WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable environment economy

  1. E3: Economy - Energy - Environment; Supporting Manufacturing Leadership through Sustainability

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The E3 initiative is designed to help you thrive in a new business era focused on sustainability and, working together, to promote sustainable manufacturing and...

  2. Knowledge for a sustainable economy. Knowledge questions around the Dutch Memorandum on Environment and Economy ('Nota Milieu en Economie'); Kennis voor een duurzame economie. Kennisvragen rond de Nota Milieu en Economie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieleman, J.P.C.; Hafkamp, W.A. [Erasmus Studiecentrum voor Milieukunde, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-05-19

    June 18, 1997, the Dutch government presented the Memorandum Environment and Economy with the aim to contribute to integration of environment and economy and to stimulation the realization of a sustainable economy. Next to a vast overview of actions, ideas, perspectives, staring points, challenges and dilemmas to take into account when forming a sustainable economy, it is indicated in that Memorandum that there is a need for research and knowledge to compile relevant data and insight to support decision making processes. The aim of this report is to develop a framework in which knowledge questions can be generated. The questions that fall outside the framework of the Memorandum concern needs, values and images and are formulated in four groups: (1) what is the role of materialism and stress in processes of conventional economic growth?; (2) What is the importance of reduction of consumption ('consuminderen') and slowing down ('onthaasting' or dehasting) to realize a process of sustainable economic development; (3) which images form the basis of the present process of economic development, where do they come from and how do they change over time; and (4) which images of progression give direction to a sustainable economic development and how do they exist? The questions that follow the Memorandum concern decoupling (of environment and economy), sustainable consumption, knowledge economy, institutions and a process of change. Central in the framework of knowledge questions are questions, related to perspectives and actions, as formulated in the Memorandum for different sectors in the Dutch society: industry and services; agriculture and rural areas; and traffic, transport and infrastructure.

  3. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  4. A sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    There exists a direct correlation between improvements in standard of living and the consumption of resources. To be able to maintain the standard of living of a modern developed country, society must adapt to an economy based on sustainable processes, energy, and raw materials. The sustainable economy presents itself as a disruptive technology to the traditional economy, which is based largely on non-renewable resources. The issue seems to be more about when will we switch to a sustainabl...

  5. Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Kyung-Jin

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully

  6. Moving beyond Green: Sustainable Development toward Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability initiatives in higher education in general and student affairs specifically must recognize the impact of one's present decisions on environmental health, social justice, and economic strength. Efforts must push beyond "green" ideas to identify solutions that move toward a future that is environmentally capable, more just and…

  7. Linear Economy Versus Circular Economy: A Comparative and Analyzer Study for Optimization of Economy for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariatli Furkan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon visiting the existing literature on the subject of linear vs. circular economy, this paper finds that, the blueprint of the current economy is hardly sustainable by using the comparative benchmarking method that drained from literature. The intrinsic mechanics of the linear economy, by relying on the wasteful take - make - dispose flow, is detrimental to the environment, cannot supply the growing populace of our planet with essential services and it naturally leads to strained profitability. Elements of a plausible solution to the challenges have been around for decades, although they have only recently been compiled in to the conceptual framework of circular economy. The core ideas of Circular Economy are elimination of waste by design, respect for the social, economic and natural environment and resource-conscious business conduct. Built on the backbone of these principles, the circular economy has demonstrated to deliver tangible benefits and viability to address the economic, environmental and social challenges of our days.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF MAKING STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION AND CONNECTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY GENERALLY SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The accession of a number of transition countries of the EU, such as the Republic of Serbia, essentially means the adoption of strategic decisions at the state level in the context of wider EU decision. The authors based their observations on the EU 2020 strategy, which is essentially defined as: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The EU has adopted the basic principles of 2010, with the main objective to economic growth throughout the EU based on knowledge, but with respect for the principles of environmental protection, increasing employment, and increase in other basic principles of economics of the company to the state. You could say that the entire system such observations cohesion productivity growth economies of EU member states and social cohesion and socially responsible behavior. This approach was incurred because there is a need of constant adjustment economies member changes at the global level. Notwithstanding the universal adaptation of all EU member states, however, one part remained reserved for a special adjustment of each member country (it depends on the specific characteristics of each country to adapt in accordance with national goals adopted by any government of a Member State specifically for your country, through national development plans, plans of adjustment and reform plans. The consequences of the Great Depression are highly visible and in early 2016, particularly in terms of rising unemployment, rising unemployment especially of young people in all old EU member states. The responsibility for this state of affairs is not only the governments of member states, but responsibility must be sought from the representatives of big business, trade unions, associations, non-governmental organizations and all other stakeholders who have imposed in the decision-making processes, and in a crisis to minimize its impact, because it does not response. At the end of the aforementioned macro effects should be seen in the

  9. Reality of a Sustainable Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development addresses the complex concept of quality of life, economically, socially and environmentally, by promoting the idea of balance between economic development, social equity, efficiency and environmental conservation. This article aims to analyze a number of indicators of sustainable development by establishing specific passage to a reasonable and realistic development model generating high added value, interest in knowledge and innovation in order to continuously improve the quality of people's lives and their realities as well as the harmony with the natural environment

  10. Green Economy. New impetus for sustainability; Green Economy. Neuer Schwung fuer Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Peter; Kammerer, Florian (comps.)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on Green Economy with respect to sustainability. The brochure consists of the following five contributions: (1) 20 Years after the Earth Summit 1992 in Rio: New drive for sustainability; (2) Bundling of social forces by means of Green Economy; (3) Utilization of opportunities for an environmentally compatible growth; (4) Framework conditions for a Green Economy; (5) Areas of action: Make the right decisions for a Green Economy.

  11. ECONOMY AND ENVIRONMENT. POINTS OF VIEW AND ACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria CHIVU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of the environment is a direct consequence of history, especially of economic history. The article analyzes the relationship between economy and environment, in order to determine the main causes that led to the ecological crisis. The article argues that despite the close relationship between environment and economy, the economy did not take into account the environmental protection, until there appeared serious environmental impacts. Including the environment in economic thinking led, first, to the application of conventional techniques to economy to try to solve problems. The article also examines some priorities for improving the relationship between economy and environment conducive to move towards a model of sustainable development. The conclusion is that sustainable development is the goal to be achieved. In search of sustainability, companies should play an important role, as in all phases of the life cycle of their products, there are environmental risks and, therefore, they are a major source of environmental degradation of the planet.

  12. Dilemmas for China: Energy, Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a “world factory”, but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China’s economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China’s dilemma in energy, economy and environment is analyzed from the perspective of its participation in current global supply chains. While China must import a significant proportion of its energy and a large proportion of primary materials, a large share of these imports are returned to the global market as industrial exports. China is bound by its own course of action and unable to radically change its position for the foreseeable future as the road to economic development and employment stability is through policies built on exports and shifting development models, presenting a tough socio-economic trade-off. China’s growth challenges are discussed as an example of challenges more broadly faced in the developing world. China’s success or failure in achieving a sustainable developmental pattern will inevitably have a significant influence on the global environment.

  13. Challenges in Building a Sustainable Biobased Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2017-01-01

    Moving to a more sustainable economy, where renewable biomass such as crop residues and dedicated energy crops are used for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials, is one of the main challenges faced by the society nowadays. The transition from the current fossil-based to a biob......Moving to a more sustainable economy, where renewable biomass such as crop residues and dedicated energy crops are used for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials, is one of the main challenges faced by the society nowadays. The transition from the current fossil...... for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials is therefore recognized as a need by numerous industries and policy makers in countries around the world. In addition, a biobased economy has the potential to generate new jobs and even new industries, creating new opportunities for entrepreneurship...

  14. NATURAL RESOURCES AVAILABILITY IN A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA BONCIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical and practical approach of the economic life, appears more often the idea of sustainable economic development, of reconciliation between man and nature in attracting and using its resources without interfering in its natural movement and evolution. In this paper we are trying to bring to light the relation between the economic development and the mineral resources, in terms of achieving sustainable development. The place and role of natural factors in the market economy is revealed by bringing to the forefront a number of arguments that demonstrate their vital position in the sustainable growth and development.

  15. Green Chemistry, Sustainable Economy and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor F. Ferreira; Universidade Federal Fluminense; David R. da Rocha; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Fernando de C. da Silva; Universidade Federal Fluminense

    2014-01-01

    Despite the early problems related to industrial activities related to chemistry date back to the early twentieth century, issues such as green chemistry and sustainability were already some time ago being discussed in academic and industrial environment. Green chemistry is good for the environment, human health and the economy, but there are still many mysteries in “green”. In this article, the authors attempt to repackage the "green" concept  of the chemistry focused on the needs of develop...

  16. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  17. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss...

  18. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  19. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... Key words: Environment, degradation, sustainable, development, paradigms, pollution, recycling. ... E-mail: chemstprom@yahoo.com. ..... Waste generators in this category include mechanic workshops, restaurants, small scale manufacturers, filling stations, retail and wholesale shops, government offices, ...

  20. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  1. Sustainable degrowth through more amateur economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    By a simple descriptive model is illustrated how the role of labor input tothe economy will have to revised in a degrowth economy. A destinction is made btween the Professional (GDP) economy, driven by money, and the Amateur economy (voluntary) driven by love. Shifting some economic activities...... (back) from the prof. economy to the amateur economy will be less productive than the prof. economy in terms of output per man hour, but often more 'productive' in generating satisfaction and happiness in the process. Such a shift can create more ultimate benefit (happiness), but less product output...

  2. Sustainable Economy (Bæredygtig økonomi)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a critical review of the report on sustainable economy published by the Danish Economic Council in their yearbook from December 1998.......The paper gives a critical review of the report on sustainable economy published by the Danish Economic Council in their yearbook from December 1998....

  3. Success Factors of Sustainable Social Enterprises Through Circular Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratan Dumitru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the research is to find out how social entrepreneurship operations can be modelled within existing business methods using circular economy principles. A literature review was undertaken in order to clarify and find out different opinions regarding circularity and social businesses models. Moreover, the author interviewed managers of different social mission organizations in order to find out the critical factors that determine the sustainability and performances of the organizations. Using the results of the field and desk research, the author suggests the following business model elements to be considered by social enterprises aiming to implement circular economy principles: Desired social and environment vision; Value proposition; Alignment of organizations to the strategy and acceleration of change through executive leadership implication; Financial sustainable perspective: a to increase financial resources and b to manage costs; Stakeholders perspective: a customers segments, b users, c employees, d community beneficiaries, e channels, f customer relationships, g Key partnerships; Internal process perspective: a processes necessary to use circular economy principles; b impact measurement and key activities; c internal and external communication; Resources perspective: a networks; b skills on circular principles and social impact; c information and technologies.`

  4. Regulation of the Debt Sustainability of the Russian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, Alexander Z.; Chapluk, Vladimir Z.; Sayrenko, Tatiana N.; Sorokina, Larisa N.; Pertovskaya, Maria V.; Alekseenko, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigating problem is caused by the need to reduce the total aggregated amount of debt in Russian economy in conditions of crisis and the strengthening of external anti-Russian sanctions. In this context, the purpose of this article is to identify measures aimed to regulate debt sustainability of the Russian economy using…

  5. Sustainable Public Procurement: A Tool for Greening the Economy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Public Procurement: A Tool for Greening the Economy. The human ecological footprint exceeds what the planet can sustain and reproduce, so there is a need to find solutions and opportunities. This research project will focus on positioning public procurement as a policy approach to support green growth ...

  6. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... towards environmental management in Nigeria which is a fast developing economy. ... dation, to global concerns such as climate change and .... Business Risk. Green Consumerism. Legislation. Increased Employee. Motivation and Recruitment. International Standards. Increased Access to Finance. C. O.

  7. Energy sustainability performance of the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Danilov

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the dynamics of energy intensity of gross regional product of the Sverdlovsk region for the period 1996 - 2003 years. and projections for the period up to 2015. The principal possibility of growth performance of the regional economy, without a significant increase in the consumption of primary fuel.

  8. LINK BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBALIZATION OF CONTEMPORARY ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires a fundamental change in lifestyle. A fully break detachment by the past requires a major reorientation of public and private behavior and mentality. The challenge lies in linking economic growth with social issues and positioning the environmental degradation. The process of globalization is connected also with environmental degradation, which is now extended as a concept of threat and security, considered individually and in connection. It has already started recognizing new global threats as well as from non -state groups and individuals. The security is being defined to include, among others, the wars between and within states, international organizations of organized crime, nuclear weapons development, poverty, viral diseases, climatic events and environmental degradation. The concerns about the global market and the global environment protection will become more related, through their mutual dependency. The relationship of global economy and environment, from a market perspective, means stimulating economic growth, a process that generates higher revenues, funds and wealth, on one hand and political will to improve environmental conservation and protection, on the other hand. But it could be seen that the developed countries have made the greatest progress in environmental protection, and even so the poor quality of the environment continues to deteriorate. In this context it is important to consider the opinion of experts on the interaction between globalization and sustainable development. The paper aims to present the views of experts from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (South Muntenia. The study is an empirical research based on a questionnaire applied to a sample of over 300 subjects. The research aims to set out the existence of the link between sustainable development and globalization, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of globalization and to prioritize the main

  9. Sharing Economy:A Potential New Pathway to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrichs, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Despite the success of some environmental and sustainability initiatives and measures in policy-making, business and society, overall trends follow an unsustainable path. Especially in the field of production and consumption of goods and services, environmental sustainability and social equality remain critical challenges. Therefore new approaches are needed alongside existing strategies and policy instruments. The "sharing economy" has the potential to provide a new pathway to sustainability...

  10. The development of ecological environment in China based on the system dynamics method from the society, economy and environment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Yang; Ge, Song; Han, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The harmonious development in society, economy and environment are crucial to regional sustained boom. However, the society, economy and environment are not respectively independent, but both mutually promotes one which, or restrict mutually complex to have the long-enduring overall process. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relationship and interaction of society, economy and environment in China based on the data from 2004 to 2013. The principal component analysis (PCA) model was employed to identify the main factors effecting the society, economy and environment subsystems, and SD (system dynamics) method used to carry out dynamic assessment for future state of sustainability from society, economy and environment perspective with future indicator values. Sustainable development in China was divided in the study into three phase from 2004 to 2013 based competitive values of these three subsystems. According to the results of PCA model, China is in third phase, and the economy growth is faster than the environment development, while the social development still maintained a steady and rapid growth, implying that the next step for sustainable development in China should focus on society development, especially the environment development.

  11. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Breusegem, Frank Van; Mey, Marjan De; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  12. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  13. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  14. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development implies development which ensures maximization of human well being for today's generation which does not lead to declines in future well being. Attaining this path requires eliminating those negative externalities that are responsible for natural resource depletion and environmental degradation.

  15. Hydrogen for a sustainable global economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbaniec, K.; Friedl, A.; Huisingh, D.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this special issue of the Journal of Cleaner Production is “Sustainable Hydrogen from Biomass.” It is of interest to practitioners in the energy sector, governmental policy makers, researchers, educators, as well as to the general public. The purpose of this special issue is to increase

  16. Safe and Sustainable: Optimizing Material Flows in a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    life cycles.However, a circular economy is only viable if it is both safe and sustainable. The dilemma is that sustainable does not necessarily imply safe and vice versa. When minimizing exposure to harmful chemicals in consumer products (safe), we often use more energy-demanding alternative solutions...... (unsustainable). When maximizing resource use efficiency and reducing carbon and other emissions through recycling (sustainable), direct consumer exposure is often increased through cross-contamination of recycled materials (unsafe). Hence, circular economy currently fails to unite the required expertise...... to imultaneously increase sustainability and reduce exposure to chemicals in materials reused across life cycles of different products. For a way out of this dilemma, a paradigm shift is needed towards a comprehensive and quantitative assessment framework....

  17. The economist as shaman: revisioning our role for a sustainable, provisioning economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molly Scott Cato

    2012-01-01

    .... I propose three central responsibilities for an economist in a sustainable society: supporting a process of re-embedding the economy in the environment; negotiating a respectful- even reverential-relationship between humans and non-human species; ensuring a means of acquiring resources that minimises the entropic impact of the human community. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT

  18. Sustainable development in the Wadden area. A method to balance economy, nature, environment and the landscape; Duurzame ontwikkeling in het Waddengebied. Een afwegingsmethodiek voor economie, natuur, milieu en landschap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijtsma, F.J.; Strijker, D.; Hoefsloot, M.L.A.W.

    1998-02-01

    The study on the title subject aims at the analysis of the effects of human activities on the Wadden Sea area in the northern part of the Netherlands. A method is developed to be able to assess and weigh several aspects of sustainability. The method is based on the elements cost benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis. 90 refs.

  19. Special Edition: Environment in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When we were invited by the editors of Sustainability to put together a special edition on “Environment in Sustainable Development” our first reaction was to question whether this was really needed. After all, the environment has long been regarded as a central plank in sustainability and there are countless articles and books published on an annual basis that explore the impact of our economic and social activities on our environment. Just what is it that a special edition can achieve? What new angles could we hope to provide? Our initial thinking was to link the special edition to a particular, almost unique, location in time rather than space. We are in the process of recovering, albeit stuttering, from the deepest economic crash experienced by the European and North American economies. The crash has brought some national economies to their knees and, if economic commentators are to be believed, almost destroyed the Euro. Recovery from that crash has been slow and it is arguable whether at the time of writing this has developed much momentum. There is still the skewed perception that prosperity equals economic growth and that economic growth can take place without real (sustainable development or by simply implementing austerity measures and surely without people’s participation. An analogy from National Parks worldwide is when conservation agencies try to enforce protection without local people’s support. All such attempts have either failed or resurrected only once people’s involvement was secured and guaranteed. The unidirectional austerity measures imposed mainly in the countries of southern Europe have destroyed social cohesion leaving deeply wounded societies, while at the same time have also put up for grabs important assets (including natural capital in each of these countries and therefore in jeopardy even their long term recovery.

  20. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  1. The ecology of the new economy: sustainable transformation of global information, communications and electronics industries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Jacob; Roome, Nigel

    2002-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1. 2. Sustainable business strategies in the Internet economy . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Klaus Fichter, Borderstep: Institution for Innovation...

  2. A SIMPLE ASSESSMENT OF FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU LEONTE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has seriously impacted the economies around the world, emerging and developed alike. With interest rates at historical low levels, constrained in many cases by the zero lower bound, the emphasis is put on fiscal policy to restore the economies on the path of sustainable growth. This paper attempts to shed light on the issue of fiscal sustainability of the Romanian economy, by checking if the intertemporal fiscal constraint of the government is respected. According to the constraint, the current value of debt equals the sum of the discounted values of future government surpluses, which means that the government is not financing itself through a Ponzi scheme. I build on the econometric approach used in papers such as Hamilton and Flavin (1986, Hakkio and Rush (1991, Quintos (1995, Santos Bravo and Silvestre (2002, Bohn (2007. More specifically, I focus on the time series properties of government debt, revenue and expenditure, determining: i the order of integration for the government debt series; ii whether or not government revenue and expenditure are cointegrated. Thus I am able to evaluate the strength of the fiscal position of the Romanian economy and to see the impact of the financial crisis on this position.

  3. Towards sustainable empowering learning environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards sustainable empowering learning environments: Unmasking apartheid legacies through scholarship of engagement. ... This article reports, from the insider's perspective, on a research project comprising fifteen academics in the Faculty of Education Sciences at the North-West University and fifteen senior officials ...

  4. Sustainable Development Strategy for Russian Mineral Resources Extracting Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Elena; Ezdina, Natalya; Prilepskaya, Angelina; Pivnyk, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The immaturity of strategic and conceptual documents in the sphere of sustainable development of the Russian economy had a negative impact on long-term strategic forecasting of its neo-industrialization. At the present stage, the problems of overcoming the mineral and raw material dependence, the negative structural shift of the Russian economy, the acceleration of the rates of economic growth, the reduction of technological gap from the developed countries become strategically in demand. The modern structure of the Russian economy, developed within the framework of the proposed market model, does not generate a sustainable type of development. It became obvious that in conditions of the market processes' entropy, without neo-industrial changes, the reconstruction of industry on a new convergence-technological basis and without increasing the share of high technology production the instability of macroeconomic system, the risks of environmental and economic security of Russia are growing. Therefore, today we need a transition from forming one industry development strategy to the national one that will take into account both the social and economic and environmental challenges facing Russia as a mineral resources extracting country.

  5. The Importance of Environmental Sustainability in the Decision to Participate in the Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Roszak, Julie; Marechal, Florine

    2017-01-01

    Global warming, increasing greenhouse gases emissions, global pollution, exhaustion of natural resources... Those are all consequences of human activities on the environment. Today's world is facing major environmental challenges and sustainability has become a burning topic during the last decades. In our consumption-focused society, the concept of the sharing economy has emerged as an alternative to existing consumption patterns. Advocating the "use rather than own" principle, this concept ...

  6. Wine tourism and sustainable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa González San José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a model of development in which the present actions should not compromise the future of future generations, and is linked to economic and social development which must respect the environment. Wine tourism or enotourism is a pleasant mode of tourism that combines the pleasure of wine-tasting, with cultural aspects related to the wine culture developing in wine regions over time until the present day. It can be affirmed that wine culture, and its use through wine tourism experiences, is clearly correlated to social (socially equitable, economic (economically feasible, environmental (environmentally sound and cultural aspects of the sustainability of winegrowing regions and territories.

  7. Are Green Jobs Sustainable for Sri Lankan Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayaweera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative that Sri Lanka grasps the concepts of green jobs to meet the most vital but intricatechallenge of the 21st Century, which is the transformation to a sustainable and a low-carbon economy.Such a transformation or a paradigm shift, which can be gradual or rapid depending on the circumstances,will undoubtedly have a considerable positive effect on the way we produce and/or consume goods andservices. The speed at which this transformation would occur is likely to accelerate in the near future asthere is a trend of global transition from a traditional to a low-carbon economy, in order to attainsustainable economies. Such trends will help create an array of different forms of green jobs across manysectors, and most probably can become a catalyst for further development. The International LabourOrganization (ILO has defined green jobs as “Jobs created when they help in reducing the negativeenvironmental impacts ultimately leading to environmentally, economically and socially sustainableenterprises and economies”. Green jobs, in general, stand on two pillars: decent work and environmentalsustainability. Thus, green jobs can be defined as decent work that contributes to environmentalsustainability. In a broader sense decent work needs to address the core of international labour standardssuch as freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, eliminationof all forms of forced or compulsory labour, effective abolition of child labour, elimination ofdiscrimination in respect of employment and occupation, occupational health and safety, etc. whilstaligning to laws applicable to Sri Lanka. Environmental sustainability addresses issues such as effectivelycombating climate change, pollution prevention and control, conservation of eco-systems and biodiversityetc. (ILO, 2007.

  8. Consumer Empowerment in the Digital Economy: Availing Sustainable Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital economy and, implicitly, of competition in the online marketplace has triggered new challenges in terms of consumer protection approaches. Online, consumer skills are expected to be improved and the level of consumer awareness and engagement increased. These are the baseline prerequisites of the sustainable purchasing decision and, thus, should be considered as pillars of responsible online consumption. Consistent with the novel consumption challenges, the current paper is intended to advance and test a research model integrating five main constructs, namely, competition in the online marketplace, online consumer skills, online consumer awareness, online consumer engagement and sustainable purchasing decision. A total of 318 college students—a representative population of the new Millennials generation—accepted the invitation to participate in a questionnaire-based survey. In order to pertinently analyze the collected data, a structural equation modeling technique based on partial least squares was employed for the assessment of the measurement and the structural model. The findings indicated that the model explained 24.4 percent of the variance of sustainable purchasing decisions, while the highest influence was exerted by the improvement of online consumer skills. This implies that online providers should revisit their products sustainability standards on purpose to preserve a competitive advantage.

  9. Sustainable packaging. Packaging for a circular economy; Duurzaam verpakken. Verpakken voor de circulaire economie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffmans, S. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Standhardt, G. [Nederlands Verpaskkingscentrum NVC, Gouda (Netherlands); Hamer, A. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    What is Sustainable Packaging? And what is the most sustainable packaging for a product? The publication is intended for anyone who wants to take into account the environment in the design of a product and packaging. It offers concrete suggestions and inspiring examples to bring sustainable packaging into practice [Dutch] Wat is Duurzaam Verpakken? En wat is de duurzaamste verpakking voor mijn product? De publicatie is bestemd voor iedereen die rekening wil houden met het milieu bij het ontwerp van een product-verpakkingscombinatie. Ze biedt concrete aanknopingspunten en inspirerende voorbeelden om hier praktisch mee aan de slag te gaan.

  10. Environment Protection as a Presumption of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Premović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth and irrational use of natural resources in the last decades of the XX century have influenced the changes in the environmental sphere and to specific environmental problems. These processes in the global economy and society, caused a disturbance of the environment by increasing pollution of the environment. Emerging problems of the entire human society can be solved by applying the concept of sustainable growth and development and raising awareness about the necessity of implementation of basic environmental standards in business. In order to reduce the harmful effects of production processes on the environment and to help meet the objective of sustainable development outlined at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio De Janeiro in 1992 the ISO 14000 Standards were created. The essence of sustainable development is responsible development that meets the current needs a way to rationally use natural resources to ensure meeting the needs of future generations and environment protection.

  11. Social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainable township economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semape J. Manyaka-Boshielo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates using social entrepreneurship as a way of developing sustainabletownship economies, so that poverty can be eradicated from the townships of South Africaand township dwellers can begin to play a role in the economic development of the country.The author also thinks it is God’s purpose for people to enjoy life, free from economic hardship.A reduction in poverty would also bring down the crime rate and other social ills. It starts bydefining and clarifying the concepts of ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘social entrepreneurship’. Itcontinues by looking in more depth into township life and its challenges. This is done throughreviewing the literature and observations obtained through participant observation research.Post-foundationalist practical theology believes in interdisciplinary dialogue as a means ofallowing the concept of social entrepreneurship to bring about a sustainable townshipeconomy. From the author’s observations, it became apparent that to see the attainment of asustainable township economy, training and development should start with a strong emphasison personal identity and interpersonal and business skills. The author, therefore, proposes aholistic approach to social entrepreneurship.

  12. Nigeria: Positioning Rural Economy for Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Michael Okunola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as nation has over the years engaged in lots of developmental activities without actions which makes achievements to elude the people. Development of societies doesn’t happen in the vacuum. Thus, the adoption of Structural Adjustment Program, SAP, by Nigeria leading to the neglect of the custom periodic National Plan at a time when Nigeria had no structure for development was the beginning of journey to widened inequality and large poverty incidence, depth and severity. To close the gap between the rich and the poor, the Nigeria government had designed and implemented some programs and policies whose implementation has not solved the inherent problems. In year 2000, the world leaders subscribed to the Millennium Development Goals to ensure synergized global approach to solving the poverty menace. Programs designed in Nigeria to achieve the MDGs focused on the urban centers thereby relegating the rural areas which are responsible for the feeding of the teeming population of the urban dwellers. Farming households and the general rural communities do not have access to clean water, quality education and health facilities, good feeder roads, affordable and safe energy as well as other socioeconomic and socio-infrastructural facilities that would ensure sustainable living for the people whose contribution to the national economy cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore looks at the structural actions the Nigeria government should embarked upon to ensure that the rural dweller have access to life. As the government would be developing programs and policies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals whose priority is the end poverty in all forms and everywhere by 2030, this study reveals how to position the rural economy for developmental attention from the policy makers.

  13. Measuring Sustainable Competitiveness in Contemporary Economies—Insights from European Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent transformation of the national economies has raised numerous theoretical and practical aspects in measuring economic growth, welfare, environmental performance, and competitiveness, representing a challenging research topic within the context of economic paradigm transformation. Despite its importance, a fully operational model to be used in any context has not yet been designed. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the macroeconomic dimension of the three determinants of sustainable competitiveness: the economic environment, the social environment, and the natural environment, at both the European and Romanian levels. This paper used the Hierarchical Clustering methodology, aiming at evaluating the global competitiveness in terms of a sustainable development model, using four indices: Human Development Index, Environmental Performance Index, Global Competitiveness Index, and GDP per capita. The clusters were designed on the basis of the role of the indices in assessment of the sustainable performances of the countries and also of the possible convergences between them. The results could sustain the conclusion that these indices are not able to offer an exhaustive image of the sustainable performances assessment. A new complex indicator could be considered in order to design a convergence model for the EU member states.

  14. Sustainable-energy managment practices in an energy economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkwa, K.

    2001-10-01

    The economic survival of any nation depends upon its ability to produce and manage sufficient supplies of low-cost safe energy. The world's consumption of fossil fuel resources currently increasing at 3% per annum is found to be unsustainable. Projections of this trend show that mankind will exhaust all known reserves in the second half of the coming century. Governments, industrialists, commercial organizations, public sector departments and the general public have now become aware of the urgent requirements for the efficient management of resources and energy-consuming activities. Most organizations in the materials, manufacturing and retail sectors and in the service industries have also created energy management departments, or have employed consultants, to monitor energy consumption and to reduce wastage. Conversely, any sustained attempt to reduce rates of energy consumption even by as little as 0.1% per annum ensures relatively an eternal future supply as well as reduction on environmental and ecological effect. Thus, there is no long- term solution to energy flow problem other than systematic and effective energy management and the continuous application of the techniques of energy management. Essential energy management strategies in support of a sustainable energy- economy are discussed.

  15. Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

    2011-11-01

    Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system.

  16. Sustainable Development is the only path to achieve the green economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abou Elseoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is the management of renewable resources for the good of the entire human and natural community. Built into this concept is an awareness of the animal and plant life of the surrounding environment .The goal of sustainable development is to provide resources for the use of present populations without compromising the availability of those resources for future generations, and without causing environmental damage that challenges the survival of natural ecosystems. Consequently, sustainable economies cannot be based on the use of non-renewable resources. Ultimately, sustainable economies must be supported by the use of renewable resources such as biological productivity, and solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass energy sources. However, even renewable resources may be subjected to overexploitation and other types of environmental degradation. Central to the notion of sustainable development is the requirement that renewable resources are utilized in ways that do not diminish their capacity for renewal, so that they will always be present to sustain future generations of humans. On the other hand, Egypt welcomes the concept of the green economy to achieve sustainable development ,within the framework of respect for national priorities of each country, in order to achieve more decent work opportunities, and developments continued, and use environmental resources. Egypt have passed already in the implementation of a number of pilot projects in this regard, and look forward to witnessing the next stage for more cooperation with development. The energy is the main driver of economic and social development with the necessity to development of primary energy resources and the proper management and use of the most important policies and development strategies Egypt depends in achieving economic development and technological several sources of energy available to a power and petroleum and natural gas, but that recently Egypt has seen

  17. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AS AN INITIATOR OF SUSTAINABLE URBANISM IN EMERGING METROPOLISES: THE CASE OF DOHA, QATAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comprehensive coverage of a research project of the National Priority Research Program of the Qatar National Research Fund, entitled ‘Investigating the Qualities of the Urban Environment in Emerging Regional Metropolises’, and carried out between 2011 and 2014 through the joint collaboration of Qatar University and Technische Universität München. Through the shift of global economic forces Gulf cities, such as Qatar’s capital Doha, are developed as central hubs between developed economies in the West and the rising economies of Asia. In the context of international competition between cities new challenges are emerging where cities need to find ways to sustain and extend their position in a globalizing world. Therefore the research process placed emphasis on the complex interrelationship of knowledge economies and spatial developments in the Gulf region. The work is premised on the assumption that non-physical economic aspects and the qualities of the urban environment are interdependent. It analyses the qualities of the urban environment of Doha as an important regional metropolis through a comprehensive investigation utilizing a set of interdisciplinary research methods that include analysis of historic documents, Delphi interview series, company network analysis, GIS analysis, cognitive mapping, behavioural studies, media surveys, attitude surveys, and space syntax analysis. The outcomes promise important results regarding urban qualities in the city of Doha culminating into various recommendations aimed at potential beneficiaries including public sector organizations, private sector and real estate development companies, and academia.

  18. Environment, sustainability, and education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan

    presentations.Objectives: .Methods: .Results: Educational Policy and Environment and Sustainability Part 1: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Policy Research (90 minutes)Paper 1 - How might critical policy sociology inform policy analysis and enactment in environmental and sustainability education...

  19. Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Agenda 2063, which is claimed to be an endogenous plan for transforming. Africa .... 15 For instance, in the Ethiopian case 'building green economy requires an .... consultation: weakly integrated with the rest of the economy, business, politics.

  20. Impact Modelling for Circular Economy: Geodesign Discussion Support Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šileryte, R.; Wandl, A.; van Timmeren, A.; Bregt, Arnold; Sarjakoski, Tapani; van Lammeren, Ron; Rip, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Transitioning towards circular economy requires changes in the current system which yield a number of impacts on such fundamental values as human health, natural environment, exhaustible resources, social well-being and prosperity. Moreover, this process involves multiple actors and requires careful

  1. Analysis of physical interactions between the economy and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haes, Helias A Udo; Heijungs, Reinout

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter methods for analysing the physical interactions between the economy and the environment will be discussed. The historic roots of such methods lie in the 19th century and go back to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who used the term 'metabolism' (Stoffwechsel) to imply a relationship

  2. Design and management of sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is believed to be a great challenge to built environment professionals in design and management. An integrated approach in delivering a sustainable built environment is desired by the built environment professional institutions. The aim of this book is to provide an advanced understanding of the key subjects required for the design and management of modern built environments to meet carbon emission reduction targets. In Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments, an international group of experts provide comprehensive and the most up-to-date knowledge, covering sustainable urban and building design, management and assessment. The best practice case studies of the implementation of sustainable technology and management from the BRE Innovation Park are included. Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments will be of interest to urban and building designers, environmental engineers, and building performance assessors.  It will be particularly useful as a reference book ...

  3. Does the creative economy provide a sustainable urban form?: Some European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three urban redevelopment projects recently undertaken in Europe-Ria 2000 in Bilbao, Spain; Emscher Park in Germany; and Gasometer in Vienna, Austria, are presented and discussed in the paper. All three innovate on three independent levels culture, economy and urban organization, and provide high quality places to assist their cities and regions to cope with a global competitive environment. All three were also designed to represent the best of the sustainable practice in Europe at the time. In the same time, the basic philosophy of all three is deeply rooted in creative economies and elaborate their basis principles. The paper explores their design solution in order to identify the points where creative industries and sustainability meet, and investigates if, and to what extent, they comply with the principles of sustainability. Urban design and physical space are in focus, while other areas are considered as long as they contribute to the design, or reflect a credo that architecture and urban design are among those that play a central role in building cities' reputation and character. The author argues that all three materialized some of the basic principles of sustainability, by elaborating ideas of genius loci and the relationship between identity and locality. Emscher Park has been the most successful in demonstrating how the Brownfield site and devastated area could be transformed into the cultural landscape. Ria 2000 brought in a new interpretation of balance between the man made and natural environments. Gasometer has been least successful, and rather its solutions go after the traditional redevelopment paradigm.

  4. Government as a change agent toward a sustainable economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickl, Stephan (Austrian Energy Agency, klima:aktiv Management, Vienna (Austria)); Schmidt, Alexander (osb-international Consulting GmbH (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    Many of the recent political problems like health care, migration or climate protection have a level of complexity, which makes it difficult to tackle with relying on the 'normal' instruments. If we take climate protection seriously, this means that we have to perform a deep social change towards a sustainable economy. Besides pressure factors like high oil price, regulation or subsidies, two main factors are essential: a realistic vision of an agreeable future and a network of public and private institutions, which give momentum for the change and incorporate the change. Thus, the government grows into a new role of leadership, management and facilitation of the social change. The main key is the building and stabilisation of a inter-organisational network to include, activate and focus the different stakeholders. The paper will show the lessons learnt in building networks which generate co-operation for climate protection analysing the example of the Austrian climate protection program klima:aktiv, which started in 2004 with the aim to change the market by introducing services together with main market players, do this in a systematic and comprehensive way for some years; provide for quality management with standards and trainings; and secure confidence in the services by public support. Thus you get climate protection together with economic success, higher quality of life and less cost for the consumer. The paper will show the important steps in threes phases of the project and will describe the main factors of success in the adventure of building a change network.

  5. [Role of socio-economy and management in sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Ming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; Franziska, Bieri; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Hou, Xun-Ya; Ren, Mao-Yuan; Li, Yi-Yi; Dong, Ru-Lan; Zeng, Jin-Yuan; She, Shu-Ping

    2013-02-01

    To clarify the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis-control in Taoyuan County, an endemic area in hilly region, Hunan Province, China. From 1996 to 2011, the data of socio-economy, the management of schistosomiasis control organizations, environment, and the changes in schistosomiasis prevalence were collected in Taoyuan County where schistosomiasis transmission had been controlled since 2008. A sampling survey of schistosomiasis prevalence of human and bovine was performed in 2011 to verify the current status of schistosomiasis transmission. All the data were analyzed statistically to evaluate the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis control. During the period from 1998 to 2012, the socio-economy including the residents' productive mode and daily life in Taoyuan County improved dramatically, but the recurrence risk of schistosomiasis endemic still existed due to the retuning of out-going workers and the migrating population. Moreover, the introduction of exotic species of plants and animals may increase the risk. The low running cost of schistosomiasis control organization as well as the efficient and adequate resource allocation in the county was in line with the national requirement to strengthen the rural grass-roots public health system. The harmonious development of socio-economy and the scientific and efficient health system in Taoyuan County are the key factors for the sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis.

  6. THE ROLE OF THE BANKING SYSTEM IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the banking system and financial markets represents a determinant factor for sustainable development. Thus, banks are essential for any modern economy, not only because of their turnovers but also because they provide a number of important functions for the national economy, being the main financier.

  7. A social economy partnership for a sustainable co-development

    OpenAIRE

    Ville de Montréal,

    2009-01-01

    Social economy contributes to a metropolis' development in responding to the different needs of the citizens. It also fully participates in wealth creation, offering employment possibilities both to educated workers and to those who are excluded from the labour market. In Montreal, the social economy also contributes to the improvement of the quality of life through the creation of accessible local services in areas like leisure, culture, security, services for senior citizens, health, socia...

