authorities of ten southern Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria and Tunisia)....
SAHEB YAMINA; MASCHIO ISABELLA; KONA ALBANA; Szabo, Sandor
This guidebook is adapted to the South Mediterranean context from the Joint Research Centre’s (JRC) guidebook "How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan", developed in 2010 to support the implementation of the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative in European cities. Through the CES-MED project, the European Union has opened the CoM initiative to local authorities of ten southern Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria and Tunisia...
Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem-based adaptation is advocated at international, national, and regional levels. The concept is thought to foster sustainability transitions and is receiving increasing interest from academic and governmental bodies alike. However, there is little theory regarding the pathways for its systematic implementation. It furthermore remains unclear to what degree the concept is already applied in urban planning practice, how it is integrated into existing planning structures and processes, and what drivers exist for further integration. Against this background, this study examines potential ways to sustainably mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation into urban planning. Eight municipalities in Southern Germany were investigated to analyze the processes of mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation into current planning practice. Although the mainstreaming entry points for ecosystem-based adaptation were identified to be appreciably different, the results of the study show how mainstreaming has generally led to patterns of change in: (1 on-the-ground measures, (2 organizational structures and assets, (3 formal and informal policies and instruments, (4 external cooperation and networking, and (5 the general working language. In all these areas, ecosystem-based adaptation to heat and flood risk is highly compartmentalized. Furthermore, although scholars have drawn attention to the risk of "mainstreaming overload," the results suggest that at the local level, the integration of ecosystem-based adaptation is strongly driven by departments' experience in mainstreaming other cross-cutting issues, namely environmental planning, climate change mitigation, and disaster risk management. Based on the findings, ways to leverage sustainability transitions via mainstreaming are discussed. It is concluded that systematic mainstreaming is a promising avenue for initiating and promoting local transitions and transformative adaptation. The study
Full Text Available Former industrial areas are characterized by transport infrastructures that exceed the national average in terms of development, spatial coverage and initial investments. Today, when production is replaced by services, retail and consumption, these networks are seen as amenities that have the ability to address the main local issues: the vulnerable economic flows, the lack of accessibility in poor or remote areas, urban shrinkage and the lack of coordination in spatial planning. This study reviews the current status of sustainable urban mobility plans in each of the six towns that form the Jiu Valley and correlates them with the local development strategies and plans. The main positive and negative aspects are highlighted to create an objective overview regarding the vision for mobility in Jiu Valley, as a whole. In the final part, we propose an integrated planning methodology for the entire urban area, envisioning a sustainable productive urban area, formed by accessible communities with strong identities, expressing a circular economic metabolism integrated in the regional development strategy.
) a more equal structure between the two specialisations in the programme, Landscape Design and Urban Design. The prior was tackled by introducing a new course in Geodesign, which integrates the use of more analytical GIS tools (Geographic Information Systems) and more design oriented CAD tools (Computer......In 2014, a major change in the bachelor programme in Landscape Architec- ture at the University of Copenhagen was implemented, effecting courses of the second and third year. The main rational for the changes was two-fold: (1) the integration of different methods for mapping and designing and (2...... Aided Design). The latter was tackled by significantly re- structuring the Urban Design specialisation established back in 2008. The five former mandatory 7.5 ECTS points courses of the Urban De- sign line were taken out of the programme and a new, project-based, 30 ECTS points course called ‘Urban...
be used by ied Marine IEh vegetation by development through hydrologic and stakeholders, including MCB Camp Pendleton, to d Mariene ~fire influences...the )e; •fields of landscape ecology, conservation biology , forestry, and others suggest that spatial pattern is an :ends into integral factor in...Urbana, Illinois, Vireo. Sacramento, California: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1989. 1967. Friedmann, H. The Cowbirds: A Study in the Biology of Social
Borzacchiello, Maria Teresa; Torrieri, Vincenzo; Nijkamp, Peter
This paper offers the description of an integrated information system framework for the assessment of transportation planning and management. After an introductory exposition, in the first part of the paper, a broad overview of international experiences regarding information systems on transportation is given, focusing in particular on the relationship between transportation system's performance monitoring and the decision-making process, and on the importance of this connection in the evaluation and planning process, in Italian and European cases. Next, the methodological design of an information system to support efficient and sustainable transportation planning and management aiming to integrate inputs from several different data sources is presented. The resulting framework deploys modular and integrated databases which include data stemming from different national or regional data banks and which integrate information belonging to different transportation fields. For this reason, it allows public administrations to account for many strategic elements that influence their decisions regarding transportation, both from a systemic and infrastructural point of view.
Full Text Available A key premise of the paper is that the regional level of planning is a particularly appropriate level for the integration of biophysical and socio-economic development issues. The UK, and the European Union (EU more generally, have witnessed some important developments in regional planning practice over the last decade which have sought to encourage such integration. The paper reviews examples of innovative applications of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and Sustainability Appraisal (SA, in relation to EU Structural Funds, the new generation of UK Regional Plans, and UK Multi-Model Transport Corridor studies. It concludes with an appraisal of progress to date towards the goal of a more integrated approach.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a planning support concept (PSC to implementation of sustainable parking development projects (SPDP in ancient Mediterranean cities. It is conceptualized by the logic of decision support systems and a multicriteria analysis approach. The purpose of the concept is to support setting of implementation priorities for subprojects (construction of new and/or improvement of existing parking within a SPDP. Analysing the existing and a planned state of parking within the city a goal tree is established. Subprojects are defined accordingly. Objectives from the last hierarchy level within the goal tree are used as criteria for assessment of defined subprojects. Representatives of stakeholders provided criteria weights by application of AHP and SAW methods. PROMETHEE II was used for priority ranking and PROMETHEE V ensured a definition of project’s implementation phases. The result of the presented concept is the implementation plan for such projects. The concept is tested on the city of Trogir.
Full Text Available It is estimated that each of us, on a daily basis, produces a bit more than 1 GB of digital content through our mobile phone and social networks activities, bank card payments, location-based positioning information, online activities, etc. However, the implementation of these large data amounts in city assets planning systems still remains a rather abstract idea for several reasons, including the fact that practical examples are still very strongly services-oriented, and are a largely unexplored and interdisciplinary field; hence, missing the cross-cutting dimension. In this paper, we describe the Policy 2.0 concept and integrate user generated content into Policy 2.0 platform for sustainable mobility planning. By means of a real-life example, we demonstrate the applicability of such a big data integration approach to smart cities planning process. Observed benefits range from improved timeliness of the data and reduced duration of the planning cycle to more informed and agile decision making, on both the citizens and the city planners end. The integration of big data into the planning process, at this stage, does not have uniform impact across all levels of decision making and planning process, therefore it should be performed gradually and with full awareness of existing limitations.
Full Text Available In the world economy and development, understanding changes are occurring, with the EU integration process of developments and understanding of planning priorities when considered as together, "city" scale development approach and an appropriate planning system, that is the basis of Turkey`s administrative division and the national management system, should be improved self-rises. To reduce disparities among regions to an acceptable level and development of relatively underdeveloped regions and cities, naturally, a development and planning system even starting from the city and province levels, is required. In today's sustainable understanding and evolution tools, burden important functions to local units, as "participation" in the foreground stands out in the stages of planning and execution of the development strategies. Regional and city development plans and strategies as the center of rapid and balanced development dynamics are sensitive to local needs and local initiatives are required in being a trigger level. The study is done with Goal Directed Project Management methodology, and in the study city level taken as an example of city scale development approach and an appropriate planning system.
Full Text Available In the world economy and development, understanding changes are occurring, with the EU integration process of developments and understanding of planning priorities when considered as together, "city" scale development approach and an appropriate planning system, that is the basis of Turkey`s administrative division and the national management system, should be improved self-rises. To reduce disparities among regions to an acceptable level and development of relatively underdeveloped regions and cities, naturally, a development and planning system even starting from the city and province levels, is required. In today's sustainable understanding and evolution tools, burden important functions to local units, as "participation" in the foreground stands out in the stages of planning and execution of the development strategies. Regional and city development plans and strategies as the center of rapid and balanced development dynamics are sensitive to local needs and local initiatives are required in being a trigger level. The study is done with Goal Directed Project Management methodology, and in the study city level taken as an example of city scale development approach and an appropriate planning system.
Khan, Maudood; Limaye, Ashutosh; Crosson, William; Unal, Alper; Kete, nancy; Rickman, Douglas
In 2007, the National Research Council's committee on Extending Observations and Research Results to Practical Applications recommended that NASA's Applied Science Program (ASP) directly engage with a broader community of users - not just federal agencies. Soon afterwards, scientists at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center began discussions on a collaborative research project with EMBARQ - the World Resource Institute's Center for Sustainable Transport. The discussions initially focused on how best to utilize satellite observations and atmospheric models for assessing the impact of a proposed transportation project on land use and air quality. Discussions exposed the participants to a broad spectrum of science and policy challenges that these diverse organizations face on a routine basis. It brought into clear focus the need for an observation-modeling system that will allow a proactive approach towards development planning, and the fact that satellite systems do not always provide the spatial and temporal resolution useful for urban-scale applications, underscoring the need for earth system models to bridge this gap. Realizing the significant risk that unplanned urbanization and climate change pose to the social and functional stability of large cities, both organizations decided to expand the scope of their preliminary discussion to include water resources and agriculture. A pilot project, funded by NASA ASP, EMBARQ and Istanbul Technical University focused on quantifying the magnitude and extent of urbanization in Istanbul, and analyzed the combined effect of urbanization and projected climate change on local climate, air quality, and its consequent effects on agricultural productivity. Preliminary results show that Istanbul has undergone a significant amount of Land Use/Land Cover change over the past two decades. While some forested areas have been lost to urban-landscapes, urbanization has mostly occurred over former croplands due to the fact that in
Vassoney, Erica; Mammoliti Mochet, Andrea; Comoglio, Claudio
Multicriteria analysis (MCA) is a decision-making tool applied to a wide range of environmental management problems, including renewable energy planning and management. An interesting field of application of MCA is the evaluation and analysis of the conflicting aspects of hydropower (HP) exploitation, affecting the three pillars of sustainability and involving several different stakeholders. The present study was aimed at reviewing the state of the art of MCA applications to sustainable hydropower production and related decision-making problems, based on a detailed analysis of the scientific papers published over the last 15 years on this topic. The papers were analysed and compared, focusing on the specific features of the MCA methods applied in the described case studies, highlighting the general aspects of the MCA application (purpose, spatial scale, software used, stakeholders, etc.) and the specific operational/technical features of the selected MCA technique (methodology, criteria, evaluation, approach, sensitivity, etc.). Some specific limitations of the analysed case studies were identified and a set of "quality indexes" of an exhaustive MCA application were suggested as potential improvements for more effectively support decision-making processes in sustainable HP planning and management problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cost/performance analysis. This type of analysis, however, does not take into account important aspects for small and medium-sized communities such as social aspects, environmental impacts, local economic development and employment. A more comprehensive and effective tool to support the choices of public administrators is the multi-criteria analysis. This study proposes a methodology that integrates multi-criteria analysis in order to support Public Administration/Local Authorities in programming Sustainable Energy Action Plans with a more targeted approach to sustainability. The methodology, based on the ELECTRE III method, was applied to a medium-size municipality in the Lombardy region of Italy. The results obtained with this approach are discussed in this paper.
Leverence, Robert; Nuttall, Richard; Palmer, Rachel; Segal, Mark; Wood, Alicia; Yancey, Fay; Shuster, Jonathon; Brantly, Mark; Hromas, Robert
Academic physician reimbursement has moved to productivity-based compensation plans. To be sustainable, such plans must be self-funding. Additionally, unless research and education are appropriately valued, faculty involved in these efforts will become disillusioned, yet revenue generation in these activities is less robust than for clinical care activities. Faculty at the Department of Medicine, University of Florida Health, elected a committee of junior and senior faculty and division chiefs to restructure the compensation plan in fiscal year (FY) 2011. This committee was charged with designing a new compensation plan based on seven principles of organizational philosophy: equity, compensation coupled to productivity, authority aligned with responsibility, respect for all academic missions, transparency, professionalism, and self-funding in each academic mission. The new compensation plan was implemented in FY2013. A survey administered at the end of FY2015 showed that 61% (76/125) of faculty were more satisfied with this plan than the previous plan. Since the year before implementation, clinical relative value units per faculty increased 7% (from 3,458 in FY2012 to 3,704 in FY2015, P < .002), incentives paid per faculty increased 250% (from $3,191 in FY2012 to $11,153 in FY2015, P ≤ .001), and publications per faculty increased 15% (from 2.6 in FY2012 to 3.0 in FY2015, P < .001). Grant submissions, external funding, and teaching hours also increased per faculty but did not reach statistical significance. An important next step will be to incorporate quality metrics into the compensation plan, without affecting costs or throughput.
Leslie M. Reid
Downstream impacts to aquatic environments and property generally occur as cumulative watershed impacts, which are usually caused by changes in the transport of woody debris, water, and sediment through a watershed. The downstream cumulative impacts that are likely to accrue from implementation of the Sustained Yield Plan / Habitat Conservation Plan for the properties...
Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss
Full Text Available The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Cities and communities are central players in the energy transition process. Energy demand is determined by the built environment. Renewable energy production needs space. The conflicts between different interest groups often break out in the context of local implementation measures that affect urban planning and the appearance of landscapes.Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders lack experience and criteria for strategic decision making. After a period of fierce determination to turn the wheel against climate change, it seems that there is a growing resignation among politicians, planners and the public because some things have not turned out the way we’d expected and the hope for quick solutions fades. Rebound-effects seem to eat up the savings to a good extent, and alternative ideas of how sustainable energy systems may be put into place have not yet been persuasive in many cases. Energy systems have proved to be complex. They are still perceived to be important but in practice there is a growing uneasiness about the right steps to take. The overarching research question of this thesis is: What do decision makers in smalland medium-sized communities need to become more successful in implementing
Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss
Full Text Available The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Cities and communities are central players in the energy transition process. Energy demand is determined by the built environment. Renewable energy production needs space. The conflicts between different interest groups often break out in the context of local implementation measures that affect urban planning and the appearance of landscapes. Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders lack experience and criteria for strategic decision making. After a period of fierce determination to turn the wheel against climate change, it seems that there is a growing resignation among politicians, planners and the public because some things have not turned out the way we’d expected and the hope for quick solutions fades. Rebound-effects seem to eat up the savings to a good extent, and alternative ideas of how sustainable energy systems may be put into place have not yet been persuasive in many cases. Energy systems have proved to be complex. They are still perceived to be important but in practice there is a growing uneasiness about the right steps to take. The overarching research question of this thesis is: What do decision makers in smalland medium-sized communities need to become more successful in implementing
Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is both the largest science and energy laboratory of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and one of the oldest national laboratories still operating at its original site. These characteristics provide the Sustainable Campus Initiative (SCI) both a unique opportunity and a unique challenge to integrate sustainability into facilities and activities. As outlined in this report, SCI is leveraging the outcomes of ORNL’s DOE-sponsored research and development programs to maximize the efficient use of energy and natural resources across ORNL. Wherever possible, ORNL is integrating technical innovations into new and existing facilities, systems, and processes with a widespread approach to achieving Executive Order 13514. ORNL continues to pursue and deploy innovative solutions and initiatives to advance regional, national, and worldwide sustainability and continues to transform its culture and engage employees in supporting sustainability at work, at home, and in the community. Table 1 summarizes ORNL's FY 2013 performance and planned actions to attain future goals. ORNL has achieved numerous successes during FY 2013, which are described in detail throughout this document.
Ciaburri, Mirella; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena
Worldwide, the sustainability of public health systems is challenged by the increasing number and cost of personalized therapies. Quality biological samples stored in biobanks are essential for the provision of appropriate health services and also act as a reservoir for the development of precision medicine and biotechnological innovation. Economic sustainability is a crucial factor in the maintenance of biobanking activities. Traditionally, management of biobanking is performed by health researchers and/or clinicians whose knowledge of economic issues is inadequate. On the other hand, familiarity with financial instruments used by economists is not often accompanied by a consolidated understanding of biobanking features. This article aims to be a guide for the implementation of business plans in biobanking and proposes models for the facilitation of their preparation, thus contributing to recognition of the importance of efficient management of resources of public health services.
Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan
Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML.
Genna, Shimeles; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane
The important role of active Community Based Reproductive Health Services (CBRHS), formerly known us Community Based Distribution (CBD) of family planning program, in increasing contraceptive uptake has been reported from several studies. However, the sustainability of project based services has not been documented in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of community based Family planning services in rural communities of Ethiopia. The study was carried out in three sets of 30 peasant villages selected from five districts of Eastern Showa Zone in Ethiopia. Comparison was made between never former; and current CBRHS areas. Relevant information was collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The respondents were women in the reproductive age groups (15-49 years). Knowledge about contraception was higher in both former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 6.89 (4.69, 10.17) and 12.48 (7.84, 20.25)], respectively. Ever use of modern contraception was significantly greater among women from former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS communities [MH-OR (95% CI) = 3.75 (2.54, 5.97) and 5.72 (3.93, 9.39), respectively]. Current use of modern contraception methods was however significantly better only in current CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 2.42; (1.16, 5.37)]; there was no statistically significant difference with former CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 1.13; (0.51, 2.49)]. Results of this study indicate that the effect of CBRHS in raising the level of modern contraception use in rural communities is transient. In order to sustain the effects of a good community based family planning services appropriate mechanisms must be designed to motivate and enable women to continuously utilize the services.
Poul Alberg Østergaard
Full Text Available This editorial introduces the sixth volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. Topics include methodology for assessing solar power and solar heat potentials using geographical information systems using Swiss cases, a similar analysis focusing on solar power in Kenya and the spatio-temporal distribution of the production, and the establishment of the correct economic framework conditions or incentives to promote changes towards renewable energy systems taking a Danish community as a case. Lastly, an article investigates the Chinese district heating sector with a view to identifying alternatives to the present coal-based heating infrastructure.
Poul Alberg Østergaard
Full Text Available This editorial introduces the ninth volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume addresses alternative ways of providing diesel fuel through emulsification ow waste cooking oil and fat, estimation of global solar energy potentials based on publically available data, and a large review of global grid connected electricity storage systems. Finally, an article applies stochastic programming to analyse optimal district heating expansion scenarios with particular focus on the phasing issue of investments in district heating grids.
agriculture will occur on the flood plain and other areas suitable for rice farming. The Land-use model under the King's Theory scenario suggests that agriculture agents occupied more disperse lands than the cash-crops scenario. In addition, the King's Theory scenario provided more access to water surface than other scenarios and was the most sustainable development plan. These products offer a better understanding of the urban growth and LULCC at a regional scale and will potentially guide more systematic and effective resource management and policy decisions. Although this research focuses on a specific site, the methods employed are applicable to other rural regions with similar characteristics.
Estefanía López Salas
Full Text Available The present study seeks to understand what was the level of implication that the monks of San Julián de Samos had in the way of planning, changing and developing the large territory of their jurisdictional reserve. To achieve that goal, we resort to some historical, unpublished sources to reveal the rules, the interests and the instruments which, with a clear planning sense, were used to define the former structure of the inhabited landscape where we live nowadays.