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ECONOMY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - AN ECONOMIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of modern economy and environmental protection there are no significant changes: the old problems are not solved, and the existing ones are deepening. Humanity is still struggling with three existential problems: lack of food, lack of drinking water and insufficiently energized energy. They are also associated with the dangers of further degradation of the environment, the general fear and fear of terrorism and wars, the emergence of diseases for which modern medicine simply has no solution and which threatens to overcome the challenge of pandemic. Energy is still a mood of economic development, with at the same time a disastrous effect on the environment, when traditional sources of fossil resources are used as sources of energy. The paper explores the phenomenon of the impact of energy on the sustainable development of the economy, with a key focus on environmental protection, as well as the possibilities for adaptation to mitigate the consequences of this global phenomenon. In this regard, special attention has been devoted to researching the role and significance of energy from renewable sources as a possible response to current or expected climate stimuli or their consequences in natural and humanism systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the principle of adaptation, which includes mitigation of damages or the exploitation of effective opportunities; understanding how climate can change, what can be impacts, and capacity building and action on these impacts

  9. [Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

    2011-03-01

    Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province.

  10. Sharing Economy as a Contributor to Sustainable Growth. An EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper bases its analytical approach on two assumptions: the first refers to a significant change taking place in the contemporary world economy – the phenomenon of multipolarity – and proposes a new concept, that of multi-level manifestation of multipolarity; the second has in view the need of a new model of sustainable economic growth. In the context of these two points of view, the paper analyses the sharing economy as a potential significant contributor to sustainable economic growth. The conclusion of this research is that sharing economy has a huge potential of involving millions or even billions of participants and of capitalizing the existing assets while providing spill over effects in the economy. The authors expect sharing economy to become a form of economic activity that will complement traditional forms of business while generating positive economic, social and environmental effects.

  11. Intelligent computing for sustainable energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kang [Queen' s Univ. Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Li, Shaoyuan; Li, Dewei [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Niu, Qun (eds.) [Shanghai Univ. (China). School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation

    2013-07-01

    Fast track conference proceedings. State of the art research. Up to date results. This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, ICSEE 2012, held in Shanghai, China, in September 2012. The 60 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and present theories and methodologies as well as the emerging applications of intelligent computing in sustainable energy and environment.

  12. [Health and the green economy: challenges for sustainable development and the eradication of poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Edmundo; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Paulo Marchiori

    2012-06-01

    In a scenario where ecosystemic services are being eroded and there is high social inequity, a new model of development is necessary, namely one capable of promoting social development with a reduction of its ecological footprint. The 'Green Economy' model is one of the proposed models. This paper seeks to analyze the environmental, social and individual impacts on human health in the context of a 'brown economy', and discusses the contributions of a green economy on the promotion of equity and health. The assumption is that economic development and environmental sustainability are not incompatible and both contribute to the eradication of poverty. The transition to a sustainable economy depends on political decisions, and transcends technological developments. Above all, it should instigate new models of production, consumption and social organization, which promote socio-environmental justice, encouraging social participation and democratic forms of governance to define a solid agenda for the implementation of sustainable development and mechanisms to implement them at all levels.

  13. Transition management and the sustainable nutrients economy in the Netherlands: positioning paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Mikkila, M.; Linnanen, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this positioning paper transition management (TM) and the sustainable nutrient economy are addressed. We discuss TM from its scholarly origins in the 1990’s to its implementation as a comprehensive sector-wide policy program on sustainability in The Netherlands during the first decade of the

  14. transforming nigeria's economy on the path of sustainable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SILKA

    no marked improvements in per capita income and the living standards of individuals. 4. Moving on further, the Bank‟s ... standards and the productivity that generates those living standards. 5. Furthermore, simple .... The beauty that could be identified with a developed economy lies in „its dogged ability to withstand shocks ...

  15. Transforming Nigeria's Economy on the Path of Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rich in biodiversity, mineral resources, oil, gas, and cheap manpower, Nigeria has an estimated population of 170 million people. Import-dependent and investor-attractive, it is however, anxiety-laden if its variegated domestic insecurity and infrastructural deficit is put into consideration. Largely relying on a mono-economy ...

  16. Literature review on land carrying capacity of the coordinated development of population, resources, environment and economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao

    2017-10-01

    Land carrying capacity is an important index of evaluation on land resources. And the land carrying capacity is also very important for guiding regional plans and promoting sustainable development of regional economy. So it is significant to clarify the land carrying capacity in the sequence of events which helps the decision makers understand and grasp the knowledge of land carrying capacity more clearly and make the right judgment and decision. Based on the theory of population, resources, environment and economy, the method of reviewing literatures is used in this paper to summarize the theory of the land carrying capacity and the researching methods of the land carrying capacity, as well as the problems existing in the study of land carrying capacity.

  17. An Enabling Regulatory Environment for Sustainable Investment: The Example of Trade Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bürgi, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is broad international agreement that investment flows to the agricultural sector in developing countries need to be increased. But there is also agreement that such investments need to be sustainable. For being sustainable, they must not only be beneficial to the public economy, but also to rural households and to the environment in the short and the long run. Whether sustainable investments take place, not least depends on the legal framework within which these investments are situate...

  18. The model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the new "National security strategy of the Russian Federation, sustainable socio-economic development is the basis of national economic security. UN conceptual model of sustainable development is considered. The “Club of Rome” founder’s Aurelio Peccei point of view that world could be presented by interrelated but sufficiently stable elements: Nature, Man, Society, science-based Technique is mentioned (early 1980s. Today, sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is determined by: Nature, Man, Society, Technology, Economy and Infrastructure. To support this opinion, statements of leading scientists, politicians, business representatives are given: A. Aganbegian, M. Friedman, V. Sidorov, V. Inozemtsev, G. Gref. The author's model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is presented. The position of Russia according to the “2016 Global R&D Funding Forecast”, compiled by well-known scientific periodical “R&DMagazine” is presented. Classification of indicators groups, taken from the Russian and foreign statistical data books (Russian Statistical Yearbook, IRI, R&D Magazine, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, CIA Factbook, OECD, according to the elements of an integrated system of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is given. Implementation aggregating partial indices into an integrated index for each group and their population as a whole is proposed. For each private indicator is proposed to develop three levels of threshold values (acceptable, marginal and critical for sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy and security. Since innovation is a key mechanism for the concept of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy in a new tenor of technology, the need for innovative development of all elements of the proposed integrated system is required.

  19. Critical Connections: The Role of the Built Environment Sector in Delivering Green Cities and a Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The green agenda for cities and the economy in general is a major focus of global institutions and is increasingly a major national and urban priority. Core issues and best practice for built environment businesses were collated from published studies and used in a survey of Australian firms to see how committed they were to the green economy. The results show high awareness of the challenges and opportunities with 85% of firms having sustainability as an established agenda with senior management and over 20% of built environment firms deriving more than 50% of their sales from green products and services. This is much higher in design firms and is globally high. Whilst recognizing the scope for more engagement by industry in transitioning to a low carbon green economy, there is doubt within the built environment sector about how to create a business case for innovative green ventures and a lack of certainty or encouragement from government about how to proceed.

  20. The Sustainable Development Goals – Pathways to Eco-innovation and a Global Green Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    This paper offers a critical discussion of the influential UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for 2015-2030. While the goals in many ways represent considerable progress in treating the sustainable development agenda in a comprehensive way this paper argues that the goals are insufficiently...... linked to the new Green Economy paradigm. I.e. they neglect a consistent alignment of economic and environmental issues. There is some overall reference to achieving such an alignment but this goal is not persistently pursued, nor given enough importance in the specific SDGs. This paper argues...... economy, arguing that green economic change is real and central for achieving environmental sustainability. The policy implications of this are considerable. The paper suggests revising selected core SDG goals to make them more in line with the green economy paradigm. For developing countries the paper...

  1. HAS THE INFORMATION SOCIETY SUCCEEDED TO IMPROVE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF EUROPEAN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM ECONOMY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHITA Simona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe represents one of the most significant tourism destinations in the world, but, nowadays, it is more and more important the issue of adapting the tourism demand and supply to the need of sustainability. Information Technologies can help to increase the competitiveness of the tourism industry, creating a bridge between tourism supply and demand. According to the figures presented by the UNWTO, the growth rate of international tourist arrivals in 2013 compared to 2012 was of 5% (meaning 52 million international tourists arrivals, reaching 1,09 billion arrivals in 2013. The highest absolute growth was experienced by Europe (29 million arrivals in 2013, while the highest relative growth was registered in Asia and the Pacific (6%. The average international tourist receipt exceeded US$700 per person, while total tourists’ expenditures leveled more than $1,4 trillion. Tourism sector, including the related industries, contributed in 2013 by 9,5% to the total global Gross Domestic Product (GDP and created approximately 10% of the jobs worldwide. In Romania the ascending trend of tourists’ arrivals in accommodation establishments was interrupted by decreases in 2009 and 2010, due to the global economic-financial crisis. The indicator “Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by residents” experienced a similar evolution. Revenues from tourism and its contribution to GDP can be improved through the usage of information technology services. The present paper gives a possible answer to the following questions: can Information Society improve the competitiveness of European Sustainable Tourism Economy? Are there evidences of the impact of modern informational technologies on trends in sustainable tourism economy? In the analysis, the author used EUROSTAT data for European countries, 2000-2013 time-series. Statistical indicators used in the analysis are grouped by three areas of interest: Tourism Area (Arrivals of residents

  2. The Determinant Factors of Creative Economy Craftsmen Sustainability in South Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helda Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative economy craftsmen have big contribution to regional income and able to sustain in crisis. It can be seen on the average of Gross Domestic Product has employed 5.4 million in average for 2002-2009 with participation level of 5.8%. Therefore, a strategic sustainability is needed especially for the determinant factors of sustainability related to creative economy craftsmen. This research aims to observe the determinant factors of sustainability of creative economy craftsmen in Wajo and Bulukumba Regencies in South Sulawesi Province. Sample for the research was 215 creative economy craftsmen. Data collection is conducted on January to April 2012 consists of primary and secondary data. Research method was using prospective analysis to determine important factors to the sustainability of creative economy craftsmen that predict future alternatives. Result from Rap-UEK simulation for the composite of five dimensions showed a less sustainable status of 48.97%. Research results showed that there are six dominant or main factors in determining business sustainability of creative economy craftsmen, one place sale, coordination with the government and private sectors, capital source, increase in the product of creative economy business, business field and product development Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman

  3. Interrogating the economy-first paradigm in 'Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic ...

  4. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  5. Creating sustainable empowering learning environments through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating sustainable empowering learning environments through scholarship of engagement. ... South African Journal of Higher Education ... Abstract. The assumption grounding this issue of SAJHE is that; a university or any institution of higher learning comes to its fullness through serious engagement with the community.

  6. Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment: Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environment are changed, sustainable agricultural practices as conceived in the present form appear to be a distant dream ... At the same time the government in Rwanda is continuously under pressure to work towards ...... aspects perceived in this fashion (agrarian structure changes) would go a long way in addressing the ...

  7. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT USING THE MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH – CASE OF BALKAN’S TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Obradović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of their own financial resources, attracting the foreign direct investment (FDI isthe main prerequisite for transitional economies in order to increase production and employment, sothat they can ensure the long term sustainable economic growth. In addition, the foreign directinvestment is an important instrument for the economy restructuring, based on market principles.However, achieving this goal is not simple at all. In order to attract foreign investors, it is necessaryto create a favorable business environment in transition countries, which requires a number ofeconomic, institutional, political and other reforms. The aim of this paper is to point out the mainfactors attracting foreign direct investment and, by using the multi-criteria approach, to rank theBalkan’s transition economies depending on the preferences of investors taking into account certaincomponents of the business environment.

  8. THE ROLE OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT IN IMPLEMENTING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Marcela Danu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we analyzed the position of the Romanian urban environment in the process of implementing the circular economy, with the correlations and interdependences between the phenomena and demo-economic processes and the forms for the application of the circular economy. The poor implementation of the circular economy in the urban areas in Romania is conditioned by the low level of income, the expenditure, the consumption expenditure and the degree of low urbanization, the low level of labour productivity, etc., and by the psychology of the decision makers that is still not adjusted to the requirement to make the best choices for sustainable development of the economic system. We have highlighted the correlations between: the municipal waste recycling rate and the resource productivity in Romania; the total income of the population in the urban areas of residence in Romania and the waste recycling rate; the total average expenditure per person in urban areas and the municipal waste recycling rate; the monthly average consumption expenditure per person, in urban areas and municipal waste recycling rate; the employed population rate in urban areas and the municipal waste recycling rate; the urban population living in the 41 counties of Romania and Bucharest and the municipal waste recycling rate.

  9. Towards a sustainable hydrogen economy: Hydrogen pathways and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, Grietus; Lenaers, Guido [VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hetland, Jens [SINTEF Energy Research, Kolbjorn Hejesvei 1A, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2007-07-15

    Results from the European HySociety project (2003-2005) are revealed in which political, societal and technical challenges for developing a European hydrogen economy have been addressed. The focus is placed on the assessments of hydrogen pathways and infrastructure. It will show that no chain can be selected as an obvious winner according to primary energy demand, emission and cost. In order to ensure that the pathway losses are compensated by the more efficient end-use of the H{sub 2} fuel, calculations based on well-to-tank losses and tank-to-wheel efficiencies are used. Furthermore, in order to look into the consequences of introducing hydrogen, a top-down scenario has been worked out. The message is that certainly the hydrogen distribution part for the transport application has to be improved to avoid loosing the emission gain that is obtainable, especially via carbon capture and storage of the CO{sub 2}. In order to quantify the market development a bottom-up approach has been established in particular for the transport sector. (author)

  10. CIRCULAR ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT. THEORY AND BEST PRACTICE: A CHALLENGE FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO CIANI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy through the Sustainable Development Goals 2015-2030 needs take into consideration the EU’ package from December 2015 concerning the achievement of the Circular Economy under the vision of the 3R - Recycle, Reuse, Reduce. The concept of Circular Economy has started to develop in response to the crisis of the traditional model and the need to deal with limited resources. A key role in the pursuit and implementation of circular economy is taken by investments in innovation and technologies that enhance the scraps of industrial and / or agricultural sectors. This can lead not only to a reduction of waste and hence environmental impacts but also in net savings for businesses of up to 604 billion Euros throughout the European Union, in line with the global framework (Sustainable Development Goals 2015 -2030. The paper try to demonstrate through an inductive model, several tables, figures and our analysis that the success of the Strategy of Sustainable Development depend, in the next years, by the application of the best practices of the Circular Economy.

  11. Solar Power Generation for ICT and Sustainable Development in Emerging Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Damasen I.; Uhomoibhi, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine and draw attention to the potential benefits of solar power generation for access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) aimed at sustainable development in emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach: Electricity plays a crucial role in the development and…

  12. Finding Space for Education for Sustainable Development in the Enterprise Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, David

    2006-01-01

    The promotion of education for sustainable development (ESD) is likely to be constrained by its compatibility with other missions and objectives of higher education institutions (HEIs). Finding space for ESD in the Enterprise Economy invites consideration of opportunities for increasing the visibility and audibility of environmental messages in HE…

  13. Forward - Green Virtual Enterprises and Their Breeding Environments: Sustainable Manufacturing, Logistics and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, David; Molina, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Part 9: Innovation Networks; International audience; Green Virtual Enterprise Breeding Environments and their Forward-Green Virtual Enterprises, represent a promising paradigm to face the sustainable manufacturing, logistics and consumption challenges towards a Circular Economy. This paper explores the ‘build-to-order supply chain management’ paradigm and the customers involvement in sustainable supply chains to support the creation and operation of goal-oriented supply networks capable of re...

  14. National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Arindam; Khare, Ajay; Sen, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive document visualizing the future of built environment from a multidisciplinary dimension, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario. The multidisciplinary focus would be helpful for the readers to cross-refer and understand others' perspectives. The text also includes case studies substantiating theoretical research. This method of composition helps the book to maintain rational balance among theory, research and its contextual application. The book comprises selected papers from the National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment. The chapters provide varied viewpoints on the core issues of urbanization and planning, especially in the economically diverse Indian market. This compilation would be of interest to students, researchers, professionals and policy makers.

  15. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  16. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  17. Research on Synchronous Coordination Development of Tourism-Economy-Environment System in Qinghai Section of Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Huaju

    2018-01-01

    Using coupling theory in physics, the paper analyzed the relationship of coordinated development of tourism-economy-environment system (abbr. TEES) in Qinghai. Results showed the comprehensive evaluation of Qinghai TEES has been improved greatly from 2000 to 2014. However, coupling degree has still been in the running-in stage and coordination degree only arrives at the primary coordination level, the development of economy and tourism has exceeded the threshold of ecological environment after 2008, and the ecological environment has become the bottleneck restricting the further improvement of coupling coordination. In the future, Qinghai must change its mode of development and focus on industrial upgrading and transformation so as to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of TEES in the Silk Road.

  18. Attitudes toward Sustainability and Green Economy Issues Related to Some Students Learning Their Characteristics: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Micangeli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes and describes a new method, called L2A (listen-to-apprise, conceived of in order to improve the commitment of all the participants involved in an educational process specifically dedicated to sustainability and the green economy. The first stage consists in listening to the students and, when possible, in listening to the environment, the people, and the territory, while, in the second stage, the acquired information is used to exploit everyone’s talents and to achieve the maximum advantage and satisfaction for all. The first phase of L2A is mainly dedicated to listening to the students via the submission of an on-line questionnaire that measures their learning preferences, self-efficacy and sensitivity to the themes of sustainability and the green economy. The investigation has been extended from Italy to Honduras, where the authors are involved in the development of major projects concerning sustainability. The results of the survey have been analyzed by means of standard significance and correlation analysis, and therefore, significant differences among the groups and correlations within each group have been detected. The results have been discussed in order to explain how the L2A method works and how useful and powerful a tool it could be to improve teaching, learning and practical activities.

  19. Learning for a Sustainable Economy: Teaching of Green Competencies in the University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ángeles Murga-Menoyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at universities as training centers for a sustainable economy. Their remit is to promote the required competencies to achieve that aim, including competencies in sustainability. This article describes the role that the universities in Spain are fulfilling with respect to these issues and presents a training proposal that comprises four key competencies in sustainability with their corresponding performance indicators that permit the evaluation of different levels of achievement in training processes. These competencies must embrace their formative role not only with regard to future graduates who will be employed in “green jobs” per se, but also with regard to those alumni who will work in all the other productive sectors, in addition to all citizens directly and indirectly involved in the wider economy as consumers, producers and (direct or indirect recipients of its effects. The proposal is based on the recommendations of the Conferencia de Rectores de Universidades Españolas (CRUE: Conference of Chancellors of Spanish Universities, and can be adapted to the teaching programs of different subjects in order to facilitate the training necessary in general competencies of sustainability within the ambit of the subjects taught. Furthermore, this proposal follows the institutional strategy of CRUE to promote curricula sustainability through the inclusion of the principles and values of sustainable development in every degree and educational program taught. This proposal could also be applied to other cultural contexts with similar characteristics.

  20. Role of modernization in maintenance of a sustainable development of economy of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Zinov'evna Solodilova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the need to modernize the economy and society. The authors reveal meaningful context of the term "modernization" in relation to the Russian economy. Five priority areas of economic modernization, as initiated by the President, are considered. Species, types and sources of funding for modernization of the economy (optimization of budget expenditures, state monopolies, taxation, domestic and foreign investment and business research areas are investigated. Based on the investigation of the essence and importance of the modernization process, a mechanism of modernization, which components are described in the paper (the process, purpose, types, objects, sources of financing, the results & process control and system upgrade was developed. Based on the results of the conducted study, the potential for sustainable economic development of the region in the XXI century is presented. A fundamentally new set of its components (educational, human, scientific, innovation, natural resource, industrial, construction, agriculture and infrastructure & tourism potentials is presented.

  1. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemianowska, Ewa; Wesołowski, Andrzej; Skibniewska, Krystyna A.; Tyburski, Józef; Gurzyński, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers' awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland) there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992) up till now (2013) the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  2. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemianowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers’ awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992 up till now (2013 the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  3. Microalgal hydrogen production: prospects of an essential technology for a clean and sustainable energy economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2017-09-01

    Modern energy production is required to undergo a dramatic transformation. It will have to replace fossil fuel use by a sustainable and clean energy economy while meeting the growing world energy needs. This review analyzes the current energy sector, available energy sources, and energy conversion technologies. Solar energy is the only energy source with the potential to fully replace fossil fuels, and hydrogen is a crucial energy carrier for ensuring energy availability across the globe. The importance of photosynthetic hydrogen production for a solar-powered hydrogen economy is highlighted and the development and potential of this technology are discussed. Much successful research for improved photosynthetic hydrogen production under laboratory conditions has been reported, and attempts are underway to develop upscale systems. We suggest that a process of integrating these achievements into one system to strive for efficient sustainable energy conversion is already justified. Pursuing this goal may lead to a mature technology for industrial deployment.

  4. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Zwerg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment. All of us that are concerned about the environment should ask ourselves if the increase in capital mobility associated with the world-wide process of  liberalization, deregulation and privatization, known as the Neo-liberal global regime, has contributed to the problems of higher emissions, ozone layer destruction, and pollution of water sources, as well as to create false economic bubbles that lead to increased consumption in these regions whilst forcing the destruction of the environment by the poor in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, while seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies, tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, increases global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes and weaken government’s ability to regulate business in the citizens` best interests.Este artículo trata sobre el impacto de inversión extranjera directa en economíasen vías de desarrollo y el medio ambiente. Todos los que nos preocupamos por elmedio ambiente debemos preguntarnos, si el aumento en la movilidad de capitales asociada con el proceso mundial de liberalización, desregulación y privatización,conocido como “neoliberalismo”, ha contribuido a problemas de emisiones másaltas, destrucción de la capa de ozono, y polución de fuentes de agua, así como a lacreación de falsas burbujas económicas que llevan a aumentar el consumo en estasregiones, obligando a los más pobres a destruir el medio ambiente para sobrevivir ypoder cumplir con los roles impuestos por la sociedad. Prácticas neoliberales talescomo las implantadas en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, en busquedade alcanzar mayor inversión extranjera para

  5. Renewable energy for sustainable development and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen

    2010-09-15

    The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.

  6. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Volume II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, environment and food production systems and their many combinations. In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume II, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  7. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  8. Firm Model Design from the Perspective of Sustainable Circular Economy Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Răzvan Bălășescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As well known the sustainable circular economy is a regenerative oriented paradigm for transforming the waste into a valuable resource. In this framework, the business model appears in the form of an network architecture design that relates product, service and information flows, various business actors and their roles directed to potential benefits and value meanings, taking into account the technology-push, marketpull and regulatory innovative drivers and the linear and non- linear approaches to emphasize the importance of the connections between intentions and consequences as well as the complexity of social relationships between firm, consumers, investors and public authorities.

  9. Study on modeling of Energy-Economy-Environment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seung Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    This study analyzed the effect of carbon dioxide reduction policy generated by energy use by developing a new operation general equilibrium model. This model is a multi sector successive dynamic model, designed to be able to forecast economic variables as well as GDP, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission amount until 2030 for every 5 years. Using this model, it analyzed three greenhouse gas reduction policy scenarios, the introduction of world single carbon tax, the setting up limit of greenhouse gas discharge, and the introduction of international discharge permit trading system. It analyzes that it gives a heavy burden to Korean economy when Korean government implements the greenhouse gas reduction policy with only domestic policy instrument. Therefore it is considered that it is required to reduce greenhouse gas cost-effectively by using Kyoto Protocol actively, such as international permit trading, co-implementation, and clean development system, when greenhouse gas reduction gives a heavy burden. Moreover, a policy that is dependent only on price mechanism, such as carbon tax or permit trading, to reduce greenhouse gas requires a very high cost and has a limitation. Therefore, to relieve some burden on economy requires to implement non-price mechanism simultaneously such as energy technology development and restructuring on industry and transportation system. (author). 70 refs., 11 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY VS. SUSTAINABLE AGRO-FOOD SYSTEMS; BEST PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Beatrice PĂUNA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge based economy, found in more than one fields, started – considering agriculture – from a transition premise towards sustainable agro-food systems. The conceptual boundaries between the two major paradigms on sustainable development of agriculture, namely the agro-industrial paradigm and the integrated territorial paradigm, is used nowadays for teaching and research purpose, as a comparison basis with an ideal case, mostly because we only have hybrid models which tend to coexist, always improving the food and goods production, also promoting innovative agro-food systems. This paper highlights the idea that the establishment of an institutional and legal framework, will have a catalytic role acting as an engine of economic growth and boosting the development of agricultural systems by mobilizing entrepreneurs in agriculture and related areas. In this regard, we present best practices of economic actors engaged in meta network of agriculture clusters.

  11. Building Sustainable Smallholder Cooperatives in Emerging Market Economies: Findings from a Five-Year Project in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Meador

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of two smallholder dairy cooperatives in Kenya examines the question: what factors are conducive to producing sustainable smallholder cooperatives that can gain entry into the vertical value chain in liberalized post-colonial economies? The relative weight of income advantage; selective individual incentives and, social capital on maintaining member patronage are assessed within variable environmental constraints and opportunities facing different cooperatives. The methodology includes case study observation of the cooperatives during a five-year period, as well as sample surveys of members and non-members that include indicators of dairy income; reasons why farmers elect to join or not join the cooperative; and assessments of the importance of different services provided by the cooperative. The findings show how the relative weight of specific incentives for cooperative membership can vary from one environment to another within the same nation. The most important finding is that maintaining sustainable smallholder cooperatives within an increasingly competitive environment depends on the ability of managers to create business strategies that are compatible with the cooperative’s environmental constraints but, at the same time, incentivize members’ patronage.

  12. in_focus - Valuing the Environment: Economics for a Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2010 ... A vast number of people in developing countries depend on the natural environment for their livelihoods — on farmland or forests, wetlands or coastal areas. For these people, the environment is much more than a source of recreation — it is the basis of the economy. But poorly functioning markets, ...

  13. in_focus - Valuing the Environment: Economics for a Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... A vast number of people in developing countries depend on the natural environment for their livelihoods — on farmland or forests, wetlands or coastal areas. For these people, the environment is much more than a source of recreation — it is the basis of the economy. But poorly functioning markets, ...

  14. Taxation of cooperatives from the perspective of international expansion and sustainable development of social economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Patón García

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has created a major concern in developedcountries for control of social risks with negative effects on growth and this problem can be approached from the perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Thus, CSR is seen as an entrepreneurial attitude aimed at promoting social, economic and environmental purposes while guarantying competitiveness in the international market. Thus, social economy can contribute to sustainable development, economic and social cohesion, to promote productive and income distribution, to ensure employment and equality of opportunities. The purpose of this study is to have an influence onthe role that taxation plays in the area of incentive policies related to social economy and very prominently manifested in the legal status of cooperatives. The approach aims to provide proposals on tax regulation of cooperatives taking the perspective of the international context and the size of the sector in countries like Spain and Peru in order to encourage cooperative social responsibility. Indeed, the importance of providing a legal and fiscal framework to promote their internationalization connects providentially with the principles that govern the cooperative action. We consider that it is essential, from the perspective of sustainable development and cooperatives’social responsibility, to take into account in the tax regime applicable criteria that can be justified on constitutional principles, the general interest of society or internationalization economic activity. Also, there could be other positive effects in the area of Latin America, such as decreasing tax evasion and the formalization of at least a portion of the informal sector of the economy, including the real impulse to CSR.

  15. Towards a Green Economy. Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. A Synthesis for Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Earth Summit, nations are again on the Road to Rio, but in a world very different and very changed from that of 1992. Then we were just glimpsing some of the challenges emerging across the planet from climate change and the loss of species to desertification and land degradation. Today many of those seemingly far off concerns are becoming a reality with sobering implications for not only achieving the UN's Millennium Development Goals, but challenging the very opportunity for close to seven billion people - rising to nine billion by 2050 - to be able to thrive, let alone survive. Rio 1992 did not fail the world - far from it. It provided the vision and important pieces of the multilateral machinery to achieve a sustainable future. But this will only be possible if the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development are given equal footing with the economic one: where the often invisible engines of sustainability, from forests to freshwaters, are also given equal if not greater weight in development and economic planning. Towards a Green Economy is among UNEP's key contributions to the Rio+20 process and the overall goal of addressing poverty and delivering a sustainable 21st century. The report makes a compelling economic and social case for investing two per cent of global GDP in greening ten central sectors of the economy in order to shift development and unleash public and private capital flows onto a low-carbon, resource-efficient path. Such a transition can catalyse economic activity of at least a comparable size to business as usual, but with a reduced risk of the crises and shocks increasingly inherent in the existing model. New ideas are by their very nature disruptive, but far less disruptive than a world running low on drinking water and productive land, set against the backdrop of climate change, extreme weather events and rising natural resource scarcities. A green economy does not favour one political

  16. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation method derived from environmental economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xilin; Xi, Fengru

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation system can encourage and guide entrepreneurs, and impel them to perform well in environment management. An evaluation method based on advantage structure is established. It is used to analyze entrepreneur environment management behavior in China. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation index system is constructed based on empirical research. Evaluation method of entrepreneurs is put forward, from the point of objective programming-theory to alert entrepreneurs concerned to think much of it, which means to take minimized objective function as comprehensive evaluation result and identify disadvantage structure pattern. Application research shows that overall behavior of Chinese entrepreneurs environmental management are good, specially, environment strategic behavior are best, environmental management behavior are second, cultural behavior ranks last. Application results show the efficiency and feasibility of this method. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Economy and environment 2009; Denmark; OEkonomi og miljoe - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    The present report from the Chairmen of the Danish Council of Environmental Economics focuses on three topical themes: the implementation of the EC Water Framework Directive, environmental (green) taxes, and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in those parts of the economy not covered by the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). These are policy areas which can be analysed and treated in isolation, but they have a lot in common. Green taxes form part of the regulation suggested in the report to implement the EC Water Framework Directive. Similarly, green taxes will play a central role if the national target for reductions in GHG emissions is to be achieved. Finally, green taxes are an important source of public revenue. The chairmen's recommendations related to the implementation of the EC Water Framework Directive are presented first. This is followed by a forecast of Denmark's energy consumption and GHG emissions until 2020 with special emphasis on GHG emissions in the non-ETS sector. Then, a review of the principles of green taxation is presented. Lastly, recommendations are made with regard to preferred instruments for reducing GHG emissions to the level of the national target, together with a discussion on how to improve the regulation of road transport. (LN)

  18. The Discourse of Sustainable Farming and the Environment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: environment, sustainable farming, ecocriticism, cosmopolitan ecocriticism, postcolonial ecocriticism ... The need for sustainable agriculture and environment, which Bessie Head (1968) portrays in her novel .... show whether it means that we should alter our lifestyles or the way we use science and technology.

  19. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...... and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations....

  20. Toward Economies that Sustain Nature and Human Dignity An Ecological Economic Reformulation

    CERN Document Server

    Norgaard, R B

    1998-01-01

    Modern economies have successfully rallied human and community potentials to the production and consumption of material goods but are having increasing difficulty creating meaningful lives, assuring social justice, and protecting the environment for future generations. To redress these imbalances, we invoke economic language and reasoning ever more insistently and incessantly, and move away from solutions rather than toward them. This is because economics evolved with the larger assumptions of modernity that brought us to where we are. Reformulating economics, along with the on-going reformulation of our environmental and social consciousness, will be necessary to build a durable and endurable future.

  1. Environment, trade, political economy and imperfect information: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Daniel; Ulph, Alistair

    2002-01-01

    The last ten years have seen an upsurge in interest in the nexus of trade and environmental policies. In part this reflects the need to deal with major global pollution problems, and in part a concern that globalisation may have adverse impacts on the environment. Environmentalists worry that globalisation may trigger a race-to-the bottom in environmental standards. While they would like to see upward harmonisation in environmental standards, they are sceptical about the ability of supra-nati...

  2. Obesity and diabetes, the built environment, and the 'local' food economy in the United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasingly attributed to environmental factors, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of the 'local' food economy. This paper examines the association of measures relating to the built environment and 'local' agriculture with U.S. county-level prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Key indicators of the 'local' food economy include the density of farmers' markets and the presence of farms with direct sales. This paper employs a robust regression estimator to account for non-normality of the data and to accommodate outliers. Overall, the built environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes and a strong local' food economy may play an important role in prevention. Results imply considerable scope for community-level interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng

    2017-05-01

    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  4. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  5. Financing the Transition to a Green Economy - An empirical investigation of how Norwegian firms can achieve business models for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Synne Mari; Slette, Sunniva Bratt

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this Master s thesis is to explore the interaction between the state of the current financial system and sustainable value creation of companies. This is done by examining how the financial community and business actors can address tensions that currently provide barriers for sustainability investments. The thesis is structured as an exploratory case study within the context of Norwegian industry development in the transition to a green economy. More specifically, the study i...

  6. 'Club Dread': Applying and Refining an Issues-Based Role Play on Environment, Economy, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Cecile; Hay, Iain

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the purpose, design, implementation, and value of an issues-based role play exercise in a first year Australian university undergraduate topic. Explains that the exercise requires students to consider implications for environment, economy, and culture of a large-scale tourist development on Rarotonga (Cook Islands). (CMK)

  7. Food sustainability, food security and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people

  8. Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment: Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    spurt in the environmental awareness in Rwanda is partly induced by donor agencies .... due to increase in fertilizer consumption with increasing soil salinisation and pollution. Many countries claiming green revolution (e.g. India) had this trade-off. ..... thus create conditions later livelihood-intensive and sustainable human.

  9. Work environment factors and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben; Svendsen, Kristin; Romundstad, Pål R; Qvenild, Torgunn; Strømholm, Tonje; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjørn

    .... We aimed to elucidate work environment and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks. A questionnaire inquiring about working conditions and work participation was sent to 2082 cooks who had qualified from 1988 onwards...

  10. Peculiarities of the Danube Business Environment in the Context of the Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Pușcaciu; Rose-Marie Pușcaciu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study intends to be a link between the “green economy” and the “blue economy”, and the objective of it is to analyze the Danube economy in the context of the environment preserving. As the prior works deserve generous space to research regarding the sustainable development concept and experiences and others deal with the Danube problems, our approach tries to build on a link between these two fields of research, and understanding all these problems linked to the ...

  11. The viability of sustained growth by India's MNEs: India's dual economy and constraints from location assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narula, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the longer-term viability of the internationalization and success of Indian MNEs. We apply the 'dual economy' concept (Lewis 1954), to reconcile the contradictions of the typical emerging economy, where a 'modern' knowledge-intensive economy exists alongside a 'traditional'

  12. Towards a sustainable built environment in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli, Mahyudin; Byrd, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Our objectives in writing this book were to pull together the themes of research that have been ongoing in the School of Housing Building and Planning in the Universiti Sains Malaysia. The main themes investigate the systems that form the inputs and outputs of resources that move to, from and within the built environment. By extrapolating our knowledge of these systems we can begin to predict the long-term effects that the built environment has on our society and eco-system. It also begins to...

  13. THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SAMARKAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapas Alibekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence, formation, and development of the city are largely connected with its landscape position. The first stage of Samarkand’s existence may be referred to as “river civilization.” Over the course of development of the city, the nature and intensity of interaction of the population and economy with its landscape have undergone changes; there is a distinct general pattern: dependence on the landscape. This was largely the reason for its sustainable development for many centuries. This fact should be considered in future activities in landscape and spatial planning.

  14. How green and sustainable is the newest economy? Essays; Hoe groen en duurzaam is de nieuwste economie? Essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, G. (ed.); Aelvoet, M.; Willems, R.; Rabbinge, R.; De Leeuw, B.; In ' t Veld, R.

    2005-01-01

    Essays by different authors on the title question and the role of the Netherlands within Europe with respect to sustainability and (how) can we steer this?. [Dutch] Essays over de titelvraag en de rol van Nederland in Europa m.b.t. duurzame ontwikkeling en (hoe) kunnen we sturen?.

  15. Public spaces and urban sustainability in the tropical built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Kozlowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability is an overarching sense of responsibility towards the future. On a city-wide level, urban sustainability incorporates a wide body of changes especially as they relate to the built environment, all of which intended at creating a livable place. This paper discusses existing public spaces in view of their achievement against a set of criteria for the built environment. The paper introduces performance design criteria for the tropical built environment. The key findings indicate that long-term strategies, guidance and directions for the city and region can achieve development which corresponds to local climate, synergies and provide a higher proportion of public spaces that offer something for everyone.

  16. The Institutions of «Green Economy» for Sustainable Development of Agrarian Sector: Theoretical Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodakivska Olga V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the conceptual foundations and theoretical positions of the place and role of institutions in formation of the «green economy» in the context of implementation of the principles for sustainable development of agrarian sector. The article reflects the main scientific concepts that are directed to address the problems of environmentally oriented development, in particular the concepts of ecotopia, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, biocentrism, and the concept of sustainable development. It has been found that the conceptual foundations for sustainable development include ecologization of economy, humanization of production, introducing a system of principled approaches to public affairs. The general provisions of formation of «green economy» have been characterized and its key principles have been provided. The role and value of institutions in the organizational provision of the sustainable development of agrarian sector, which, in the organizational-economic, coordinating and enabling aspects are the key driver for harmonization of the interaction of all participants in economic relations, have been substantiated.

  17. Focus 2012. Awakening into a new age - Elements of a sustainable energy supply. Ressource efficiency - key competency of sustainable societies, Sustainable chemistry - fundamental building blocks of a green economy. Annual report; Schwerpunkte 2012. Aufbruch ins neue Zeitalter - Elemente einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung, Ressourceneffizienz - Schluesselkompetenz zukunftsfaehiger Gesellschaften, Nachhaltige Chemie - elementarer Baustein einer Green Economy. Jahrespublikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromati, Fotini; Ittershagen, Martin (comps.)