Daniela Biondi; Antonio Carlos Batista; Angeline Martini
Urban growth worldwide has generated great concern in the planning of the different environments belonging to the wildland-urban interface. One of the problems that arise is the landscape treatment given to roads, which must not only comply with aesthetic and ecological principles, but also be functional, adding functions relating to forest fire prevention and control...
...: pollution control, sustainable water management and river rehabilitation, sustainable agriculture, Jordan River basin governance, ecological rehabilitation, sustainable tourism and cultural heritage...
Nesci, Olivia; Valentini, Laura
Born from a desire to promote the Italian landscape by integrating its physical aesthetic with its cultural and artistic heritage, we develop a story about the landscape told in popular science, and supported by visual stimulations, poetry and ancient music. Our work proceeds through two different routes. The first route analyzes the landscape from the scientific point of view trying to understand how it evolves and responds in response to changes in independent variables. The second path examines the landscape from a perspective more closely related to the visual and emotional impact that a place evokes, its history, its cultural significance, and perception of its fragility. The latter is perhaps a more complex path, more intimate, which develop fully only through the intersection of different forms of language, linked to specific arts. Three different disciplines focused on the same site, the combination of which results in an emotional experience where the encounter between different languages becomes an expression of the place. Among the many amazing landscapes of Italy, we focus on three known sites from the hystorical region of Montefeltro, in central Italy: "The flatiron of Petrano Mount", "The Stones of Montefeltro", "The sea-cliff of San Bartolo". Since a few years we have created a team of five researchers-artists, called "TerreRare" (Rare Earth Elements), whose mission is the desire to promote the gorgeous Italian landscape. Olivia Nesci, geomorphologist, begins this story analyzing the processes and the "forces" that have created and modified the landscape over time. Laura Valentini, a geologist and a musician, through the musical language, try to reproduce the emotional impact of the site, by searching for a piece of ancient music, composed for harpsichord. The choice of the musical instrument and the historical period is not accidental: the harpsichord has a punchy and gritty tone that clearly expresses the "strength" of the landscape; early music
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the natural environmental of the island of Porto Belo, in Santa Catarina, and its relationship with the tourism complex in the island. We expect to make a methodological and empirical contribution to research on tourism sustainability, as the findings suggest a relationship between the ecosystem and the processes related to the attractions of the destination. This is a descriptive study, using both qualitative and quantitative methodology, based on a systemic approach. The technical procedures were divided into three stages: literature, documentary, and field survey; mapping and crossing; summary and results. The Geographic Information System (GIS was the instrument used in the identification, sizing and systemic analysis of landscape units of the island. The originality of this study lies in ranking the natural and social environment systems from the mapping of the stability of landscape units, as well as in the identification of spaces and infrastructures that can be requalified in order to improve the services on the island. This result and the discussion of its contribution to the sustainable management of leisure and recreation activities on the island are original contributions to the state-of-the art to tourism research Brazil.
Zhang, Ke; Lin, Li; Huang, Xuanxuan; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Yonggang
Nowadays, how to design a city with more sustainable features has become a center problem in the field of social development, meanwhile it has provided a broad stage for the application of artificial intelligence theories and methods. Because the design of sustainable city is essentially a constraint optimization problem, the swarm intelligence algorithm of extensive research has become a natural candidate for solving the problem. TLBO (Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization) algorithm is a new swarm intelligence algorithm. Its inspiration comes from the “teaching” and “learning” behavior of teaching class in the life. The evolution of the population is realized by simulating the “teaching” of the teacher and the student “learning” from each other, with features of less parameters, efficient, simple thinking, easy to achieve and so on. It has been successfully applied to scheduling, planning, configuration and other fields, which achieved a good effect and has been paid more and more attention by artificial intelligence researchers. Based on the classical TLBO algorithm, we propose a TLBO_LS algorithm combined with local search. We design and implement the random generation algorithm and evaluation model of urban planning problem. The experiments on the small and medium-sized random generation problem showed that our proposed algorithm has obvious advantages over DE algorithm and classical TLBO algorithm in terms of convergence speed and solution quality.
Naif Adel Haddad
Full Text Available Tal (mount Irbid in Irbid city, Jordan, with its continuous human occupation from the Bronze Age until the present, demonstrates the main landmark that has guided the spread of the urban growth of the city. The outcome of studies carried out at Irbid’s historic core, in relation to assessing the loss and degradation of the core’s cultural heritage, shall be analyzed, investigated, and discussed, as also concerns, obstacles, and issues of sustainability to this urban heritage conservation and tourism planning. The paper starts by defining the urban heritage for the historic core, which tends to be set aside, in the city’s rapid development. Actually, the remaining historic buildings can also provide the necessary inter-relationships between the historic core areas and the wider urban context to achieve a sustainable and integrated tourism and conservation action plan for the three heritage neighborhoods around the Tal, while building on tourism opportunities and taking into consideration the needs and the vital role of the local community. The paper concludes that urban heritage conservation and protection of the integrity and identity of the historic core city fabric can assist in its branding, promotion, and management in ways that could enhance the local community belonging, quality of everyday lifestyle, and visitors' experience.
Full Text Available Sustainable development is regarded as a pivotal factor for smart urban planning. Transit-Oriented Development (TOD is a well-known land use transportation integration (LUTI planning method, which can fulfill sustainable development objectives. In this study, a new spatial index is developed to measure TOD levels in neighborhoods of Tehran, the capital of Iran. To develop the TOD index, several criteria and indicators are first computed using spatial analyses, before being aggregated using a fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy-AHP. The fuzzy-AHP method generates three types of factor maps: that are optimistic, pessimistic, and moderate. This process evaluates the sensitivity of the TOD index by determining the indicators’ weights from various views, or perspectives. The results of this sensitivity analysis show the robustness of results from various views. Furthermore, in order to assess the efficiency of the proposed method, the moderate TOD-level map is compared with both the level of public transit services and trip attraction in neighborhoods. This comparison shows that the TOD map has an accuracy of 77 percent in urban modeling, which verifies the efficiency of the proposed method for measuring TOD.
Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono
Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a
Full Text Available In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations. In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity.
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the land use and natural resources for future sustainable ecotourism site planning using GIS as a tool. The study is based on 2007 land use land cover data and ecotourism suitability data which are then integrated with other GIS datasets to evaluate the land use and natural resources at a district level in Surat Thani province. The final step of this study was the prioritization of the area that is best suited for ecotourism in assessing ecotourism sustainability in Surat Thani province. The result is useful for tourism facilities development and ecotourism resource utilization where ecotourism could be more developed. Additionally, the results can be used for managers and planners working in local and central governments and other non-governmental organizations. These integrated approaches cover complex and universal issues such as sustainable development of ecotourism, biodiversity conservation and protected area management in a tropical and developing country such as Thailand. Moreover, it is believed that this study can be used as a basis for evaluating the suitability of other areas for ecotourism. In addition, it may also serve as a starting point for more complex studies in the future.
'Implementation' is rightly the strong emphasis of the WSSD Plan of Implementation. In today's dynamic and uncertain world, however, implementing sustainable development commitments will be very difficult without integral research. The certainties of the past now rarely apply. The uncertain effects of climatic and environmental change, market liberalisation, and increased migration and social mobility, will all radically affect the prospects for sustainable development (SD). This gives rise to many technical research challenges – such as how to get more value out of fewer resources and eliminate harmful side effects. But the fundamental knowledge gaps for 'implementation' tend to be institutional: How to create governance structures and incentives to encourage technological innovation in the first place? How to encourage investment in millions of new jobs each year? How to establish and protect rights to sustainable livelihoods? and How to develop empirical baselines for assessing SD? Too few people are attempting to answer such basic questions, or if they are, they rarely involve policymakers, investors, producers and consumers in their efforts. SD research cannot be a detached and long-term endeavour. Research institutions need to partner with other stakeholders so that everyone can learn, adapt and innovate.
Full Text Available In the last period landscape protection, its representative types more and more comes to the limelight. In October 2000 the European Landscape Convention - also known as the Florence Convention was adopted. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning, and to organise European co-operation on landscape issues. Contracting states ought to analyse the landscape types on the whole area of their countries, to analyse their features, record their changes, specify motive power and pressure forming them and assess selected types with respect to special values attributed by engaged participants and inhabitants. Knowledge and identification of single landscape types enable the intensification of care of diversity of single landscape types and landscape biodiversity. It is an unavoidable condition in the strategic planning process and effective protection of regionally special landscape.Slovakia signed ELC in 2005 and became an active participant in its implementation. The Institute of the Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences elaborated methodology for specification and evaluation of the representative landscape types of Slovakia (RLTS.RLTS are defined as homogeneous units considering the landscape character, functions and current land-use. GIS (Geographical Information Systems tool was used to create RLTS, in particular by overlaying of abiotic landscape structure (type of relief, quaternary deposits, climatic regions, and soil types and land-cover map (CORINE Land Cover 2006 - CLC at national scale. This process yielded to a patched map of homogeneous areas, which were further interpreted, generalized, and regionalized to a final map of RLTS.Landscape types of Slovakia were defined by the synthesis of the mentioned maps. Totally there were identified 126 basic landscape types. Each landscape type represents unique combination of land-use in different abiotic conditions and gives the unique
Richard Birdsey; Yude Pan; Richard. Houghton
Tropical forests play a critical role in the Earth system; however, tropical landscapes have changed greatly in recent decades because of increasing demand for land to support agriculture and timber production, fuel wood, and other pressures of population and human economics. The observable results are a legacy of persistent deforestation, forest degradation, increased...
Diekötter, Tim; Speelmans, Marjan; Dusoulier, François; Van Wingerden, Walter K R E; Malfait, Jean-Pierre; Crist, Thomas O; Edwards, Peter J; Dietz, Hansjörg
Because the viability of a population may depend on whether individuals can disperse, it is important for conservation planning to understand how landscape structure affects movement behavior. Some species occur in a wide range of landscapes differing greatly in structure, and the question arises of whether these species are particularly versatile in their dispersal or whether they are composed of genetically distinct populations adapted to contrasting landscapes. We performed a capture-mark-resight experiment to study movement patterns of the flightless bush cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera (De Geer 1773) in two contrasting agricultural landscapes in France and Switzerland. The mean daily movement of P. griseoaptera was significantly higher in the landscape with patchily distributed habitat (Switzerland) than in the landscape with greater habitat connectivity (France). Net displacement rate did not differ between the two landscapes, which we attributed to the presence of more linear elements in the connected landscape, resulting in a more directed pattern of movement by P. griseoaptera. Significant differences in the movement patterns between landscapes with contrasting structure suggest important effects of landscape structure on movement and dispersal success. The possibility of varying dispersal ability within the same species needs to be studied in more detail because this may provide important information for sustainable landscape planning aimed at maintaining viable metapopulations, especially in formerly well-connected landscapes.
Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans - Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension
Malone, Elizabeth L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Sanquist, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wolfe, Amy K. [ORNL; Diamond, Rick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Dion, Jerry [ORNL
This document is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and maintain federal sustainability goals, while meeting their mission goals. FEMP is developing guidance for federal agency efforts to enable institutional behavior change for sustainability, and for making sustainability “business as usual.” The driving requirement for this change is Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. FEMP emphasizes strategies for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization as critical components of attaining sustainability, and promotes additional non-energy action pathways contained in EO 13514. This report contributes to the larger goal by laying out the conceptual and evidentiary underpinnings of guidance to federal agencies. Conceptual frameworks focus and organize the development of guidance. We outline a series of progressively refined conceptual frameworks, including a multi-layer approach, key steps in sustainability implementation, a process view of specific approaches to institutional change, the agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans (SSPPs), and concepts related to context-specific rules, roles and tools for sustainability. Additionally, we tap pertinent bodies of literature in drawing eight evidence-based principles for behavior change. These principles are important foundations upon which to build in selecting strategies to effect change in organizations. Taken together, this report presents a suite of components that inform the training materials, presentations, web site, and other products that provide guidance to federal agencies.
Full Text Available The starting point for easier resolution of conflicts between conservation and development should be the application of the concept of protected areas of natural heritage as social-ecological systems. This is also the precondition for attainment of strategic planning coordination for protected mountain areas (PMA. The objective of the paper is to provide the insight into the effectiveness of strategic planning support - spatial and sectoral planning - to sustainable territorial and tourism development of PMA in Serbia. The study area comprises Kopaonik and Đerdap National Parks, and Stara Planina Nature Park. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of strategic planning for PMA by means of analysis and evaluation of spatial plans, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and sector plans in tourism for the study area. The effectiveness of spatial planning is checked based on the analysis and evaluation of sustainability of zoning and land-use regimes, and of tourism development proposed by spatial plans for the study area. The conclusion is that it is necessary to apply holistic approach to sector planning for nature conservation and tourism development, and to apply SEA for tourism planning as well. Reduction of the spatial coverage of PMA and spatial differentiation of protected zones from the ones planned for intensive development is recommended.
Full Text Available During the FAO Expert Consultation on Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 (Kotka - Finland 1996, the importance of Trees Outside Forests (TOF and the need for complete and detailed information about these stands were underlined for the first time. Since then and thanks to some pilot studies launched by FAO at the end of the ninenties, the international attention focused on three main topics: the definition of TOF and its classification (linear features, small woods, scattered and individual trees; the effective sampling methods to assess TOF, that are usually rare elements; the ecological role and the economic and social importance of TOF in industrialized and developing countries. Basing on these considerations, the sampling points of the second Italian National Forest Inventory (National Inventory of Forests and Carbon Sinks - INFC intercepting small woods or linear features were recorded. Consequently, the INFC provides information about a substantial portion of the TOF of the country. Thanks to the availability of these data, a specific study was undertaken, aimed at improving information on TOF features and their role in the landscape. The present paper reports on the first results of this study for four regions of the Central Italy (Lazio, Marche, Toscana and Umbria, where the TOF are particularly significant.
Ana Clara Mourão Moura
Full Text Available The text discusses the state-of-the-art of GIS Technologies in planning and management processes of urban and architectural spaces. It presents latest’s evolution in GIS methodology and applications, discussing how these resources have changed our way of representing and projecting territory. It discusses contemporaneous values, in interventions into urban spaces. The paper also presents legislation’s role in data registers and infrastructure, favoring wide employment of geoprocessing. It announces the arrival of new territorial representation logics, among which is azimuth visualization, considering mental maps, the employment of BIM (Building Information Modeling and the process of parameterization. It points out tendencies and values, such as being inter- operational, creating interpretative portraits for reality, producing simulated scenarios, investing in visualizing and involvement with communities, and fully employing geo-technologies, as aids for decision making. It defends that we are living a new paradigm on territorial planning: the Parametric Modeling of Territorial Occupation.
Full Text Available Earth observation data can provide valuable assessments for monitoring the spatial extent of (unsustainable urban growth of the world’s cities to better inform planning policy in reducing associated economic, social and environmental costs. Western Australia has witnessed rapid economic expansion since the turn of the century founded upon extensive natural resource extraction. Thus, Perth, the state capital of Western Australia, has encountered significant population and urban growth in response to the booming state economy. However, the recent economic slowdown resulted in the largest decrease in natural resource values that Western Australia has ever experienced. Here, we present multi-temporal urban expansion statistics from 1990 to 2015 for Perth, derived from Landsat imagery. Current urban estimates used for future development plans and progress monitoring of infill and density targets are based upon aggregated census data and metrics unrepresentative of actual land cover change, underestimating overall urban area. Earth observation provides a temporally consistent methodology, identifying areal urban area at higher spatial and temporal resolution than current estimates. Our results indicate that the spatial extent of the Perth Metropolitan Region has increased 45% between 1990 and 2015, over 320 km2. We highlight the applicability of earth observation data in accurately quantifying urban area for sustainable targeted planning practices.
Thomas J. Straka
Full Text Available American forest resource management and planning goes back to the European roots of American Forestry. Timber management plans, documents based on forest regulation for timber production, were the foundation of American forestry. These types of management plans predominated until World War II. Multiple use forestry developed after World War II and issues like recreation, wildlife, water quality, and wilderness became more important. In the 1970’s harvest scheduling became part of the planning process, allowing for optimization of multiple goals. By 2001 social, environmental, and economic goals were integrated into the timber production process. American forestry experienced distinct historical periods of resource planning, ranging from classic sustained yield timber production, to multiple use-sustained yield, to sustainable human-forest systems. This article traces the historical changes in forest management planning philosophy using the forest management textbooks of the time. These textbooks provide insight into the thought process of the forestry profession as changes in the concept of sustainability occurred.
Halwatura, Devanmini; Lechner, Alex; Baumgartl, Thomas; McIntyre, Neil; Arnold, Sven
Eastern Australia has considerable mineral and energy resources and areas of high biodiversity value co-occurring over a broad range of agro-climatic environments. Water is the primary abiotic stressor for (agro)ecosystems in many parts of Eastern Australia. In the context of mined land rehabilitation quantifying the severity-duration-frequency (SDF) of droughts is crucial for successful ecosystem rehabilitation to overcome challenges of early vegetation establishment and long-term ecosystem resilience. The objective of this study was to quantify the SDF of short-term and long-term drought events of 11 selected locations across a broad range of agro-climatic environments in Eastern Australia by using three drought indices at different time scales: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Based on the indices we derived bivariate distribution functions of drought severity and duration, and estimated the recurrence intervals of drought events at different time scales. The correlation between the simple SPI and the more complex SPEI or RDI was stronger for the tropical and temperate locations than for the arid locations, indicating that SPEI or RDI can be replaced by SPI if evaporation plays a minor role for plant available water. Both short-term and long-term droughts were most severe and prolonged, and occurred most frequently in arid regions, but were relatively rare in tropical and temperate regions. Our approach is similar to intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) analyses of rainfall crucial to design infrastructure. In this regard, we propose to apply SDF analyses of droughts to design ecosystem components in post-mining landscapes. Together with design rainfalls, design droughts should be used to assess rehabilitation strategies and ecological management based on drought recurrence intervals, thereby minimising the risk of failure of initial ecosystem
Full Text Available The emergence, formation, and development of the city are largely connected with its landscape position. The first stage of Samarkand’s existence may be referred to as “river civilization.” Over the course of development of the city, the nature and intensity of interaction of the population and economy with its landscape have undergone changes; there is a distinct general pattern: dependence on the landscape. This was largely the reason for its sustainable development for many centuries. This fact should be considered in future activities in landscape and spatial planning.
can be sustained over the long-term? To address this a second framework was chosen which was developed by Sergio Fernandez of Indiana University and...recent study provides a good basis for evaluating the sustainability of the FIAR Plan. B. THE FERNANDEZ /RAINEY MODEL Sergio Fernandez of Indiana... Sergio Fernandez and Hal Rainey. “Managing Successful Organizational Change in the Public Sector: An Agenda for Research and Practice” in Public
Full Text Available Large port cities like Shanghai, Amsterdam and Rio de Janeiro are key cogwheels in international logistics and transport networks but also serve as showcases for the rest of the world; as such, they constitute strategic assets for the host country´s economy and international influence. Historically, a city and its port often developed independently, through sometimes contradictory or even confrontational policies. Today, the growing number of usage disputes over increasingly coveted coastal areas is prompting local managers to incorporate urban and port-related issues in overarching planning programs. In particular, planning of the sea front and the buffer zone between the port and the city must contribute decisively to the deployment of more effective, cleaner transport services for the port city as a whole. In general, one of the key global challenges for planners and decision-makers consists in integrating sustainable development goals (environmental and social components, as well as the stimulation of industrial competitiveness into urban planning. In this context the PHEBUS research group has initiated an international program of research to develop innovative methods and tools that can help territorial stakeholders to design, evaluate, compare and ultimately choose development scenarios for the future of their port cities. The main themes are addressed via a multidisciplinary systems approach on the scale of a coastal urban area with an industrial and port complex. In particular, the themes include sea front planning, the city-port interface, energy optimization (e.g. the introduction and sharing of renewable energies, risk resilience, climate change and multimodal, clean transport.