    2012-05-30

    The Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) sees excellent opportunities to move the economic regeneration forward by means of environmental protection. Under this aspect, the annual report ''Focus 2012'' under consideration presents the following contributions: (1) Green Economy as a new model for economic development; (2) Elements of a sustainable energy supply; (3) Resource efficiency as a key competence for sustainable societies; (4) Green Chemistry as a fundamental building block of Green Economy.

  18. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  19. Government Governance, Legal Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on China’s inter-provincial panel data from 1999–2009, this paper has tested the impact and extent of marketization, government governance, and legal environment of sustainable economic development by controlling physical capital, human capital and productivity, so as to find the institutional reality for the difference in China’s economic development and another explanation for it. It turns out that marketization, government governance, and legal environment play significant roles in promoting sustainable economic development. Further tests show that the results of Eastern China are consistent with China’s inter-provincial results; while in Western China, the promotion effect of marketization, government governance, and legal environment on sustainable economic development is not significant.

  20. [Health, environment and sustainable development in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This article is based on "Salud, ambiente y desarrollo humano sostenible: el caso de México," a document prepared in June 1997 by the Comité Técnico Nacional para el Desarrollo Sostenible. It opens with information regarding the epidemiologic and demographic changes that have taken place in Mexico, such as the decrease in communicable diseases, the rise in noncommunicable diseases, and the less conspicuous increase in lesions resulting from accidents or acts of violence. This is followed by a discussion of priority problems and problems of lesser magnitude in environmental health, specifically those relating to water and air quality, as well as disposal of household and dangerous wastes. Finally, it proposes three areas of intervention in light of the structural problems detected: the absence of an integrated information system covering the area of health, environment, and development; the absence of channels of communication within and between institutions and sectors, and the lack of coordination in planning and implementing programs and actions in this field.

  1. TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SKILLS: AN ANTIDOTE FOR JOB CREATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Edomwonyi Edokpolor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at assessing the important role of TVET on job creation and sustainable development of Nigerian economy. Two research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation statistics, while two hypotheses were tested using t-test statistic. A survey method was employed for the research. A four-point scale questionnaire was employed as the instrument for collection of data. The population consists of 332 TVET lecturers in 3 universities and 4 colleges of education in Edo and Delta States. There was no need to adopt sampling technique, nor select any sample size, since the entire population is of a manageable size. The instrument was validated by two experts and its reliability coefficient value using Cronbach alpha method was 0.81. The research revealed that TVET can equip students with skills for job creation and sustainable development of Nigerian economy. It also revealed that there was no significant difference between the mean ratings of TVET lecturers in Edo and Delta States on the extent to which TVET can equip students with skills for job creation. It further revealed that there was no significant difference between the mean ratings of male and female TVET lecturers on the extent to which TVET can equip students with skills for sustainable development of Nigerian economy. Optimizing sufficient amount of financial resources, regular supplies of state-of-the-art facilities, sourcing for qualified manpower, and organization of advocacy programme, that would help in effective management delivery of TVET were further recommended.

  2. Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy and Assessing the Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Multivariate Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes.

  3. Environmental governance and the green economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Roberto Jacobi; Paulo Antonio deAlmeida Sinisgalli

    2012-01-01

    ... generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty...

  4. Developing INFOMAR's Seabed Mapping Data to Support a Sustainable Marine Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M. T.; Guinan, J.

    2016-02-01

    As Ireland's national seabed mapping programme, INFOMAR1 (INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Ireland's MARine resource) enters its eleventh year it continues to provide pivotal seabed mapping data products, e.g. databases, charts and physical habitat maps to support Ireland's Integrated Marine Plan. The programme, jointly coordinated by the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute, has gained a world class reputation for developing seabed mapping technologies, infrastructure and expertise. In the government's current Integrated Marine Plan, the programme's critical role in marine spatial planning enabling infrastructural development, research and education has been cited2. INFOMAR's free data policy supports a thriving maritime economy by promoting easy access to seabed mapping datasets that underpin; maritime safety, security and surveillance, governance, business development, research and technology innovation and infrastructure. The first hydrographic surveys of the national marine mapping programme mapped the extent of Ireland's deepest offshore area, whilst in recent years the focus has been to map the coastal and shallow areas. Targeted coastal areas include 26 bays and 3 priority areas for which specialised equipment, techniques and vessels are required. This talk will discuss how the INFOMAR programme has evolved to address the scientific and technological challenges of seabed mapping across a range of water depths; particularly the challenges associated with addressing inshore data gaps. It will describe how the data converts to bathymetric and geological maps detailing seabed characteristics and habitats. We will expand on how maps are: incorporated into collaborative marine projects such as EMODnet, commercialised to identify marine resources and used as marine decision support tools that drive policy and promote protection of the vastly under discovered marine area.

  5. Future Economy and Touristic Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Jelev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that Eco-Bio-economy or social economy is the economy of future, in the service of human life by the rational use of environmental resources. The concept brings together in an integrated manner, according to the researchers, economy, ecology, biodiversity, biotechnologies and focuses on integrated sustainable development of the world. The new social economy, together with the corporate social responsibility joins a new multipolar world to a healthy environment by creative and innovative concepts that will ensure the sustainability of living in a sustainable manner. Doctors have added to thisEco-Bio-Economy concept a new one called One Health - a new integrated approach for human, animals and environment health state to that they should emphasize the importance of human behavior upon the planet biodiversity. Economer agents have mostly understood the importance of alarm signals drawn up by researchers on the destruction of the resources of the planet and adapted their business sites to the requirements of the green economy. A responsible business is also ecotourism that promotes a favourable travel for the surrounding environment. It requires accommodation on farms, in peasant houses, small rural hotels. The educational environment contributes to the trend planetary tourism, with the formation of new specialists with new knowledge, behaviors and consumers use formation of new characters, sensitive to environmental issues. This educational model is also promoted by Spiru Haret University, by creating the Master degree in tourism but also in environmental protection.

  6. Study on Chinese model of low carbon economy-energy-electricity-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang

    2010-09-15

    With the successful experience on energy efficiency in the past 30 years in China, it can be summarized as Energy Usage Management(EUM) and Integrated Resource Strategic Planning(IRSP). They will play essential role in Low Carbon Economy. The model of Low Carbon Economy-Energy-Electricity-Environment and an outlook of Chinese economic growth, energy-electricity demand, and renewable energy generation have been studied in this paper. It has been shown that China would save energy 4.38 billion toe and reduce CO2 emission 16.55 billion ton by EUM, and would save energy 1.5 billion toe and reduce CO2 emission 5.7 Btons by IRSP during 2010-2030.

  7. Sustainability in the built environment using embedded technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius; Storgaard, Kresten; Ærenlund, Lærke

    2011-01-01

    Innovation of sustainable products and solutions in the built environment using embedded technology in Constructions, is from various earlier investigations shown to increase the value both by reducing emissions of green-house gasses from buildings and by optimising the comfort of living condition...... for the end-user. Based on a project on User-driven Innovation and Embedded Technology in Construction, this paper presents different potential products and solutions for sustainability. This covers a variety of areas such as recycling, energy efficiency, as well as a new concept of sustainable products......-driven Innovation will be presented, with focus on user engagement, interest and acceptance of the ideas arising from the process. This will be exemplified by a developed pilot project involving embedded technology in a building material. Sustainability is categorised in the three dimensions environmental, social...

  8. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  9. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  10. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  11. Governing in a placeless environment: Sustainability and fish aggregating devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability governance views ‘place’ as either a central concept and phenomenon to counter homogenising globalisation, or as an irrelevant concept for understanding ostensibly ‘placeless’ global environments such as oceans. Based on a review of global tuna fisheries in placeless oceans, we

  12. Public policies for sustainability in mountain environments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amazile López Netto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mountains encompass a great biological diversity, essential to the survival of the ecosystem on the planet, and key resources for humans, such as water and deposits for genetic food safety. Brazil is among the countries with largest area of mountains on the planet. The country is a signatory of documents prepared for global environmental conventions, in which the fostering sustainability in mountain environments is signed, taking as examples Global Agenda 21; Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and The Future We Want.  The objective of this study is to analyze whether the Brazilian public actions promoting sustainability in mountain environments, as recommended in the global environmental conventions.  This was done through a survey and critical analysis of secondary data, where it was observed that the Brazilian government has no public actions where the focal theme are the mountains, checking only transversal issues at the federal, regional and state levels that affect these environments.  Among these policies, there is the payment for environmental services that can be basis for considering public actions that promote sustainable rural development in mountain environments Brazilians.

  13. Towards a Green Economy. Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The Report is compiled by UNEP's Green Economy Initiative in collaboration with economists and experts worldwide. It demonstrates that the greening of economies is not generally a drag on growth but rather a new engine of growth; that it is a net generator of decent jobs, and that it is also a vital strategy for the elimination of persistent poverty. The report also seeks to motivate policy makers to create the enabling conditions for increased investments in a transition to a green economy.

  14. A Study on International Trade and Endogenous/Sustainable Growth Model considering Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Kim, Tae Wan; Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Gyu; Choi, Dae Seung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    the major subject - sustainable development -, studied the environmental effects of trade liberalization through the simple theoretical analysis model and the related positive studies, and then suggested the theoretical model that explained the endogenous and sustainable growth of an open economy with considering environment. Because this study was just the first result for the reciprocal analysis on environment, trade, and growth, it was expected to continue the development of more elaborate theoretica l model and the related positive studies. 115 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Sustainability assessment for the transportation environment of Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Dipanjan; Paul, Subrata Kr; Saha, Swati; Goswami, Arkopal K

    2018-02-02

    Darjeeling is an important tourist hill town of West Bengal, India. It suffers from an acute problem of transportation, particularly during its peak tourist seasons due to limited road space, inadequate public transport facilities and indiscriminate use of automobiles. This hill town was originally designed for a population of 10,000, but over the years, it has come face-to-face with rapid urbanization, a rising population of both tourists and residents and intensifying motor vehicle usage. These factors together are posing a threat to its transport environment. This study identifies the Sustainable Transport Indicators (STIs) available in the existing literature to identify the critical stretches using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on experts' consensus. It was found that the experts placed emphasis on the mobility of the town, talking about vehicular impact on air pollution and encroachment of roads as the main issues affecting the sustainability of the transport environment. Thereafter, policy-level interventions have been suggested in accordance with the identified sustainability issues. We trust that other tourist hill towns with issues similar to Darjeeling could easily emulate the study methodology to assess their transport environment sustainability, or replicate on the lines of the recommended policy interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) in 2015 returned to its hometown, Dubrovnik, and once again served as a significant venue for scientists and specialists in different areas of sustainable development from all over the world to initiate...... traditionally cover a range of energy issues - higher renewables penetration and various technologies and fuels assessments at energy supply side, as well as, energy efficiency in various sectors, buildings, district heating, electric vehicles and demand modelling at energy demand side. Also, a review paper...

  17. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  18. Governing a Sustainable Business Ecosystem in Taiwan’s Circular Economy: The Story of Spring Pool Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Che Hsieh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The business ecosystem has provided a new paradigm for management research. Most research in the field has focused on profit-driven industries, neglecting the area of the circular economy. This research sets out to capture the mechanisms that the leading firm in the circular economy uses to govern its business ecosystem. The research strategy adopted is a longitudinal case study of the largest glass recycling company in Taiwan, Spring Pool Glass. Our findings illustrate that continuous value capture is the key to governing a sustainable business ecosystem in the glass recycling industry. The mechanisms include continuous value capture to enter new markets, using stakeholder networks to enlarge the business ecosystem, brand image and corporate social responsibility, company capabilities and research and development in the recycling process, and reacting to government policy.

  19. Sustainable Environment and in the Context of Environment Economy Necessary and an Analyze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk KENDIRLI

    2014-12-01

    One way of using economics is to ensure that the costs and the benefits of environmental measures are well balanced. Although it is difficult to estimate costs and benefits, there is an increasing demand that this is should be done before the economical activity. Economic and environmental objectives are often perceived as being contradictory. It is believed that a choice must be made between one and the other and that cannot be achieved concurrently. To change this perception, some measures should be taken on both national and international level.  At this point, an efficient environmental auditing is being important day by day to ensure environmental economics.

  20. IoT Architecture for a Sustainable Tourism Application in a Smart City Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Nitti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the Smart Cities concept has become one of the main driving forces for the urban transition towards a low carbon environment, sustainable economy, and mobility. Tourism, as one of the fastest growing industries, is also an important generator of carbon emissions; therefore, the recently emerging sustainable tourism concept is envisioned as an important part of the Smart Cities paradigm. Within this context, the Internet-of-Things (IoT concept is the key technological point for the development of smart urban environments through the use of aggregated data, integrated in a single decisional platform. This paper performs the first analysis on the feasibility of the use of an IoT approach and proposes a specific architecture for a sustainable tourism application. The architecture is tailored for the optimisation of the movement of cruise ship tourists in the city of Cagliari (Italy, by taking into consideration factors such as transport information and queue waiting times. A first set of simulations is performed using 67-point of interest, real transportation data, and an optimisation algorithm.

  1. Road map and principles for built environment sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Jorge A

    2003-12-01

    The built environment, defined by the facilities and civil infrastructure systems that people use, is the fundamental foundation upon which a society exists, develops, and survives. As the main provider and the life cycle custodian of the built environment, the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry plays a critical role in determining the quality, integrity, and longevity of this foundation. In the execution of these two roles, provider and custodian, the AEC industry has had a major direct and indirect impact on the natural environment, contributing both directly and indirectly to natural resource depletion and degradation, waste generation and accumulation, and environmental impact and degradation. These impacts are not unique to the AEC industry. Other industries face similar challenges, and for many years, a wide range of constituencies within them have been attempting the implementation of the concept of sustainability within what these industries do, how they do it, and with what as a possible mechanism to slow, reduce, eliminate these impacts, and even restore conditions to a better state. In the pursuit of sustainability, the AEC industry faces challenges posed by the unique attributes and characteristics nature of facilities and civil infrastructure systems, the complexities of the current processes for their delivery and use, and the diverse set of resources required for both their delivery and their use. This paper offers a road map and an initial set of principles to implement built environment sustainability as a starting point for an ongoing, industry-wide dialogue and debate.

  2. Environmental impacts of the emerging digital economy: the e-for-environment e-commerce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Daniel Z; Rejeski, David W

    2002-02-01

    The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment, possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss both the potential positive and negative impacts of e-commerce. Drawing from insights gained from the complexity theory, we also delineate some broad contours for environmental policies in the information age. Given the paradoxical nature of technological innovations, we want to caution the scientific community and policymakers not to treat the Internet as the Holy Grail for environmental salvation.

  3. Towards climate justice: how do the most vulnerable weigh environment-economy trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Katrina

    2015-03-01

    The world's poor are especially vulnerable to environmental disasters, including the adverse consequences of climate change. This creates a challenge for climate justice advocates who seek to ensure that those least responsible for causing climate change do not bear unwanted burdens of mitigation. One way to promote climate justice could be to pay particular attention to the environmental policy preferences of citizens from poorer, lower-emitting countries. This paper examines opinions on environment-economy trade-offs and willingness to make personal financial contributions to protect the environment among residents of 42 developed and developing countries using data from the 2005-2008 World Values Survey, the 2010 Climate Risk Index, and World Bank development indicators. Results reveal that individuals in developing countries are less likely to support policies to prioritize environmental protection over economic growth but are more willing to donate personal income for pro-environmental efforts compared to citizens of more developed nations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Embracing Circular Economy: a journey seen through the perspective of Sustainability Maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    Circular Economy has been progressively acknowledged as a promising and consistent approach to maximizing value by increasing resource productivity, while minimizing resource consumption and related waste. Manufacturing companies operating on a linear fashion are faced with a wealth of potential...... business benefits derived from a circular economy. However, this transition requires a systemic change mindset, encompassing a wide array of organizational processes and functions: from strategy and business models to take-back and end-of-life management. With a view to supporting the transition...... of manufacturing companies towards Circular Economy, this article presents a maturity-based approach that supports manufacturing companies to develop and implement strategic roadmaps and action plans for the transition. An analysis of twelve key management practices to manage the transition towards Circular...

  5. Behaviour of a Sustainable Concrete in Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Barbhuiya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has become one of the most important considerations in building design and construction in recent years. Concrete is susceptible to acid attack because of its alkaline nature. The socioeconomic losses associated with infrastructure deterioration due to acid attack exceed billions of dollars all around the world. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the behaviour of sustainable concrete in 3% sulphuric acid and 1.5% nitric acid environment in which cement was replaced by a combination of fly ash and ultra fine fly ash. It was found that the compressive strength loss of concrete in these acid environments was the minimum in which cement was replaced by 30% fly ash and 10% ultra fine fly ash. This mix also showed the lowest mass loss when exposed to these acids.

  6. Educating Future Energy Engineers for Sustainability: Case Study in Energy Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the case study of an interdisciplinary course in Energy Economy that was developed at the Energy Engineering Graduate Program at Başkent University. The course integrated several unique pedagogical features to satisfy the aim of developing a working knowledge in energy economy with an energy systems perspective. The novel aspects of the course thematically led to a capstone research project where 5 teams of 17 course participants analyzed their prioritized solutions towards improving the energy self-sufficiency of the campus based on the practice of energy economy. The results of the teams’ solutions towards a net-zero energy/exergy campus included electric buses for city-campus transport, poly-generation for the new Arts Center, LED/OLED lighting for campus lighting, dynamo driven/piezoelectric sports center, biofuels from the university-owned dairy products farm, and an energy efficient technology incubation center. This unique course with participatory learning is compared with others before concluding that the case study is a useful international example for energy economy.

  7. Assessing sustainability of residual biomass applications : Finding the optimal solution for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik JTK; Mesman M; van der Grinten E; M&E; M&V

    2017-01-01

    Various activities are underway for making new products from organic waste materials in order to minimise the quantity of materials that are wasted (circular economy). For example, the fertiliser struvite is being extracted from wastewater, and energy and fertilisers from cow dung or from beet pulp.

  8. [Construction and application of economy-pollution-environment three-dimensional evaluation model for district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-Gang; Mi, Wen-Bao; Ma, Zhen-Ning

    2015-02-01

    For deep analysis on the regional environmental economic system, the paper analyzes the mutual relation of regional economy development, environmental quality, environmental pollution, and builds the theoretical basis. Then, the economy-pollution-environment quality three-dimensional coupling evaluation model for district is constructed. It includes economic development level index, environmental pollution index, and environmental quality index. The model is a cube, which has spatialization and visualization characteristics. The model includes 8 sub cubes, which expresses 8 types of state, e. g. low pollution-inferior quality-low level of economic development etc. The model can be used to evaluate the status of region, divide development phase, analyze evolution trend etc. It has two ways including relative meaning evaluation (RME) and absolute meaning evaluation (AME). Based on the model, Yinchuan City in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is used as an example for the empirical study. Using RME, compared with Guangzhou city, The result shows that the Yinchuan City has been a high pollution-low quality-low level of economic development state for a long period during 1996-2010. After 2007, the state changed to a high pollution-high quality-low level of economic development. Now, the environmental quality of Yinchuan city gets better, but pollutant discharge pressure is high, and tends to be the break point of high environment quality and low environment. With AME, using national standard, the Yinchuan City remains a high pollution-low quality-low level of economic development state during 1996-2010. Empirical research verifies that different target reference areas and relevant national standards have different main parameters, the evaluating result has an flexible range. The dimensionless data enhances the coupling of index. The data position in model increases the visibility to the environmental management decisions. The model improves mismatches of calculated data

  9. Sustainable Low-Carbon Expansion for the Power Sector of an Emerging Economy: The Case of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Juan-Pablo; Shaw, Brittany J; Avila, Nkiruka I; Kammen, Daniel M

    2017-09-05

    Fast growing and emerging economies face the dual challenge of sustainably expanding and improving their energy supply and reliability while at the same time reducing poverty. Critical to such transformation is to provide affordable and sustainable access to electricity. We use the capacity expansion model SWITCH to explore low carbon development pathways for the Kenyan power sector under a set of plausible scenarios for fast growing economies that include uncertainty in load projections, capital costs, operational performance, and technology and environmental policies. In addition to an aggressive and needed expansion of overall supply, the Kenyan power system presents a unique transition from one basal renewable resource-hydropower-to another based on geothermal and wind power for ∼90% of total capacity. We find geothermal resource adoption is more sensitive to operational degradation than high capital costs, which suggests an emphasis on ongoing maintenance subsidies rather than upfront capital cost subsidies. We also find that a cost-effective and viable suite of solutions includes availability of storage, diesel engines, and transmission expansion to provide flexibility to enable up to 50% of wind power penetration. In an already low-carbon system, typical externality pricing for CO 2 has little to no effect on technology choice. Consequently, a "zero carbon emissions" by 2030 scenario is possible with only moderate levelized cost increases of between $3 and $7/MWh with a number of social and reliability benefits. Our results suggest that fast growing and emerging economies could benefit by incentivizing anticipated strategic transmission expansion. Existing and new diesel and natural gas capacity can play an important role to provide flexibility and meet peak demand in specific hours without a significant increase in carbon emissions, although more research is required for other pollutant's impacts.

  10. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  11. From The Human-Environment Theme Towards Sustainability – Danish Geography and Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2013-01-01

    Research on geography in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD), has only recently climbed the research agenda. The geopolitics of intended learning outcomes in the ESD debate, carries policy that produce dilemmas and challenges confronted with disciplinary traditions. In this ar......Research on geography in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD), has only recently climbed the research agenda. The geopolitics of intended learning outcomes in the ESD debate, carries policy that produce dilemmas and challenges confronted with disciplinary traditions...... and climate change and how geographers articulate their role and function as knowledge on human-environment interactions changes. The analysis of the geographical education reveal that geographers’ find their discipline contribute considerably to ESD, and thus the human environment theme seems...

  12. Public and Hidden Economies in Atuntaqui (Ecuador: The Challenge of Sustaining Cooperation in Textile Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Colloredo-Mansfeld

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 2000s, Atuntaqui’s quality improvement program, joint marketing investments, and cultural initatives were designed to leverage the power of strategic cooperation. Over the course of several development projects, however, social interactions became more inclusive and more contentious. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a public economy and contrast it with narrower social capital theories to account for the benefits of Atuntaqui’s move from hidden production to an open trade. With data from field research that spans seven years, this article documents how the pressures of rapid manufacturing growth and the missteps in managing civic projects have undermined public participation and closed off important features of the public economy. The paper concludes with observa­tion about how to revive more robust collaborations through diversification of local participants, strengthening of the chamber of commerce, and recognizing and including the large wave of new, smaller producers. 

  13. Individuals’ changes in their lifestyle to build a sustainable environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Lacerda Viana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The unsustainable use of natural resources is not a current issue and it began since the Agricultural Revolution, which characterizes the change in the relationship between man and nature. The first major environmental impacts emerged and as a result of this new way of life that went from nomadism to sedentary lifestyles, there was an increase of human productive capacity and the emergence of other crafts that were not directly related to food production. This paper provides a complete definition of the key concepts, suggest a few alternatives which people can apply on their daily lives, and relate them to the framework that rules sustainability. The main arguments for this work are that citizens in the developed world can reduce the pressure being placed on the state of the environment and contribute to sustainable development by saving energy and water, reducing waste, and choosing a transportation which emits less pollutants.

  14. Sustainable urban built environment: Modern management concepts and evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, Tatiana; Nikolaenko, Mariya

    2017-01-01

    The paper is focused on the analysis of modern concepts in urban development management. It is established that they are based on the principles of ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. The purpose of this research is to develop a system of quality indicators of urban built environment and justification of their application in management of city development. The need for observing the indicators characterizing the urban built environment in the planning of the territory development was proved. Based on the data and reports of the Russian and international organizations the analysis of the existing systems of urban development indicators is made. The suggested solution is to extend the existing indicators systems with that related to urban built environment quality which are recommended for planning urban areas development. The proposed system of indicators includes private, aggregate, normalized, and integrated urban built environment quality indicators using methods of economic-statistical and comparative analysis and index method. Application of these methods allowed calculating the indicators for urban areas of Tomsk Region. The results of calculations are presented in the paper. According to normalized indicators the priority areas for investment and development of urban areas were determined. The scenario conditions allowed estimating changes of quality indicators for urban built environment. Finally, the paper suggests recommendations for making management decisions when creating sustainable environment of life in urban areas.

  15. Peculiarities of the Danube Business Environment in the Context of the Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Pușcaciu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study intends to be a link between the “green economy” and the “blue economy”, and the objective of it is to analyze the Danube economy in the context of the environment preserving. As the prior works deserve generous space to research regarding the sustainable development concept and experiences and others deal with the Danube problems, our approach tries to build on a link between these two fields of research, and understanding all these problems linked to the Romanian area and trying to find out what are the problems in this sense for our country. The method of research used for our survey is a qualitative one, survey and observation being our tools for fulfillment this approach. The key results and conclusions from this empirical study is that any reader of it could find out how the Danube business environment tries to circumscribe it into the sustainable development percepts. This study could be useful to researchers, administrations, ports authorities, and people interested in this field. The key contribution of this paper might be the interdisciplinary approach of this matter and thus the hope of its originality.

  16. Work environment factors and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben; Svendsen, Kristin; Romundstad, Pål R; Qvenild, Torgunn; Strømholm, Tonje; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Cooks have increased morbidity and mortality. A high turnover has also been reported. We aimed to elucidate work environment and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks. A questionnaire inquiring about working conditions and work participation was sent to 2082 cooks who had qualified from 1988 onwards. Of these, 894 responded. Time at work was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots and possible determinants for quitting work as a cook was analyzed with Cox regression. The median time at work was 16.6 years. There were differences in sustainability between types of kitchens for both sexes (p = 0.00). The median time in the profession was 9.2 years for the cooks in restaurants, while the cooks in institutions and canteens showed a substantially higher sustainability with 75.4% still at work after 10 years, and 57% still at work after 20 years in the profession. Of those still at work as a cook, 91.4% reported a good or very good contentment, and the 67.4% who expected to stay in the profession the next 5 years frequently answered that excitement of cooking, the social working environment, and the creative features of cooking were reasons to continue. Musculoskeletal complaints were the most common health-related reason for leaving work as a cook, while working hours was the most common non-health-related reason. There are significant differences in work sustainability between the cooks in the different types of kitchens. The identified determinants for length of time in the occupation can be used for preventive purposes. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Work environment factors and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindre Rabben Svedahl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cooks have increased morbidity and mortality. A high turnover has also been reported. We aimed to elucidate work environment and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks. Material and Methods: A questionnaire inquiring about working conditions and work participation was sent to 2082 cooks who had qualified from 1988 onwards. Of these, 894 responded. Time at work was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots and possible determinants for quitting work as a cook was analyzed with Cox regression. Results: The median time at work was 16.6 years. There were differences in sustainability between types of kitchens for both sexes (p = 0.00. The median time in the profession was 9.2 years for the cooks in restaurants, while the cooks in institutions and canteens showed a substantially higher sustainability with 75.4% still at work after 10 years, and 57% still at work after 20 years in the profession. Of those still at work as a cook, 91.4% reported a good or very good contentment, and the 67.4% who expected to stay in the profession the next 5 years frequently answered that excitement of cooking, the social working environment, and the creative features of cooking were reasons to continue. Musculoskeletal complaints were the most common health-related reason for leaving work as a cook, while working hours was the most common non-health-related reason. Conclusions: There are significant differences in work sustainability between the cooks in the different types of kitchens. The identified determinants for length of time in the occupation can be used for preventive purposes.

  18. Sustainable Mobility: Using a Global Energy Model to Inform Vehicle Technology Choices in a Decarbonized Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Grahn; Erica Klampfl; Margaret Whalen; Timothy Wallington

    2013-01-01

    .... Vehicle and fuel technologies are part of a global energy system, and assessing the impact of the availability of clean energy technologies and advanced vehicle technologies on sustainable mobility is a complex task...

  19. ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND THE ECONOMY VICIOUS CIRCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN ION

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Education for sustainable development, involves training honest, active, social and creative persons for ensuring the link between environment, society, economy and politics. Trained entrepreneurs in sustainable development, are the engine system which can bring an economic prosperity. Lack of entrepreneurial education in the last 25 years has led accentuated conditions to avoiding economic development in all reference fields where added value can be achieved. Running away from excessive taxation led to the establishment of vicious circles in the economy. Vicious circles of the economy can be found in saving, tax policy, productive investment and the informal economy. Through this study will present the importance of entrepreneurship education in the real economy and some specifications to exit entrepreneurs from vicious circles of the economy.

  20. Social and Solidarity Economy, Sustainable Development Goals, and Community Development: The Mission of Adult Education & Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Quiroz-Niño

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A utopia of sustainable development is becoming established on the international stage. To get there, varied and complementary strategies must come into play—among them education. This trend is turning to the “Social and Solidarity Economy” (SSE, especially since the approval by the United Nations (UN of the 2030 Agenda; the fulfilment of which demands adult education strategies and programs in line with the principles and values of sustainability. This article offers a response to that demand. It aims to carry out a reflective analysis that reveals the similarities between the principles and values of the SSE and those guiding the UN’s 2030 Agenda, with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Based on the results of this analysis, we will argue that training in the competencies for sustainability, essential in achieving the SDGs, is among the main functions of education within the SSE framework. Further, in order to make educational programs more sustainable, such training must be included in their operating objectives. The work uses a hermeneutic methodology based on the existing literature and gives particular attention to UNESCO’s directives on training in key competencies for sustainability. The significant contribution the results make is to show: (a the emphases of each approach and their similarities; (b how the two are complementary; and (c the potential, and need, for creating synergies based on their respective strengths. A further original contribution is a proposed basic guide for the design of training activities geared towards gaining the normative competency that UNESCO has identified as key to sustainability. This innovative proposal will be useful for improving the quality of adult training programs, thereby contributing to the achievement of the SDGs in communities.

  1. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  2. Green economy as an environment-based framework for Indonesia's economic reposition structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Susanti Tasri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development should consider the negative effects it creates. This will help to achieve a sustainable economic development. The green economic conceptcan be a solution to development process that works on natural resources conservation. This paper proposes a discriminant analysis to describe the green economic development. It analyses a group of countries, classified by their income levels. The analysis result suggests that environment factors such asemissions and area of the forest are important variables.

  3. Minerals sustainability, emerging economies, the developing world and the ‘truth’ behind the rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petterson, Michael G.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the principles and applications of sustainable development as applied to minerals (sustainable minerals. The key pillars of sustainable minerals are well known and include economic, community, environmental, and political considerations. The ideal solution is one that finds a balance between community benefit, economic development, profit, and minimal negative environmental and political impacts. This is, of course, fine in theory but in the ‘real world’ difficult to achieve. From a geoscience perspective this paper argues that non-private sector geoscientists have a crucial role to play in developing the sustainable minerals paradigm to an intellectually mature and usable form. The geoscience approach includes re-interpreting the rich legacy of geoscience data and acquisition of new data (geological mapping, 3 and 4D modelling, geophysical and geo­chemical information and contextualizing this information with socio-economic and environmental data (e.g. ethnicity, social mix, wealth indicators, environmental sensitivity indicators to assist with strategic and localized decision-making, maximizing benefits, and minimizing adverse impacts. This approach also involves modelling the full lifecycle of minerals, mines, mineral commodities, and mineral-bearing land in an attempt to quantify benefits and disbenefits of mineral extraction. One crucial key element of a sustainable minerals approach is a mix between ‘hard’ science and social science and genuine inclusion and consultation with stakeholders, especially impacted communities. As geoscientists we are in a position to explain clearly the benefits of mineral development to society and the disbenefits of ‘nimbyism’ (e.g. exporting problems to countries less able to manage mineral extraction and promote a ‘custodianship’ ethos of mineral development that is the only way to realizing the key principle of sustainability, i.e. leaving the planet in a state that our

  4. Energetic Sustainability and the Environment: A Transdisciplinary, Economic–Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan G. Pop

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines original concepts about eco-energetic systems, in a transdisciplinary sustainable context. Firstly, it introduces the concept of M.E.N. (Mega-Eco-Nega-Watt, the eco-energetic paradigm based on three different but complementary ecological economic spaces: the Megawatt as needed energy, the Ecowatt as ecological energy, and the Negawatt as preserved energy. The paper also deals with the renewable energies and technologies in the context of electrical energy production. Secondly, in the context of the M.E.N. eco-energetic paradigm, comprehensive definitions are given about eco-energetic systems and for pollution. Thirdly, the paper introduces a new formula for the eco-energetic efficiency which correlates the energetic efficiency of the system and the necessary newly defined ecological coefficient. The proposed formula for eco-energetic efficiency enables an interesting form of relating to different situations in which the input energy, output energy, lost energy, and externalities involved in an energetic process, interact to produce energy in a specific energetic system, in connection with the circular resilient economy model. Finally, the paper presents an original energetic diagram to explain different channels to produce electricity in a resilience regime, with high eco-energetic efficiency from primary external energetic sources (gravitation and solar sources, fuels (classical and radioactive, internal energetic sources (geothermal, volcanoes and other kind of sources. Regardless the kind of energetic sources used to obtain electricity, the entire process should be sustainable in what concerns the transdisciplinary integration of the different representative spheres as energy, socio-economy, and ecology (environment.

  5. Sustainable Mobility: Longitudinal Analysis of Built Environment on Transit Ridership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohyung Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the concerns about urban mobility, traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, extensive research has explored the relationship between the built environment and transit ridership. However, the nature of aggregation and the cross-sectional approach of the research rarely provide essential clues on the potential of a transit system as a sustainable mobility option. From the perspective of longitudinal sustainability, this paper develops regression models for rail transit stations in the Los Angeles Metro system. These models attempt to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and land use features influencing longitudinal transit ridership changes. Step-wise ordinary least square (OLS regression models are used to identify factors that contribute to transit ridership changes. Those factors include the number of dwelling units, employment-oriented land uses such as office and commercial land uses, and land use balance. The models suggest a negative relationship between job and population balance with transit ridership change. They also raise a question regarding the 0.4 km radius commonly used in transit analysis. The models indicate that the 0.4 km radius is too small to capture the significant influence of the built environment on transit ridership.

  6. Border Patrol: Professional Jurisdictions in Sustainable Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Henn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the United Nations, our world is becoming more populated, more urban, more connected, more globalized, and more complex. With this physical and social complexity comes a need for increased coordination in negotiating our urban futures. Environmental design and planning professionals have worked for decades according to traditional institutionalized role structures. Sustainability—in considering a wider variety of stakeholders—promises not only to include more members in the typical design and construction team (e.g., sustainability consultants, community representatives, technical specialists, etc., but also to change the jurisdiction of tasks (e.g., project management, decision making, design leadership, etc. taken on by actors in traditional roles (e.g., owner, architect, contractor, etc.. This paper examines how a wider social concern for environmental and social sustainability has affected the design and construction industry. Organizational and sociological theories suggest that professions are “bound to a set of tasks by ties of jurisdiction... [P]rofessions make up an interacting system... and a profession’s success reflects as much the situations of its competitors and the system structure as it does the profession’s own efforts” (Abbott 1988: 33. Abbott also suggests that “larger social forces” affect the structuring of professional boundaries. Treating sustainability as a “larger social force,” this paper examines current understandings of professional boundaries in the planning, design, and construction of our environments. It answers questions of how professionals renegotiate roles, responsibilities, and compensation when dealing with an uncertain change in traditional processes.The qualitative data stem from three university building projects. Each project was proposed ab initio without a mandate to achieve LEED Certification, but this complex criterion was subsequently added at different phases of

  7. Towards a sustainable energy economy. New insights from the social sciences; Op weg naar een duurzame energiehuishouding. Met behulp van inzichten uit de gamma-wetenschap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manderveld, N.H.

    1998-07-01

    In order to realize a sustainable energy economy attention must be paid not only to technical aspects of energy, but also to social aspects. In this study an overview is given of insights from disciplines within the social sciences, e.g psychology, political sciences, economics, which can give an explanation of why a sustainable economy has not yet been realized. Interviews were held with (mostly employees of universities). The results comprise 24 bottlenecks which are part of the process of policy development and the process of technology development. The relations between the bottlenecks, the actors involved and phases of the processes are discussed. 7 refs.

  8. Food security, wheat production and policy in South Africa: Reflections on food sustainability and challenges for a market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois de Wet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of security has broadened over the past decades. Food security in South Africa is an imperative for human and non-human survival. In the contemporary political economy, there is a real nexus between globalisation, exploitation, the state, scarcity of resources, the market, peoples’ need to feel secure, notions of state responsibility and food production. Political economy and human security in theoretical debates and face-to-face politics are intrinsically linked. The notion of a ‘secure community’ changed. Food security and the right to quality living became a social imperative. Understanding current agricultural economics requires the ability to link security and access to food for all. In this case study, wheat production in South Africa is addressed against the interface of the global and the local including South Africa’s transition to a democratic and constitutional state with a Bill of Rights. The current security approach represents a more comprehensive understanding of what security is meant to be and include, amongst others, housing security, medical security, service delivery and food security, as set out in the Millennium Development Goals and the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals. The issue of food security is addressed here with particular reference to wheat production, related current government policies and the market economy. The authors chose to limit their socio-economic focus to a specific sector of the agricultural market, namely wheat, rather than discuss food security in South Africa in general. Wheat was chosen as a unit of analysis because as a crop, wheat used in bread is one of the staples for the majority of South Africans and given the current negative economic developments, wheat as a staple is likely to remain integral, if not increasing its status of dependability

  9. Towards a green urban economy? Unravelling urban sustainability transitions from a regime perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.; Meerow, S.

    2012-01-01

    The current debate about sustainability transitions has embraced the multi-level perspective as a useful methodological tool for assessing the dynamics that are at play between landscape, regime and niche. As a consequence, the thinking about socio-technical transitions has gradually shifted in

  10. The Impact of Energy Price Decline on China's Energy-Economy-Environment System Variables Using a CGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Wang, Daojuan; Chen, Chong

    In recent years, prices of coal and crude oil have fallen significantly. These declines have had a large impact on China’s energy-economy-environment system variables. This paper establishes a computable general equilibrium model to systematically analyse the impact of coal price changes alone...

  11. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  12. A Effect on Environment and Countermeasures in accordance with a Shift to a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ki Bok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Hyun Keun; Kim, Tae Yol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The importance of knowledge has been being more stressed now than any other time. How efficiently and effectively knowledge is created, spread, and applied is an important point to secure the competitiveness of an individual economic unit as well as to grow nation's economy. For that reason, the Government has been promoting various policies to accelerate a shift to a knowledge-based economy, establishing 'a Strategy for Knowledge-Based Economic Development', pan-governments level. Companies also have been positively accepting 'a Knowledge-Based Management' as a new strategy of managing companies. Accordingly, only knowledge-based industries, including a high technology manufacturing industry and an information/communication industry, are not sharply grow, but a knowledge-based activity in individual economic activities, such as R and D, has been expanding its share. As such a shift to a knowledge-based economy, it is expected that there are lots of effects in many-sided fields, society, culture, and politics, as well as economy. Based on due consideration to such various effects, the strategy for knowledge-based economic development and the policies on the related fields have to be promoted with a balance. An environmental field also cannot be exceptional. However, there has not yet been a concrete examination on which significance a shift to a knowledge-based economy environmentally has. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects on environment according to a shift to a knowledge-based economy and to find a countermeasure under the awareness of such problems. Anyhow, I hope that the results and the countermeasures from this study can contribute to achieving a shift to an environment-centered and knowledge-based economy. 82 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Studies on Charges for Sea Area Utilization Management and Its Effect on the Sustainable Development of Marine Economy in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine economy plays an important role in the growth of the global economy. With its continuous development in the past years, the driving roll of marine economy in China’s economy has become remarkable. It is of strategic significance for China’s economic sustainable development to strengthen the exploration of marine resources and promote the quality and profit of the marine economy. To explore sustainable marine resources, one important economic management method is to implement paid use system, specify marine resource property rights and collect Charges for Sea Area Utilization (CSAU. With the approval of the “Guangdong Marine Economic Experimental Zone Program”, Guangdong province targets the building of an economically strong marine province. The collection and rational expenditure of CSAU not only play a positive role in the rapid and sustainable development of the marine economy, but also offer financial guarantee and support for the building of an economically strong marine province. In this paper, the CSAU collection and expenditure in the past decade after the issuance of the Sea Area Use Management Law and the corresponding performance were evaluated and analyzed, and the problems in the CSAU collection and management were discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures were proposed to perfect the CSAU expenditure management policy, define the distribution proportion at all levels, optimize the expenditure structure, and strengthen the supervision and management mechanism. The results and conclusion of this paper could not only greatly promote the construction of marine economy, rational development and sustainable use of marine resources, but also provide a reference for other coastal provinces in China.

  14. Financing the construction of transport infrastructure as the basis for sustainable development of the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidziy, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Dependence of the regional economic development from efficiency of financing of the construction of transport infrastructure is analyzed and proved in this article. Effective mechanism for infrastructure projects financing, public and private partnership, is revealed and its concrete forms are formulated. Here is proposed an optimal scenario for financing for the transport infrastructure, which can lead to positive transformations in the economy. Paper considers the advantages and risks of public and private partnership for subjects of contractual relations. At that, components for the assessment of economic effect of the implementation of infrastructure projects were proposed simultaneously with formulation of conditions for minimization risks. Results of the research could be used for solution of persistent problems in the development of transport infrastructure, issues of financial assurance of construction of infrastructure projects at the regional level.

  15. Peculiarities of the Danube Business Environment in the Context of the Sustainable Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viorica Pușcaciu; Rose-Marie Pușcaciu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study intends to be a link between the “green economy” and the “blue economy”, and the objective of it is to analyze the Danube economy in the context of the environment preserving...

  16. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David M; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid. This paper explores the relevant pathways in which an integrated biomethane industry could potentially materialise and identifies and discusses the latest biotechnological advances in the production of renewable gas. Three scenarios of cascading biomethane systems are developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Empirical Study on Key Indicators of Environmental Quality: Green Budgeting - a Catalyst for Sustainable Economy and a Factor for Institutional Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta – Maria Cimpoeru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the phenomenon of institutional change through the implementation of sustainable strategies of medium-term budgeting, having as an effect the growth of opportunity to attract proper resources for social and environmental programs. The study analyzes green budget practices and suggests several ways to use them in order to ensure consistency in implementing key elements of sustainable economy. Thus, we conducted an empirical study to explain the decisive factors impact (greenhouse gas emissions and national income on health expenditure and we obtained statistically significant positive relationship, suggesting that green budgeting is an important factor for sustainable economy. The reasons behind the introduction of a sustainable perspective for budgeting in any country are important since they will dictate, to a large extent, the way the medium term budgeting will be institutionalized

  18. Sustainable Farm Development in the Republic of Korea in a Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, John Moo

    2005-01-01

    The Republic of Korea will need to alter many of its national economic and agricultural policies to meet the requirements of new global trading agreements. One farm structure that is being encouraged is sustainable farms that use less inorganic fertilizer and pesticide. The main reasons for reducing pesticide and chemical fertilizers on rice, vegetable, and fruit farms are environmental and nutritional: to improve the quality of agricultural products and to protect drinking water supplies for...

  19. The Environment, Tourist Transport and the Sustainable Development of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioncică

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the complex relationships between the natural environment , tourist transport and sustainable tourism development. In order to research the impact of natural resources on tourism activity, on the one hand, and the influences of tourism on the environment, on the other hand, statistical and mathematical methods of analysis and forecast were used, namely, the analysis of the dynamics of significant indicators of the natural environment and of tourist activity, the correlation method, the Markov chains method. The analyses made lead us to the conclusion of the existence of a positive evolution of significant indicators of the natural environment, with an impact on tourist activity, such as natural parks. It has been emphasized; also, that this positive evolution has a direct influence on the attraction of visitors, specifically, foreign ones, but the intensity of this influence is average. The intensification of the actions of promotion of natural parks and, generally, of protected areas in Romania, would be a direction for attracting an increased number of visitors, with all the favourable economic consequences. On the other hand, the research has outlined the fact that, as far as the means of transportation used by tourists to visit Romania are concerned, on the first places we can see road and air transport, means of transportation which, aside from the obvious advantages for tourists, have a strong negative impact on the environment. The forecast made with the help of the Markov chains method has shown a negative trend, from the point of view of the impact on the environment, namely an increase in the share of road and air transport in the preference of foreign visitors to Romania. The current research represents a contribution to the efforts of measuring, through statistical and mathematical models, of the complex influences, in both senses, between the environment and tourist activity. Thus, an objective radiography has

  20. Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Baek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic interrelationships between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for G-20 economies in a framework of cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR. Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to estimate the coefficients of the cointegrated VAR. The results show that trade and income growth have a favorable effect on environmental quality for the developed G-20 member countries, while they have an adverse effect on the environment for the developing member countries. We also find that energy con- sumption tends to worsen environmental quality for both the developed and developing countries. Finally, it is found that trade and income to emission and energy causality holds for the developed countries; changes in degree of trade openness and income growth lead to corresponding changes in the rates of growth in emission and energy consumption. Emission and energy to trade and income causality, on the other hand, is found to hold for the developing countries; any shocks in emission and energy consumption cause corresponding fluctuations in income growth and trade openness.

  1. The energy for the 21. century: techniques, economy and environment; Energie au 21. siecle: techniques, economie, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    12 papers have been presented. 1) Climate changing. The atmospheric circulation model coupled to the ocean model is the most powerful current tool to explain climate processes and to validate possible climate evolutions. 2) Health hazards due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The effects of atmospheric particles on mortality, cancer risks and on respiratory organs, are considered. 3) The evaluation of external effects of transport on the environment. The paper gives examples of exposure-response function relating to impacts on the built environment, atmospheric visibility, vegetation and human health. 4) Energy consumption and economic growth. 5) Impact of low radiation doses on human health. 6) Hydrogen: production methods and costs. 7) Fossil energies reserves: incertitude on definition, volume and forecasting. 8) Energetic valorization of biomass by thermo-chemical way. 9) Technical and economic aspects of wind energy. 10) Nuclear energy: the French example. 11) The future of photovoltaic energy, its actual growth rate is about 25-35 % a year and its main asset is to benefit technological progress that allows a sharp 50 % cut in costs every 10 years. 12) Fuel cells, their operating principle, the fuel used, their applications and perspective. (A.C.)

  2. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  3. Sustainable and non-conventional monitoring systems to mitigate natural hazards in low income economies: the 4onse project approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ratnayake, Rangajeewa; Antonovic, Milan; Strigaro, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Environmental monitoring systems in low economies countries are often in decline, outdated or missing with the consequence that there is a very scarce availability and accessibility to these information that are vital for coping and mitigating natural hazards. Non-conventional monitoring systems based on open technologies may constitute a viable solution to create low cost and sustainable monitoring systems that may be fully developed, deployed and maintained at local level without lock-in dependances on copyrights or patents or high costs of replacements. The 4onse research project , funded under the Research for Development program of the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss Office for Development and Cooperation, propose a complete monitoring system that integrates Free & Open Source Software, Open Hardware, Open Data, and Open Standards. After its engineering, it will be tested in the Deduru Oya catchment (Sri Lanka) to evaluate the system and develop a water management information system to optimize the regulation of artificial basins levels and mitigate flash floods. One of the objective is to better scientifically understand strengths, criticalities and applicabilities in terms of data quality; system durability; management costs; performances; sustainability. Results, challenges and experiences from the first six months of the projects will be presented with particular focus on the activities of synergies building and data collection and dissemination system advances.

  4. The key role of the meat industry in transformation to a low-carbon, climate resilient, sustainable economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsberman, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Climate change, air pollution and refugees have become key global challenges threatening sustainability of lifestyles, economies and ecosystems. Agri-food systems are the number one driver of environmental change. Livestock production is the world's largest land user, responsible for half of greenhouse gas emissions from agri-food systems, and the source of repeated health crises. Poor diets have become the number one cause of ill health. Recommendations for a healthy diet emphasize plant-based food. Rapidly falling costs in information technology, biotechnology, renewable energy and battery technology will disrupt current energy and transportation systems and offer opportunities for responsible meat production. Growing consumer interest in healthy food, combined with innovative information systems, offer opportunities to create value through quality control and consumer information in integrated value chains. Meat scientists have a major role to play in the necessary transformation of global agri-food systems towards a new model of green economic growth that is climate resilient, sustainable and provides green jobs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring the Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects of Energy Efficiency Investments for a More Sustainable Spanish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of a multisector economic model to simulate the impact of investing in energy-efficiency-related sectors. Given the value chain of energy production shows several aspects to be improved, this paper intends to identify the economic sectors where investment should be allocated in order to reach the targeted energy efficiency levels in the overall economic system. We expect that an improvement in energy efficiency will bring a fall in electricity demand. Simulating these impacts will enable an assessment of the macroeconomic effects of such demand-side changes in Spain. For simulation purposes, we will use input–output methodology, based on data from a Spanish input–output table from the year 2012 that we have constructed. The scenario used for modeling has been obtained from the objectives proposed by the European Union for 2030, specifically the one promoting an increase to at least a 27% increase in energy efficiency compared with the business-as-usual scenario. This demand-side model enables us to measure the potential sector-by-sector growth of the Spanish economy and to calculate households’ expected savings in energy bills due to the implementation of energy efficiency measures. The impacts of employment and CO2 emissions are also quantified as a result of the investments aimed at improving energy efficiency.

  6. Development of Modern Technologies – Is the Basis of a Sustainable Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronaty N. R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the problem of providing technological assurance of processes is demonstrated based on examination of the development of computer technology in Moldova. Only human potential availability of well trained professionals, logistics and coordination of the whole process of the work cycle from research to production can provide a high level of quality, contribute to promoting and ensuring market competitiveness of manufactured products. It is demonstrated that there are many areas that require the use of computer systems, including analog and digital specialized electronic machines. Providing conditions for the evolution of new technologies and their development is the most important prerequisite for sustainable economic development.

  7. India's biophysical economy, 1961-2008. Sustainability in a national and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simron Jit; Krausmann, Fridolin; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lanz, Peter; Martinez-Alier, Joan; Temper, Leah

    2012-04-01

    India's economic growth in the last decade has raised several concerns in terms of its present and future resource demands for materials and energy. While per capita resource consumption is still extremely modest but on the rise, its sheer population qualifies India as a fast growing giant with material and energy throughput that is growing rapidly . If such national and local trends continue, the challenges for regional, national as well as global sustainability are immense in terms of future resource availability, social conflicts, pressure on land and ecosystems and atmospheric emissions. Using the concepts of social metabolism and material flow analysis, this paper presents an original study quantifying resource use trajectories for India from 1961 up to 2008. We argue for India's need to grow in order to be able to provide a reasonable material standard of living for its vast population. To this end, the challenge is in avoiding the precarious path so far followed by industrialised countries in Europe and Asia, but to opt for a regime shift towards sustainability in terms of resource use by building on a host of promising examples and taking opportunities of existing niches to make India a trendsetter.

  8. India's biophysical economy, 1961–2008. Sustainability in a national and global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simron Jit; Krausmann, Fridolin; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lanz, Peter; Martinez-Alier, Joan; Temper, Leah

    2012-01-01

    India's economic growth in the last decade has raised several concerns in terms of its present and future resource demands for materials and energy. While per capita resource consumption is still extremely modest but on the rise, its sheer population qualifies India as a fast growing giant with material and energy throughput that is growing rapidly . If such national and local trends continue, the challenges for regional, national as well as global sustainability are immense in terms of future resource availability, social conflicts, pressure on land and ecosystems and atmospheric emissions. Using the concepts of social metabolism and material flow analysis, this paper presents an original study quantifying resource use trajectories for India from 1961 up to 2008. We argue for India's need to grow in order to be able to provide a reasonable material standard of living for its vast population. To this end, the challenge is in avoiding the precarious path so far followed by industrialised countries in Europe and Asia, but to opt for a regime shift towards sustainability in terms of resource use by building on a host of promising examples and taking opportunities of existing niches to make India a trendsetter. PMID:23565033

  9. The hydrogen economy in the 21st century: a sustainable development scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Makihira, A.; Riahi, K. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361 (Austria); Makihira, A. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho 1 Chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A long-term hydrogen-based scenario of the global energy system is described in qualitative and quantitative terms here, illustrating the key role of hydrogen in a long-term transition toward a clean and sustainable energy future. In an affluent, low-population-growth, equity and sustainability-oriented B1-H{sub 2} world, hydrogen technologies experience substantial but plausible performance and costs improvements and are able to diffuse extensively. Corresponding production and distribution infrastructures emerge. The global hydrogen production system, initially fossil based, progressively shifts toward renewable sources. Fuel cells and other hydrogen-using technologies play a major role in a substantial transformation toward a more flexible, less vulnerable, distributed energy system which meets energy needs in a cleaner, more efficient and cost-effective way. This profound structural transformation of the global energy system brings substantial improvements in energy intensity and security of supply and results in an accelerated decarbonization of the energy mix, with subsequent relatively low climate impacts. Such energy-system path might still not be sufficient to protect against the risk of high climate sensitivities, but hydrogen-based technologies emerge as flexible options for the energy system and, thus, would be prime candidates for a risk management strategy against an uncertain climate future. (Author)

  10. The BonaRes Centre - A virtual institute for soil research in the context of a sustainable bio-economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Ute; Helming, Katharina; Heinrich, Uwe; Bartke, Stephan; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Russell, David; Eberhardt, Einar; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which require preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained. To render soil management sustainable, we need to establish a scientific knowledge base about complex soil system processes that allows for the development of model tools to quantitatively predict the impact of a multitude of management measures on soil functions. This, finally, will allow for the provision of site-specific options for sustainable soil management. To face this challenge, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research recently launched the funding program "Soil as a Natural Resource for the Bio-Economy - BonaRes". In a joint effort, ten collaborative projects and the coordinating BonaRes Centre are engaged to close existing knowledge gaps for a profound and systemic understanding of soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management. This presentation provides an overview of the concept of the BonaRes Centre which is responsible for i) setting up a comprehensive data base for soil-related information, ii) the development of model tools aiming to estimate the impact of different management measures on soil functions, and iii) establishing a web-based portal providing decision support tools for a sustainable soil management. A specific focus of the presentation will be laid on the so-called "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive meta-analysis on soil functions as a basis for future model developments.

  11. A Sustainable Engineering Solution for Pediatric Dehydration in Low-Resource Clinical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Taylor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineering efforts in low resource environments pose a unique set of challenges, requiring an in-depth understanding of local needs, comprehensive mapping of community resources, and extensive collaboration with local expertise. The importance of these principles is demonstrated in this paper by detailing the novel design and field demonstration of an affordable, locally manufactured intravenous fluid regulation device. Collaboration with clinical personnel in Uganda and Malawi guided device design. In-country physicians emphasised the need to regulate volume of intravenous (IV fluid delivered to a paediatric patient without use of electricity. The proposed device regulates IV fluid delivery within ±20 mL of total prescribed dosage, providing a method of reducing fatalities caused by over-hydration in low resource environments; the feasibility of building the device from local resources was demonstrated by a field research team in Malawi. The device was successfully constructed entirely from local resources for a total cost of $46.21 (USD. Additionally, the device was demonstrated in rural clinics where 89 % of surveyed clinical staff reported that they would use the device to regulate IV fluid delivery. This paper emphasises the importance of collaborating with communities for community-based engineering solutions. Mapping community assets and collaborating with local expertise are crucial to success of engineering efforts. Long-term, community-based efforts are likely to sustainably improve health outcomes and strengthen economies of communities worldwide.

  12. [Letter to the] Environment & Rural Development Committee meeting on sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Scotland

    2006-01-01

    On December 13th 2006, the Sustainable Development Commission gave evidence as part of the Environment & Rural Development Committee's enquiry into sustainable development. This letter was sent as a written submission before the meeting. Publisher PDF

  13. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Spielmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

  14. BIOFUELS AND THE INCLUSIVE GREEN ECONOMY: SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, some debates lead the country to develop new policies and implement the National Biodiesel Use and Production Program (PNPB, with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster sustainable regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the linkages between family farmer’s living standard and the adoption of oil seed activity in northern Brazil, in a region of transition between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Amazon rain forest. Ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among smallholders who cultivate soybean. A fuzzy logic set theory based on living standard criteria and a non-linear probit model was applied to assess the inclusion of poor rural families in the biodiesel chain. Preliminary results point towards a negative relation between the family degree of deprivation and adoption of oil seed activity, for the soybean production.

  15. Sustainable development policies and the geographical landscape of the green economy: actors, scales and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Hubert Depret

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the rise of climate and environmental challenges during thelast decade or so, the growing awareness among various actors of sustainability issues at the local and global levels has resulted in a change in public policies as in industrial and financial strategic moves. This change has been rapidly translated into substantial investments both in public and private environmental sectors. Indeed, many “green” technologies and innovations are now reaching the market and more radical ones are being developed through significant Research and Developing (R&D investments. However, the deve-lopment of this emergent “Green Economy” is rather concentrated in certain leading countries or regions. Building on some national examples, the paper explains this phenomenon by the key role played both by the integration and inter-temporal coherence of public policies and by territorial specific settings and permissive conditions.

  16. Re-designing project management : Steps towards a project management curriculum for a sustainable built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heintz, J.L.; Lousberg, L.H.M.J.; Prins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability concerns add a wide range of both stakeholders and performance expectations to building projects. The transition of a circular economy will also have a significant impact on the way in which building projects are carried out. This in addition to an already established escalation of

  17. ECONOMIC GROWTH BASED ON INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT IS THE BASIS OF MACROECONOMIC STABILIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the global community entered in the XXI century world emerging economy is more clearly considered as post-industrial, where a leading sector of the economy in the GDP production is not agriculture and not even industry but services. The main productive resource in such circumstances is not natural and productive capital but human capital, which is represented by storage of knowledge and skills accumulated by a person in the process of training and previous employment. Value of this capital is directly dependent on the level of education both general and professional. Human intellect becomes a main factor of production and professional. If the level is higher it means that such person can perform more valuable types of work for expand wealth of the country and it is transformed into intellectual capital. Consequently, a special market is formed that is a market of intellectual capital. An offer in this market is represented by labor with a high level of intellectuality and innovativeness and it has, in its turn, high market value. Well-handled components of human capital contribute to scientific-technical and social progress of the society, its sustainable economic development as the main types of final products unlike with previous stages of development are information and knowledge and the main factor of economic growth is productivity of mental labor workers. It is human capital that is one of the main factors ensuring transition to V and VI technological paradigms under current conditions. These paradigms are underlying a solid foundation for formation of new intellectual and information society. New knowledge and information technologies are making a breakthrough not only in the direct production of commodities but in the non-manufacturing sector as well (education, health, trade, finance etc..

  18. Synthetic Economies: The Application of Distributed Interactive Computing Environments-for Policy and Management Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Richard

    1997-01-01

    .... The military's use of computer generated synthetic battlefields for training is the metaphor; the creation of synthetic economies within which to practice policy and management prerogatives is the goal...

  19. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  20. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  1. Sustainable Supply Chain Engagement in a Retail Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Berning

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key requirement for business success and is often regarded a competitive advantage if strategically managed. Sustainability-mature organisations look to their value chains where the retailer-supplier collaboration becomes critical in embedding sustainability. With this in mind, it is important to monitor retailer-supplier collaboration to determine whether it is effective. To facilitate this monitoring, the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement was consulted. The research question aimed to determine the progress of a prominent South African retailer regarding their sustainable supply chain management (SSCM and collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, this study attempts to apply the Supplier Engagement Continuum, extracted from the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement, in order to determine how the retailer is progressing in sustainable supply chain management. The qualitative and exploratory nature of the study necessitated a case study research design, while the technique of purposive sampling was used to select the sample of three suppliers. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews facilitated by an interview guide, and data analysis was conducted with Atlas.ti software. It was found that the retailer’s sustainable supply chain management can only be located on level one of the continuum. Supply chain sustainability in organisations lack the theoretical foundation of what sustainability really is. Therefore, the model was amended and an additional level was added to incorporate the education of sustainability.

  2. THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF FOREST RESOURCES WITH THE NATIONAL ECONOMY AND THE NECESSITY TO ENSURE THEIR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PLATON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolutions of the human society in past thirty years prove the necessity of an intervention to ensure a sustainable development. One of the most important principle of sustainability consist in preservation of natural resources and development of those activities, that can assure a real evolution of human society for a long period of time. The approach of aspects regarding to the situation of land, freshwater, biodiversity, atmosphere or forests can explain the real situation of environment and could help the economists find the best strategies for economic development. This goal of this article is to analyze the stage of present forestry resources and provide the reason for economists to take into account the limits in consumptions of environmental goods.

  3. Drought prediction and sustainable development of the ecological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X H; Lv, Z Q; Zhou, X Y; Jiang, N

    2017-12-01

    In the 1990s ecological early warning research began with the aim of elucidating the effect of drought in dry regions of the world. Drought has been a prevalent natural disaster, ravaging the Yun'nan province of China for over 5 years since 2009. Due to the extensive range, depth and devastating losses, the drought has reached a once-in-a-century severity. Yun'nan province suffered particularly badly from the drought, which took its toll on both the ecological environment and the sustainable economic development of the province. We chose to study Pu'er city in Yun'nun province for this research, and analysed the drought traits of Pu'er city utilizing geographic information technology. We applied the Mann-Kendall test for trend, linear tendency estimation and percentage of precipitation anomalies, as well as using combinations of monthly data searches of meteorological reports from 1980-2010. The results showed that except for a small rise in spring precipitation, the overall rainfall of Pu'er city showed a decreasing trend. The results of this study can provide an adequate and reliable theoretical basis and technological methods for use in government decision making, and promote research into early warning ecology.

  4. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  5. Green remediation. Tool for safe and sustainable environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta; Pant, Gaurav; Hossain, Kaizar; Bhatia, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the bioremediation of toxic pollutants is a subject of interest in terms of health issues and environmental cleaning. In the present review, an eco-friendly, cost-effective approach is discussed for the detoxification of environmental pollutants by the means of natural purifier, i.e., blue-green algae over the conventional methods. Industrial wastes having toxic pollutants are not able to eliminate completely by existing the conventional techniques; in fact, these methods can only change their form rather than the entire degradation. These pollutants have an adverse effect on aquatic life, such as fauna and flora, and finally harm human life directly or indirectly. Cyanobacterial approach for the removal of this contaminant is an efficient tool for sustainable development and pollution control. Cyanobacteria are the primary consumers of food chain which absorbed complex toxic compounds from environments and convert them to simple nontoxic compounds which finally protect higher food chain consumer and eliminate risk of pollution. In addition, these organisms have capability to solve secondary pollution, as they can remediate radioactive compound, petroleum waste and degrade toxins from pesticides.

  6. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  7. Placental economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    Thinking with the vital materiality of placentas as it is evinced in a placental stem cell research lab in Korea, this article explores the relations and practices of care that are essential to the circulation of biological matters as infrastructure of tissue economies. I attend to the flows...... of care that sustain tissue economies with the notion of ‘placental economies’. Shifting attention from donor subjects and tissue objects to practices and relations of care as an infrastructure for the circulation of tissues, I explore how the vitality of biological matters is an achievement made...

  8. Concept of sustainable waste management in the city of Zagreb: Towards the implementation of circular economy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribić, Bojan; Voća, Neven; Ilakovac, Branka

    2017-02-01

    Improvement of the current waste management is one of the main challenges for most municipalities in Croatia, mainly due to legal obligations set in different European Union (EU) directives regarding waste management, such as reduction of waste generation and landfilling, or increase of separately collected waste and recycling rates. This paper highlights the current waste management in the city of Zagreb by analyzing the waste generation, collection, and disposal scenario along with the regulatory and institutional framework. Since the present waste management system mainly depends upon landfilling, with the rate of separate waste collection and recycling far from being adequate, it is necessary to introduce a new system that will take into account the current situation in the city as well as the obligations imposed by the EU. Namely, in the coming years, the Waste Framework and Landfill Directives of the European Union will be a significant driver of change in waste management practices and governance of the city of Zagreb. At present, the yearly separate waste collection makes somewhat less than 5 kg per capita of various waste fractions, i.e., far below the average value for the (28) capital cities of the EU, which is 108 kg per capita. This is possible to achieve only by better and sustainable planning of future activities and facilities, taking into account of environmental, economic, and social aspects of waste management. This means that the city of Zagreb not only will have to invest in new infrastructure to meet the targets, but also will have to enhance public awareness in diverting this waste at the household level. The solution for the new waste management proposed in this paper will certainly be a way of implementing circular economy approach to current waste management practice in the city of Zagreb. Municipal waste management in the developing countries in the EU (new eastern EU members) is often characterized by its limited utilization of recycling

  9. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief

  10. Sustainable Digital Environments: What Major Challenges Is Humankind Facing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the benefits, threats, and vulnerabilities related to the digital revolution. It aims to motivate research and its funding regarding digital threats and vulnerabilities related, in particular, to anticipating unintended, undesirable rebound effects, tipping points, critically fast evolutionary change rates, trade-offs, etc. A brief analysis of the history of the mind and technology reveals slow technological development over tens of thousands of years (including the invention of a place-value digital number system. Then, a small series of groundbreaking ideas (e.g., binary logic, Shannon’s symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits, architectures of computing enabled the industry-driven invention of programmable computing machines. Ultimately, the mastery of electron and semiconductor physics allowed for economical and seemingly unlimited storage capacity that made digital tools available to all domains of society. Based on the historical analysis, a coupled human-environment systems perspective (that includes a hierarchy assumption ranging from the human cell to the human species enables the identification of several potential challenges to society and science. First, digital nano-engineering promotes genetic modifications (i.e., directed evolution, and synthetic biology enables a new level of the appropriation of nature. The understanding of cell-based biocomputers may call for new forms of logic. These and other challenges require thorough sustainability research in order to anticipate major changes on all levels of human systems. Second, the human individual is exposed to new forms of vulnerability. In particular, the potential epigenetic effects resulting from the excessive use of digital information of historically unknown speed, density, and contents and the loss of (the Western common-law right to privacy resulting from big data (whose ownership is often unknown should become subjects of

  11. Integrating Sustainability in a PBL Environment for Electronics Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsat, Mahyuddin; Holgaard, Jette Egelund; de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, education for sustainable development (ESD) has obtained increasing recognition as a general subject in higher education (HE). Institutions worldwide have had attention to the integration of sustainability into the curricula, and on the conceptual level problem based learning...... (PBL) has been put forward as a promising pedagogical model and emerged as an opportunity to implement sustainability successfully. Due to the almost forty years of experience in PBL, a case study was carried out at Aalborg University, Denmark to excerpt their experience of integrating sustainability...... difference factors: input, throughput and output factors; whereas reflections on the study is presented in the final part. It is found that the PBL practices in the modules comprehend the integration of sustainability in engineering education without compensating technical and engineering competencies...

  12. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

  13. Round-the-clock power supply and a sustainable economy via synergistic integration of solar thermal power and hydrogen processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Emre; Mallapragada, Dharik S; Maréchal, François; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-12-29

    We introduce a paradigm-"hydricity"-that involves the coproduction of hydrogen and electricity from solar thermal energy and their judicious use to enable a sustainable economy. We identify and implement synergistic integrations while improving each of the two individual processes. When the proposed integrated process is operated in a standalone, solely power production mode, the resulting solar water power cycle can generate electricity with unprecedented efficiencies of 40-46%. Similarly, in standalone hydrogen mode, pressurized hydrogen is produced at efficiencies approaching ∼50%. In the coproduction mode, the coproduced hydrogen is stored for uninterrupted solar power production. When sunlight is unavailable, we envision that the stored hydrogen is used in a "turbine"-based hydrogen water power (H2WP) cycle with the calculated hydrogen-to-electricity efficiency of 65-70%, which is comparable to the fuel cell efficiencies. The H2WP cycle uses much of the same equipment as the solar water power cycle, reducing capital outlays. The overall sun-to-electricity efficiency of the hydricity process, averaged over a 24-h cycle, is shown to approach ∼35%, which is nearly the efficiency attained by using the best multijunction photovoltaic cells along with batteries. In comparison, our proposed process has the following advantages: (i) It stores energy thermochemically with a two- to threefold higher density, (ii) coproduced hydrogen has alternate uses in transportation/chemical/petrochemical industries, and (iii) unlike batteries, the stored energy does not discharge over time and the storage medium does not degrade with repeated uses.

  14. Round-the-clock power supply and a sustainable economy via synergistic integration of solar thermal power and hydrogen processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Emre; Mallapragada, Dharik S.; Maréchal, François; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a paradigm—“hydricity”—that involves the coproduction of hydrogen and electricity from solar thermal energy and their judicious use to enable a sustainable economy. We identify and implement synergistic integrations while improving each of the two individual processes. When the proposed integrated process is operated in a standalone, solely power production mode, the resulting solar water power cycle can generate electricity with unprecedented efficiencies of 40–46%. Similarly, in standalone hydrogen mode, pressurized hydrogen is produced at efficiencies approaching ∼50%. In the coproduction mode, the coproduced hydrogen is stored for uninterrupted solar power production. When sunlight is unavailable, we envision that the stored hydrogen is used in a “turbine”-based hydrogen water power (H2WP) cycle with the calculated hydrogen-to-electricity efficiency of 65–70%, which is comparable to the fuel cell efficiencies. The H2WP cycle uses much of the same equipment as the solar water power cycle, reducing capital outlays. The overall sun-to-electricity efficiency of the hydricity process, averaged over a 24-h cycle, is shown to approach ∼35%, which is nearly the efficiency attained by using the best multijunction photovoltaic cells along with batteries. In comparison, our proposed process has the following advantages: (i) It stores energy thermochemically with a two- to threefold higher density, (ii) coproduced hydrogen has alternate uses in transportation/chemical/petrochemical industries, and (iii) unlike batteries, the stored energy does not discharge over time and the storage medium does not degrade with repeated uses. PMID:26668380

  15. THE HARMONIZATION OF MANMADE ENVIRONMENT WITH THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experts estimate that physical deterioration of the planet and environment, they stress more serious. The destruction of forests is accelerating and the deserts are extending. Soil erosion undermines not only agricultural production but also winning means needed of existence for millions of people, while gradual disappearance of species of plants and animals diminishes our heritage biological. For the first time in history the structure atmosphere land is modifying by the destruction of the ozone layer which protects us from ultraviolet radiations, it is causing accumulation of greenhouse gases, which leads inevitably to warming climate Earth. Today is widely accepted the concept of sustainable development. It was defined the World Conference on Environment and Development in 1987, as a development that would ensure the present needs without jeopardizing the future generations capacity to satisfy its own requirements. The governments, including the Romanian, have started to react when devastating environmental changes have become ever more obvious. However, the discrepancy between what should be done to protect the capacity of planet to ensure living conditions and that what was achieved in practice is on the rise. In our country the phenomenon of environment degradation with all the concern displayed and the financial effort accomplished, obviously insufficient, tends to magnify, especially in the last period as a result of intensification of polluant industrial activity. In this sense, any cost cannot be considered too big, for the protection of life as a last resort.

  16. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  17. Smart sustainable energy for the rural built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available robust methodology to adapt innovative and renewable smart grid technologies to deliver real and sustainable decentralised energy solutions for remote and rural communities, thereby improving livelihoods and opportunities for inclusive growth...

  18. United Nations Environment Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  19. Sustainable development and reduced crime in urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Mozaffari

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development is one of the ideal aspects of governments to provide favorable quality of life for residents, since it solves the problem of unemployment, reduces poverty rate, increases income, and establishes social justice. It also paves the way to increase participation in management of the country. Additionally, it increases the security and reduces crime rate in urban areas. In other words, there is mutual relationship between sustainable development and reduced crime rates....

  20. Enabling Sustainable Agro-Food Futures: Exploring Fault Lines and Synergies Between the Integrated Territorial Paradigm, Rural Eco-Economy and Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dan Kristian; Kjeldsen, Chris; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard

    2016-01-01

    important contributions in relation to studies of alternative food networks and the “quality” turn. These research agendas have challenged the current logic of the food system in terms of offering alternative visions of future development. We highlight two examples from the literature—the eco...... structures and relations all three approaches share a common goal, but circular economy stands out in relation to the actors that are included by, for example, emphasizing collaborations and partnerships with extant agro-food businesses. Also with regards to scalar politics, it would be prudent to consider...

  1. Globalized Economy and Energy Misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel Gonçalves Rodrigues; Fernando José Pereira da Costa

    2016-01-01

    The globalized economy conditions increasingly in volume and intensity, the exploitation of fossil-based energy and not only notably oil, natural gas and electricity.This causes impacts on the environment, in order to check a significant part of the efforts focused on the design, promotion and implementation of more sustainable models in terms of socioeconomic growth and development. The order of the overall system, as well as its economic, geopolitical and geo-strategic implicati...

  2. E3 Success Story - E3 Southwest Virginia: Economy, Energy and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3 Southwest Virginia supports sustainable manufacturing in 17 counties in southwest Virginia. The MTC provides manufacturers with assessments of production processes to reduce their energy consumption and drive innovation.

  3. Dynamic Sustainability. Sustainability Window Analysis of Chinese Poverty-Environment Nexus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Luukkanen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability Window is a new analysis tool for assessing the sustainability of development simultaneously in all of its three dimensions (environmental, economic, and social. The analysis method provides information of the maximum and minimum economic development that is required to maintain the direction of social and environmental development towards more sustainable targets. With the Sustainability Window method it is possible to easily analyze the sustainability using different indicators and different time periods making comparative analyses easy. The new method makes it also possible to analyze the dynamics of the sustainability and the changes over time in the width of the window. This provides a new perspective for analyzing the trends of sustainability and the impacts of underlying sustainability policies. As an illustration of the method, we have carried out an analysis of Chinese development using CO2 and SO2 emissions as indicators of the environmental dimension, number of non-poor people as an indicator of the social dimension and GDP as an indicator of the economic dimension.

  4. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief introduction, Chapter 2 discusses some economic aspects of climate change. This in turn will serve as a good guide to pursuing the case study for CO 2

  5. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  6. Environment and Sustainability Education in a Changing South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines how, in response to emerging risk, methodological narratives for conservation (CE), environmental (EE) and now sustainability education (ESD) were constituted in diverse settings within a changing South African state. After documenting an awareness creation perspective underpinning early ...

  7. Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment; governance, policy and multifunctionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from food and raw materials, agriculture can also provide ancillary benefits such as landscapes, biodiversity, cultural heritage and thriving rural communities. This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of strategies for sustainable management practices and their implementation through the

  8. Ngo accountability and sustainability issues in the changing global environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unerman, J.; O'Dwyer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article, based on a plenary lecture given at the First International Conference on Sustainable Management of Public and Not for Profit Organizations held at the University of Bologna, Forli Campus, Italy in July 2009, provides an overview of issues in non-governmental organization (NGO)

  9. The sustainable future of the Scottish textiles sector: challenges and opportunities of introducing a circular economy model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ... into innovation in textile design and examples of circular economy models.The research identified a number of initiatives, including projects producing an alternative to denim and one developing cavity wall insulation from processed natural fibres...