Drosos, Vasileios C.
The rise in the living standards of the Greeks created, especially since 1970, along with other needs and the need for second or holiday home since 1990 after finding the first house on the outskirts of large urban centers. Trying to find land for the creation of new resorts or new type of permanent residences (maisonettes with or without garden, depending on the financial position of each) had the painful consequence of wasteful and uncontrolled use of land, without a program, without the fundamental rules of land planning and the final creation was usually unsightly buildings. The costs were to pay as usually the forest rural lands. The national spatial planning of land use requires that we know the existing land uses in this country, and based on that we can design and decide their land uses on the future in a rational way. On final practical level, this planning leads to mark the boundaries of specific areas of land that are permitted and may change uses. For this reason, one of the most valuable "tools" of that final marking the boundaries is also the forest maps. The paper aims the investigation to determine the modern views on the issues of Cadastre and Land Management with an ulterior view to placing the bases for creating a building plan of an immediate completion of forest maps. Sustainable development as a term denoting a policy of continued economic and social development that does not involve the destruction of the environment and natural resources, but rather guarantees their rational viability.
Full Text Available Higher education ought to support the identification of training needs for industrial building information modelling (BIM curriculum development and sustainability education in the fields of civil engineering and management (CEM. This paper proposes a framework based on a four-phase step-by-step quality function deployment (QFD application for CEM curriculum planning and quality management. The framework attempts to respond to requests collected from 17 professionals and professors in order to integrate BIM into the higher education curriculum in China with a specific focus on construction management programs accredited by the American Council for Construction Education (ACCE. The entropy method and a K1–K6 scale adapted from Bloom’s revised cognitive process were employed to evaluate the CEM curriculum in QFD. The proposed framework was successfully applied to CEM curriculum planning, which included two curriculums of the four main knowledge areas provided by the Chinese CEM guidelines: construction cost and flow construction. Two curriculum areas showed that content should focus on knowledge such as (a Program evaluation and review technique(PERT planning; (b construction optimization in flow construction; (c principles of bill of quantities and (d construction consumption in construction costs. As for teaching quality management in China, the higher education curriculum should focus on three aspects to promote curriculum integration: (a pedagogical design; (b teaching resource and material and (c curriculum assessment. This research sheds light on the pedagogical shift to a similar context that has established guidelines accredited by the ACCE, with respect to reviewing curriculum planning from a knowledge system perspective in order to meet industrial demands at the operational level.
Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J
Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.
Pohekar, S.D.; Ramachandram, M. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India)
Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques are gaining popularity in sustainable energy management. The techniques provide solutions to the problems involving conflicting and multiple objectives. Several methods based on weighted averages, priority setting, outranking, fuzzy principles and their combinations are employed for energy planning decisions. A review of more than 90 published papers is presented here to analyze the applicability of various methods discussed. A classification on application areas and the year of application is presented to highlight the trends. It is observed that Analytical Hierarchy Process is the most popular technique followed by outranking techniques PROMETHEE and ELECTRE. Validation of results with multiple methods, development of interactive decision support systems and application of fuzzy methods to tackle uncertainties in the data is observed in the published literature. (author)
Badach, Joanna; Dymnicka, Małgorzata
Contemporary urban theory and practice in the post-industrial era is increasingly often turning towards an approach based on sustainable development. That concept bearing the traits of a paradigm has grown on the ground of broad quest for an alternative to the existing development model of the industrial civilisation. It has gained wide social acceptance and is the basis for many development and environmental programmes at the level of national and local government. It puts in a new light the socio-cultural, ecological and energy-related aspects of space as well as its value and aesthetics. A model of governing the city called ‘good urban governance’ is in a very close relation with the concept of sustainable development. It is based on the principles of inclusiveness, citizenship, accountability, processuality and effectiveness. Although this approach is not entirely novel, it stays valid and open to new challenges connected with satisfying human needs in the urban built environment on the basis of new contemporary conceptualisations such as ‘smart governance’, ‘governing the smart city’, ‘network governance’ and ‘governance networks’. The advantages of this approach based on the assumption of multidimensionality and subjectivity, matching the various and seemingly contradicting interests with a sense of responsibility for the quality of life in the urban environment are often underlined both in literature and in academic debate. The aim of this article is an attempt to present selected practices in spatial planning which employ the principles of the idea of co-governance. It will include various methodological assumptions and criteria applied in ‘good urban governance’. The intention will be to show its new research and application possibilities in countries like Poland where the idea of governance and sustainable development remains a matter of theory.
Eshtawi, Tamer; Evers, Mariele; Tischbein, Bernhard; Diekkrüger, Bernd
In this study, a coupling of surface water (SWAT), groundwater (MODFLOW) and solute transport (MT3DMS) models was performed to quantify surface-groundwater and quantity-quality interactions under urban area expansion. The responses of groundwater level, nitrate concentrations (related to human activities) and chloride concentrations (related to seawater intrusion) to urban area expansion and corresponding changes in the urban water budget were examined on a macro-scale level. The potentials of non-conventional water resources scenarios, namely desalination, stormwater harvesting and treated wastewater (TWW) reuse were investigated. In a novel analysis, groundwater improvement and deterioration under each scenario were defined in spatial-temporal approach. The quality deterioration cycle index was estimated as the ratio between the amounts of low and high quality recharge components within the Gaza Strip boundary predicted for year 2030. The improvement index for groundwater level (IIL) and the improvement index for groundwater quality (IIQ) were developed for the scenarios as measures of the effectiveness toward sustainable groundwater planning. Even though the desalination and TWW reuse scenarios reflect a noticeable improvement in the groundwater level, the desalination scenario shows a stronger tendency toward sustainable groundwater quality. The stormwater harvesting scenario shows a slight improvement in both groundwater quality and quantity. This study provides a 'corridor of options', which could facilitate future studies focusing on developing a micro-level assessment of the above scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Natanael Reis Bomfim
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the relationship among land appropriation by tourism and its impacts in culture and environment, claiming for sustainable tourism planning in Cacau Seashore in Bahia. Discourses of several authors of planning issues who write on sustainable tourism and regional development in an inter-disciplinary base were analyzed. To value those communities held in the periphery of the economic system, who many times get into drug dealing or prostitution (and sex tourism in which Brazil is a world leader for survival is evidenced.
Full Text Available Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013 it declined dramatically. In the first phase (1979–1988 of the studied period the primary roll-in landscape of the salt pan wasbarren land with an area of 60.0 km2. By 1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan rose to 457.8 km2. The main roll-out landscape of the salt pan during 1988–2013 was urban, barren land, village/town, harbor, and road whose area amounted to 69.8, 35.9, 27.3, 25.5 and 18.4 km2 respectively. The roll-out barren land will be transformed to construction land ultimately. By 2013, the total loss reached 167.3 km2, which was 36.5% of the salt pan area of Tianjin in 1988. With the development of coastal economy, the salterns with a lower economic value were transformed to and replaced by land use types with a higher economic value. This trend would influence the production of sea salt and the development of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate industries. Seawater desalination provides an opportunity for the restoration and compensation of salt production capacity. Based on the theory of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, in this article an industrial symbiosis model for sea salt production and sea water desalination is explored: “mariculture–power plant cooling–seawater desalination–Artemia culture–bromide extraction–sea salt production–salt chemical industry”. Through the application of this process sustainable development of the sea salt production in Tianjin could be achieved.
Tenhunen, J. D.; Kang, S.
The Millenium Assessment has provided a broad perspective on the ways and degree to which global change has stressed ecosystems and their potential to deliver goods and services to mankind. Management of natural resources at regional scale requires a clear understanding of the ways that ongoing human activities modify or create new system stressors, leading to net gains or losses in ecosystem services. Ever since information from the International Biological Program (IBP) was summarized in the 1960s, we know that ecosystem stress response, recovery and resilience are related to changes in ecosystem turnover of materials, nutrient retention or loss, resource use efficiencies, and additional ecosystem properties that determine fluxes of carbon, water and nutrients. At landscape or regional scale, changes in system drivers influence land-surface to atmosphere gas exchange (water, carbon and trace gas emissions), the seasonal course of soil resource stores, hydrology, and transport of nutrients and carbon into and through river systems. In today's terminology, shifts in these fluxes indicate a modification of potential ecosystem services provided to us by the landscape or region of interest, and upon which we depend. Ongoing modeling efforts of the TERRECO project carried out in S. Korea focus on describing landscape and regional level flow networks for carbon, water, and nutrients, but in addition monetary flows associated with gains and losses in ecosystem services (cf. Fig. 1). The description is embedded within a framework which examines the trade-offs between agricultural intensification versus yield of high quality water to reservoirs for drinking water supply. The models also quantify hypothetical changes in flow networks that would occur in the context of climate, land use and social change scenarios.