  10. Predictors of Saudi nursing students' attitudes towards environment and sustainability in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J P; Alshammari, F; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D

    2018-02-09

    This study aimed to investigate the predictors of Saudi nursing students' attitudes towards the environment and sustainability in health care. With rising temperature and decreasing annual rainfall, Saudi Arabia is threatened by the harmful effects of climate change on its population. In response to these threats, the Ministry of Health adapted sustainable development and environmental preservation in their National E-Health strategy. To implement these policies successfully, healthcare practitioners should be educated on how climate change could impact human health negatively. A secondary analysis of 280 questionnaires from baccalaureate nursing students of a university in Hail City, Saudi Arabia, was completed. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale and Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey 2 (SANS-2) were used to investigate the predictors of student attitudes towards the environment and sustainable development in health care. The NEP score indicated moderate pro-environment attitudes, whereas the SANS-2 mean score showed very positive attitudes towards sustainability in health care. Learning about the environment and related issues in the nursing programme, raising climate change awareness and attending environment-related seminars and training positively influenced the environmental and sustainability attitudes of nursing students. Saudi nursing students moderately manifested pro-environment attitudes but exhibited extremely positive attitudes towards sustainability in health care. The results support the need to strengthen the education of nursing students about environmental and sustainability concepts and the inclusion of these topics in the nursing curricula. The study underscores the critical role of enriching the awareness of nursing students on environmental issues and concerns and sustainability in health care. The findings of this study can support the inclusion of course contents, which deal specifically with environmental health and

  11. Greening Governance : An Evolutionary Approach to Policy Making for a Sustainable Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    After twenty years of sustainable building policies, the issue of environmental impact of buildings and urban environments remains. Policy makers still have difficulties addressing the ambiguous, contested and dynamic goals encapsulated in the term ‘sustainable development’. How to decide between

  12. Energy, sustainability and the environment technology, incentives, behavior

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of carbon reduction and economic sustainability is significantly complicated by competing aspects of socioeconomic practices as well as legislative, regulatory, and scientific requirements and protocols. An easy to read and understand guide, Sioshansi, along with an international group of contributors, moves through the maze of carbon reduction methods and technologies, providing steps and insights to meet carbon reduction requirements and maintaining the health and welfare of the firm. The book's three part treatment is based on a clear and rigorous exposition of a wide range of options to reduce the carbon footprint Part 1 of the book, Challenge of Sustainability, examines the fundamental drivers of energy demand - economic growth, the need for basic energy services, and the interdependence of economic, political, environmental, social, equity, legacy and policy issues. Part 2 of the book, Technological Solutions, examines how energy can be used to support basic energy service needs of homes...

  13. Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-11

    Energy-water-environment nexus is very important to attain COP21 goal, maintaining environment temperature increase below 2°C, but unfortunately two third share of CO2 emission has already been used and the remaining will be exhausted by 2050. A number of technological developments in power and desalination sectors improved their efficiencies to save energy and carbon emission but still they are operating at 35% and 10% of their thermodynamic limits. Research in desalination processes contributing to fuel World population for their improved living standard and to reduce specific energy consumption and to protect environment. Recently developed highly efficient nature-inspired membranes (aquaporin & graphene) and trend in thermally driven cycle\\'s hybridization could potentially lower then energy requirement for water purification. This paper presents a state of art review on energy, water and environment interconnection and future energy efficient desalination possibilities to save energy and protect environment.

  14. Sustainable development criteria for Built Environment projects in South Africa (CSIR)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on work undertaken for the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD) developing a set of sustainable development criteria for built environment projects requiring environmental impact assessments. (Gibberd...

  15. Use of ozone for sustainable brackishwater industrial aquaculture and management of environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, S.N.

    The use of ozones for sustainable brakish water industrial aquaculture and the management of the environment is discussed. In sample survey conducted in the farms, it was seen that oxygen level was not adequate for high production. Replacement...

  16. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  17. Study benefit value of utilization water resources for energy and sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniah, Restu; Sastradinata, Marwan

    2017-11-01

    Referring to the concept of sustainable development, the environment is said to be sustainable if the fulfillment of three pillars of development that is economic, social and ecological or the environment itself. The environment can sustained in the principle of ecology or basic principles of environmental science, when the three environmental components, namely the natural environment, the artificial environment (the built environment) and the social environment can be aligned for sustainability. The natural environment in this study is the water resources, the artificial environment is micro hydroelectric power generation (MHPG), and the social environment is the community living around the MHPG. The existence of MHPG is intended for the sustainability of special electrical energy for areas not yet reached by electricity derived from the state electricity company (SEC). The utilization of MHPG Singalaga in South Ogan Komering Ulu (OKUS) district is not only intended for economic, ecological, and social sustainability in Southern OKU district especially those who live in Singalaga Village, Kisam Tinggi District. This paper discusses the economic, ecological and social benefits of water resources utilization in Southern OKU District for MHPG Singalaga. The direct economic benefits that arise for people living around MHPG Singalaga is the cost incurred by the community for the use of electricity is less than if the community uses electricity coming from outside the MHPG. The cost to society in the form of dues amounting to IDR 15,000 a month / household. Social benefits with the absorption of manpower to manage the MHPG is chairman, secretary and 3 members, while the ecological benefits of water resources and sustainable energy as well as the community while maintaining the natural vegetation that is located around the MHPG for the continuity of water resources.

  18. Green virtual enterprise breeding environments bag of assets management : A contribution to the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, D.; Noran, O.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Bénaben, F.; Picard, W.

    2015-01-01

    Green Virtual Enterprise Breeding Environments (GVBEs) are longterm strategic alliances of green enterprises and their related support institutions aimed at offering the necessary conditions to efficiently promote and establish common working and sharing principles with the intention of creating

  19. The Evolution of the Sustainability Assessment Tool SBToolPT: From Buildings to the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Castanheira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current trends in sustainability assessment. After about 15 years from the launch of sustainability assessment tools, focused on buildings evaluation, the paradigm of sustainability assessment tools is changing from the building scale to the built environment scale. Currently European cities and cities around the world are concerned with sustainable development, as well as its evolution. Cities seek a way to adapt to contemporary changes, in order to meet the required needs and ensure population’s well-being. Considering this, the new generations of sustainability assessment tools are being developed to be used to guide and help cities and urban areas to become more sustainable. Following the trend of the most important sustainability assessment tools, the sustainability assessment tool SBToolPT is also developing its version for assessing the sustainability of the built environment, namely, the urban planning projects and the urban regeneration projects, to be developed in Portugal, the SBToolPT-UP. The application of the methodology to three case studies will demonstrate its feasibility; at the same time this will identify the best practices which will serve as reference for new projects, thereby assisting the development of the tool.

  20. The evolution of the sustainability assessment tool SBToolPT: from buildings to the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Guilherme; Bragança, Luís

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current trends in sustainability assessment. After about 15 years from the launch of sustainability assessment tools, focused on buildings evaluation, the paradigm of sustainability assessment tools is changing from the building scale to the built environment scale. Currently European cities and cities around the world are concerned with sustainable development, as well as its evolution. Cities seek a way to adapt to contemporary changes, in order to meet the required needs and ensure population's well-being. Considering this, the new generations of sustainability assessment tools are being developed to be used to guide and help cities and urban areas to become more sustainable. Following the trend of the most important sustainability assessment tools, the sustainability assessment tool SBTool(PT) is also developing its version for assessing the sustainability of the built environment, namely, the urban planning projects and the urban regeneration projects, to be developed in Portugal, the SBTool(PT)-UP. The application of the methodology to three case studies will demonstrate its feasibility; at the same time this will identify the best practices which will serve as reference for new projects, thereby assisting the development of the tool.

  1. Some Issues in Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural trade holds potential for the development of African agriculture. Notwithstanding the different perspectives about the relationship between trade and development, trade and environment, there is consensus on the need to integrate environmental concerns into trade policy design. In the absence of strong ...

  2. Religion and Sustainable Environment in the Niger Delta: The Ogoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the belief of the people whatever happens to their land happens to their existence and whatever happens to their lives equally affect their land. In other words, for Ogoni people, land and life are inseparable entities. There exists a symbiotic relationship between religion and environment. The religion of the people abhors ...

  3. The Discourse of Sustainable Farming and the Environment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starting with her pioneering novel, When rain clouds gather (1968), Head has left behind an impressive body of eco-literature. In this debut novel, Head tackles some of the most pressing problems of the environment as they affect the lives of poor rural dwellers in Botswana trying to leave hunger and poverty behind and ...

  4. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96 indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  5. Tools for Measuring Progress towards Sustainable Neighborhood Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Karol

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Various assessment tools are available to assist designers, developers and regulatory bodies to reduce the negative impacts of contemporary multi-housing subdivision projects in industrialized countries. These tools vary considerably in what and how they measure and how the measurement results are presented and interpreted. This paper is largely a desktop study of subdivision assessment tools developed in Australasia, Great Britain and the United States of America. The paper identified a variety of themes and sub-themes that support assessment tools at both the project design phase and the project operational phase. These themes and sub-themes revolve around one or more of the three pillars of sustainability—namely the environmental, economical and social pillars. The paper firstly compares the themes and sub-themes of the assessment tools and then relates those themes to a set of sustainability targets produced for a proposed inner suburban housing subdivision in Perth, Western Australia.

  6. Cyber Physical Systems for User Reliability Measurements in a Sharing Economy Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Aria; Jeong, Junho; Kim, Yeichang

    2017-08-13

    As the sharing economic market grows, the number of users is also increasing but many problems arise in terms of reliability between providers and users in the processing of services. The existing methods provide shared economic systems that judge the reliability of the provider from the viewpoint of the user. In this paper, we have developed a system for establishing mutual trust between providers and users in a shared economic environment to solve existing problems. In order to implement a system that can measure and control users' situation in a shared economic environment, we analyzed the necessary factors in a cyber physical system (CPS). In addition, a user measurement system based on a CPS structure in a sharing economic environment is implemented through analysis of the factors to consider when constructing a CPS.

  7. Prevention of Waste in the Circular Economy: Analysis of Strategies and Identification of Sustainable Targets - The food waste example

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTOBAL GARCIA JORGE; Vila, Marta; GIAVINI Michele; TORRES DE MATOS CRISTINA; MANFREDI SIMONE

    2016-01-01

    This report continues and further advances the work conducted by the JRC in the field of sustainable management of food waste, which resulted in the publication of the 2015 report “Improving Sustainability and Circularity of European Food Waste Management with a Life Cycle Approach”. It focuses on the broad European waste management context and, in particular, provides insight and analysis on the sustainability of food waste prevention strategies. Among other municipal waste streams, food ...

  8. Sustainability Criteria and Indicators for the Bio-Based Economy in Europe: State of Discussion and Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe R. Fritsche

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong interest in the EU to promote the bioeconomy sector within the EU 2020 strategy. It is thus necessary to assure a sound sustainability framework. This paper reviews international and European sustainability initiatives mainly for biomass for bioenergy. The basic and advanced sustainability indicators are identified and described with particular attention to those points without agreement between stakeholders. Based on the state of the discussion, some suggestions to enhance the sustainable development of the bioeconomy sector are proposed.

  9. The Psychoanalytic Interpretation of the Organizational Environment as a Management Tool for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khripko Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes contemporary materials and structures for sustainable development of organizational environment. Psychoanalytic modeling of organizational behavior makes it possible to identify out reflection, unconscious tendencies in individual, group and corporate behavior. This enables to significantly increase the effectiveness of measures for personnel management. Organizational Environment Researches base on psychoanalytic theory of object relations.

  10. Carbon Finance in the World and in Brazil: A Study on Financing, Investment Funds and Indices of Environmental Sustainability To Promote A Low Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study and discuss the main actors and public and private carbon finance initiatives towards a low carbon economy in the world and in Brazil. It was held an exploratory study of bibliographic and documentary nature, with a qualitative approach and descriptive, made through research in journals, official documents, reports and national and international books. Research has indicated that climate finance have contributed to creating business opportunities and markets instruments towards a low carbon economy in the world and in Brazil, especially creating sustainability indices in the financial market, emerging investment funds referenced as result. On the other hand, on initiatives targeting funding actions to transition to a low carbon economy, Brazil is still incipient, particularly for the development of projects to reduce GHG emissions. The main institutions are Caixa Economica Federal (CEF, National Bank for Economic and Social Development (NBESD, Financier of Studies and Research (FSR and Foundation for Support of scientific and Technological Research of the State of Santa Catarina (FSTRSC.

  11. On the boundary between economy and environment in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Schmidt, Jannick; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the boundary between product systems and their environment has been delineated in life cycle assessment and question the usefulness and ontological relevance of a strict division between the two. Methods: We consider flows, activities and impacts as general terms...

  12. THE INTERACTIONS OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Gyula; Marselek, Sandor; Abay-Hamar, Eniko

    2006-01-01

    The accelerating consumption of natural resources has caused significant economic growth and improved financial conditions in industrial countries, but destroys the forests, soil, air, water and the biological diversity of the Earth. By ecologically overloading our planet, economic development is becoming self-destructive. Many scientists believe that this tendency can even threaten the existence of mankind. At international levels, the condition of Hungary’s natural environment is consider...

  13. Balancing Disassembly Line in Product Recovery to Promote the Coordinated Development of Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For environmentally conscious and sustainable manufacturing, many more manufacturers are acting to recycle and remanufacture their post-consumed products. The most critical process of remanufacturing is disassembly, since it allows for the selective extraction of the valuable components and materials from returned products to reduce the waste disposal volume. It is, therefore, important to design and balance the disassembly line to work efficiently due to its vital role in effective resource usage and environmental protection. Considering the disassembly precedence relationships and sequence-dependent parts removal time increments, this paper presents an improved discrete artificial bee colony algorithm (DABC for solving the sequence-dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested against nine other approaches. Computational results evidently indicate the superior efficiency of the proposed algorithm for addressing the environmental and economic concerns while optimizing the multi-objective SDDLBP.

  14. [Market economy, health economy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, A

    2002-09-01

    After the definition of the economy and its different types, we have to stress the political economy which integrates pure economy and society. The economical science will gradually introduce the health economy of which the definition urges to seek for a better distribution between public and private means to do more and better for the public health. The market economy is different from the state economy. She is principally conducted by the supply and demand law. The consumer's behaviour in a competitive market has some characteristics which favour the balance of this market. The healthcare market put also a health supply and demand forward but not with the same values. The needs, the supply, the consumption and the consumer's behaviour are different in this particular market which quickly evolves and progressively goes closer to the market economy. Is the healthcare an economical good or duty? The choices' criteria and the priorities are changeable. The role of the valuation studies in health economy is to try to clarify them and to favour a better use of the limited resources to the unlimited needs.

  15. Gathered Village Location Optimization for Chinese Sustainable Urbanization Using an Integrated MODM Approach under Bi-Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Gan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has become a main challenge all over developing countries in the 21st Century. However, decision making should take into account the different national situations with their complex factors to achieve sustainable development. As standards of living have risen in urban areas, local/neighbor urbanization has become a coming trend in China. With this in mind, the paper focuses on the optimization of nearby gathered village locations in Population Migration (PM with consideration of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. Therefore, an integrated multiple objective decision making approach (MODM under a bi-uncertain environment is proposed to solve this problem, which is based on the comprehensive Economy-Society-Ecology-Resource-Religion (ESERR urbanization concept. The first step is to establish a bi-uncertain multiple objective programming model orienting the problem. Secondly, the model process is composed of fuzzy random variable transformation and the expected value model based on a new fuzzy measure, which is given accordingly to obtain the equivalent model. Thirdly, in order to describe the model efficiently, the Multi-Objective Adaptive Global Local Neighbor Particle Swarm Optimization (MOAGLNPSO with three-dimensional Pareto optimal judgment criteria is designed. Finally, a case study is tested to validate the effectiveness and to illustrate the advantages of the whole approach. This novel approach can help optimize sustainable urbanization strategies and ensure their realistic application.

  16. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. ECONOMIC AND MORAL PRINCIPLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA PAICU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic communication is more than a decade a point of interest due to the communication supports development and the diversity of information, on one hand, and due to the need for documentation and knowledge, both at the individual level and at the level of society, on the other hand. Thus the freedom into thinking and expression led to the development of communication activities and collecting them in a new vision. The process of communication has become, in a relatively short time, one of the engines of the economy, but also an integral part of what is meant to be today, the psycho-sociology of modern human societies. In this context, we propose an analysis of the communicative process that takes place in the economic environment, since the information and communication technology is, at present, a real factor in sustainable development. We start the analysis from the tight interdependence between the economic communication and the development of human culture as a basic factor for efficient management and for sustainable development overall.

  17. GM crops, the environment and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Today, over 7.1 billion people rely on the earth's resources for sustenance, and nearly a billion people are malnourished, their minds and bodies unable to develop properly. Globally, population is expected to rise to more than 9 billion by 2050. Given the combined pressures of human population growth, the rapidly growing desire for increased levels of consumption, and the continued use of inappropriate technologies, it is not surprising that humans are driving organisms to extinction at an unprecedented rate. Many aspects of the sustainable functioning of the natural world are breaking down in the face of human-induced pressures including our individual and collective levels of consumption and our widespread and stubborn use of destructive technologies. Clearly, agriculture must undergo a redesign and be better and more effectively managed so as to contribute as well as possible to feeding people, while at the same time we strive to lessen the tragic loss of biodiversity and damage to all of its productive systems that the world is experiencing. For GM crops to be part of the solution, biosafety assessments should not be overly politically-driven or a burdensome impedance to delivering this technology broadly. Biosafety scientists and policy makers need to recognize the undeniable truth that inappropriate actions resulting in indecision also have negative consequences. It is no longer acceptable to delay the use of any strategy that is safe and will help us achieve the ability to feed the world's people.

  18. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  19. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ; Marilena PAPUC

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy. At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Mar...

  20. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections; Ekonomi, energi och miljoe - metoder att analysera samband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology; Ekvall, Thomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Accounts

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  1. Thermal insulating concrete wall panel design for sustainable built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah; Lau, Denvid

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes.

  2. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes.

  3. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes. PMID:25177718

  4. Experience from use of GMOs in Argentinian agriculture, economy and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burachik, Moisés

    2010-11-30

    Argentina is the second largest grower of genetically modified (GM) crops. This high level of adoption of this new agricultural technology is the result of a complex combination of circumstances. We can identify four main causes that led to this: political support (from agriculture officials), ability to solve prevalent farmers' needs, economic and environmental factors and an early implementation of effective regulations. The political willingness to study this new technology and crops as well as the recruitment of sound professionals and scientists to perform the task was crucial. These professionals, with very diverse backgrounds, created the necessary regulatory framework to work with these new crops. Farmers played a decisive role, as adopting this new technology solved some of their agronomic problems, helped them perform more sustainable agronomic practices and provided economic benefits. Nonetheless, all these advancements had not been possible without a rational, science-based and flexible regulatory framework that would make sure that the GM crops were safe for food, feed and processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Land use changes in Himalaya and their impacts on environment, society and economy: A study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash

    2008-11-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can

  6. Organising Sustainable Transition: Understanding the Product, Project and Service Domain of the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Koch-Ørvad, Nina; Maslesa, Esmir

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transition of the built environment con struction industry is challenging the existing construction practices and business models. This article presents a framework for understanding and facilitating sustainable transition in the built environment. The framework was developed through...... a four years innovation project based on theories on sectorial and business model i nnovation and ten detailed case studies of different types of companies and their experimentation with different management and sustainability concepts. The framework interprets the construction industry as a collection...... with internal agendas. Furthermore, it is shown that the domains are subject to more or less consciously coordinated innovation activities. The research concludes that the three-domain-model represents a promising framework for understanding and facilitating sustainable transition of the construction industry...

  7. Transportation in megacities. Growing demand and emissions - a comparative analysis of sustainability in developed and developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, R.K. [Tata Energy Research Inst. (India)

    1996-12-01

    The urban transport problem is fundamentally similar in all large cities. The basic causes are the same and so are many of the consequences, although there are some differences in degree between cities in developed and developing economies. Transport systems in large cities of the developing economies as compared to the developed economies are characterized by: (a) much lower level of motorization of transport and travel requirement, (b) more rapid rates of economic growth, population growth, and the growth in number of motor vehicles, (c) higher population densities, (d) much lower per capita energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, (e) reduced access to capital and to advanced environmental technologies. Despite greater level of vehicle ownership, higher rate of trip generation and increased use of energy on a per capita basis in cities of developed countries, it is the large cities in the developing countries that, in general suffer most from growing traffic congestion, road accidents, energy use and emissions, overcrowding of public transport, and poor conditions for pedestrians and cyclists. (au) 20 refs.

  8. Competitive environments sustain costly altruism with negligible assortment of interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, C Patrick; Jackson, Adam; Watson, Richard A

    2013-10-03

    Competition hinders the evolution of altruism amongst kin when beneficiaries gain at the expense of competing relatives. Altruism is consequently deemed to require stronger kin selection, or trait-selected synergies, or elastic population regulation, to counter this effect. Here we contest the view that competition puts any such demands on altruism. In ecologically realistic scenarios, competition influences both altruism and defection. We show how environments that pit defectors against each other allow strong altruism to evolve even in populations with negligible kin structure and no synergies. Competition amongst defectors presents relative advantages to altruism in the simplest games between altruists and defectors, and the most generic models of altruistic phenotypes or genotypes invading non-altruistic populations under inelastic density regulation. Given the widespread inevitability of competition, selection will often favour altruism because its alternatives provide lower fitness. Strong competition amongst defectors nevertheless undermines altruism, by facilitating invasion of unrelated beneficiaries as parasites.

  9. Intelligent Buildings: Key to Achieving Total Sustainability in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Gadakari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Are intelligent buildings a pragmatic approach towards achieving a sustainable built environment?’ is the research question that this review article aims to answer. It has been argued that there is a serious need for intelligent buildings to be evaluated against the parameters of total sustainability (environmental, economic and social so as to help the agenda of living in a technologically advanced, healthy and comfortable world. This paper reviews existing theoretical concepts of intelligence and sustainability in the built environment, through an exploration of various scientific literature and U.S Green Building Council’s LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design databases. A systematic qualitative review approach has been employed to select an appropriate definition of sustainable development and use it as a theoretical framework to assess the technological impact of intelligent buildings on the environmental, economic and social front. Subsequently five case study buildings from around the world, which exemplify the use of intelligent technologies to achieve sustainable gains were chosen and analyzed to further validate the literature findings. Outputs from the study highlight the various benefits of intelligent buildings, which include decrease in energy and water consumption, operational costs, as well as increase in productivity and investments. Additionally the analysis of the case studies revealed that the use of intelligent building technologies has contributed significantly towards a higher sustainability rating on the LEED rating scale. Moreover, the comparison of the attributes of intelligent buildings and sustainable practices in buildings, illustrates the fact that there is a considerable overlap between the two and intelligence can aid sustainability in the built environment. Thus the research suggests that green technologies and intelligence in combination may be a pragmatic approach towards the sustainability

  10. 4th Doctoral Seminar on Sustainability Research in the Built Environment Book of Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The DS2BE is a joint initiative of research groups working on sustainability issues at 8 Belgian universities: ULBruxelles, VUBrussel, KULeuven, UCLouvain, ULiège, UHasselt, UAntwerpen and UGent. Conceived as a platform for PhD researchers whose work engages the built environment at different scales in the framework of sustainability, these seminars provide an excellent opportunity for the doctoral students of the partner institutions to present their ongoing research. They will get feedback ...

  11. Integrated Systems of Farming Production a Sustainable Productive and Friendly Alternative With the Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Carvajal Gómez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Discuss the concept of sustainability is to open the door to a world of nature, conservation and harmonious coexistence between man and all both biotic and abiotic components of the environment that surrounds it. For many years there has been talk of such a valuable topic, focusing on the concept of environmental sustainability, tending to look more clean crops, reduced pesticide use, rational use of water and efficient use of resources, and now he incorporates issue of financial sustainability and corporate social responsibility ...

  12. Fertility and the environment in a natural resource dependent economy: Evidence from Petén, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines potential relations between factors related to fertility and the access to and use of natural resources in Petén, Guatemala. The Petén forms the heart of the Selva Maya, the largest lowland humid forest in Mesoamerica. The rapid in-migration of subsistence maize farmers has converted much of the Petén´s forests to agricultural fields. Population dynamics have been transformed in that virtually all farm families have arrived since the 1970s and that total fertility rates exceed the national rural mean. Continued migration, exceptionally high fertility, a youthful population, and a large consumer to producer ratio are hypothesized to be related to the dramatic land cover dynamics shaping the landscape of the Petén. An emerging body of literature suggests that environmental factors can affect fertility decision-making and behaviors, especially in natural resource dependent economies like that of the Petén. This paper examines these relationships using data from the 1998/99 Demographic Health Survey in Guatemala. Data on natural resource access and utilization were collected as part of an environment module, in addition to demographic and health information. This dataset, the first ever environmental module of the Demographic Health Survey, provides a unique opportunity to examine possible relationships between fertility and the environment in a tropical agricultural frontier.

  13. The socio-economic significance of the Turkish coastal environment for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleli, Tuncay

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy for sustainable development. There was no separate data base for the coastal zone so that the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy was not evaluated. In estimating the significance of Turkish coastal cities, indirect methods and the geographical information system were used. In conclusion, it was found that 61.09% of the total national gross domestic product and 50.75% of the national agricultural, 90.98% of the national fisheries, 68.19% of the national tourism and 71.82% of the national industrial gross domestic product came from the coastal zone. It was determined that while coastal cities of Turkey had 28.23% of the national surface area, the coastal district had 12.96%; in other words, 21.5 million (28.04%) of the national population lived in 101.5 thousand km(2) (12.96%) of the national surface area. Approximately 44% of the national gross domestic product comes from the top ten coastal cities. According to the contribution ratio to the national economy of each coastal city, these low-lying coastal cities have about $16 billion risk value. An analysis showed that the coastal zone is very important for the national economy of Turkey and also the pressure on the coastal zone is very high. At a time of increasing pressures on coastal resources of Turkey, the decision-makers need the most up-to-date information on the full range of values these resources provide in order to make decisions that best reflect the public interest.

  14. Design for Environment as a Tool for the Development of a Sustainable Supply Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Giacchetta, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Design is becoming an increasingly significant agenda for many manufacturing companies and yet there is no standard to their approaches, strategies or their levels of execution. Applying Design for Environment (DfE) methodologies to develop a more sustainable supply chain has formed procedures and techniques which allow designers to integrate these methods with environmental supply chain management. Design for Environment as a Tool for the Development of a Sustainable Supply Chain aims to define relevant target specifications for a product throughout its life cycle; from conception and design to the end of its operating life.  Be considering this new approach to the supply chain, environmental responsiveness can work in tandem with sounds business management. The usual focus on suppliers, manufacturers and customers is expanded in Design for Environment as a Tool for the Development of a Sustainable Supply Chain to include stakeholders such as government bodies and recycling companies. The infl...

  15. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  16. Benefits of Rural Biogas Implementation to Economy and Environment: Boyolali Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Tazi Hnyine

    2016-02-01

    primary operatives. Despite the room for improvement, the existing results clearly show that biogas adoption significantly reduces greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, household energy costs, workload, improves environmental conditions and generates income through carbon credit exchange. Therefore, under the notions of sustainable development, environmental preservation and self-sufficiency, policy makers and NGOs should expedite their support in biogas development, e.g. by providing subsidies and awareness raising.

  17. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Sustainable Expression of Ecological Concept in the Urban Landscape Environment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junyan; Zhou, Tiejun; Xin, Lisen; Tan, Yuetong; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend of development of human society, also the inevitable outcome of economic development and scientific and technological progress, while urbanization process in promoting the development of human civilization, also no doubt, urban landscape has been a corresponding impact. Urban environment has suffered unprecedented damage, the urban population density, traffic congestion, shortage of resources, environmental pollution, ecological degradation, has become the focus of human society. In order to create an environment of ecological and harmonious, beautiful, sustainable development in the urban landscape, This paper discusses the concept of ecological design combined with the urban landscape design and sustainable development of urban landscape design.

  19. Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urooj Q. Amjad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment are inconsistently used in implementing water supply projects. To clarify these terms we develop a framework based on Normalization Process Theory, and apply the framework to a hypothetical water supply project in schools. The resulting framework provides guidance on how these terms could be implemented and analyzed in water supply projects. We conclude that effective use of the terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment would focus on purpose, process, and perspective. This is the first known attempt to analyze the implementation of the three terms together in the context of water supply services.

  20. Programming Sustainable Urban Nodes for Spontaneous, Intensive Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubryt-Obrycka, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    functional programming (services). Then, the aspect of permanence or temporality will be addressed to determine the choice of appropriate technologies used in order to convey programmatic assertions into physical solutions. The nodes are meant to be as lightweight installments in the area as possible, but at the same time as durable and of good quality as to support positive social effects and reinforce building social capital in the area. The author believe that this emergency-based AT node scenario can be extrapolated to unbalanced housing areas being the result of urban sprawl, after being only slightly adjusted to local standards. But the main goal is to allow for efficient interventions in areas in dire needs and poor environments with limited resources or limited funds.

  1. Millenium Development Goals/UN and Sustainable Development Goals/UN as Instruments for Realising Sustainable Development Concept in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of analysis and evaluation of the main effects of the implementation of the eight UN Millennium Development Goals, in force until 2015, and to demonstrate differences between and prospects for implementation of the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, covering 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs established by the international community for the next 15 years. The article also presents the contribution of the European Union as a key global donor of development aid for developing countries, especially for the least developed countries (LDCs, as well as plans for Poland’s implementation of the Post-2015 Agenda SDGs.

  2. Methods of Comprehensive Assessment for China’s Energy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijin; Song, Yankui

    2018-02-01

    In order to assess the sustainable development of China’s energy objectively and accurately, we need to establish a reasonable indicator system for energy sustainability and make a targeted comprehensive assessment with the scientific methods. This paper constructs a comprehensive indicator system for energy sustainability from five aspects of economy, society, environment, energy resources and energy technology based on the theory of sustainable development and the theory of symbiosis. On this basis, it establishes and discusses the assessment models and the general assessment methods for energy sustainability with the help of fuzzy mathematics. It is of some reference for promoting the sustainable development of China’s energy, economy and society.

  3. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  4. The effect of female labour force in economic growth and sustainability in transition economies - case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: female labour force participation in transition countries, female employment in economic sectors and their main barriers, and the contributions of female labour force in economic growth. In methodology, the secondary data are used, and they are calculated through STATA program. The main analysis include: descriptive statistic, regression analysis and correlation matrix. Based on empirical results, the regression analysis has found that economic growth and government effectiveness has a negative impact on female labour force. Financial market development, enterprises reforms, and innovation have a positive impact on female labour force in SEE (South Eastern European countries. In T-statistic analysis all independent variables have shown a negative significance (T <2 on female labour force. In correlation, economic growth and financial development market have negative correlation on female labour force, but other variables have shown positive correlation. SEE countries should develop the female labour force in their economies, so their role may be crucial toward different economic problems and challenges in the modern economy.

  5. The impact of healthcare on the environment: improving sustainability in the health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Jane

    As the largest employer in the UK, the NHS has a duty to contribute to sustainability in the UK and minimise the impact of healthcare provision on the environment. Nurses also have a responsibility to ensure their practice makes the best use of resources. This article discusses initiatives aimed at supporting organisations and individuals in reducing the negative impact of healthcare on the environment and on human health and wellbeing.

  6. Sustainability of the Public Acquisitions System in Romania in the Process of Transition to a Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leica Sorela Corina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the current national and international context regarding thepossibility for public institutions to bring to the foreground environmental elements in theacquisitions, orientated to a sustainable development, in the context of maximizing the quality /price ratio in the use of public funds. Performance measurement and quantification are importantchallenges in complying with national and international policies.

  7. Impacts of the globalized economy on the environment: the tanning industry in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Sganderla, J A; Prodanov, C C; Daroit, D

    2010-12-01

    This case study analysed the impact of the global economy on the environment of the Vale do Rio do Sinos region in southern Brazil. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data from social, cultural, economic and political agents in this region, and documents about the tanning industry were reviewed and analysed. Global perspectives and local conditions were brought together to understand the causes and consequences of social, political and economic structures and to evaluate the intrinsic association of the tanning industry with the social, historical and cultural development of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos. The behaviour of the local community, where individuals believe that progress is primordially based on industrial development and go to any lengths to achieve it, was also studied. The analysis of industries that have a high contamination potential revealed that dirty industries moved from central to peripheral countries up to the 1980s, but movement is currently internal and occurs between states in Brazil due to several types of incentives.

  8. Impacts of the globalized economy on the environment: the tanning industry in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA. Figueiredo-Sganderla

    Full Text Available This case study analysed the impact of the global economy on the environment of the Vale do Rio do Sinos region in southern Brazil. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data from social, cultural, economic and political agents in this region, and documents about the tanning industry were reviewed and analysed. Global perspectives and local conditions were brought together to understand the causes and consequences of social, political and economic structures and to evaluate the intrinsic association of the tanning industry with the social, historical and cultural development of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos. The behaviour of the local community, where individuals believe that progress is primordially based on industrial development and go to any lengths to achieve it, was also studied. The analysis of industries that have a high contamination potential revealed that dirty industries moved from central to peripheral countries up to the 1980s, but movement is currently internal and occurs between states in Brazil due to several types of incentives.

  9. Health impact assessment of Ontario's green energy and green economy act. The roles of environmental informatics in sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy received a boost in Ontario, Canada with the Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA), ushering in a new Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program modelled on programs from Germany, Spain, Denmark and other jurisdictions. Information about lessons learned elsewhere has clearly benefited the Ontario experience. Part of the Ontario program included streamlining the impact assessment process to facilitate the swift development of provincial renewable energy capacities. In this context, the GEGEA has been remarkably successful, generating renewable energy sector capacities, resources, projects and their spin-off benefits in Ontario, along with more sustainable electricity system. Environmentalists along with industry continue to laud the benefits of renewable energy and the GEGEA, and with good reason. Renewable energy generation in Ontario has grown from to 2 per cent in 2012 and is expected to reach 10 per cent in 2013. (orig.)

  10. Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Middelkoop, H.; Offermans, A.; van Beek, Eelco; van Deursen, W.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring adaptation pathways into an uncertain future can support decisionmaking in achieving sustainable water management in a changing environment. Our objective is to develop and test a method to identify such pathways by including dynamics from natural variability and the interaction between

  11. Education for Sustainability Using a Campus Eco-Garden as a Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Chi Chiu; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Zhan, Ying; Tsoi, Kwok Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore stakeholder perspectives of the role of a campus eco-garden in education for sustainability (EfS). It will combine the perspectives to highlight a powerful learning environment (PLE) for university students to realize the concept of EfS. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to…

  12. A sustainable built environment : A new text book based on ecosystem theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.; Van Bohemen, H.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    With half of the world population living in urban areas and with the building sector as the largest industrial sector in the US and Europe, the built environment makes a significant contribution to sustainability problems, in terms of energy use, material extraction, waste production and land

  13. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  14. Intergenerational Efforts to Develop a Healthy Environment for Everyone: Sustainability as a Human Rights Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Savage, Caroline E; Newsham, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As climate change proceeds at an unprecedented rate, concern for the natural environment has increased. The world's population aging also continues to rise at an unprecedented rate, giving greater attention to the implications of an older population. The two trends are linked through the fact that changes to the environment affect older adults, and older adults affect the environment. Sustainability is, therefore, an intergenerational phenomenon, and protecting resources today leaves a positive legacy and enhances quality of life for future generations. Older adults have much to share with younger generations about behaviors that promote sustainable living, yet few sustainability efforts are intergenerational in nature. As large numbers of people currently subsist without secure access to basic needs, ensuring equitable resource consumption for all generations is urgent and aligns with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Through exploring linkages between aging and sustainability, we identify intergenerational strategies to protect the environment and promote human rights and quality of life for older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2013-12-01

    In total 28 manuscripts were published in Volume I, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  16. Recommendations from the Workshop: Environment, Ecology and Sustainable Development ICAE 7th World Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, Moema L.

    2006-01-01

    One of the workshops presented at the 7th International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) Assembly was focused on environment, ecology, and sustainable development. The workshop had participants from Asia, Africa, Europe, South America, North America and the South Pacific. This article presents a list of recommendations from the workshop.

  17. Associations Among Family Environment, Sustained Attention, and School Readiness for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the developmental pathways from children’s family environment to school readiness within a low-income sample (N = 1,046), with a specific focus on the role of sustained attention. Six distinct factors of the family environment representing maternal parenting behaviors, the physical home environment, and maternal mental health at 3 years of age were explored as independent predictors of children’s observed sustained attention as well as cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 5 years of age. Children were grouped by poverty status (poor vs. near-poor). Results suggest specificity in the associations among attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) and its correlates, with different patterns emerging by poverty status group. Overall, the family environment was largely unrelated to children’s sustained attention. For both groups, focused attention was associated with receptive vocabulary; however, it partially mediated the association between maternal lack of hostility and receptive vocabulary only among the near-poor. In addition, lack of impulsivity was associated with both receptive vocabulary and externalizing behaviors but only for the poor group. Findings indicate sustained attention as a potential target for efforts aimed at enhancing school readiness among predominantly poor children. PMID:20677860

  18. Student Interest for Environment/Sustainability Undergraduate Programmes: Recent Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, employers are seeing the need to have employees who have capabilities in sustainability. The hope is that there will be a sufficient number of appropriately educated people to enter the environment profession to meet the needs of these employers and the community. For some two decades a range of university programmes in Australia…

  19. Building from the bottom, inspired from the top: Accounting for sustainability and the Environment Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Hopwood, A.; Unerman, J.; Fries, J.

    2010-01-01

    If you were looking for a good example of accounting for sustainability in the UK, a sensible place to start would be the Environment Agency. As well as being responsible for the licensing, regulation and enforcement of environmental protection legislation in England and Wales, it is tasked with

  20. Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

  1. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  2. Fiscal Deficit, National Saving and Sustainability of Economic Growth in Emerging Economies: A Dynamic GMM Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscemi Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical growth models argued that the movement to steady states; technology, exogenous rate of savings, population growth and technical progress stimulate higher growth levels (Solow 1956. Contrary to the neoclassical argument, endogenous growth model argues that, in the theory of endogenous growth, government play a significant role in promoting accumulation of knowledge, research and development, public investment, human capital development, law and order can generate growth both in the short and long run. Moreover, they assumed technical progress as endogenous variable for growth (Barro 1995. This study analyze the effects of fiscal deficit on sustainability of economic growth and provided new empirical evidence on the effects of fiscal deficit on saving and sustainability of economic growth based on the assumption of endogenous growth model. We estimated using the reduced form of GMM method for dynamic panels covers 1990-2009 for three emerging countries that includes China, India and South Africa.

  3. A basis for Sraffian ecological economics. A comment on Martins' "Ecosystems, strong sustainability and the classical circular economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Yoann

    2016-01-01

    Martins (2016) recently emphasized the role that classical economics can play in building sustainability economics. In this respect, he uses Sraffa's theory of value and Sen and Nussbaum's capability theory to support his argument. My comment focuses on the part of his article concerning Sraffa's theory, and aims to refine some of Martins claims in order to avoid misunderstandings about the possibilities offered by Sraffa's theory.

  4. Sustainable Energy Resource Buildings: Some Relevant Feautures for Built Environment Needs In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka Joseph Kwaji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy has become a critical issue in national and global economic development. Its crucial importance to the nation’s building makes the development of energy resources one of the leading agenda of the present democratic government of Nigeria, towards lifting the nation to the comity of twenty (20 nations with the fastest growing economy in 2020. In achieving this, the building industry and in particular the architectural profession has a leading role to play in adopting education, designs, materials, and technology capable of reducing energy consumption in building within tropic region. This paper, therefore, appraises the important features of energy performance building through the use of sustainable innovative materials and technology that respond to climate condition while being environmentally friendly.

  5. Indicators and Performance Measures for Transportation, Environment and Sustainability in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    A study trip to USA and Canada was undertaken in October 2000 with support from the German Marshall Fund. The purpose of the trip was to learn about performance planning and performance indicators in the area of transportation and environment. The report describe findings from the trip in the fol......A study trip to USA and Canada was undertaken in October 2000 with support from the German Marshall Fund. The purpose of the trip was to learn about performance planning and performance indicators in the area of transportation and environment. The report describe findings from the trip...... in the following areas: how performance planning for transportation and environment is conducted in the US and Canada at federal, state and municipal level, to what extent performance planning serve as an instrument to integrate environmental and sustainability goals in transportation policy which specific...... indicators are used to measure the environmental sustainability of transportation systems and policies in the two North American countries....

  6. SUSTAINABLE CORPORATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  7. The connections between green economy and biomimicry

    OpenAIRE

    Koho, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    The half of human wealth is coming from natural capital, which we are depleting with our current economic model. Economic activity of human beings consumes more biomass than the Earth can produce on a sustainable basis. The flaw of the current model is that costs and losses of destroying the Earth are absent from the prices in the marketplace. While our current model, “brown economy” is causing negative impacts on the environment, green economy decouples resource use and environmental...

  8. Design philosophy for a sustainable energy economy. Key role for heat; Ontwerpfilosofie voor een duurzame energiehuishouding; Sleutelrol voor warmte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemmers, A.K.; Spoelstra, S.; Alderliesten, P.T. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    This report presents a design philosophy for the arrangement of the Dutch energy system in 2050 and elaborates this for two cases. In contrast to usual studies on future energy systems, this report uses an approach that starts with the energy function that has to be fulfilled and designs the system towards the source of energy. The objective is to arrive at a system that uses minimal fossil energy sources and materials. The use of heat forms the leading role in the design of the system. A stepwise approach has been designed that consists of three steps: (1) reduce energy end use, (2) reduce conversion losses, and (3) implement renewable energy. The remaining energy demand is filled in with fossil resources. An energy model of the Netherlands has been developed which facilitates the design by evaluating the consequences of technology options. The two cases that have been analyzed differ with respect to the heat production in the build environment (heat pumps versus micro combined heat and power) combined with a different application of biomass (synthetic natural gas versus biofuels). The results show that increasing the energy efficiency (by reducing end use and reducing conversion losses) and the use of renewable energy contribute about equally to a more sustainable energy system. Roughly speaking, about 1/3 of the original energy demand is reduced by energy savings, 1/3 is supplied by renewable energy, and 1/3 is still relying on fossil energy carriers. The approach followed in this report does therefore not lead to a completely renewable Dutch energy system in 2050 despite the fact that significant energy saving measures and renewable energy options have been implemented. The results show that the increase in energy use can be substantially reduced compared to the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario. The two cases arrive at 3049 PJ and 3187 PJ compared to 4348 PJ for the BAU scenario. The share of renewable energy for these cases are respectively 1747 PJ (57%) and

  9. The potential of community libraries in supporting literate environments and sustaining literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjana; Krolak, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    This article shows how community libraries can create and support literate environments, which are essential for building and sustaining literacy skills in local communities. The paper begins with a subject analysis reviewing available background materials and literature on the topic. Next, relevant issues are considered based on experiences and impact evaluations from specific community libraries, namely Nepal's Rural Education and Development (READ) Centres. The findings indicate that since their foundation in 1991, READ Centres have evolved from traditional libraries to effective community development centres with a strong focus on social empowerment, economic development and lifelong learning, based on a library concept which is needs-based, community-owned and sustainable.

  10. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Circular Economy Development Mode of Coastal and Marine Areas in China and its Evaluation Index Research - The Example of Qingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine circular economy development and marine ecological security construction is the solution of seeking sustainable development when human beings are faced with marine ecological crisis in future period. Marine circular economy and ecological security is the subsystem of ecological, social and economic compound system. These two are mutually conditional and have been in collaborative development. Marine circular economy development is the premise and approach of securely constructing marine ecology. Constructing marine ecological security and building harmonious marine ecological environment is an important goal of developing circular economy. Circular economy is one of the important economic models for managing public resources under the principle of sustainable development, which is the guiding direction of future economic development in China. As important strategic resources, ocean is a crucial component of realizing economic sustainable development, which also needs to take the circular economy concept and basic principles as a guide for development.

  12. The impact of green logistic based on financial economic, social and environment activities on sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Alshubiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic  are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money as a important signals  in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015.  Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP , cultural and religious affairs (CRA and social security and welfare (SSW in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of  sustainable development system in

  13. Comprehending ecological and economic sustainability: comparative analysis of stability principles in the biosphere and free market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

    2010-05-01

    The global environmental imperative demands urgent actions on ecological stabilization, yet the global scale of such actions is persistently insufficient. This calls for investigating why the world economy appears to be so fearful of any potential environmental expenditure. Using the formalism of Lyapunov potential function it is shown that the stability principles for biomass in the ecosystem and for employment in economics are mathematically similar. The ecosystem has a stable and unstable stationary state with high (forest) and low (grasslands) biomass, respectively. In economics, there is a stable stationary state with high employment in mass production of conventional goods sold at low cost price, and an unstable stationary state with lower employment in production of novel products of technological progress sold at higher prices. An additional stable state is described for economics with very low employment in production of life essentials, such as energy and raw materials that are sold at greatly inflated prices. In this state the civilization pays 10% of global GDP for energy produced by a negligible minority of the working population (currently approximately 0.2%) and sold at prices exceeding the cost price by 40 times, a state when any extra expenditures of whatever nature appear intolerable. The reason lies in the fundamental shortcoming of economic theory, which allows for economic ownership over energy sources. This is shown to be equivalent to equating measurable variables of different dimensions (stores and fluxes), which leads to effective violation of the laws of energy and matter conservation in modern economics.

  14. Methodology and application of sustainable environment concepts for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artuso, Luisa; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    The paper takes for granted that urban areas - and hence the built environment - may play a catalytic role for effective environmental policy. This position is based on the fact that most residential, production and transportation activities in the developed world take place in urban areas. A major

  15. The Establishment and Application of Environment Sustainability Evaluation Indicators for Ecotourism Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinmen National Park is the only battle memorial-themed natural resource conservation park in Taiwan. With the rapid growth in tourism, Kinmen National Park faces the challenge of managing with the resulting environmental impact. For this study, we adopted the tourism ecological footprint (TEF and tourism ecological capacity (TEC to evaluate the ecological conditions of Kinmen National Park from 2002 to 2011. The empirical results indicated the following findings: (a TEF increased by 8.03% over 10 years; (b Regarding the environmental sustainability index (ESI, per capita tourism ecological deficit (PTED yielded a deficit growth rate of 45.37%. In 2011, the ecological footprint index (EFI was at Level 4 with 1.16, and the ESI was at Level 3 with 0.495. According to the aforementioned results, with the increased scale of tourism to Kinmen National Park, the pressure that ecological occupancy exerted on the national ecosystem exceeded its ecological capacity.

  16. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Sustainable Enterprise Excellence balances complementary and competing interests of key stakeholder segments, including society and the natural environment and increases the likelihood of superior and sustainable competitive positioning and hence long-term enterprise success that is defined...... by continuously relevant and responsible governance, strategy, actions and performance consistent with high-level organizational resilience, robustness and resplendence (R3). This is accomplished through organizational design and function emphasizing innovation, enterprise intelligence & analytics, operational......, supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...

  17. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  18. Transition to a green economy – a challenge and a solution for the world economy in multiple crisis context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela BABONEA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "Green Economy" is heavily debated recently because it is considered to be essential for the future global economy. This concept aims to find practical solutions that can be applied in international affairs regarding the environment development as a result of the massive problems caused by multiple crises that are no longer solvable. However, the international community is looking for long-term alternatives to improve the quality of life and eliminate poverty population as much as possible.To make sustainable economic development requires a transition with multiple implications for both the government and the private sector. In other words, you need a joint effort between public and private, in order to separate economic growth from excessive use of resources; the main objective should be considered the quality of life along with reducing the environmental and social deficit.The transition to a "Green Economy" means practicing a certain type of economy based on policies and investment that should be able to create a connection between economic development, biodiversity, ecosystem, climate change, health and welfare on the medium and long term. These premises must be connected together to achieve sustainable development – which is considered the resumption of economic growth at global scale.Switching to "Green Economy" implies a proper concern based on adequate knowledge, research and innovation in order to create a framework for promoting sustainable development on long term. This study aims to generate an overview on the concept of "Green Economy", considered by some experts as the main solution to the problems that countries of the world are facing nowadays. It is well known that the economic system is situated in a collapse and requires a rethinking from all points of view. A solution to adapt the economy and its development to these new global challenges can be the transition to "Green Economy", especially by integrating the

  19. Implications for the agriculture sector of a green economy transition in the Western Cape province of South Africa : a system dynamics modelling approach to food crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Van Niekerk, J. B. S.; Brent, A. C.; Musango, J. K.; De Kock, I. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Western Cape Provincial government in South Africa has introduced a green economy framework, ‘Green is Smart’, to create a more sustainable economy. This framework stipulates plans for the Western Cape Province to implement more sustainable farming practices for food crop production. While sustainable farming practices will have benefits for the environment, they will also impact food crop production and will require financial investments from stakeholders. To comprehend fully the problem...

  20. A sustainable built environment: A new text book based on ecosystem theory

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bueren, E.M.; Van Bohemen, H.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    With half of the world population living in urban areas and with the building sector as the largest industrial sector in the US and Europe, the built environment makes a significant contribution to sustainability problems, in terms of energy use, material extraction, waste production and land conversion. In a search for a common theoretical basis as foundation for the chosen multi-perspective approach, ecosystem theory appeared to be a powerful framework. A transdisciplinary team of teachers ...

  1. Resuscitation Strategies for Burn Injuries Sustained in Austere Environments to Improve Renal Perfusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer on wound healing after burn injury , Crit. Care Med. 31 (2003) 1017–1025. D.M. Burmeister et al. BBA...G.L. Su, D.G. Remick, S.C. Wang, S. Arbabi, Attenuating burn wound inflammatory signaling reduces systemic inflammation and acute lung injury , J...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0041 TITLE: Resuscitation Strategies for Burn Injuries Sustained in Austere Environments to Improve Renal Perfusion

  2. City Green Economy Evaluation: Empirical Evidence from 15 Sub-Provincial Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City green economy plays an important role in the development of low-carbon economy and the achievement of sustainable development of economy, society and ecological environment. From the perspective of economy, society, environment and resources, the evaluation of the green economy in urban areas tends to offer us a new insight into the green economy of cities. This paper is about the creation of a novel urban green economy evaluation model and its application. First of all, we established a city green economy evaluation index system based on R cluster analysis and coefficient of variation. Secondly, based on the nonlinear weighted utilizing entropy weight method, a city green economy evaluation model is established based on inferior constraints. Thirdly, by comparing the differences between evaluation rankings under inferior constraints and non-inferior constraints, the advantageous factors and the disadvantageous ones in urban green economy development are obtained. The proposed model has been verified with the data on 15 sub-provincial cities in China. Empirical analysis results show that: (1 The proposed approach can accurately find out the advantageous and disadvantageous factors for each sub-provincial city; (2 In the evaluation of green economy development, the order of importance of the three criterion layers is X1 Economy development > X2 Social livelihood of the people > X3 Resources and environment; (3 Local governments should implement differential, reasonable policies in order to improve their green economy development. Moreover, our research is not only significant for developing green economy in China’s sub-provincial cities, but also serves as a reference for the development of green economy in other cities in the world.

  3. Influence of university network structures on forming the network environment of regional economy (on the example of national research universities of Tatarstan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya-Anna Alekseevna Kaibiyainen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to elaborate theoretical and applied aspects of the processes of forming the new network institutional environment of the Russian regional economy under the influence of the developing integral educational network structures basing on the study of the experience of national research universities of Tatarstan Republic Methods general scientific logical methods of analysis and synthesis induction and deduction scientific abstraction as well as the method of systemicfunctional analysis. Results the practical examples are revealed and analyzed of introducing the new network integral principles into the functioning of national research universities which have a real economic effect and influencing such indicators of regional economy as the growth of employment reduction of unemployment etc. Scientific novelty problems of network structures development in the Russian education have not been thoroughly studied yet. The article analyzes the experience reveals and describes the methods and techniques of forming the network educational structures in the functioning of national research universities in Tatarstan Republic Practical value the author shows the ability of network university structures not only to play a significant role forming the new institutional environment of the regional economy but also to influence the macro and microeconomic indicators of development of the region and the country. nbsp

  4. Green Economy – A New Dimension of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Mihalcioiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “Green Economy” has been recognized by the international community (United Nations as a key strategic tool for sustainable development. The transition to a green economy must be a task for all countries - for developing but also for developed countries. Economy and consumers should therefore be able to accelerate the economic transformation for their own interests. In developing this concept representatives of business, trade unions and environmental organizations are involved to ensure the practicability and application ways. After 4 years of crisis the concept of the green economy is an important principle if not to avoid but at least soften their negative effects. This paper focuses on definitions upon the concept of green economy and describes its characteristics in relation with the social market. It also tries to find the answer of the question if the green economy is the best way to choose in order to provide a sustainable economic development. Moreover, the article critically examines the concept of the green economy at the intersection between environment and economy.

  5. Technology Innovation and Engineering’ Education and Entrepreneurship (TIEE in Engineering Schools: Novel Model for Elevating National Knowledge Based Economy and Socio-Economic Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdulwahed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Technology Innovation and Engineering Education (TIEE is a proposed Unit/Center/Department concept model inside a college of engineering. The TIEE concept has been developed in particular taking in consideration the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and/or Qatar contextual needs and National Vision in the transformation into a Knowledge Based Economy (KBE. The main purpose of such structure is to enable engineering colleges to better respond to these emerging needs of the GCC countries. In this paper, the concept of TIEE is provisioned as an abstract example of organizational structure development for other engineering education institutions that aim to play a key role in innovation and sustainable socio-economic development. The concept is derived from similar global examples and contextualized regionally; it is generic and can be deployed elsewhere with slight modifications. The TIEE concept is in particular vital for engineering institutions in the Middle East and North Africa as a vehicle for economic and technological development. The paper outlines the organizational structure of TIEE, together with its various programs and activities for implementing its stated vision, mission, and strategic objectives. Within this context, the paper also provides a thorough account on advances in engineering innovation, education, scholarship of engineering education, and developments of similar entities.

  6. Sustainable development education, practice, and research: an indigenous model of sustainable development at the College of Menominee Nation, Keshena, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Dockry; Katherine Hall; William Van Lopik; Christopher M. Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute's theoretical model (SDI model) conceptualizes sustainable development as the process of maintaining the balance and reconciling the inherent tensions among six dimensions of sustainability: land and sovereignty; natural environment #including human beings); institutions; technology; economy; and...

  7. Report made on the behalf of the economy, sustainable development, and land planning Commission on the bill project concerning the national commitment for the environment (declared emergency), the bill proposition presented by M. Philippe MARINI and several of his colleagues tending to make mandatory citizen consultation before settling high wind turbines, the bill proposition presented by M. Jean DESSARD and several of his colleagues and related to the regulation of cell telephony relay antenna settling and the reduction of people exposure to electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report first discusses the economical stakes of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement', i.e. a dynamic and environmentally sustainable growth, outlining the need for quick and strong arrangements, and the expected benefit of an environment-friendly policy, but also the difficulties and ways to accompany a green growth. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the bill project. These arrangements are concerning building and urban planning, transports, energy and climate, biodiversity, risks, health and wastes, and governance. It presents the Commission's opinion and the main modifications this commission introduced in the numerous articles associated with these different topics.

  8. An integrated strategy for sustainable forest-energy-environment interactions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, J-F K; Salami, A T; Siyanbola, W O

    2003-10-01

    The Nigerian forests have been subjected to unguarded exploitation over the years. Although there is overwhelming empirical evidence, which show that Nigeria's forest, may soon vanish, available statistics have shown its increasing importance in the energy sector. With increasing population come the attendant demands on the biotic environment through increased land clearing, deforestation, devegetation, decertification, with attendant soil erosion, flooding, sand dune formation, and changes in the micro-climate with consequent loss of biological productivity and associated socio-economic and socio-political problems in the country. There is therefore the need to adopt measures that will shift the attention of the Nigerian populace from the forest to satisfy their energy needs. However, such measures that will address the challenges confronting the forestry, forest-based energy systems and the environment should be consistent with the development needs, resources and priorities of the nation. Hence, for sustainable forest-energy-environment interactions, a holistic and integrated strategy that can be adopted to minimise the observed forest depletion must take cognisance of options from various land use practices, energy and forest sectors. The focus of this paper is on a strategy of options from both the energy and forest sectors. Based on the socio-economic, socio-political and environmental analyses of various options from the energy and forest sectors, the philosophy behind the mosaic approach to sustainable development has been considered in developing the proposed strategy. Policy measures to implement this strategy of options in the national development programs are also suggested.

  9. Corporate corruption of the environment: sustainability as a process of compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Daniel; Wright, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    A key response to environmental degradation, climate change and declining biodiversity has been the growing adoption of market principles in an effort to better value the social good of nature. Through concepts such as 'natural capitalism' and 'corporate environmentalism', nature is increasingly viewed as a domain of capitalist endeavour. In this article, we use convention theory and a pluralist understanding of social goods to investigate how the social good of the environment is usurped by the alternate social good of the market. Through analysis of interviews with sustainability managers and corporate documentation, we highlight how organizational actors employ compromise to temporally settle disputes between competing claims about environmental activities. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the processes of empirically grounded critique and the under-theorized concept of compromise between social goods. Rather than protecting the environment, the corporate promotion of sustainability facilitates the corruption of the social good of the environment and its conversion into a market commodity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  10. ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AND SCHOOLING: BETWEEN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PERCEPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If we consider the role of education and its implications in the formation of a critical and conscious user of architecture, it is obvious that the development of educational strategies related to our common space and environment become fundamental. The comprehension of the concept of sustainable development is essential. Therefore, it is worth reflecting on how to develop proper programs at all educational levels to promote critical and responsible attitudes towards the common environment covering all the aspects that should shape the concepts of sustainable spatial and environmental development, enhancing at the same time great freedom regarding the formal aspects of architecture. The ideas presented in the article are supported by an empirical research on the image of architecture and the environment, held among secondary school students. The research based on the idea that one of the most efficient critical attitudes towards the world would be to develop an unconditional tie of the art work with everyday life conditions. That is why part of the activities within the research was devoted to recycling relevant architectural spaces. The results show a very heterogeneous image of architecture in the eyes of the students which sometimes overvalues contrasts and originality, disregarding tradition

  11. Inventory of Content in Basic Courses in Environment and Sustainable Development at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, U.; Svanstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    Chalmers University of Technology is actively promoting learning for sustainable development in its educational programmes. A compulsory part of the bachelor curricula is five full-time weeks of studies on environment and sustainable development. This paper presents an inventory of the contents in these courses performed as a series of discussions…

  12. Leveraging Lean Six Sigma to Culture, Nurture, and Sustain Assessment and Change in the Academic Library Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, S. A

    2009-01-01

      This paper explores the application of Lean Six Sigma, a business improvement philosophy and methodology, in the academic library environment as one means to nurture and sustain a culture of assessment and change...

  13. The Current State of Malaysia’s Journey towards a Green Economy: The Perceptions of The Companies on Environmental Efficiency and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Hussin; Bakar, Nor’Aznin Abu; Jali, Mohd Razani Mohd; Ibrahim, Fatimah Wati

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is committed to fostering the development of a clean and efficient economy; that is, a “green” economy. This means encouraging the development of green businesses and green products, which in turn will create “green jobs”. The current economic and environmental crises have accelerated during the last two decades: global warming in climate; fuel, food, water and the economy as a whole. At the fundamental level, there exists a misallocation of resources. Relatively little capital was i...

  14. Fueling the Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  15. [What is sustainability science?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Qian, Gui-Xia; Niu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is the theme of our time and also the grandest challenge to humanity. Since the 1970s, the term, sustainable development, has frequently appeared in the scientific literature, governmental documents, media promotions for public goods, and commercial advertisements. However, the science that provides the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for sustainable development--sustainability science--only began to emerge in the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, the field has rapidly developed in depth and expanded in scope during the past decade, with its core concepts and research methods coalescing. China, as the most populous country in the world and home to the philosophical root of sustainability science-the unity of man and nature, is obligated to take upon the challenge of our time, to facilitate global sustainability while pursuing the Chinese Dream, and to play a leading role in the development of sustainability science. Toward this grandiose goal, this paper presents the first Chinese introduction to sustainability science, which discusses its basic concepts, research questions, and future directions. Sustainability science is the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and the environment, particularly focusing on the vulnerability, robustness, resilience, and stability of the coupled human-environment system. It is a transdisciplinary science that integrates natural sciences with humanities and social sciences. It hinges on the environment-economy-society nexus, and merges basic and applied research. The key components of sustainability often change with time, place, and culture, and thus sustainability science needs to emphasize multi-scale studies in space and time, with emphasis on landscapes and regions over a horizon of 50 to 100 years. It needs to focus on the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, as influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem processes as well as climate change, land use

  16. Subjectivation, togetherness, environment. Potentials of participatory art for Art Education for Sustainable Development (AESD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Illeris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Through a process-oriented analysis of the participatory art project The Hill this article explores the relevance of participatory art projects for the development of AESD – Art Education for Sustainable Development. Inspired by Felix Guattari’s Three Ecologies (2008 the analysis moves through three sub-studies delving into three different aspects of the project. Each sub-study adopts two overlapping analytical ‘lenses’: The lens of a contemporary art form (performance art, community art, and site-specific art and the lens of a related theoretical concept (subjectivation, togetherness, environment. The aim is to propose art educational ideas and strategies that stimulate students to challenge the current political, economic and environmental situation. Central questions addressed by the article are: How can educators use contemporary artistic strategies to challenge essentialist and opportunistic self-understandings? What is the potential for participatory art forms to explore alternative and more sustainable conceptions of human subjectivity? How can art education work in favour of a sense of interconnectedness between the individual, the social and the environmental dimensions of being? In conclusion, the article proposes art education as a symbolic place for carrying out art-inspired experiments with how to live our lives in more sustainable ways.

  17. Sustainable Shaping of Urban Spaces in the Context of the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Agnieszka Pawłowicz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is of great importance when it comes to developing a city, as it shapes its spaces, defines its roles and performs climatic and protective functions. Industrialization often requires removing landscape obstacles and vegetation to erect new buildings. An urban planner, though, should be aware of the borders that must not be crossed. Designing new streets and buildings should follow a sustainable growth pattern, if the city landscape and its climatic conditions are to improve for generations to come. This paper discusses the aspects of planning and managing urban spaces in such a way as to provide their users with healthy and comfortable living conditions. The paper is based on a survey conducted to gather the opinions of members of a city community on the environment in which they live.

  18. RSSI-Based Distance Estimation Framework Using a Kalman Filter for Sustainable Indoor Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsick Sung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that location information is the key to providing a variety of services in sustainable indoor computing environments, it is required to obtain accurate locations. Locations can be estimated by three distances from three fixed points. Therefore, if the distance between two points can be measured or estimated accurately, the location in indoor environments can be estimated. To increase the accuracy of the measured distance, noise filtering, signal revision, and distance estimation processes are generally performed. This paper proposes a novel framework for estimating the distance between a beacon and an access point (AP in a sustainable indoor computing environment. Diverse types of received strength signal indications (RSSIs are used for WiFi, Bluetooth, and radio signals, and the proposed distance estimation framework is unique in that it is independent of the specific wireless signal involved, being based on the Bluetooth signal of the beacon. Generally, RSSI measurement, noise filtering, and revision are required for distance estimation using RSSIs. The employed RSSIs are first measured from an AP, with multiple APs sometimes used to increase the accuracy of the distance estimation. Owing to the inevitable presence of noise in the measured RSSIs, the application of noise filtering is essential, and further revision is used to address the inaccuracy and instability that characterizes RSSIs measured in an indoor environment. The revised RSSIs are then used to estimate the distance. The proposed distance estimation framework uses one AP to measure the RSSIs, a Kalman filter to eliminate noise, and a log-distance path loss model to revise the measured RSSIs. In the experimental implementation of the framework, both a RSSI filter and a Kalman filter were respectively used for noise elimination to comparatively evaluate the performance of the latter for the specific application. The Kalman filter was found to reduce the accumulated errors by 8

  19. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  20. Connecting cities and their environments: Harnessing the water-energy-food nexus for sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of years of development have made the production and consumption of water, energy, and food for urban environments more complex. While the rise of cities has fostered social and economic progress, the accompanying environmental pressures threaten to undermine these benefits. The compounding effects of climate change, habitat loss, pollution, overexploitation (in addition to financial constraints make the individual management of these three vital resources incompatible with rapidly growing populations and resource-intensive lifestyles. Nexus thinking is a critical tool to capture opportunities for urban sustainability in both industrialised and developing cities. A nexus approach to water, energy, and food security recognises that conventional decisionmaking, strictly confined within distinct sectors, limits the sustainability of urban development. Important nexus considerations include the need to collaborate with a wide spectrum of stakeholders, and to “re-integrate” urban systems. This means recognising the opportunities coming from the interconnected nature of cities and metropolitan regions, including links with rural environments and wider biophysical dynamics.

  1. Sustainable knowledge-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro César Cantú-Martínez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente manuscrito muestra la trascendencia que posee la economía del conocimiento para el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Se reconoce el conocimiento como un elemento necesario para la búsqueda del bienestar social del ser humano y, además, para la reducción de la pobreza y la falta de equidad social. La economía del conocimiento es el análisis del comportamiento y los hechos relacionados con la aplicación económica del saber. Esto ha llevado a la transformación de las sociedades cuando el conocimiento se convierte en aprendizaje y este se encuentra orientado a resolver los problemas sociales y ambientales.

  2. Imperatives for an agricultural green economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constansia Musvoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there are social, economic and environmental challenges related to sustainable development; these challenges include climate change, the need to feed a rapidly increasing population, high rates of poverty and environmental degradation. These challenges have forced us to rethink the way in which development takes place, resulting in the emergence of the concept of a �green economy�. A green economy results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing risks to the environment. It is based on principles which integrate social, economic and environmental considerations. South Africa has adopted the principle of green economic growth, and agriculture is one of the sectors that will drive this growth. Agriculture could address some of the sustainable development problems, but there are challenges related to resource availability, environmental impacts of agriculture and climate change. For agriculture to support a green economy it has to be productive, contribute to economic growth and not undermine the environment, social and cultural systems. The information base and policies required to support a green economy in general, and/or an agriculture-supported green economy have not yet been developed, as the green economy is an emerging concept in South Africa as well as globally. The generation of such information requires analysis and synthesis of green economy principles and agricultural imperatives into generic principles and practices for facilitating agriculture�s contribution to the green economy. In this paper, we conduct this analysis and synthesis and highlight the defining aspects of an agricultural green economy.

  3. [Cointegration test and variance decomposition for the relationship between economy and environment based on material flow analysis in Tangshan City Hebei China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The material flow account of Tangshan City was established by material flow analysis (MFA) method to analyze the periodical characteristics of material input and output in the operation of economy-environment system, and the impact of material input and output intensities on economic development. Using econometric model, the long-term interaction mechanism and relationship among the indexes of gross domestic product (GDP) , direct material input (DMI), domestic processed output (DPO) were investigated after unit root hypothesis test, Johansen cointegration test, vector error correction model, impulse response function and variance decomposition. The results showed that during 1992-2011, DMI and DPO both increased, and the growth rate of DMI was higher than that of DPO. The input intensity of DMI increased, while the intensity of DPO fell in volatility. Long-term stable cointegration relationship existed between GDP, DMI and DPO. Their interaction relationship showed a trend from fluctuation to gradual ste adiness. DMI and DPO had strong, positive impacts on economic development in short-term, but the economy-environment system gradually weakened these effects by short-term dynamically adjusting indicators inside and outside of the system. Ultimately, the system showed a long-term equilibrium relationship. The effect of economic scale on economy was gradually increasing. After decomposing the contribution of each index to GDP, it was found that DMI's contribution grew, GDP's contribution declined, DPO's contribution changed little. On the whole, the economic development of Tangshan City has followed the traditional production path of resource-based city, mostly depending on the material input which caused high energy consumption and serous environmental pollution.

  4. Sustainability and social benefits of the planning of green areas and landscape planning versus their curteilment. Lifestyles as a challenge to, and an opportunity for, economy; Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Umwelt. Bd. 7. Nachhaltigkeit und gesellschaftlicher Nutzen von Gruenordnungsplanung und Landschaftsplanung kontra Reduktion. - Lebensstile als Herausforderung und Chance fuer die Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The book contains the lecture series given within the framework of the 7th Economy Forum ``Economy, science and environment``, organized jointly by the Zentralstelle fuer Forschungs- und Entwicklungstransfer und Wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung (FET and WW) of Essen University and the chamber of industry and trade for Essen, Muelheim/Ruhr and Oberhausen in Essen. The lectures were delivered at the following events at the Essen University: `Sustainability and social benefits of the planning of green areas and landscapes versus their curtailment` (5 June 1997); and `Lifestyles as a challenge to and an opportunity for economy` (13 November 1997). (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht gibt die Vortraege der Veranstaltungsreihe Wirtschaftsforum VII `Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Umwelt` wieder, veranstaltet von der FET and WW Zentralstelle fuer Forschungs- und Entwicklungstransfer und Wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung der Universitaet-GH Essen in Zusammenarbeit mit der Industrie- und Handelskammer fuer Essen, Muelheim an der Ruhr, Oberhausen zu Essen. Die Vortraege sind auf folgenden Veranstaltungen an der Universitaet-GH Essen gehalten worden:`Nachhaltigkeit und gesellschaftlicher Nutzen von Gruenordnungsplanung und Landschaftsplanung kontra Reduktion` am 5. Juni 1997 und `Lebensstile als Herausforderung und Chance fuer die Wirtschaft` am 13. November 1997. (orig.)

  5. Relief for the environment and for traffic through regional economies; Entlastung der Umwelt und des Verkehrs durch regionale Wirtschaftskreislaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, R.U.; Arnold-Rothmaier, H.; Kiemer, K.; Pintarits, S.; Wackerbauer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Transport performance has outpaced the growth of real GDP in recent decades. By 20015 a further increase in transport performance of between 50% and 79% over 1997 is forecast. Strengthening regional economies is one way of structurally countering the trend of over-proportionally rising traffic flows in the long term. The study examines the links between economic and transport development at the regional level. Options are also presented for promoting regional economies, thereby decreasing the volume of inter-regional transport. (orig.) [German] Die Verkehrsleistung nahm in den letzten Jahrzehnten staerker zu als das reale Bruttoinlandsprodukt. Gegenueber 1997 wird bis zum Jahr 2015 eine weitere Steigerung der Verkehrsleistung auf der Strasse von 50% und 79% prognostiziert. Eine Staerkung regionaler Wirtschaftskreislaeufe wird als Mittel gesehen, um dem Trend ueberproportional steigender Verkehrsstroeme strukturell und langfristig entgegenzuwirken. In der Studie wurden die Zusammenhaenge zwischen wirtschaftlicher und verkehrlicher Entwicklung auf regionaler Ebene erforscht. Zudem werden Moeglichkeiten eroertert, die regionale Wirtschaftskreislaeufe foerdern und so das Volumen interregionaler Transporte verringern. (orig.)

  6. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  7. A sustainable city environment through child safety and mobility-a challenge based on ITS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lars; Gårder, Per; Schirokoff, Anna; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Johansson, Charlotta; Basbas, Socrates

    2014-01-01

    Our cities should be designed to accommodate everybody, including children. We will not move toward a more sustainable society unless we accept that children are people with transportation needs, and 'bussing' them around, or providing parental limousine services at all times, will not lead to sustainability. Rather, we will need to make our cities walkable for children, at least those above a certain age. Safety has two main aspects, traffic safety and personal safety (risk of assault). Besides being safe, children will also need an urban environment with reasonable mobility, where they themselves can reach destinations with reasonable effort; else they will still need to be driven. This paper presents the results of two expert questionnaires focusing on the potential safety and mobility benefits to child pedestrians of targeted types of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Five different types of functional requests for children were identified based on previous work. The first expert questionnaire was structured to collect expert opinions on which ITS solutions or devices would be, and why, the most relevant ones to satisfy the five different functional requests of child pedestrians. Based on the first questionnaire, fifteen problem areas were defined. In the second questionnaire, the experts ranked the fifteen areas, and prioritized related ITS services, according to their potential for developing ITS services beneficial to children. Several ITS systems for improving pedestrian quality are discussed. ITS services can be used when a pedestrian route takes them to a dangerous street, dangerous crossing point or through a dangerous neighborhood. An improvement of safety and other qualities would lead to increased mobility and a more sustainable way of living. Children would learn how to live to support their own health and a sustainable city environment. But it will be up to national, regional and local governments, through their ministries and agencies and

  8. Development of sustainable georesources for the built environment in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan, Andrew A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The character of the UK’s built heritage has been largely determined by the country’s diverse geology. Indigenous natural stone forms a major component of the nation’s pre-1919 building stock. Stone has been used traditionally for roofing, roads, pavements, bridges, engineering works, and all forms of walling. Today it is mostly employed as thin panel cladding to concrete frameworks in modern construction and is now increasingly being used in large volumes for new city streetscapes.This paper outlines the material requirements for the repair and maintenance of the stone-built heritage and illustrates a range of initiatives across the UK aimed at safeguarding and redeveloping indigenous resources. The importance, particularly for the repair and conservation sector, of selecting appropriate replacement stone is being recognized by architectural and conservation professionals and by local authority officials. There is also increasing recognition of the importance to the economy of the local character of the built environment in terms of its value to tourism and to architectural, historical, and cultural identity. The paper also examines the historical sources of information on stone in the UK and offers recommendations for databasing and disseminating stone resource information. This may assist the redevelopment of a healthy indigenous stone industry and ensure that the unique built heritage character of the UK is maintained and enhanced.

  9. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms to Their Environment and Its Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Melanie S.; Adams, Robert B.; Wessman, Carol A.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We connect modern, intensive agriculture’s role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture’s environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of

  10. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms to Their Environment and Its Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Melanie S; Adams, Robert B; Wessman, Carol A; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We connect modern, intensive agriculture's role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture's environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike) in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i) governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii) also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils), carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches) and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programing effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The resulting vision of

  11. Nutritional Cues Tie Living Organisms To Their Environment And Its Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Sarah Adams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We connect modern, intensive agriculture’s role in environmental degradation to its role in producing nutritionally unbalanced foods, and delineate specific approaches to reduce agriculture’s environmental impact, while producing healthful foods. We call attention to recently discovered genetic programs used by all living organisms to respond to their environment, and present a model of how these programs change body composition and function (of humans and their crop plants and livestock alike in response to environmental cues. We propose that production of nutritionally balanced crops and livestock requires careful consideration of how these plants and animals are grown; the composition of plant food is modulated by growing conditions, body composition of livestock reflects their feed; composition and function of human body and brain are strongly affected by how food plants and animals are produced. We selected four nutritional features not only involved in (i governing human health by modulating these genetic programs, but (ii also affected by agricultural practices. These nutritional features are fat composition (especially saturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated omega-6 oils to omega-3 oils, carbohydrate composition (especially the proportion of carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as sugars and quick-burning starches and the level of antioxidant micronutrients. We not only outline threats to human health presented by the current environment, but also potential gains in quality-of-life in a future environment designed to optimize human wellness using insights into the gene-programming effect of diet- and other lifestyle-related factors. These gains could extend beyond optimal human physical and mental health to gains in workforce productivity. The same changes in agricultural practices required to achieve these gains in human health are also needed to support environmental health and sustainable food production. The

  12. The economy of the environment in 2009. Report of the Commission of the accounting and economy of the environment. 2011 Edition; L'economie de l'environnement en 2009. Rapport de la Commission des comptes et de l'economie de l'environnement. Edition 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents and comments the various expenses in the different sectors related to the protection of the environment: air protection, used water purification, waste management, soil, underground water and surface water protection and purification, struggle against noise, biodiversity and landscapes, radioactive waste management, research and development for the protection of the environment, general administration. Then, it presents and comments the expenses related to the management of natural resources (water sampling and distribution, water recovery). Some additional information are given and commented about expenses for urban green spaces, for renewable energies, for eco-activities and environmental jobs, and about the environmental job market

  13. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  14. Science management in the Plant Health Research Institute and its contribution to the environment protection and sustainability of the Cuban agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-García Berta Lina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mission of INISAV is to contribute to the reduction of risks and losses by pests without affecting the environment on a sustainable basis. Its management is based on a science model linked with environment and characterized by 4 phases: the planning of research’s, their implementation, validation and adoption in the agriculture practice. Three main results of research are described: Biological control Program (PBC, Pest Management Programs (PMP and the Elimination of the use of methyl bromide. A national network of 251 Laboratories for reproduction of entomophagues and entomopathogens (CREE was designed and implemented, together with 4 biopesticide production plants. Thirteen (13 biological products and technologies were created. Furthermore, pest management programs (PMP were extended in more than 25 crops for conventional and agro-ecological systems, as well as adoption of PMP to replace methyl bromide. The impacts of the results to the environment, agricultural production, the country's economy, and rural communities, were confirmed by the significant reduction of imports of chemical pesticides, from 40 000 t in 1974 to about 3000 t in 2012. In 1988 the arable area benefited by bioproducts was 300 000 ha while in 2012 amounted to 1 354 000 ha. The elimination of 80 t of methyl bromide in tobacco, 35 t in the other sectors, the reduction of other agrochemicals, the incorporation of biological control applications and some management measures, are considered the main basis for sustainability in crops. At present, 72% of the total area planted is under applications of pesticides in PMP. Of these, 38% with only biological products, 34% the combination of biological and chemical pesticides and in the remaining 28% apply phytosanitary alternatives included in the pest management programs.