Frederik Doyon; Brian Sturtevant; Michael J. Papaik; Andrew Fall; Brian Miranda; Daniel D. Kneeshaw; Christian Messier; Marie-Josee. Fortin; Patrick M.A. James
Sustainable forest management (SFM) recognizes that the spatial and temporal patterns generated at different scales by natural landscape and stand dynamics processes should serve as a guide for managing the forest within its range of natural variability. Landscape simulation modeling is a powerful tool that can help encompass such complexity and support SFM planning....
Landscaping is one of the most cost effective tools for improving and sustaining the quality of life, whether in the city, the suburbs, or the country. Landscaping is an integral part of our culture and plays an essential role in the quality of our environment, affecting our economic well-being and our physical and psychological health.
Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.
Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou, Maria; Bourlidou, Anastasia
The contemporary urban landscape is the evolving image of dynamic social, economic and ecological changes and heterogeneity. It constitutes the mirror of history, natural and cultural, urban processes, as well as locations of hybrid character, such as degraded and fragmented spaces within the urban fabric or in the city boundaries -areas in between, infrastructures, post-industrial and waterfront sites, but also potential grounds for urban development. Along with the awakening of the global ecological awareness and the ongoing discussion on sustainability issues, the cityscape with its new attributes, constitutes a challenging field of research and planning for various disciplines, further more than landscape architecture, such as architecture, planning, ecology, environment and engineering. This paper focuses on the role of urban landscape architecture, via its theory and practice, in the reshaping of the city territory. It aspires to broaden the discussion concerning the upgrading of the contemporary cities, aiming firstly at the determination of a wider vocabulary for the urban landscape and its design, and secondly at the highlighting of landscape architecture’s contribution to the sustainable perspective of urban design and planning. The methodology is based on a comparative research implemented both on a theoretical level and on a level of applied work. Urban landscape architecture is described through theory and practice, along with correlative approaches deriving mainly from landscape urbanism and secondarily from the field of architecture. Urban landscape is approached as a socio-ecological and perceptual legible, a territory of culture, process and production; operating as an entity of ecological, infrastructural systems and planning needs, it is also regarded as a precedent for urban development. Furthermore, the research is supported by selected European and International urban landscape projects, presented in a cohesive multiscalar approach, from the
Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála
, tree mortality has been observed also in stands on favourable soils (rusty brown forest soil, brown earth, lessivated brown forest soil) because these soil sites can only mitigate the damage of extremes. Consequently, there is ongoing change of site conditions that are important for the sustainable forest management planning. Therefore it is an urgent need to rethink regulations considering the changing climate and soil conditions in order to decide about sustainable tree species preference and to maintain forest cover. Keywords: climate change impacts, forest mortality, adaptation, sustainable forest management planning Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU-national joint funded research project.
Full Text Available Global sustainability is increasingly an issue of urban sustainability, being essential to encourage more benign trajectories of urbanisation. For this, there is need for a framework that could aid in the process of designing and redesigning (retrofitting cities. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the methodology of urban ecodesign, which is characterized by a systematic incorporation of environmental life cycle considerations into the design of urban systems. The paper presents a case study of neighbourhood ecodesign from the city of Barcelona (Vallbona neighbourhood. This practical experience shows that the inclusion of sustainability criteria at an early stage of the design and planning of urban systems is the best strategy for environmental protection.In addition; a methodological framework is described in order to provide planners with a structured way of designing urban settlements so as to move towards sustainable urban environments.
La sostenibilidad global es cada vez más un tema de sostenibilidad urbana. Por este motivo, es necesario un marco de trabajo que pueda ayudar en el proceso de diseño y rediseño (rehabilitación de nuestras ciudades. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar y describir la metodología de ecodiseño adaptada a los entornos urbanos, la cual se caracteriza por la incorporación sistemática de las consideraciones ambientales a lo largo de su ciclo de vida. El documento presenta un caso de estudio de ecodiseño del barrio de Vallbona (Barcelona. Esta experiencia demuestra que la inclusión de criterios de sostenibilidad en las etapas iniciales de diseño y planificación de los sistemas urbanos es la mejor estrategia para la prevención ambiental. Además, se presenta un marco metodológico con el fin de proporcionar a los planificadores una forma estructurada de diseño de los asentamientos urbanos que les permita avanzar hacia entornos urbanos más sostenibles.
Soederman, T.; Saarela, S.-R. (eds.)
How to concretise the objectives of sustainability in urban regions through land use and traffic planning? How to utilise existing information and data in planning? These questions have been the core of Seutukeke (Sustainable land use and traffic), a project which combines and discusses scientifically based ecological, social and economic information, expert knowledge, and land use planners' experiences in relation to urban regions. In this project sustainable urban regions have been defined as follows: Their development does not endanger biodiversity or ecosystem services (ecological dimension), human well-being or social equality (social dimension), or the opportunities for economic success (economic dimension) in the long run. The objective of the project Seutukeke has been to collect and analyse a variety of strategies for sustainability and to concretise them into criteria and indicators. Criteria are qualitative statements that include a desired objective for sustainability. Indicators measure quantitatively the fulfilment of each objective. Instead of restricting the analysis within administrative boundaries, the project has focused on functional urban regions consisting of areas of multiple towns. The criteria and indicators presented in this report are especially designed for land use and traffic planning in mid-size urban regions (80,000 - 200,000 inhabitants) in Finland. Whenever possible, the indicators have been based on freely available data that allows the indicator results to be mapped using a GIS. Seutukeke criteria and indicators are a suitable tool for sustainable planning, impact assessment, and the monitoring of land use plans. Indicators are suitable for both strategic and concrete master planning in urban regions or individual cities. Indicators have already been applied to ongoing master planning in the city of Lahti and will shortly be applied within the regional council of Paeijaet-Haeme. The first part of this report focuses on the
The role of geodata and geotools in sustainable energy planning. The Interreg project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'; Die Bedeutung von Geodaten und Geowerkzeugen fuer eine nachhaltige Energieplanung. Das Interreg-Projekt 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'
Knies, Juergen [Jade Hochschule Wilhelmshaven/Oldenburg/Elsfleth, Oldenburg (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik (IAPG)
The Interreg IVB project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning' is to promote the development of models for regional development in consideration of renewable energy sources and the implementation of measures for higher energy efficiency in consideration of regional and international boundary conditions. Geodata and geotools provide a basis for sustainable energy planning. The Institute of Applied Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics of Jade Hochschule University developed concepts and geotools to support decision-makers in this task. The concepts and tools are presented in this paper.
Land use changes from natural to more man-made environments that are done with no community level planning, shorten the life span and lessen the quality of life of a community. A community armed with a master plan with a number of alternative strategies that consider the natural...
Sandewall, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics
Forest land in tropical areas is being used for many forestry and non-forestry purposes by a number of stakeholders based upon their needs, rather than according to the official land use status. An inter-disciplinary approach on strategic forest land-use planning was developed in two case studies in Laos and Vietnam. It outlines how governments in tropical countries could interact with local stakeholders to promote a land use that is sustainable both for the society at large and for the individuals. The approach, that links government based and farm based planning, emphasises the need to consider historical developments and accurately assess the current situation when elaborating land use strategies. The capture and analysis of the forestry, agriculture and socio-economic data and information is based upon internally supportive methods from the natural and social sciences (e.g. sampling, remote sensing, participatory rural appraisal, use of official sources, a simulation model and stakeholder dialogues). A feasible method for estimation of actual land use 'field point sampling with local key informants' was developed. It integrates local knowledge (e.g. on land use history, tenure, market) and controlled area sampling. A planning tool, the Area Production Model was used for elaborating scenarios based on historical information, e.g. land use, economic growth, forest cover, population, and agriculture production and consumption. In order to explain forest and land use dynamics (and model deforestation) in shifting cultivation areas, it was necessary to apply a gross area concept, i.a. both cultivated land and fallow must be considered as agriculture land. There were significant discrepancies between the data used in official planning and the actual situation as estimated by field point sampling. Areas officially classified as 'not yet used land' or forest land were actually used for food production. With reference to the Vietnamese Five Million
trend, event, etc. in landscape architecture or landscape gardening. 3.2 Site and layout In historic landscape studies, the term “ landscape ...TR-13-12 97 The circular layout and modern architecture of Area 1400 was complemented by an extensive landscape plan. Figure 91 is a vegetation...significant alteration) and applies to activities as diverse as community planning, engineering, architecture , and landscape architecture . Design
Full Text Available Few studies have examined how to mainstream future climate change uncertainty into decision-making for poverty alleviation in developing countries. With potentially drastic climate change emerging later this century, there is an imperative to develop planning tools which can enable vulnerable rural communities to proactively build adaptive capacity and ‘leap-frog’ the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Using an example from Indonesia, we present a novel participatory approach to achieve this. We applied scenario planning to operationalise four adaptation pathways principles: (1 consideration of climate change as a component of multi-scale social-ecological systems; (2 recognition of stakeholders’ competing values, goals and knowledge through co-learning; (3 coordination of responses across multiple decision-making levels; and (4 identification of strategies which are ‘no regrets’, incremental (tackling proximate drivers of community vulnerability and transformative (tackling systemic drivers. Workshops with stakeholders from different administrative levels identified drivers of change, an aspirational vision and explorative scenarios for livelihoods in 2090, and utilised normative back-casting to design no regrets adaptation strategies needed to achieve the vision. The resulting ‘tapestry’ of strategies were predominantly incremental, and targeted conventional development needs. Few directly addressed current or possible future climate change impacts. A minority was transformative, and higher level stakeholders identified proportionately more transformative strategies than local level stakeholders. Whilst the vast majority of strategies were no regrets, some were potentially mal-adaptive, particularly for coastal areas and infrastructure. There were few examples of transformative innovations that could generate a step-change in linked human and environmental outcomes, hence leap-frogging the SDGs. We conclude that whilst
Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.