  15. Social Entrepreneurship in an Emerging Economy: A Focus on the Institutional Environment and Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boris Urban

    2013-01-01

      Consistent with the notion that the institutional environment affects entrepreneurial activity, this article interrogates how a person's willingness to pursue social entrepreneurship is connected...

  16. Impact of a Fragmented Regulatory Environment on Sustainable Urban Development Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Anne London

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The building project development approval process is increasingly complex and fraught with conflict due to the rise of the sustainable urban development movement and inclusive decision making. Coupled with this, government decision-making decentralization has resulted in a fragmented and over-regulated compliance system. Problems arising from the process include wasted resources, excessive time delays, increased holding and litigation costs, inadequate planning coordination, high levels of advocacy costs and a divisive politicized approval process. In Australia, despite attempts by government and industry associations, numerous problems are still unresolved. Design managers increasingly assume a liaison role during the approval phase. There is a long tradition of planning theory literature which provides context for understanding the knowledge-power-participation relationship for this paper. This study investigated the policy, process and practice conflicts during the approval stage in achieving sustainable urban developments. Three regional local government areas within one state jurisdiction and observations from detailed structured focus group interviews involving 23 stakeholders, proposers and assessors were analysed to explore this conflictual environment. As a result of regulatory fragmentation and excessive consultation, various persuasion tactics have been developed by all stakeholders of which `reciprocity' and `authority' were identified as the most common. Two challenges for design managers were thus identified: first, the emergence of the role of a by default central informal arbitrator across conflicting planning instruments; and, second, as a navigator through a set of persuasion tactics. An inclusive knowledge-based design management framework for sustainable urban development is proposed considering Habermas' communicative planning theory, Foucaltian governance and discursive powers thesis and Cialdini's persuasion theory, as

  17. Towards a sustainable America: advancing prosperity, opportunity, and a healthy environment for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    Humanity faces an unprecedented challenge as our numbers grow, while Earth and its capacity to support us do not. People across the United States and around the world aspire to better lives for themselves and for their children: food, shelter, a safe and healthy environment, education, jobs, and other material needs and conveniences. Industries strive to produce more goods, farmers to grow more crops; and human demands on forests, fields, rivers, and oceans increase. Our challenge is to create a future in which prosperity and opportunity increase while life flourishes and pressures on oceans, earth, and atmosphere - the biosphere - diminish; to create, as the Council's vision suggests, "a life- sustaining Earth that supports "a dignified, peaceful, and equitable existence." It is a powerful vision, and the two co-chairs of the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD), fervently believe it is achievable - a unifying and necessary goal for the boundless capacity of human ingenuity so manifest in America. This document addresses climate change, environmental management, metropolitan and rural strategies, and international leadership.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    As an integral part of the National Climate Assessment (NCA), technical assessment reports for 13 regions in the U.S. that describe the scientific rationale to support climate change impacts within the purview of these regions, and provide adaptation or mitigation measures in response to these impacts. These technical assessments focus on climate change impacts on sectors that are important environmental, biophysical, and social and economic aspects of sustainability within the U.S.: Climate change science, Ecosystems and biodiversity, Water resources, Human health, Energy supply and use, Water/energy/land use, Transportation, Urban/infrastructure/vulnerability, Agriculture, Impacts of climate change on tribal/indigenous and native lands and resources, Forestry, Land use/land cover change, Rural communities development, and Impacts on biogeochemical cycles, with implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a critical and timely need for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change by the policy and decision making communities, to insure resiliency and sustainability of the built environment in the future.

  19. Prioritizing urban sustainability solutions: coordinated approaches must incorporate scale-dependent built environment induced effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Chow, W. T. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Brazel, A.; Trapido-Lurie, B.; Roth, M.; Benson-Lira, V.

    2015-06-01

    Because of a projected surge of several billion urban inhabitants by mid-century, a rising urgency exists to advance local and strategically deployed measures intended to ameliorate negative consequences on urban climate (e.g., heat stress, poor air quality, energy/water availability). Here we highlight the importance of incorporating scale-dependent built environment induced solutions within the broader umbrella of urban sustainability outcomes, thereby accounting for fundamental physical principles. Contemporary and future design of settlements demands cooperative participation between planners, architects, and relevant stakeholders, with the urban and global climate community, which recognizes the complexity of the physical systems involved and is ideally fit to quantitatively examine the viability of proposed solutions. Such participatory efforts can aid the development of locally sensible approaches by integrating across the socioeconomic and climatic continuum, therefore providing opportunities facilitating comprehensive solutions that maximize benefits and limit unintended consequences.

  20. No Money? No Problem! The Value of Sustainability: Social Capital Drives the Relationship among Customer Identification and Citizenship Behavior in Sharing Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu-Bing Wang; Ching-Wei Ho

    2017-01-01

    This work provides a novel approach to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept and to CSR activities, using social capital as the driver of consumer citizenship behavior in the sharing economy business system...

  1. Thermal Performance of Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel (PCSP) Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Peniel Ang Soon; Ling, Lim Mei; Kasim, Narimah; Hamid, Zuhairi Abd; Masrom, Md Asrul Nasid Bin

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia’s awareness of performance criteria in construction industry towards a sustainable built environment with the use of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) system is applied in the building’s wall to study the structural behaviour. However, very limited studies are conducted on the thermal insulation of exterior and interior panels in PCSP design. In hot countries such as Malaysia, proper designs of panel are important to obtain better thermal insulation for building. This study is based on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel design for sustainable built environment in Malaysia. In this research, three full specimens, which are control specimen (C), foamed concrete (FC) panels and concrete panels with added palm oil fuel ash (FC+ POFA), where FC and FC+POFA sandwiched with gypsum board (G) were produced to investigate their thermal performance. Temperature difference of exterior and interior surface of specimen was used as indicators of thermal-insulating performance of PCSP design. Heat transfer test by halogen lamp was carried out on three specimens where the exterior surface of specimens was exposed to the halogen lamp. The temperature reading of exterior and interior surface for three specimens were recorded with the help of thermocouple. Other factors also studied the workability, compressive strength and axial compressive strength of the specimens. This study has shown that FC + POFA specimen has the strength nearer to normal specimen (C + FC specimen). Meanwhile, the heat transfer results show that the FC+POFA has better thermal insulation performance compared to C and FC specimens with the highest temperature difference, 3.4°C compared to other specimens. The results from this research are useful to be implemented in construction due to its benefits such as reduction of energy consumption in air-conditioning, reduction of construction periods and eco-friendly materials.

  2. For the elaboration of a report that integrates environment and economy: recommendations from the analysis of 122 practical cases; Pour l'elaboration d'un rapport integrant environnement et economie: recommandations a partir de l'analyse de 122 cas pratiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 1999 the 'Friends of the Earth' association has started an 'eco-management' campaign with 4 main goals: verifying the implementation of the environmental management system and its certification, dialoguing with authorities to fill up the gaps of the system and promoting the participation of companies, spreading the knowledge about these instruments to the public, and working with the different actors (companies, syndicates, associations, employees, organizations..) for the implementation of a reliable and credible environmental management system. The aim of this study is to elaborate recommendations for the elaboration of a report that integrates environment and economy, to use an original approach in the elaboration of the report with an identification of the environmental impact of the activity and/or products of the company due to the production, the use or the recycling, and finally, to provide a methodological sustain to companies through the presentation of the best examples chosen among the analyzed documents. The first part of this report is devoted to the analysis of the actors concerned and to the initiatives performed in the domain of reporting. The second part concerns the presentation of the content of the recommendations elaborated by the committee of control which proposes remarkable examples to be followed. (J.S.)

  3. Tour operators, environment and sustainable development; Tour operator, ambiente e sviluppo sostenibile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L.; Chirico, R.; Declich, P. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the role of the tour operators in achieving sustainable development meaning a process of development which leaves at least the same amount of capital, natural and man-made, to future generations as current generations have access to. Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global industries, creating significant employment and economic development, particularly in many developing countries. Tourism can also have negative environmental and social impact resulting from resource consumption, pollution, generation of wastes and from the compromise of local culture while introducing new activities. Most tour operators has started to recognised that a clean environment is critical to their success, but few tour operators have the management tools or experience to design and conduct tours that minimize their negative environmental and social impacts. A group of tour operators from different parts of the world have joined forces to create the Tour Operators' Initiative for Sustainable Tourism Development. With this initiatives, tour operators are moving towards sustainable tourism by committing themselves to address the environmental, social, and cultural aspects of sustainable development within the tourism sector. [Italian] Lo scopo del presente lavoro e' individuare il ruolo dei Tour Operator nel perseguire uno sviluppo sostenibile ossia un processo di sviluppo che lasci alle generazioni future lo stesso capitale, naturale e creato dall'uomo, di cui dispone l'attuale generazione. Il turismo e' tra le industrie globali piu' vaste ed in rapida crescita che crea una occupazione ed uno sviluppo economico significativo, particolarmente in molti paesi in via di sviluppo. Il turismo puo' anche generare impatti sia ambientali che sociali derivanti dallo sfruttamento delle risorse, dall'inquinamento, dalla produzione di rifiuti e dalla compromissione delle culture locali introducendo

  4. Simulation and Prediction of Decarbonated Development in Tourist Attractions Associated with Low-carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tourism, the development of tourist attractions is gradually playing a crucial role in tourism economy, regional economy and national economy. While tourism economy is stimulated by growing demand, tourist attractions have been facing the situation that ecological environment is becoming fragile and environmental protection is increasingly difficult in China. As low-carbon economy is highlighted more than ever before, how to develop green economy, how to apply theories and technologies, which are related to low-carbon economy, to push forward decarbonation, to protect the ecological environment, and to boost the development of tourism economy have become the core problems for the sustainable development of tourist attractions system. In addition, this system has drawn the attention of scholars and practitioners in recent years. On the basis of low-carbon economy, this paper tries to define the decarbonated development goals and the connotation of tourist attractions system. In addition, it also discusses system structure associated with system dynamics and system engineering, and constructs system simulation model. In the end, a case study is conducted, that is, to predict the development trend of Jiuzhai Valley by adopting the constructed system so as to extend the previous research on low-carbon tourism and to guide the decarbonated development in tourist attractions.

  5. Sustainability of Physical Activity Promoting Environments and Influences on Sustainability Following a Structural Intervention in Residential Children's Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    2016-01-01

    Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity…

  6. Evolutionary economic theories of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development has become the dominant concept in the study of interactions between the economy and the biophysical environment, as well as a generally accepted goal of environmental policy. So far, economists have predominantly applied standard or neo-classical theory to environmental

  7. Taxes and the economy: A survey of the impact of taxes on growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeend, W.; van der Ploeg, R.; Timmer, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This book discusses the impact of taxation on economic growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment. The public finance literature commonly distinguishes between three major functions of taxation: the traditional function of raising revenue to finance government expenditure; the

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Its Potential as a Life-Sustaining Solvent in a Planetary Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljko Budisa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluids have different properties compared to regular fluids and could play a role as life-sustaining solvents on other worlds. Even on Earth, some bacterial species have been shown to be tolerant to supercritical fluids. The special properties of supercritical fluids, which include various types of selectivities (e.g., stereo-, regio-, and chemo-selectivity have recently been recognized in biotechnology and used to catalyze reactions that do not occur in water. One suitable example is enzymes when they are exposed to supercritical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide: enzymes become even more stable, because they are conformationally rigid in the dehydrated state. Furthermore, enzymes in anhydrous organic solvents exhibit a “molecular memory”, i.e., the capacity to “remember” a conformational or pH state from being exposed to a previous solvent. Planetary environments with supercritical fluids, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, exist, even on Earth (below the ocean floor, on Venus, and likely on Super-Earth type exoplanets. These planetary environments may present a possible habitat for exotic life.

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide and its potential as a life-sustaining solvent in a planetary environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisa, Nediljko; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-08-08

    Supercritical fluids have different properties compared to regular fluids and could play a role as life-sustaining solvents on other worlds. Even on Earth, some bacterial species have been shown to be tolerant to supercritical fluids. The special properties of supercritical fluids, which include various types of selectivities (e.g., stereo-, regio-, and chemo-selectivity) have recently been recognized in biotechnology and used to catalyze reactions that do not occur in water. One suitable example is enzymes when they are exposed to supercritical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide: enzymes become even more stable, because they are conformationally rigid in the dehydrated state. Furthermore, enzymes in anhydrous organic solvents exhibit a "molecular memory", i.e., the capacity to "remember" a conformational or pH state from being exposed to a previous solvent. Planetary environments with supercritical fluids, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, exist, even on Earth (below the ocean floor), on Venus, and likely on Super-Earth type exoplanets. These planetary environments may present a possible habitat for exotic life.

  10. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, A MULTIDIMENSIONAL CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA MARIA

    2015-06-01

    environmental pillar, the genesis of the concept should be considered. „Ecodevelopment” term stated in the World Conference on Environment in Stockholm in 1972 underlies sustainable development. Social approach implies eradicate poverty, providing better living conditions in terms of education, income, and the environment. When a nation's standard of living is high, also cares for the environment is high. This is one relation between social and environment pillars. Regarded from an economic perspective, sustainable development implies a maximum profit in terms of satisfaction other pillars of sustainability: pillar environment by preserving natural capital and social pillar by increasing welfare, employment insurance, respecting the principle of equity. On perspective economy-environment relationship, sustainable development is not quantity but quality. Regardless of the approach, sustainable development requires simultaneously ensuring of economic development, environmental protection and social welfare, resulting interrelationship between the three pillars: social, economic, environmental. Sustainable development through its components - economic and environmental - has only one beneficiary - the human factor who receives income, good quality environmental factors, and enjoys equity generations.

  11. Exploring the connections between green economy and informal economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of an inclusive green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication requires an approach that engages with the informal economy. However, the informal economy is generally ignored or undervalued in discussions on the green economy. This paper set out to bolster this argument by identifying the ways in which the green economy and the informal economy may be connected by establishing the extent to which policies and plans relating to green economy connect with the informal economy, and recognising several informal green activities. The barriers and opportunities for connecting the two spheres were also explored as well as possible ways in which such activities may be supported at different levels of organisation. In the case of South Africa, many informal green activities that contribute to sustainable livelihoods are recognised. However, issues pertaining to procedure, process and participation hinder the transition to a truly inclusive green economy.

  12. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  13. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  14. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  15. The impact of the institutional environment on the development of the rural economy in the Belgorod region of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorofeev, A.; Sazonov, S.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the problems in the development of agriculture in Russia caused by an imperfect institutional environment. The characteristics of institutional conditions and their influence on the development of agriculture is discussed. The main institutional changes which have taken place

  16. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU; Alexandru, TASNADI

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circu...

  17. Prospects for sustainable development of the nickel industry of Russia in conditions of transition in the world economy to the new technological mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolbov A. G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of new technological mode in the world economy, some features of innovative development of the mineral complex and the nickel industry, dynamics of world production and consumption of nickel have been considered. The organization and economic structure of the nickel industry in Russia has been characterized. The prospects for sustainable development of the nickel industry in conditions of the sixth technological mode have been justified. Рассмотрены сущность нового технологического уклада в мировой экономике, особенности инновационного развития минерально-сырьевого комплекса и никелевой промышленности, динамика мирового производства и потребления никеля. Дана характеристика организационно-экономической структуры никелевой промышленности России. Обоснованы перспективы устойчивого развития никелевой промышленности в условиях шестого технологического уклада

  18. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  19. Dynamic material flow analysis to support sustainable built environment development : with case studies on Chinese housing stock dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Mingming

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability challenges raised by built environment development are two-folds: on the inflow side these include resource depletion and emission problems due to material production (pre-use); on the outflow side they include problems of construction and demolition waste (after-use). Understanding

  20. A sustainability framework for mobile technology integration in schools: The case of resourceconstrained environments in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabila, J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available and devices complicate the construction of a consolidated view of how to sustain the pedagogical practice of learning with mobile devices in these environments. The purpose of this article is to indicate how feedback from teachers and district officials...

  1. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Imam, Boulent

    2013-02-01

    Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins with the background information on sources and emission trends of global warming (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, CFCs, SF(6)) and corrosive (SO(2), O(3), NO(X)) gases and their role in deterioration of building materials (e.g. steel, stone, concrete, brick and wood) exposed in outdoor environments. Further section covers the impacts of climate- and pollution-derived chemical pathways, generally represented by dose-response functions (DRFs), and changing environmental conditions on built infrastructure. The article concludes with the discussions on the topic areas covered and research challenges. A comprehensive inventory of DRFs is compiled. The case study carried out for analysing the inter-comparability of various DRFs on four different materials (carbon steel, limestone, zinc and copper) produced comparable results. Results of another case study revealed that future projected changes in temperature and/or relatively humidity are expected to have a modest effect on the material deterioration rate whereas changes in precipitation were found to show a more dominant impact. Evidences suggest that both changing and extreme environmental conditions are expected to affect the integrity of built infrastructure both in terms of direct structural damage and indirect losses of transport network functionality. Unlike stone and metals, substantially limited information is available on the deterioration of brick, concrete and wooden structures. Further research is warranted to develop more robust and

  2. Value Creation in the Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmida Ľubomír

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of the new rules of the economy and the society, companies are achieving a notional line of a necessary change in the approach to creating new value, wealth. Implementation of changes in the system of wealth creation requires a review of existing assumptions of unlimited growth of the global economy and wealth creation in the environment accepting economic interests, society and the environment as a holistic unit. The main purpose of this paper is the clarification of a new requirements for business, presentation of the questionnaire survey Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility and inform on value creation in the context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility.

  3. Value Creation in the Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmida, Ľubomír; Sakál, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Under the influence of the new rules of the economy and the society, companies are achieving a notional line of a necessary change in the approach to creating new value, wealth. Implementation of changes in the system of wealth creation requires a review of existing assumptions of unlimited growth of the global economy and wealth creation in the environment accepting economic interests, society and the environment as a holistic unit. The main purpose of this paper is the clarification of a new requirements for business, presentation of the questionnaire survey Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility and inform on value creation in the context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility.

  4. Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Khul Gad Micro Watershed of Kumoun Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Women in the marginal areas of Uttarakhand have always played and continue to play a significant role in managing and operating most of the household and agricultural activities. They are the main subsistence provider in the hills and considered the backbone of hill agriculture. Their lives are intrinsically related to land, water, forest, which are the main components and integral parts of an eco-system. An adverse effect on any one of these components disturbs the other compo- nents due to strong linkages and interrelationship with each other and creates havoc on the life of people, especially women in the region. However, in recent years, environmental degradation, poor resource management and increased migration of men to the plains have deteriorated the livelihood options and added more workload to women of the region. The sufferings of the com- munities in these hilly areas are gradually increasing and their standard of living is declining be- cause they have been neglected at both policy and practice levels by the government. The nexus between women, environment degradation and poverty are poorly understood and rarely treated in an integrated way. Therefore, the key objective of the present paper is to analyse the work par- ticipation of women operating at different sub-systems, impact of environmental degradation and role of women in sustaining the traditional agro-ecosystem in Khul Gad micro-watershed of Ku- moun Himalaya.

  5. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protecting the Environment for Self-interested Reasons: Altruism Is Not the Only Pathway to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Dominicis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic vs. self-transcendent (biospheric psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the benefits to others or nature, rather than appealing to self-interest. Building on the Inclusion Model for Environmental Concern, we argue that egoistic and biospheric environmental concerns, respectively, conceptualized as self-interest and altruism, are hierarchically structured, such that altruism is inclusive of self-interest. Three studies show that self-interested individuals will behave more pro-environmentally when the behavior results in a personal benefit (but not when there is exclusively an environmental benefit, while altruistic individuals will engage in pro-environmental behaviors when there are environmental benefits, and critically, also when there are personal benefits. The reported findings have implications for programs and policies designed to promote pro-environmental behavior, and for social science research aimed at understanding human responses to a changing environment.

  7. Simulation-Based Learning Environments to Teach Complexity: The Missing Link in Teaching Sustainable Public Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Deegan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While public-sector management problems are steeped in positivistic and socially constructed complexity, public management education in the management of complexity lags behind that of business schools, particularly in the application of simulation-based learning. This paper describes a Simulation-Based Learning Environment for public management education that includes a coupled case study and System Dynamics simulation surrounding flood protection, a domain where stewardship decisions regarding public infrastructure and investment have direct and indirect effects on businesses and the public. The Pointe Claire case and CoastalProtectSIM simulation provide a platform for policy experimentation under conditions of exogenous uncertainty (weather and climate change as well as endogenous effects generated by structure. We discuss the model in some detail, and present teaching materials developed to date to support the use of our work in public administration curricula. Our experience with this case demonstrates the potential of this approach to motivate sustainable learning about complexity in public management settings and enhance learners’ competency to deal with complex dynamic problems.

  8. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their preferences generate the market demands for real estate and transport, which are the basis to promote sustainable planning in the market. To achieve sustainability goals in China, planners need to adopt ...

  9. Stockholm: green economy leader report

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Floater; Philipp Rode; Dimitri Zenghelis

    2013-01-01

    Stockholm is a leading city for green economic growth. Despite the global downturn, the city’s low carbon economy remains highly competitive and well positioned for driving sustained growth in the medium to long term. This report, produced in partnership with the City of Stockholm, shows that Stockholm took early action to build a green economy – unlike most cities, environmental policies have been important to Stockholm for over 40 years. At the same time, early infrastructure investment suc...

  10. [Environmental governance and the green economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes. Before embarking on the discussion about what king of sustainability should be behind the Green Economy, and its applicability, the scope of this article is to ask readers to reflect on what should be the priority in the discussion on environmental governance This should be explained to the extent that there is a need to change the existing mechanisms of profoundly unequal exploitation of resources, which blocks progress in decision-making processes, as decisions of the few create a perverse logic of appropriation of natural resources and the non-resolution of social exclusion.

  11. Contesting 'Environment' Through the Lens of Sustainability: Examining Implications for Environmental Education (EE and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kopnina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on implications of presenting nature as a social construction, and of commodification of nature. The social construction of nature tends to limit significance of nature to human perception of it. Commodification presents nature in strict instrumental terms as 'natural resources', 'natural capital' or 'ecosystem services'. Both construction and commodification exhibit anthropocentric bias in denying intrinsic value of non-human species. This article will highlight the im-portance of a deep ecology perspective, by elaborating upon the ethical context in which construction and commodification of nature occur. Finally, this article will discuss the implications of this ethical context in relation to environmental education (EE and education for sustainable development (ESD.

  12. «Resource type» regions in the modern Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Sergey, N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the officially declared intention to form universal rules of the liberal type, development was based on the formation of a "hybrid" institutional environment in the "post-Soviet" transformation of the Russian economy. "Hybrid" institutional environment is characterized, firstly, with the prevalence of forms of interaction between authorities and business that are uncharacteristic for liberal market economy, and their "merging" with each other, secondly, with sustainable regional fragmentation. As a result regional institutional systems, based on different configurations of network linkages between business and authorities, appeared and embedded into unified «power vertical». «Resource type» regions occupy special position in the modern Russian economy. Their economies are based on the export-oriented industries as well as raw resources extracting and mining industries. We distinguish the following discrete structural alternatives of their development in a globalizing economy: "enclave dual economy" and integrated regional economy. The first option is institutionally reinforces the social and economic gap from developed countries. The second one provides diversification and development of regional and national economies. We use comparative characteristic of Kemerovo region and Krasnoyarsk region to carry out analysis of options of "resource type" regions development. We selected indicators and elaborated estimation algorithm to figure out the type of regional economic development.

  13. Green Financing: Financing Circular Economy Companies : Case Studies of Ragn-Sellsföretagen AB and Inrego AB

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    The circular economy (CE) has been identified as a catalyst in sustainable development and economic growth that has the potential to move society from the traditional linear model of resource consumption in the form of take-make-waste to an innovative circular model in the form of reduce-reuse-recycle. Transitioning from the linear economy to the CE requires changes in four areas: material and product design, business models, global reverse networks and enabling business environments. This st...

  14. Saúde e economia verde: desafios para o desenvolvimento sustentável e erradicação da pobreza Health and the green economy: challenges for sustainable development and the eradication of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Gallo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Em um cenário onde os serviços ecossistêmicos vão sendo perdidos e há graves iniquidades sociais é necessário um novo modelo de crescimento capaz de promover o desenvolvimento social com a redução da pegada ecológica. A 'economia verde' é um dos modelos propostos. Este trabalho analisa os impactos ambientais, sociais e individuais da economia marrom na saúde humana e aborda as contribuições da economia verde para a promoção da equidade e saúde. Assume que o desenvolvimento econômico e a sustentabilidade ambiental não são incompatíveis e contribuem para o combate à pobreza. A transição para uma economia sustentável depende de decisões políticas e vai além do desenvolvimento de tecnologias, devendo implantar um novo modo de produção, consumo e organização social que promova a justiça socioambiental, incentivando a participação social e as formas democráticas de governança para definir uma agenda concreta de implementação de objetivos para o desenvolvimento sustentável e de mecanismos capazes de implementá-los em todos os níveis.In a scenario where ecosystemic services are being eroded and there is high social inequity, a new model of development is necessary, namely one capable of promoting social development with a reduction of its ecological footprint. The 'Green Economy' model is one of the proposed models. This paper seeks to analyze the environmental, social and individual impacts on human health in the context of a 'brown economy', and discusses the contributions of a green economy on the promotion of equity and health. The assumption is that economic development and environmental sustainability are not incompatible and both contribute to the eradication of poverty. The transition to a sustainable economy depends on political decisions, and transcends technological developments. Above all, it should instigate new models of production, consumption and social organization, which promote socio

  15. The Conduciveness of the South African Economic Environment and Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Pierré BRUWER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1980s Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs have been regarded as the driving forces of both developing and developed economies around the world. In a South African dispensation, SMMEs are responsible for adding imperative socio-economic value to the country, particularly in terms of eradicating poverty and diminishing unemployment levels. By doing so, these business entities are believed to contribute at least 50% to the national Gross Domestic Product. Albeit the aforementioned, previous research studies report that up to 75% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence for only 42 months. Though the latter dispensation has been blamed on many economic factors, over the years the sustainability of South African SMMEs has not improved to a great extent. In order to provide insight on the latter dispensation, this literature review paper was conducted to ultimately formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing.

  16. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Development of Landscape Architecture through Geo-eco-tourism in Tropical Karst Area to Avoid Extractive Cement Industry for Dignified and Sustainable Environment and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono

    2017-08-01

    Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a

  18. Mesostructured Hydrophobic-Oleophobic Silica Films for Sustained Functionality in Tribological Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessman, Aaron J.

    The primary goal of this research was to synthesize water- and oil-repellent coatings that offer sustained functionality and durability. Engineered low surface energy materials generally suffer from a lack of mechanical robustness, which makes them susceptible to damage by abrasive wear. Fluorinated silanes are often combined with alkoxide precursors via sol-gel co-condensation to create coatings with high hardness and good substrate adhesion. However, a common problem with these materials is that the organic moieties that provide low surface energy also become surface segregated and highly concentrated at the solid-air interface. With such a structure, mechanical removal of the top surface by abrasion, for example, reveals subsurface areas that are then much less concentrated in terms of functional chemistry. The material developed in this study was designed to overcome this problem by means of a tailored and templated mesostructure that effectively encapsulated the low surface energy functional moieties, and thus achieves sustained functionality during abrasive wear. This material, applied as a thin coating to a variety of substrates, has the potential to reduce waste and pollution and the environmental degradation of materials and structures. Improving the performance of such materials can benefit a wide variety of applications. These include optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic panels; automobile and aircraft; architectural structures; the chemical, food, and medical industries for hygienic and anti-fouling requirements; textiles; and household applications. This approach has further implications in areas such as boundary lubrication and drug delivery systems. Hydrophobic-oleophobic mesoporous fluorinated silica films were synthesized via sol-gel co-condensation and coated on glass substrates. Fluorosilane and surfactant template concentrations were varied to elucidate the effect of organic functionality and porosity on performance. Structural

  19. Political economy, poverty, and polycentrism in the Global Environment Facility's Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan-Mullins, May; Ockwell, David; Newell, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Climate change adaptation refers to altering infrastructure, institutions or ecosystems to respond to the impacts of climate change. Least developed countries often lack the requisite capacity to implement adaptation projects. The Global Environment Facility's Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF......, the politics of adaptation must be taken into account so that projects can maximise their efficacy and avoid marginalising those most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.......) is a scheme where industrialised countries have disbursed $934.5 million in voluntary contributions to support 213 adaptation projects across 51 least developed countries. But how effective are its effortsand what sort of challenges have arisen as it implements projects? To provide some answers, this article...

  20. Modality Environments : A Concept For Sustainability And Vitality In The Multi-Modal City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, S.A.; Lopes Gil, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews an idea of vital local high-street places with their walking spaces and economies founded in interfaces between neighbourhood and city (between walking and public transport/bicycle movement infrastructures). It then extends this idea to higher scales, considering interfaces

  1. Selection of sustainability indicators for health services in challenging environments: balancing scientific approach with political engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Girois, Susan

    2013-06-01

    Sustainability evaluation has become a key component of international health. However, evaluators have faced a number of challenges linked to the lack of consensus on the meaning of the concept of "sustainability". This paper aims to describe a methodology, the Sustainability Analysis Process, based on several conceptual frameworks and tested in five different countries in the physical rehabilitation sector. The methodology consists of five successive steps: (i) overview of the context; (ii) system boundary; (iii) consensus vision of sustainability, and derivation of stakeholder perspectives; (iv) selection of sustainability indicators and characterization and analysis of local system sustainability; and (v) verification and modification. The paper also discusses the place of the evaluator and researcher in the process: the methodology aims to help evaluators objectively measure the level of sustainability of a health system with the challenge of dealing with a subjective notion, the concept of sustainability, and a diversity of actors. The Sustainability Analysis Process also aims to capture the dynamics of systems by repeating the process on a regular basis. The methodology highlights the need for evaluators build consensus amongst stakeholders on a common vision of the future of a health system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Searching for a crack to let environment light in: ecological biopolitics and education for sustainable development discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2017-12-01

    This article traces the shifts in environmental education discourses from the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment, to the 2012 UN Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, and beyond through a biopolitical lens. Each of the earlier shifts is reflected in environmental, sustainability and science education policies and curricula—but what of the most recent shifts at Rio+20 and in UNESCO's (2014) Roadmap for Implementing the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development? The article examines how the ecological version of politics emerged and then became integrated into technocentric biopolitics and how this shift affected the shaping of environmental, sustainability and science education policies and curricula. In particular, the article analyzes the shifting biopolitical interfaces that have occurred between "natural environment" and "society"—from a goal of preserving the natural foundations of life to a focus on exploiting these foundations, modifying and transforming the environment through scientific and technological means—and the manifestations of this in Australian curriculum documents.

  3. Searching for a crack to let environment light in: ecological biopolitics and education for sustainable development discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2017-10-01

    This article traces the shifts in environmental education discourses from the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment, to the 2012 UN Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, and beyond through a biopolitical lens. Each of the earlier shifts is reflected in environmental, sustainability and science education policies and curricula—but what of the most recent shifts at Rio+20 and in UNESCO's (2014) Roadmap for Implementing the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development? The article examines how the ecological version of politics emerged and then became integrated into technocentric biopolitics and how this shift affected the shaping of environmental, sustainability and science education policies and curricula. In particular, the article analyzes the shifting biopolitical interfaces that have occurred between "natural environment" and "society"—from a goal of preserving the natural foundations of life to a focus on exploiting these foundations, modifying and transforming the environment through scientific and technological means—and the manifestations of this in Australian curriculum documents.

  4. To Safeguard and to Make the Most of the Rural Environment by Means of a “Sustainable Agro-Environmental Systems” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizia Catalano

    2010-09-01

    economical and organized synergy which can, lacking industrial and commercial possibilities and a remunerative agriculture, give way to environmental, economical and social benefits with positive outcomes on the economy and the employment. In relation to the importance of the environmental issues the Department for the Science of Vegetable Productions of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” which has carried out in time studies regarding the Territorial agronomy and the Ecology of the rural environment has, in 2008, set up a project called “T’ESSERE” written and scientifically co-ordinated by Dr. Maurizia Catalano with the aim of making the most of the Apulian territory as a whole, by means of a study of sustainable agro-environmental systems.

  5. Autonomy and heteronomy. Integration and sustainability of essential flows in the built environment; Autonomie en heteronomie. Integratie en verduurzaming van essentiele stromen in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Timmeren, A.

    2006-06-23

    The main research questions in this thesis are: (1) How can sustainable types of reuse and an environment-minded supply of the essential 'flows' of energy and sanitation be established in the built-up environment?; and (2) Is there an optimum scale, and what are the consequences for the built-up environment? Background questions are: (a) To what extent are the current technical (infra)structures decisive for the possibilities and impossibilities of 'sustainable development'? (b) Can the central or decentralized solution of the essential flows generate further processes of preservation at a higher scale level?; (c) Is there an optimal scale for autonomy per flow, and, if there is, what is this optimal scale?; (d) To what extent can user participation and involvement increase by solving sustainability issues?; (e) Should the various techniques for the optimisation of the flows be combined in a 'device' and can this be done, or should they be integrated separately into existing (infra)structures or buildings?. [Dutch] De methoden en technieken die worden toegepast bij de huidige essenti infrastructuren voor de energie- en sanitatievoorziening zijn te duiden als traditioneel en centralisatie- paradigma volgend. Er is sprake van schaalvergroting. Door de globalisering in combinatie met de liberalisatie van de energie- en (in mindere mate) vaste afvalmarkt is dit zelfs structureel. Er is toenemende heteronomie van essenti voorzieningen, vooral van energie en sanitatie. Stringente regelgeving maakt dit vaak onontkoombaar. Oplossingen voor nieuwe of bestaande problemen zijn daarbij als padafhankelijk en endogeen te karakteriseren. Er wordt slechts weinig gedaan aan de onderliggende milieuproblemen. Sterker nog, ook deze nieuwe oplossingen hebben vrijwel altijd onverwachte en onbedoelde neveneffecten, en kunnen opnieuw tot problemen leiden. Het besef dat andere, meer duurzame alternatieven gevonden kunnen worden door juist af te stappen van de

  6. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analyse...

  7. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  8. Towards the integration of sustainable infrastructure into the existing built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector in the United Kingdom is dominated by small and medium size enterprises (SMEs which have less than 250 employees and usually do not have research capacities to develop a range of low carbon innovations applicable in the construction sector. Various European and national funding programmes have addressed this problem by providing funding for research collaboration between universities and SMEs. The paper provides a selection of the outputs of academic/industry research, undertaken by seven Scottish universities through the project CIC Start Online from September 2009 until February 2013, related to low carbon planning, building design, technologies, construction, refurbishment and performance. The studies either contributed to the further development of existing products or processes, or tested new products or processes, often developed for a specific project with a potential for application in future projects. Online dissemination of the project outcomes has assisted in attracting membership across Scotland, the United Kingdom and internationally. Along with the low carbon building products and technologies, new low carbon infrastructure is being planned and developed in order to provide connections and services for energy generation from renewables, energy storage and decentralised distribution, water management (harvesting, saving and reuse, waste management (reduction, reuse and to-energy, transport (electric vehicles, cycling and walking and information communication technology (ICT for monitoring and managing infrastructure systems. The second part of the paper outlines how innovations for integration of sustainable infrastructure into the existing built environment will be supported through the follow-on joint project of nine Scottish universities, named Mainstreaming Innovation.

  9. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34295623X

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their

  10. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: integrated evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, M.; Klauke, T.N.; Gonzalez, J.; Rydhmer, L.; Ilari-Antoine, E.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Cinar, M.U.; Fabrega, E.; Zimmer, C.; Hviid, M.; Oever, van der B.; Edwards, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an approach for an integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems, taking into account the three classical pillars: economy, environment and society. Eight sustainability themes were considered: Animal Welfare (AW), Animal Health (AH), Breeding

  11. Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: State-of-the-Art, Barriers and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Bernaldo, María Olga; Castillejo, Ana; Manzanero, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a new educational paradigm that allows Universities to lead and respond to social needs towards a more sustainable life. The ESD is a global preparedness and complex phenomena in relation to the effects of human activity on the environment, society and economy in spatial (global, regional and local)…

  12. Public Health and the Environment: What Skills for Sustainability Literacy – And Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploration and reflection on the question of what skills, values, attributes and dispositions learners will need to navigate their lives in the challenging conditions of the twenty first century, in relation to sustainability and well-being. First, an overview of the multiple concepts that are considered important for sustainability literacy is gradually built up. These include: multiple ‘bottom lines’ and contexts of wellbeing, climate change, collective action at various levels, good citizenship, community participation, information technology, psychological aspects, behavioral features and researching sustainability. Secondly, a wide range of skills that learners will require in order to interact with these concepts are explored. The emerging relationships between the given concepts and their attending skills are neither definitive nor prescriptive, but provide an indication of what sustainability literacy could be useful for learners and practitioners in order to enable them to contribute towards the wellbeing of sustainable societies. The paper concludes with that a fundamental overarching skill for sustainability is the ability to work constructively with others in building more sustainable communities, businesses and societies.

  13. decolonising sustainability: subverting and appropriating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    magnitude for environmental education. We can speak of sustainable development, sustainable economies, sustainable democracy, a sustainable world order, and sustainable modes of health maintenance, but when we turn to spiritual matters we are faced with the black hole of green· politics: what constitutes sustainable.

  14. Experimental learning projects address contemporary issues related to energy, environment, and sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “Bio-Fuel, sustainability, and geospatial information technologies to enhance experiential learning paradigm for precision agriculture project”, recently funded by USDA extends the environmental stewardship archetype of the preceding project titled “Environmentally conscious precision agricultur...

  15. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  16. Towards transformational change: UNDP's work in environment and sustainable development 2008-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordt, Matilde; Hildebrandt, Laura; Iyer, Devika; Fankuchen, Alexander

    2013-03-15

    This report highlights significant advances in sustainable development from almost 60 country reports and underscores the challenges and bottlenecks to moving beyond the economic-led growth strategies of the past 20 years.

  17. Perspectives on Eco Economics. Circular Economy and Smart Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balaceanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of sustainable development principles in contemporary economic thinking has generated the conceptual remodeling that expresses the new mechanisms of the economy. Thus, the concept of circular economy meet the theoretical representation of an economic system oriented towards the re-use of waste as raw materials and limiting the production of waste that cannot come back into the economic circuit. Circular economy is one that involves even its concept of operation, recovery and regeneration, as much as possible of resources, aiming to preserve, at the highest level, the value and usefulness of products, components and raw materials, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles. In this way, we can find solutions for two major issues affecting today's economy: the limited nature of resources and the pollution generated by the waste resulting from economic activities.

  18. Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    In this paper it is shown that the intense focus on the new economy reflected real change as well as 'hype?. The basic reason why new economy-growth could not be seen as sustainable is that introducing advanced technologies can only take place successfully when it is accompanied by organizational...... change and competence-building among employees. Any strategy that gives technology an independent role as problem-solver is doomed to fail. Danish data of a unique character are used to demonstrate that the key to economic performance is to promote learning at different levels of the economy....... In the conclusion it is argued that there is a need for a new type of knowledge and learning oriented Keynesianism in order to get close to the kind of growth rates characterizing the high days of the new economy adventure in the US....

  19. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios N. Kouziokas

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...

  20. The National Sustainable Development Strategy for 2010-2013: towards a green and fair economy; La Strategie Nationale de Developpement Durable 2010-2013 - Vers une economie verte et equitable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    While briefly defining the nine challenges identified within the French National Sustainable Development Strategy which has been adopted in July 2010 in the wake of the Grenelle de l'Environnement and within a more general World and European context, this document recalls the main challenges at the origin of this strategy. It states the 15 key (energy and socio-economic) indicators and the 4 context indicators which have been defined for the strategy. It recalls that many countries are implementing such strategies, and that the French strategy has been defined in coherence with the European one. It evokes the differences which can be noticed between the strategies elaborated in the European countries

  1. Throw caution to the winds. Recommendation on acceleration of the transition to a sustainable energy economy in the Netherlands; Remmen los. Advies over versnelling van de transitie naar een duurzame energiehuishouding in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    With regard to the title subject several councils in the Netherlands formulated recommendations for five roads to follow to remove constraints of the present system and accelerate the transition to a sustainable energy economy: (1) Set up a mandatory and consistent goal for a sustainable energy system in 2050, preferably in a European context, but otherwise national; (2) Set up a charter between government, business and civil society with a long term strategy for making sustainable the energy-intensive industry and the fossil energy sector in the Netherlands; (3) use a wider framework for the debate on the usefulness and the need for energy transition in the Netherlands; (4) Stimulate markets for energy conservation and renewable energy; (5) Take away legal and institutional barriers to energy transition. [Dutch] De raden geven aanbevelingen voor vijf noodzakelijk te bewandelen wegen die belemmeringen van het bestaande systeem wegnemen en de transitie naar een duurzame energiehuishouding versnellen: (1) Stel een bindend en consistent doel vast voor een duurzame energiehuishouding in 2050, bij voorkeur in Europees verband maar anders nationaal; (2) Stel een charter op tussen overheid, bedrijven en maatschappelijke organisaties met een langetermijnstrategie voor de verduurzaming dan wel afbouw van energie-intensieve bedrijvigheid en de fossiele energiesector in Nederland; (3) Hanteer een breder frame voor het debat over nut en noodzaak van de energietransitie in Nederland; (4) Stimuleer markten voor energiebesparing en hernieuwbare energie; (5) Neem juridische en institutionele barrieres voor energietransitie weg.

  2. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  3. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  4. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Nakanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more “green” transportation: public transportation, walking and cycling. Little consideration has been given as to how sustainable transportation policies and programmess might impact on different age groups in society, including those retired or semi-retired, despite the fact that an unprecedented number of older drivers will be on the highways in the next few decades. There is limited literature on the contextual factors behind their continued reliance on automobiles, their actual driving behavior (e.g., route choice and time of day to drive framed within the context of social sustainability. This paper introduces the elements of transportation and social sustainability then conducts a comprehensive international literature review focusing on older drivers, their travel choices and associated social sustainability issues. It describes a case study, low-density city and presents empirical evidence, from two surveys conducted in Canberra, Australia. The paper concludes with future research directions that address these issues associated with sustainable transportation.

  5. The responding relationship between plants and environment is the essential principle for agricultural sustainable development on the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Shao, Hong-Bo

    2008-04-01

    The mutual-responding relationship between plants and environment is involved in all life processes, which are the essential bases for different types of sustainable development on the globe, particularly the critical basis for agricultural sustainable development. How to regulate the above relationship between plants and the corresponding environment (in particular soil environment) is the key problem to modern sustainable agriculture development under global climate change, which is one of the hot topics in the field of plant biology. Detailed dissection of this responding relationship is also important for conducting global eco-environmental restoration and construction. Although powerful methodology and dataset related to genomics, post-genomics, and metabolomics have provided some insights into this relationship, crop physiological measures are also critical for crop full performance in field. With the increase of tested plants (including model plants) and development of integrated molecular biology, a complete understanding of the relationship at different scales under biotic and abiotic stresses will be accelerated. In the current paper, we will cover some important aspects in combination with the recent work from our laboratory and related advances reflected by international academic journals, as follows: plant physiological function performance under natural condition, plant gene regulatory network system under abiotic stresses, gene regulatory network system and drought resistance improvement, summary of the related work from our laboratory, conclusions, and acknowledgement.

  6. An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K.D.D. Liyanage

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a sustainableland use practice. Bangamukande Estate, a man-made analog forest in Galle District was selected for thisassessment. Participatory rural appraisal methods were used to obtain information on resource utilizationby the local community in nearby villages. Secondary data of the long term analog forestry establishmentprogramme were also used for analysis the livelihood changes of the people due to the impacts thissystem. Various interventions had been made to address the issues such as encouraging local farmers tocultivate timber, fruits, spices and medicinal plants, paying them for the environmental services theyrender and enhancing their income through green employment. The introduction of new sustainableagricultural activities such as bee keeping and planting fruits resulted in the production of value addedfarm products and organic fruits to be sold in the market. Through environmental based tourism activitiessuch as providing food and accommodation, eco-guidance, and assisting environmental research, thestakeholders are earning a better income supporting the development of a green economy in the country.

  7. Application of multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm for sustainable strategic supplier selection under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The incorporation of environmental objective into the conventional supplier selection practices is crucial for corporations seeking to promote green supply chain management (GSCM. Challenges and risks associated with green supplier selection have been broadly recognized by procurement and supplier management professionals. This paper aims to solve a Tetra “S” (SSSS problem based on a fuzzy multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithm in a holistic supply chain environment. In this empirical study, a mathematical model with fuzzy coefficients is considered for sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS problem and a corresponding model is developed to tackle this problem. Design/methodology/approach: Sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS decisions are typically multi-objectives in nature and it is an important part of green production and supply chain management for many firms. The proposed uncertain model is transferred into deterministic model by applying the expected value mesurement (EVM and genetic algorithm with weighted sum approach for solving the multi-objective problem. This research focus on a multi-objective optimization model for minimizing lean cost, maximizing sustainable service and greener product quality level. Finally, a mathematical case of textile sector is presented to exemplify the effectiveness of the proposed model with a sensitivity analysis. Findings: This study makes a certain contribution by introducing the Tetra ‘S’ concept in both the theoretical and practical research related to multi-objective optimization as well as in the study of sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS under uncertain environment. Our results suggest that decision makers tend to select strategic supplier first then enhance the sustainability. Research limitations/implications: Although the fuzzy expected value model (EVM with fuzzy coefficients constructed in present research should be helpful for

  8. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  9. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-02-03

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global sustainability: Toward definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Becky J.; Hanson, Mark E.; Liverman, Diana M.; Merideth, Robert W.

    1987-11-01

    Sustainability is increasingly viewed as a desired goal of development and environmental management. This term has been used in numerous disciplines and in a variety of contexts, ranging from the concept of maximum sustainable yield in forestry and fisheries management to the vision of a sustainable society with a steady-state economy. The meaning of the term is strongly dependent on the context in which it is applied and on whether its use is based on a social, economic, or ecological perspective, Sustainability may be defined broadly or narrowly, but a useful definition must specify explicitly the context as well as the temporal and spatial scales being considered. Although societies differ in their conceptualizations of sustainability, indefinite human survival on a global scale requires certain basic support systems, which can be maintained only with a healthy environment and a stable human population. A clearer understanding of global sustainability and the development of appropriate indicators of the status of basic support systems would provide a useful framework for policy making.

  11. Infopreneurs in service of rural enterprise and economic development: Addressing the critical challenges of scalability and sustainability in support of service extension in developing (rural) economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rensburg, JR

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available agents, i.e. Infopreneurs®. It will provide some lessons learned on the enhanced sustainability of the Infopreneurs® network through the ‘deepening’ of the service offering of the network, i.e. scope enhancement, leading to a more extensive value...

  12. Technological upgrading in global value chains and clusters and their contribution to sustaining economic growth in low and middle income economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplinsky, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of the role played by upgrading in the promotion of sustainable growth. Upgrading is discussed in two different contexts, that of industrial clusters and that of global value chains (GVCs). Drawing on global and African experiences, the paper addresses the

  13. How to assess sustainability in automated manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how sustainability in automation can be assessed. The assessment method is illustrated using a case study of a robot. Three aspects of sustainability assessment in automation are identified. Firstly, we consider automation as part of a larger system...... that fulfills the market demand for a given functionality. Secondly, three aspects of sustainability have to be assessed: environment, economy, and society. Thirdly, automation is part of a system with many levels, with different actors on each level, resulting in meeting the market demand. In this system......, (sustainability) specifications move top-down, which helps avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting. From these three aspects, sustainable automation is defined as automation that contributes to products that fulfill a market demand in a more sustainable way. The case study presents the carbon footprints...

  14. The Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability (GUPES): Networking of Higher Educational Institutions in Facilitating Implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mahesh; Mariam, Ayombi

    2014-01-01

    This article will focus on involvement of Higher Education Institutions in promoting Education for Sustainable Development through UNEPs flagship programme Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability. To achieve this, the activities of the network are centered on three pillars: Education, Training and Networking.

  15. Sustainable management of heavy metals in agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) launched a priority research program on 'Sustainability and Environmental Quality'. Within this program, the METALS subprogram focusses on the accumulation of metals in economy (e.g., zinc in gutters) and the environment

  16. Scenario analysis of sustainable development of the world largest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, scenario analysis of the social development and environmental protection of Chongming Island, Shanghai, China, was performed to discuss the sustainable development of this special area. In this way, various system components including society, economy, ecology, environment and water resources system ...

  17. What matters 2013. Construction and housing: Homes of tomorrow and beyond. Noise: Leaf blowers and engines. Protection of the marine environment: A blue economy - Threat or opportunity for the oceans? Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-01

    As of 2011, more people worldwide live in cities than in the country. The global consumption of resources, energy of heating, cooling or light, and daily environmental conditions such as air and noise pollution are very much characterised by the way we organise our cities. Although at the beginning of the industrial age, cities often were hostile, dirty and noisy places, they appealed greatly to the rural population. Today, the environmental quality of urban spaces in highly-developed countries has improved immensely. Hence, even in German, urban areas have been able to show a small population increase in the past few years. Under this aspect, the paper under consideration consists of the following contributions: (a) The EU and the two-degree limit (The many advantages of Germany's pioneering role); (b) Homes of tomorrow and beyond (A central sector for climate and site protection, the energy revolution and health); (c) Leaf blowers and engines (The struggle against noise pollution must include people); (d) A blue economy - threat or opportunity for the oceans? (Overfishing, enthrophication, contaminants and litter are threatening the oceans, but there are solutions); (e) Certificate for renewable energy (Te Federal Environment Agency's proof of origin); (f) On the gas trail (Our air monitoring network records air pollution, across borders and globally); (g) the environmental specimen bank (Environmental observation with samples from humans and the environment).

  18. Knowledge-Based Economy in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico: A Comparative Analysis from the Bio-Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barbara MUNGARAY-MOCTEZUMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the necessary institutional characteristics of technology and human capital in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico in order to evolve towards a knowledge-based economy, addressing the importance of institutions for their development. In particular, the knowledge-based economy is analyzed from the perspective of bioeconomics. Based on the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI which considers 148 indicators, in the following categories: a economic performance and institutional regime; b education and human resources, c innovation, and d information and communication technologies, we selected 13 indicators. We aim to identify the strengths and opportunities for these countries in order to meet the challenges that arise from the paradoxes of technological progress and globalization. In this sense, bioeconomy is approached as part of the economy. This analysis shows, among other things, that Argentina has greater potential to compete in an economy sustained in the creation and dissemination of knowledge, while Costa Rica has an institutional and regulatory environment that is more conducive to the development of business activities, and Mexico faces significant challenges regarding its institutional structure, economic performance and human resources.

  19. Vision for a Sustainable Urban Environment. Identifying conflicts and synergies between adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhola, S. [Aalto Univ. School of Engineering, Espoo (Finland). Centre for Urban and Regional Studies YTK

    2011-07-01

    and co hosts of the track Pablo Suarez and Janot Mendler de Suarez, in collaboration with game design graduate students Mohini Dutta and Ben Norskov from the US. During one of the games, the students were assigned the roles of construction firm owners and they had to make decisions regarding to what extent they should build housing that was energy efficient or resistant to flooding, all the while considering the tradeoffs between investing in protection from future climate changes and making the highest profit. In this way, the games illustrated the complexity of practical transition to a sustainable city. Key messages The key message that emerged from the workshop was the potential in illustrating complex social phenomenon through the medium of games. A group of people from very diverse backgrounds can be brought together to discuss a complex issue and develop a shared understanding through playing a game. This is particularly helpful in issues such as climate change where the debate can be polarised and dialogue can be hard to achieve through normal means. Games such as the ones played during the NCF can help people understand climate change and facilitate informed decision-making in relation to the urban environment.

  20. Further development of the environment related sustainability indicators and environment core indicator system for balancing the progress in the German sustainability strategy; Weiterentwicklung der umweltbezogenen Nachhaltigkeitsindikatoren und des Umwelt-Kernindikatorensystems zur Bilanzierung der Fortschritte in der deutschen Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Pieck, Sonja [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The Core Set of Environmental Indicators (KIS) presented by the Federal Environment Agency aims to inform policy makers and the interested public in an updated and concise form about environmental progress for a sustainable development in Germany. The Core Set completes the environmental indicators of the National Sustainability Indicator Set by several additional indicators describing environmental impacts and their causes. New legal regulations and political programs as well as innovations in the field of indicator development on the international and national level make a revision of the over ten-years-old Core Set of Environmental Indicators necessary. The project makes structural and content related proposals for such a revision. Following these proposals the Core Indicators shall cover a broader spectrum of environmental themes and problems in order to display cause-and-effect relationships in a more detailed way. The indicator set, which is proposed for the revised edition of KIS, comprises a total of 92 indicators, 49 out of them are directly focused on environmental issues. 43 indicators describe the activities of different economic sectors having relevant impacts on the environment. Furthermore the project offers a new thematic structure for the indicator set and a new classification of the indicators which shall facilitate the orientation and more effective search for themes and indicators within the system. A proposal for a metadata information system consisting of indicators and data factsheets was elaborated to better handle flow of information within the Federal Environment Agency.

  1. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Women, Equity, and Sustainable Development. Teacher's Guide to World Resources Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about women's rights around the world in terms of equal access to education, health care, employment, land, credit, technology, and political power. Implications of these inequities are explored through the concept of sustainable development. The lesson is divided into…

  3. Editorial: Dilemmas of Modern Economy and Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various dilemmas concerning modern economy and business have been in the focus of scientific discussion in recent years (Klich, 2013; Renko & Knezevic, 2013; Szarucki, 2013; Agrawal & Gugnani, 2014; Pardhasaradhi & Grace, 2015. In modern economy, not only researches but corporations face complex economic and business dilemmas in their daily routine. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addresses key economic challenges by stimulating innovations, sustainability policies, social and environmental responsibilities. These challenges require the mobilization of significant resources by science, innovation and regional policy makers and scientific communities across Europe (EUA, 2014. Broader scientific discussions are crucial for the success of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. According to the Global Risks Report 2015, the biggest threat to world stability in the next 10 years arise from the four most serious economic risks. These are high structural unemployment or underemployment, energy price shock, critical information infrastructure breakdown and fiscal crises. We continuously agree that innovation is critical to global prosperity (WEF, 2015. Currently, the internationalisation of family businesses is an increasingly important research area. Substantial numbers of FBs are forced to expand into foreign markets in order to survive and grow in the competitive environment (Daszkiewicz & Wach, 2014. The roles of business angels are especially important taken both decreasing the levels of formal venture capital investment and growing average amount of individual deals. Angel investors are the key players in generating high-growth companies, essential to regional economic development. As a result, they have attracted the attention of policy makers (Rostamzadeh et. al., 2014. Consequently, this issue of EBER concentrates on the current dilemmas of modern economy and business, particularly dealing

  4. Multinational Corporations and World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Orac Camelia; Stefan Monica

    2010-01-01

    This paper is trying to illustrate the role of multinational corporations in the global economy and the result of the increase of the FDI share. The impact of multinational corporations in developing economies is based on the principles of economic efficiency and capacity of states to impose stricter regulation of corporations. Developing countries are forced to reduce restrictions on multinational corporations considering tax policy, labor factor and environment protection.

  5. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  6. Machining parameter optimization in turning process for sustainable manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Dambhare; S. J. Deshmukh; A. B. Borade

    2015-01-01

    There is an increase in awareness about sustainable manufacturing process. Manufacturing industries are backbone of a country’s economy. Although it is important but there is a great concern about consumption of resources and waste creation. The primary aim of this study was to explore sustainability concern in turning process in an Indian machining industry. The effect of cutting parameters, Speed/Feed/Depth of Cut, the machining environment, Dry/MQL/Wet, and the type of cutting tool on sust...

  7. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  8. Comprehensive systematic review of evidence on developing and sustaining nursing leadership that fosters a healthy work environment in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; Laschinger, Heather; Porritt, Kylie; Jordan, Zoe; Tucker, Donna; Long, Leslye

    2007-06-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility, meaningfulness and effectiveness of nursing leadership attributes that contribute to the development and sustainability of nursing leadership to foster a healthy work environment. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility, meaningfulness and effectiveness of developing and sustaining nursing leadership to foster a healthy work environment in healthcare. Papers of the highest level of evidence ratings were given priority. Participants of interest were leaders and those who were affected by leadership, specifically staff and patients. Interventions of interest including positive leadership attributes, as well as system and policy constructs, that impact on the development and sustainability of nursing leadership within the healthcare environment were considered in the review. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the paper. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of 48 papers, experimental, qualitative and textual in nature, were included in the review. The majority of papers were descriptive and examined the relationships between leadership styles and characteristics and particular outcomes, such as satisfaction. Because of the diverse

  9. Understanding the Sustainability of Fuel from the Viewpoint of Exergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the same time of providing a huge amount of energy to the world population (social sustainability and global economy (economic sustainability, the fuel itself also releases a great amount of emissions to the environment the world people live in in the forms of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, etc. and ash compositions (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SO3, SiO2, TiO2, etc., seriously impacting the environment (environmental sustainability for the world population and global economy. Sustainability generally encompasses economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability, and all of these are significantly related to the energy/resource sustainability. This study addresses the sustainability of fuel from the viewpoint of exergy. It is demonstrated that the energy of a fuel is best evaluated by its chemical exergy, and the environmental impact of a fuel can be assessed through the chemical exergy of its emissions (the specific impacts such as toxicity or greenhouse effect are not detailed. Then, the sustainability of fuel can be understood from the viewpoint of exergy through three ways: (a high chemical exergy of the fuel, (b high exergy efficiency of the fuel conversion process, and (c low chemical exergy of the emissions.

  10. Sustainability Assessment and Reporting in Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kassem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is a mainstream business activity that demonstrates the link between the organization’s strategy and commitment to a sustainable global economy. Sustainability indicators describe the environmental, social, economic and governance performance of Small and Medium‑sized Businesses/Enterprises (SMB/SME. Unfortunately, their implementations in the Czech Republic show a low level of engagement in sustainability assessment. The paper presents the results of the authors’ research in sustainability assessment of SMB/SMEs in the agriculture sector of the Czech Republic. An appropriate set of key performance indicators (KPIs in four dimensions (economy, environment, social and governance was developed to suit the SMB/SMEs sustainability assessment in the agriculture sector. A set of KPIs is proposed to help SMB/SMEs to avoid the barriers of sustainability assessment. These indicators are based mainly on Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture, Global Reporting Initiatives Frameworks and on current research state‑of‑the‑art. They have been created following the analysis of a number of agricultural enterprises over the world, particularly within European countries.

  11. Sustainability, culture and urban regeneration: New Dimensions for the Technological Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanzini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the environmental sustainability and development model are linked to culture, urban regeneration and new economy. Conceptualized in the 90s, cultural industry has flourished with the affirmation of the creative economy and new systemic economic theories and is now advancing towards models of creative cities and regions representing the spatial expression of the post-industrial economy. The territorial dimension has a fundamental role in the development of creative environments, while the space of the creative class represents the new urban work-environment. The qualitative analysis of those places in terms of requests and performance distinguishes it as a motivating field for the application of the technological project.

  12. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  13. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-10-27

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter "Reservoir Area"). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  14. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  15. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  16. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi, E-mail: lakshmi.raghupathy@asemindia.com; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH and S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for “green economy”.

  17. Cascading of Biomass. 13 Solutions for a Sustainable Bio-based Economy. Making Better Choices for Use of Biomass Residues, By-products and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, I.; Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-08-15

    Smarter and more efficient use of biomass, referred to as cascading, can lead to an almost 30% reduction in European greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared with 2010. As the title study makes clear, cascading of woody biomass, agricultural and industrial residues and other waste can make a significant contribution to a greening of the economy. With the thirteen options quantitatively examined annual emissions of between 330 and 400 Mt CO2 can be avoided by making more efficient use of the same volume of biomass as well as by other means. 75% of the potential CO2 gains can be achieved with just four options: (1) bio-ethanol from straw, for use as a chemical feedstock; (2) biogas from manure; (3) biorefining of grass; and (4) optimisation of paper recycling. Some of the options make multiple use of residues, with biomass being used to produce bioplastics that, after several rounds of recycling, are converted to heat and power at the end of their life, for example. In other cases higher-grade applications are envisaged: more efficient use of recyclable paper and wood waste, in both economic and ecological terms, using them as raw materials for new paper and chipboard rather than as an energy source. Finally, by using smart technologies biomass can be converted to multiple products.

  18. Sustainability, Water and Environment in Spain; Sostenibilidad, Agua y Medio Ambiente en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, M. M.

    2003-07-01

    The past June 5, Worldwide Day of the Environment, dedicated to the sweet water, the Spanish Club of the Environment realized, as every year, its particular celebration, with a lunch-colloquium over the situation of the sweet water in Spain. This article purports to order the debate, reflecting the degree of diversity of the discussed subjects. (Author)

  19. Implications for the agriculture sector of a green economy transition in the Western Cape province of South Africa : a system dynamics modelling approach to food crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Niekerk, J. B. S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Provincial government in South Africa has introduced a green economy framework, ‘Green is Smart’, to create a more sustainable economy. This framework stipulates plans for the Western Cape Province to implement more sustainable farming practices for food crop production. While sustainable farming practices will have benefits for the environment, they will also impact food crop production and will require financial investments from stakeholders. To comprehend fully the problem at hand, and to understand better the implications of a green economy transition for the food crop production system, system dynamics modelling was undertaken. The model’s findings highlight that sustainable farming practices will only be financially and environmentally viable if they match the yields of conventional farming practices.

  20. Food Security, Food Chains and Bioenergy Challenges for a Sustainable Development Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Pacheco de; Bernardo, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Food system dynamics worldwide are under a new paradigm. Energy supply based on renewable natural resources is now a necessary solution, where agri-business can play an important role, and food systems will have to interact worldwide with new competitors for land and agriculture activity. The argument in this paper is based on the evidence that innovation and technology changes in food production (agricultural production) can offer a sustainable supply of grain and biomass, when demand behavi...

  1. Increase the usage of biopolymers and biodegradable polymers for sustainable environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ghuttora, Navneet

    2016-01-01

    The research has been performed to understand the problem of pollution caused by non- degradable polymers in various parts of India, which is responsible for several environmental problems and health diseases. The research is providing a sustainable way to solve this problem with the help of existing biopolymers and cost effective ways to produce the eco-friendly plastics from the industrial food waste in order to obtain polysaccharides and sugars, instead of contributing to the global food c...

  2. The benefits of grain legumes for an environment-friendly and sustainable European agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Carrouee, Benoir; Ellis, Noel; Jensen, Erik Steen; Schneider, Anne

    2002-01-01

    The promotion of grain legumes would be a valuable strategy for the European Union because these crops (i) contribute to an energy efficient and sustainable agriculture, (ii) increase local sources of plant proteins, and (iii) reduce the agricultural contribution to greenhouse gases, as required by the Kyoto agreement. The environmental and social consequences of Europes policys for production of mainly cereals and to import protein in the form of soyabeans are not financially accountable, an...

  3. Electricity Pricing Mechanism in a Sustainable Environment: A Review and a System Dynamics Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tziogas, C; Georgiadis, P; Tsolakis, N; Yakinthos, C

    2017-01-01

    Electricity is an undisputed factor supporting human development, while further supporting social wellbeing and fostering economic growth of modern societies. Therefore, the electricity market provides a vivid policy-making arena for the EU regulators, where on-going structural reforms are promoted with the aim to encapsulate and accommodate sustainability aspects. Notably, the EU Member States have adopted the strategic roadmap “Europe 2020” toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energ...

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Its Potential as a Life-Sustaining Solvent in a Planetary Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljko Budisa; Dirk Schulze-Makuch

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluids have different properties compared to regular fluids and could play a role as life-sustaining solvents on other worlds. Even on Earth, some bacterial species have been shown to be tolerant to supercritical fluids. The special properties of supercritical fluids, which include various types of selectivities (e.g., stereo-, regio-, and chemo-selectivity) have recently been recognized in biotechnology and used to catalyze reactions that do not occur in water. One suitable exa...

  5. Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: how do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M

    2014-09-01

    Humans increasingly occupy cities. Globally, about 50% of the total human population lives in urban environments, and in spite of some trends for deurbanization, the transition from rural to urban life is expected to accelerate in the future, especially in developing nations and regions. The Republic of Korea, for example, has witnessed a dramatic rise in its urban population, which now accounts for nearly 90% of all residents; the increase from about 29% in 1955 has been attributed to multiple factors, but has clearly been driven by extraordinary growth in the gross domestic product accompanying industrialization. While industrialization and urbanization have unarguably led to major improvements in quality of life indices in Korea and elsewhere, numerous serious problems have also been acknowledged, including concerns about resource availability, water quality, amplification of global warming and new threats to health. Questions about sustainability have therefore led Koreans and others to consider deurbanization as a management policy. Whether this offers any realistic prospects for a sustainable future remains to be seen. In the interim, it has become increasingly clear that built environments are no less complex than natural environments, and that they depend on a variety of internal and external connections involving microbes and the processes for which microbes are responsible. I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems. I also identify important knowledge gaps and unanswered questions about urban microbiomes that must be addressed to develop a robust, predictive and general understanding of urban biology and ecology that can be used to inform policy-making for sustainable systems.

  6. Quantifying the Relationship between the Built Environment Attributes and Urban Sustainability Potentials for Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region (GCMR in its seeking to sustainable development (SD by the year of 2050 facing the serious challenge of around 65 percent of Cairenes live in unplanned settlements. In this respect, the authors examined the effect of urban characteristics of unplanned settlements on SD in the Egyptian context, focusing on the type of unplanned growth on agricultural land. The output of the analysis were fourfold. First of all, we provide a brief overview of previous research on the main types of unplanned settlements in GCMR and the sustainability definition according to the Egyptian context. Secondly, we had a discussion with the local government during our field survey in GCMR to determine the study samples, the main urban characteristics, and the sustainability evaluation criteria in the Egyptian context. Thirdly, through the comparative analysis and geographic information system (GIS, we examined how the character of urban development affected per capita four urban measures in a cross-section of two settlements, one represented the unplanned settlements and other as a comparative planned sample to determine the real gap. Finally, by using the evaluation matrix, the help and block items are estimated for each measure of urban characteristics, providing substantive evidence on how the four measures of urban characteristics have been affected by the urban sprawl.

  7. Modeling Sustainability of Water, Environment, Livelihood, and Culture in Traditional Irrigation Communities and Their Linked Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Boykin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, land use conversion and cultural and ecosystem changes threaten the way of life for traditional irrigation communities of the semi-arid southwestern United States. Traditions are strong, yet potential upheaval is great in these communities that rely on acequia irrigation systems. Acequias are ancient ditch systems brought from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World over 400 years ago; they are simultaneously gravity flow water delivery systems and shared water governance institutions. Acequias have survived periods of drought and external shocks from changing economics, demographics, and resource uses. Now, climate change and urbanization threaten water availability, ecosystem functions, and the acequia communities themselves. Do past adaptive practices hold the key to future sustainability, or are new strategies required? To explore this issue we translated disciplinary understanding into a uniform format of causal loop diagrams to conceptualize the subsystems of the entire acequia-based human-natural system. Four subsystems are identified in this study: hydrology, ecosystem, land use/economics, and sociocultural. Important linkages between subsystems were revealed as well as variables indicating community cohesion (e.g., total irrigated land, intensity of upland grazing, mutualism. Ongoing work will test the conceptualizations with field data and modeling exercises to capture tipping points for non-sustainability and thresholds for sustainable water use and community longevity.

  8. Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability Relations: From the Environmental Degradation to the Necessity of Conservation of Natural Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórida Rosa Mali Assêncio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief approach on environmental aspects related to the development of agriculture in the world and especially in Brazil, detaching some historical aspects. Some characteristics of the social and environmental degradation generated by the processes of production of modern agriculture, based on studies of Environmental Sciences, in general, and, more specifically, of Agroecology, are presented, as well as the necessity of searching for new models of development according to the recent paradigm of sustainability (social, economic and environmental, debated in international conferences on 'environment and development'.

  9. Transition to Sustainable Energy Neutral Districts before 2050. Innovative Concepts and Pilots for the Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Opstelten, I.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Epema, T. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Willems, E.M.M. [Cauberg-Huygen Consulting Engineers, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch project 'Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development' focuses on the transition to sustainable, energy neutral districts in 2050, particularly in energy concepts and decision processes. The main objective of the technical research is to develop four to six innovative energy concepts for 2050 for the four Dutch cities of Almere, Apeldoorn, Nijmegen and Tilburg, as well as the roadmap for realising this target. Firstly, 14 variations of six general energy concepts have been developed and calculations conducted on the energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 by means of an Excel model designed for this purpose. Three concepts are based on the idea of an energy hub (smart district heating, cooling and electricity networks, in which generation, storage, conversion and exchange of energy are all incorporated): the geo hub (using waste heat and/or geothermal energy), the bio hub (using waste heat and/or biomass) and the solar hub (using only solar energy). The fourth concept is the so-called all-electric concept, based predominantly on heat pumps, PV and conversion of high temperature heat from vacuum collectors to electricity. The fifth concept uses only conventional technologies that have been applied since the second half of the previous century, and the sixth one uses only hydrogen. Calculations show that by implementing the hub concepts, the energy neutrality in 2050 ranges from 130 % (solar hubs) to 164% (geo hubs), excluding personal transport within the district. With the all-electric concept, an energy neutrality of 157% can be reached. Hydrogen only and Conventional concepts perform worse, but nevertheless reach an energy neutrality of around 115% in 2050. The energy neutrality shows the extent to which a district, in which the given concept is implemented, can supply itself with sustainable energy generated within the boundaries of that district. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts

  10. Reviewing Some Implications of the Green Economy for Higher and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world is set to apply green economy as a framework for achieving sustainable development, eradicate poverty and inequality and create jobs. This reality follows the consensus on green economy by global leaders during Rio+20 in June 2012. At the centre of the green economy is the need to address negative impacts.

  11. IMPACT OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF ITS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Tripa

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the impact on the environment of textile products, highlighting that their pollution is primarily exerted on air and water. Textile industry affects the environment through the consumption of water, energy and chemicals, as a result of the existence of a great number of processes through which fibers are passing until they are transformed into finished products, and the large amount of waste they generate. They may be recoverable (resulting from the spinning phases, yarn w...

  12. SUSTAINABILITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE BY SUSTAINABLE CREDITING THERAPY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dragos Ilie

    2012-01-01

      The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that one of the therapies to achieve sustainability and organizational change in the context of current challenges in the national economies is sustainable crediting...

  13. ECOLOGICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF FARMERS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OR RURAL AREAS IN THE MAZOVIAREGION

    OpenAIRE

    HALINA KAŁUŻA; JANINA SKRZYCZYŃSKA

    2009-01-01

    The agriculture is a branch of economy, where the environmental conditions are used for ford production. It also realizes many Essentials functions: social and environmental. One of the most important matters is protection of environment in range of sustainable agriculture.Sustainable development of agriculture is a complex idea which refers to different requirements and functions.Ecological awareness is a part of social awareness which shapes human attitude towards the natural environment. E...

  14. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  15. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during...... the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor...... programmes have specifically supported the utilisation of palm oil biomass waste for energy. However, in spite of this, the niche development process has only made slow progress. The paper identifies reluctant implementation of energy policy, rise in biomass resource prices, limited network formation...

  16. The Role of Internal Capabilities and Firms' Environment for Sustainable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihsen, Ketata; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    innovation provides considerable new opportunities for companies it goes along with an increased complexity. This in turn requires certain organizational routines and capabilities to deal with the upcoming challenges. We explore what the specific driving forces are that increase the degree of sustainable...... innovation within a firm's innovation activities. We test them empirically for more than 1,100 firms in Germany and find that firms need to invest in internal absorptive capacities and to draw both broadly and deeply from external sources for innovation. In that sense, investments in employee training turn...

  17. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits.

  18. Politics of Sustainability in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sustainability has become central in arctic politics. However, there is little agreement on what ‘sustainable’ means. For different actors (governments, indigenous people, NGOs, etc.) the concept implies different sets of opportunities and precautions. Sustainability, therefore......, is a much more fundamental idea to be further elaborated depending on contexts than a definable term with a specific meaning. This paper suggests a set of theoretical questions, which can provide the first steps toward a research agenda on the politics of sustainability. The approach aims to map and analyze...... the role of sustainability in political and economic strategies in the Arctic. Sustainability has become a fundamental concept that orders the relationship between the environment (nature) and development (economy), however, in the process rearticulating other concepts such as identity (society). Hence, we...

  19. The Emergency Vehicle Routing Problem with Uncertain Demand under Sustainability Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The reasonable utilization of limited resources is critical to realize the sustainable developments. In the initial 72-h crucial rescue period after the disaster, emergency supplies have always been insufficient and the demands in the affected area have always been uncertain. In order to improve timeliness, utilization and sustainability of emergency service, the allocation of the emergency supplies and the emergency vehicle routes should be determined simultaneously. Assuming the uncertain demands follow normal distribution, an optimization model for the emergency vehicle routing, by considering the insufficient supplies and the uncertain demands, is developed. The objective function is applied to minimize the total costs, including the penalty costs induced by more or less supplies than the actual demands at all demand points, as well as the constraints of the time windows and vehicle load capacity taken into account. In more details, a solution method for the model, based on the genetic algorithm, is proposed, which solves the problem in two stages. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed model and algorithm.

  20. Designing an optimum model for protection and improvement of sustainability of natural resources and environment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinpanah, Gholamreza; Lashgarara, Farhad

    2008-10-01

    More than 100 million hectares of land in Iran is unsustainable, based on available data. Human activity is the most important reason for the destruction of natural resources and ecological unsustainability. These activities lead to negative consequences, including the destruction of plant coverage (43%), misuse of the ecological potential of water and soil resources (23%), lack of balance between livestock and range (22%), and lack of enforcement of erosion and pollution controls (12%). Achievement of sustainable natural resources and environment is not feasible unless numerous factors that influence these processes are considered. To do this we must seek an optimized model that pays attention to these factors. On the other hand, the components of this model include (1) the culture and values of the community, (2) programs and policies, (3) the research system, (4) the extension system, (5) the farmers' organization, and (6) the indigenous knowledge of the community. The methodology of this article is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is designing an optimum model for the protection and improvement of sustainability of the natural resources and the environment in Iran.