This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;
Sallustio, Lorenzo; Munafò, Michele; Riitano, Nicola; Lasserre, Bruno; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Marco
There are both semantic and technical differences between land use (LU) and land cover (LC) measurements. In cartographic approaches, these differences are often neglected, giving rise to a hybrid classification. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding and characterization of the two classification schemes using a comparison that allows maximization of the informative power of both. The analysis was carried out in the Molise region (Central Italy) using sample information from the Italian Land Use Inventory (IUTI). The sampling points were classified with a visual interpretation of aerial photographs for both LU and LC in order to estimate surfaces and assess the changes that occurred between 2000 and 2012. The results underscore the polarization of land use and land cover changes resulting from the following: (a) recolonization of natural surfaces, (b) strong dynamisms between the LC classes in the natural and semi-natural domain and (c) urban sprawl on the lower hills and plains. Most of the observed transitions are attributable to decreases in croplands, natural grasslands and pastures, owing to agricultural abandonment. The results demonstrate that a comparison between LU and LC estimates and their changes provides an understanding of the causes of misalignment between the two criteria. Such information may be useful for planning policies in both natural and semi-natural contexts as well as in urban areas.
As ecology becomes the new engineering, the project of Landscape Infrastructure - a contemporary, synthetic alignment of the disciplines of landscape architecture, civil engineering and urban planning - is proposed here. Predominant challenges facing urban regions today are addressed, including
Jonathan A. Cale; Jennifer G. Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin; Jose F. Negron; John D. Castello
Heavy disturbance-induced mortality can negatively impact forest biota, functions, and services by drastically altering the forest structures that create stable environmental conditions. Disturbance impacts on forest structure can be assessed using structural sustainability - the degree of balance between living and dead portions of a tree populationâs size-...
Isaak, Daniel J; Wenger, Seth J; Young, Michael K
Temperature profoundly affects ecology, a fact ever more evident as the ability to measure thermal environments increases and global changes alter these environments. The spatial structure of thermalscapes is especially relevant to the distribution and abundance of ectothermic organisms, but the ability to describe biothermal relationships at extents and grains relevant to conservation planning has been limited by small or sparse data sets. Here, we combine a large occurrence database of >23 000 aquatic species surveys with stream microclimate scenarios supported by an equally large temperature database for a 149 000-km mountain stream network to describe thermal relationships for 14 fish and amphibian species. Species occurrence probabilities peaked across a wide range of temperatures (7.0-18.8°C) but distinct warm- or cold-edge distribution boundaries were apparent for all species and represented environments where populations may be most sensitive to thermal changes. Warm-edge boundary temperatures for a native species of conservation concern were used with geospatial data sets and a habitat occupancy model to highlight subsets of the network where conservation measures could benefit local populations by maintaining cool temperatures. Linking that strategic approach to local estimates of habitat impairment remains a key challenge but is also an opportunity to build relationships and develop synergies between the research, management, and regulatory communities. As with any data mining or species distribution modeling exercise, care is required in analysis and interpretation of results, but the use of large biological data sets with accurate microclimate scenarios can provide valuable information about the thermal ecology of many ectotherms and a spatially explicit way of guiding conservation investments. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Wiens, J. David; Schumaker, Nathan H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E
Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land use and anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated into a spatial demographic model to investigate effects on population dynamics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Our study focused on a population of Golden Eagles exposed to risks associated with rapid increases in renewable energy development in southern California, U.S.A. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model that integrated empirical data on demography of Golden Eagles with spatial data on the arrangement of nesting habitats, prey resources, and planned renewable energy development sites. Our model permitted simulated eagles of different stage-classes to disperse, establish home ranges, acquire prey resources, prospect for breeding sites, and reproduce. The distribution of nesting habitats, prey resources, and threats within each individual's home range influenced movement, reproduction, and survival. We used our model to explore potential effects of alternative disturbance scenarios, and proposed conservation strategies, on the future distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles in the study region. Results from our simulations suggest that probable increases in mortality associated with renewable energy infrastructure (e.g., collisions with wind turbines and vehicles, electrocution on power poles) could have negative consequences for population trajectories, but that site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative effects. Our study demonstrates the use of a flexible and expandable modeling framework to incorporate spatially dependent processes when determining relative effects of proposed management options to Golden Eagles and their habitats.
Nagendra, Harini; Utkarsh, Ghate
This article analyzes landscape pattern in the Western Ghats mountain ranges in southwestern India at two scales, comparing small-scale, detailed studies of landscape pattern, with broader, regional-scale assessments of the Western Ghats. Due in large part to their inaccessibility, relatively little is known about the landscapes of this biodiverse region, which also supports some of the highest population densities in the world. A broad-scale NDVI-based IRS 1B satellite image classification is used to analyze north-south and east-west trends across the entire Western Ghats and western coast of India, an area over 170000 km2. Northern and eastern landscapes are more fragmented compared to the southern and western slopes. Western slopes also have greater landscape diversity with land cover types more interspersed compared to the eastern slopes. These differences can be related to north-south and east-west variations in rainfall and plant distribution. Data from thirteen landscapes 10-50 km2 in area, are further utilized to analyze trends in landscape pattern, and describe the geographical distribution of major natural and managed ecotope types. At this scale, very high levels of intra-ecotope type variability in landscape pattern are encountered for all land cover types. Results at these two scales are integrated to suggest a hierarchical stratified approach for monitoring land cover and biodiversity in the region.
A. Paige Fischer; Ken Vance-Borland; Lorien Jasny; Kerry E. Grimm; Susan Charnley
tManagement of ecological conditions and processes in multiownership landscapes requires cooperationby diverse stakeholder groups. The structure of organizational networks â the extent to which networksallow for interaction among organizations within and across ideological and geographic boundaries âcan indicate potential opportunities for cooperation on landscape-...
Wolsink, M.; Attali, S.; Métreau, E.; Prône, M.; Tillerson, K.
The Dutch physical planning system is at a turning point. Recently the Government proposed a new institutional framework for spatial planning. Theoretically, existing planning hierarchy suggests that planning in the Netherlands is conducted systematically, including a strong notion of integrated
Full Text Available This paper investigates sustainability principles in the city of Curitiba, in Brazil, as a pioneer which has commenced its sustainability journey since the 1960s. Analyzing sustainability principles in Curitiba, the paper aims to study their applicability in the case of Shiraz in Iran. Considering the complexity of physical, social, cultural and environmental systems in urban planning, the research underlines the vitality of contextual studies, integration and implementation strategies in sustainability achievement in urban scale. It shows how and to what extent sustainability principles in a city can be adapted to other contexts. This comparative study benefits from interpretive methods of data collection and analysis based on primary and secondary resources. A theoretical framework of planning based on equity, economy and ecology is being utilized in data collection and analysis. The investigation indicates that Curitiba’s sustainability agenda is based on a set of integration and implementation strategies which combine decision making, education, transportation, public welfare, heritage conservation and waste management. It is argued that although every urban environment has its specific opportunities and constraints, still there are many things to learn from others.
Full Text Available Despite the unprecedented rate of urbanization throughout the world, human society is still facing the challenge of coordinating urban socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. In this article, we integrated socioeconomic data and spatial metrics to investigate the coupling relationship between intensive land use (ILU system and landscape ecological security (LES system for urban sustainable development, and to determine how these systems interact with each other. The values of ILU and LES were first calculated according to two evaluation subsystems under the pressure-state-response (PSR framework. A coupling model was then established to analyze the coupling relationship within these two subsystems. The results showed that the levels of both subsystems were generally increasing, but there were several fluctuation changes in LES. The interaction in each system was time lagged; urban land use/cover change (LUCC and ecosystem transformation were determined by political business cycles and influenced by specific factors. The coupling relationship underwent a coordinated development mode from 1992–2012. From the findings we concluded that the coupling system maintained a stable condition and underwent evolving threshold values. The integrated ILU and LES system was a coupling system in which subsystems were related to each other and internal elements had mutual effects. Finally, it was suggested that our results provided a multi-level interdisciplinary perspective on linking socioeconomic-ecological systems. The implications for urban sustainable development were also discussed.
Roden, Tina Maria
it became a theory, landscape urbanism has been common practice in European design projects. This implies that the urban challenges have been in the centre of landscape thought and practice for so long that Danish landscape architecture already includes urbanism. In order to recover momentum in Danish urban...... design, it is argued that the current discourse of landscape urbanism needs to define itself more clearly in relation to the Danish landscape architecture tradition and more actively consider amenity and aesthetics. Via the discourse of landscape urbanism, landscape architecture in Danish suburban...... the indeterminacy of the future. KEYWORDS: Suburban development, landscape urbanism, landscape architecture, sustainability...
Munishi, Linus; Mtei, Kelvin; Bode, Samuel; Dume, Bayu; Navas, Ana; Nebiyu, Amsalu; Semmens, Brice; Smith, Hugh; Stock, Brian; Boeckx, Pascal; Blake, Will
The Lake Manyara Basin (LMB), which encompasses Lake Manyara National Park a world ranking World Biosphere Reserve, is of great ecological and socio-economic value because it hosts a small-holder rain fed and extensive irrigation agriculture, grazing grounds for pastoralists, terrestrial and aquatic habitat for wildlife and tourism business contributing to poverty alleviation. Despite these multiple ecosystem services that support the local communities, the LMB is threatened by; (a) siltation from eroded soil fed from the wider catchment and rift escarpment of the basin and (b) declining water levels due to water capture by agriculture and possibly climate change. These threats to the ecosystem and its services are augmented by increasing human population, pollution by agricultural pesticides, poaching, human encroachment and infrastructure development, and illegal fisheries. Despite these challenges, here is a dearth of information on erosion hotspots and to date soil erosion and siltation problems in LMB have been interpreted largely in qualitative terms, and no coherent interpretative framework of these records exists. Despite concerns that modern sediment fluxes to the Lake may exceed long-term fluxes, little is known about erosion sources, how erosion rates and processes vary across the landscape and how erosion rates are influenced by the strong climate gradients in the basin. This contribution describes a soil erosion and sediment management project that aims to deliver a demonstration dataset generated from inter-disciplinary sediment-source tracing technologies and approaches to assess erosion hotspots, processes and spatial patterns of erosion in the area. The work focuses on a sub basin, the Monduli Sub catchment, located within the greater LMB. This is part of efforts to establish an understanding of soil erosion and landscape degradation in the basin as a pathway for generating and developing knowledge, building capacity to assist conservationists
Christianen, M J A; Middelburg, J J; Holthuijsen, S J; Jouta, J; Compton, T J; van der Heide, T; Piersma, T; Sinninghe Damsté, J S; van der Veer, H W; Schouten, S; Olff, H
Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary producers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essential for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution of these components to the food web at the landscape scale is often unclear, as many studies lack good taxonomic and spatial resolution across large areas. Here, using stable carbon isotopes, we report on the primary carbon sources for consumers and their spatial variability across one of the world's largest intertidal ecosystems (Dutch Wadden Sea; 1460 km2 intertidal surface area), at an exceptionally high taxonomic (178 species) and spatial resolution (9,165 samples from 839 locations). The absence of overlap in δ13 C values between consumers and terrestrial organic matter suggests that benthic and pelagic producers dominate carbon input into this food web. In combination with the consistent enrichment of benthic primary producers (δ13 C -16.3‰) relative to pelagic primary producers (δ13 C -18.8) across the landscape, this allowed the use of a two-food-source isotope-mixing model. This spatially resolved modelling revealed that benthic primary producers (microphytobenthos) are the most important energy source for the majority of consumers at higher trophic levels (worms, molluscs, crustaceans, fish, and birds), and thus to the whole food web. In addition, we found large spatial heterogeneity in the δ13 C values of benthic primary producers (δ13 C -19.2 to -11.5‰) and primary consumers (δ13 C -25.5 to -9.9‰), emphasizing the need for spatially explicit sampling of benthic and pelagic primary producers in coastal ecosystems. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of the functioning of ecological networks and for the management of coastal ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Scherr Sara J
Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.
Full Text Available Whereas standard SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment and EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment methodologies aim to assess the impacts of certain activities solely on environmental quality, new tendencies in spatial and environmental planning are directed towards the application of environmental social impact assessment (ESIA, which implies assessment of the impacts on the quality of life, as well as on natural and cultural heritage. In the ESIA procedure, identification and assessment of direct, indirect and cumulative effects of tourism-related and other different activities are of key importance. The paper presents two case studies of ecologically vulnerable tourism destinations to explore whether the application of SEA/ESIA to strategic planning helps control, minimize or avoid negative effects of tourism; in addition, the case studies are analysed to check the efficiency of SEA/ESIA as instruments for coordination between spatial and tourism planning for sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations. The results/findings of the analysed case studies show that the application of combined SEA and adapted ESIA methods contributes to better understanding of the specific problems related to sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations, and provides support to the planning options and solutions aimed at addressing these problems n a more ecologically and socially justifiable manner. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36036: Sustainable development of the Danube area in Serbia i br. III47014: The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia
Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet; Purkis, Mary Ellen
Clarifying the healthcare innovation agenda is critical in order to advance the impact of system innovations. As part of this agenda-setting it is important to address the four conditions within which innovations can enhance system sustainability: 1) the innovation agenda reflects and is aligned with healthcare objectives and policy; 2) planning methodologies for services, workforce and funding are aligned with healthcare objectives and policy; 3) innovations in services are accommodated in systems through innovations in policy, planning and funding; and 4) innovations are systematically monitored and evaluated. In order to illustrate these conditions, the authors present a case study of an evaluation of one Canadian Health Authority's efforts to transform healthcare delivery. This case study reveals that aligning innovations in policy, planning, funding and health services is critical to transforming health systems and that, in the absence of such alignment, sustainable health systems are difficult to achieve.
The present study evaluates the impact of urban expansion on landscape transformations in Rome's metropolitan area (1500 km(2)) during the last sixty years. Landscape composition, structure and dynamics were assessed for 1949 and 2008 by analyzing the distribution of 26 metrics for nine land-use classes. Changes in landscape structure are analysed by way of a multivariate statistical approach providing a summary measure of rapidity-to-change for each metric and class. Land fragmentation increased during the study period due to urban expansion. Poorly protected or medium-low value added classes (vineyards, arable land, olive groves and pastures) experienced fragmentation processes compared with protected or high-value added classes (e.g. forests, olive groves) showing larger 'core' areas and lower fragmentation. The relationship observed between class area and mean patch size indicates increased fragmentation for all uses of land (both expanding and declining) except for urban areas and forests. Reducing the impact of urban expansion for specific land-use classes is an effective planning strategy to contrast the simplification of Mediterranean landscape in peri-urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yeh, Kenneth B; Adams, Martin; Stamper, Paul D; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Hewson, Roger; Buck, Charles D; Richards, Allen L; Hay, John
Strategic laboratory planning in limited resource areas is essential for addressing global health security issues. Establishing a national reference laboratory, especially one with BSL-3 or -4 biocontainment facilities, requires a heavy investment of resources, a multisectoral approach, and commitments from multiple stakeholders. We make the case for donor organizations and recipient partners to develop a comprehensive laboratory operations roadmap that addresses factors such as mission and roles, engaging national and political support, securing financial support, defining stakeholder involvement, fostering partnerships, and building trust. Successful development occurred with projects in African countries and in Azerbaijan, where strong leadership and a clear management framework have been key to success. A clearly identified and agreed management framework facilitate identifying the responsibility for developing laboratory capabilities and support services, including biosafety and biosecurity, quality assurance, equipment maintenance, supply chain establishment, staff certification and training, retention of human resources, and sustainable operating revenue. These capabilities and support services pose rate-limiting yet necessary challenges. Laboratory capabilities depend on mission and role, as determined by all stakeholders, and demonstrate the need for relevant metrics to monitor the success of the laboratory, including support for internal and external audits. Our analysis concludes that alternative frameworks for success exist for developing and implementing capabilities at regional and national levels in limited resource areas. Thus, achieving a balance for standardizing practices between local procedures and accepted international standards is a prerequisite for integrating new facilities into a country's existing public health infrastructure and into the overall international scientific community.
Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burns, Douglas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.
This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments
Baratozzi, L.; Cagnoli, P.; Filippi, N.; Gherardi, L.; Montaletti, V.; Poli, G.; Scarelli, M. [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Assessorato Territorio, Programmazione e Ambiente, Servizio Paesaggio, Parchi e Patrimonio Naturale, Bologna (Italy); Basili, M.; Battista, A.; Colonna, N.; Del Ciello, R.; Forni, A.; Olivetti, I.; Regina, P.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, Rome (Italy)
The Atlante Project applied in Emilia-Romagna region, has the objective in management of transformations in landscape, evaluating the sustainability of choice of programming. [Italian] Il progetto Atlante, si e' posto l'obiettivo di verificare la validita' delle Unita' di Paesaggio, come riferimento per una gestione delle trasformazioni del territorio, che permetta di anticipare la valutazione della sostenibilita' delle scelte della programmazione superando l'attuale prassi di verifica amministrativa a posteriori, che l'esperienza degli ultimi anni ha dimostrato non essere efficace.
Strandberg, Urban; Andren, Mats [Goeteborg Univ. (SE). Centre for Public Sector Research (CEFOS)
The proposition in this paper is that handling nuclear waste in an efficient, democratic and legitimate way presupposes a thorough reflection on the limits and possibilities of social planning and legitimacy, and a deliberate extension of the meaning of these concepts. The central point consists in an analysis of the concept political legitimacy. When the concept was established in the period after 1799, it had meanings of both legality and morality. A legitimate solution could be justified either in terms of (national) law or specified norms. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, legitimacy dealt mainly with the issues of legal foundations and moral justification based in institutions and discourses. This conception of legitimacy is inadequate when applied to the issue of nuclear waste as a social phenomenon. The time aspect is much longer than the period we reasonably can make predictions regarding the design of social institutions. How can we make guarantees that will endure for a period of time that is so long that we cannot possibly say anything about the very existence of human societies, and far less make predictions about the stability of social institutions 100,000 years into the future? Likewise, the comparatively short time period of implementation, during which the planned nuclear waste repositories are to be built and finally shut tight, is far more extended than any other societal project. When neither the ideological, nor the institutional and technological stability are possible to secure, the main question will be: Who/what grants legitimacy to the societal handling of nuclear waste? We tentatively maintain that the social handling of nuclear waste demands that social planning and legitimacy be linked with a clear and distinct assumption of responsibility. It must be a geographically and temporally universalistic assumption of responsibility. In addition, the management of nuclear waste in a sustainable and legitimate manner requires both a
... sustainable development; and (b) investing in transportation infrastructure that directly supports sustainable... all communities by investing in healthy, safe, and walkable neighborhoods--rural, urban, or suburban..., economic development, land use, environmental, energy, green space and water infrastructure priorities and...